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  • 251.
    Ashfaq, Awais
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research. Halland Hospital, Region Halland, Sweden.
    Pinheiro Sant'Anna, Anita
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Lingman, Markus
    Halland Hospital, Region Halland, Sweden & Institute of Medicine, Dept. of Molecular and Clinical Medicine/Cardiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nowaczyk, Sławomir
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Readmission prediction using deep learning on electronic health records2019In: Journal of Biomedical Informatics, ISSN 1532-0464, E-ISSN 1532-0480, Vol. 97, article id 103256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unscheduled 30-day readmissions are a hallmark of Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) patients that pose significant health risks and escalate care cost. In order to reduce readmissions and curb the cost of care, it is important to initiate targeted intervention programs for patients at risk of readmission. This requires identifying high-risk patients at the time of discharge from hospital. Here, using real data from over 7,500 CHF patients hospitalized between 2012 and 2016 in Sweden, we built and tested a deep learning framework to predict 30-day unscheduled readmission. We present a cost-sensitive formulation of Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) neural network using expert features and contextual embedding of clinical concepts. This study targets key elements of an Electronic Health Record (EHR) driven prediction model in a single framework: using both expert and machine derived features, incorporating sequential patterns and addressing the class imbalance problem. We show that the model with all key elements achieves a higher discrimination ability (AUC 0.77) compared to the rest. Additionally, we present a simple financial analysis to estimate annual savings if targeted interventions are offered to high risk patients. © 2019 The Authors

  • 252.
    Ask, AnnaLisa
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Grimberg, Carolina
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Att stödja de som stödjer: Närståendes behov av stöd för en förbättrad interaktion med person med psykossjukdom2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Personer med psykossjukdom får idag omfattande stöd av sina närstående. Den stödjande rollen kan innebära en hög belastning och börda för närstående. Interaktionen med en person med psykossjukdom kan försvåras av en rad olika faktorer och har visats betydelsefull för sjukdomsprognosen. I sjuksköterskans arbete ingår att ge stöd och vägledning till närstående. Syftet med föreliggande litteraturstudie var att beskriva närståendes behov av stöd som kan förbättra interaktionen med person med psykossjukdom. I resultatet framkommer att närstående behöver stöd i att acceptera och förstå, både personen med psykossjukdom och sin stödjande roll. Vidare behöver närstående stöd i att bära bördan samt stöd i kommunikation och problemlösning för att exempelvis bättre kunna hantera situationer och skapa en bättre interaktion. Den kliniska verksamheten bör satsa på interventioner som förbättrar interaktionen och kan utformas som bland annat utbildning. Sjuksköterskor bör därför få fortlöpande utbildning i pedagogik. Fortsatt forskning bör fokusera mer specifikt på interaktionen mellan närstående och person med psykossjukdom och studera ett mer omfattande urval av närstående till person med psykossjukdom.

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    Att stödja de som stödjer
  • 253.
    Ask, Stephanie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Edberg, Josefin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    När sjuksköterskan bär samvetet på sina axlar: En litteraturstudie om samvetsstress2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the nurse's work, care is given to patients where emotional strain become visible to the nurse. When the demands become larger than the nurse can manage while he or she is susceptible to other people's feelings, stress of conscience occurs. The aim of the study was to explore stress of conscience in the nurse. The method in this study was a general literature study that included 12 result articles. The result resulted in three themes: contributing factors, health effects and preventive factors. The result demonstrated that an insufficient working environment and bad conscience are factors that generate stress of conscience and that nurses have different tendency to be affected by stress of conscience, depending on their background and their experiences. Stress of conscience can be prevented by getting support from home, support from the organization and from colleagues, but also through the opportunity of reflection. The nurse which are affected by stress of conscience will have consequences that affect his/her private life which eventually can lead to burnout. Present research on stress of conscience is insufficient. Increased knowledge and additional research on the subject is required to lessen this relatively unexplored health problem.

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  • 254.
    Askenvind, Malin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Petersson, Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Fysisk aktivitet i omvårdnad för patienter med depression2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Depression is a psychiatric condition that increases all over the world. Depression can be diagnosed as mild, moderate and severe. Physical activity (pa) is a movement that concerns the skeletal muscles. Previous research shows that the daily recommendation for pa in depression should last at least 30 minutes. Lately it has been shown both international and national that pa is far more noted in the steps of treatment of depression. Aim: The purpose of the study was to describe physical activity in nursing in depression. Method: Systematic searches were made in databases for nursing research and resulted in 11 scientific articles analyzed by inspiration from content analysis. Results: The analysis of the 11 results articles identified three main themes: Prerequisites for physical activity, Effects of physical activity, Experience of physical activity. It was found in 10 of the 11 results articles that physical activity had a positive effect on depression. Support from another was an important part in the process for the patients with depression. Conclusion: The study's conclusion shows that stronger knowledge support is needed through research on pa in depression. Knowledge support can promote more evidence in the nursing process and thus reduce patient suffering in depression. 

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  • 255.
    Asker-Arnason, Lena
    et al.
    Section of Logopedics, Phoniatrics and Audiology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University.
    Wengelin, Åsa
    Centre for Languages and Literature, Department of Linguistics, Lund University.
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Section of Logopedics, Phoniatrics and Audiology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University.
    Process and product in writing: A methodological contribution to the assessment of written narratives in 8-12 year old Swedish children using ScriptLog2008In: Logopedics Phoniatrics Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 143-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Twenty-seven children, with typical language development (TLD), 8-10 years old and 10-12 years old, were assessed with keystroke-logging in order to investigate their narrative writing. Measures of the writing process and the written product were used. One purpose was to explore how children produce written narratives in on-line production, and to relate the writing process to the written product. The results showed that those children who produced the final text faster, also wrote stories that comprised of more words. In the group of older children, children with better narrative ability used less pause time than those with worse ability, and the girls were faster writers than the boys. We believe that keystroke-logging gives valuable information for the assessment of young children's writing and that it is a potentially valid assessment tool for children from about 10 years of age.

  • 256.
    Asker-Árnason, Lena
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Ibertsson, Tina
    Lund University.
    Wass, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Wengelin, Åsa
    Lund University.
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Lund University.
    Picture-elicited written narratives, process and product, in 18 children with cochlear implants2010In: Communication Disorders Quarterly, ISSN 1525-7401, E-ISSN 1538-4837, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 195-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to explore the narrative writing of 18 children, ages 11 to 19, with severe and profound hearing impairment who had cochlear implants (CI), compared with the performance of hearing children. Nine of the 18 children had prelingual deafness and 9 children had postlingual deafness. The hearing impairment was progressive in 11 children. The participants thus formed a heterogeneous group, which was split in two ways: according to age at testing and age at implantation. The narratives were collected by means of keystroke logging. The difference between the children with CI and the hearing children was most prominent for two measures: the percentage of pause time (in the group of children older than 13 years) and lexical density. Furthermore, the children implanted after 5 years of age performed more like the hearing children. This group consisted of children with postlingual deafness and also of children who were deafened progressively. Our interpretation is that these children benefited from the early linguistic input. Taking the whole group of participants into consideration, the results reflect linguistic and cognitive processing limitations in complex linguistic tasks like narration for the children with CI in comparison with their hearing peers.

  • 257.
    Aspe Carlsson, Madelene
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Comparison of cortisol concentrations between three different conditions during the recovery from physical activity amongst the elderly: a randomised controlled cross-over study2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    It is estimated that around the year 2050 people over 60 years will double, and it is essential to investigate how to promote healthier lifestyles for the elderly. Exposure to the natural environment and green exercise have demonstrated health benefits, such as positive association on the perceived general health, well-being and decreased cortisol concentrations. Theories have suggested that nature is beneficial to recover in after stressors due to the characteristics of nature. Some characteristics of nature provided with added relaxations such as lush plants or open spaces and could increase the recovery. Today, people still react to stressors and stimulate the body's stress systems the same way they did during the stone age, and therefore, when people recover in nature, hormones decrease and the ability to recover increases. Therefore, the overall aim of the study was to investigate potential cortisol concentrations in three different conditions (indoor, outdoor and simulated outdoor) after a stress response from physical activity to identify health-promoting behaviours and health factors.

    Method

    The study was part of the HERO project, and the method was based on a randomised controlled cross-over design. The participants were recruited from local gyms using a purposive selection, and 48 elderly (male n = 21; women n = 27), between 66 to 80 years old participated. All participants performed three separate modified Astrand submaximal tests with 120 minutes of recovery after physical activity in three different environments (indoor, outdoor and simulated outdoor) in a randomised order. The biomarker cortisol was collected with blood samples during each test and analysed at baseline, immediately after the finished test, 60 minutes and 120 minutes after recovery. Bayesian repeated measures analysis of variance (R-ANOVA) were used as a statistical test in the analysis and were performed in JASP. The result was further interpreted by applying Ulrich’s theory of nature’s restorative effect and a health promotion perspective.

    Result

    All participants completed all experimental tests in each condition. The result supported the alternative hypothesis in outdoor exposure (BF10 = 7.257), indicating a decrease in cortisol concentrations over time, at baseline and after 120 minutes of recovery (BF10 = 3.363), and immediately after finished test and after 120 minutes of recovery (BF10 = 2.699). There were no statistically differences over time in cortisol levels in indoor (BF10 = 0.452) or simulated outdoor (BF10 = 0.150). Between indoor, outdoor and simulated outdoor, no differences in cortisol levels at baseline (BF10 = 0.279), T1 (BF10 = 0.189), T2 (BF10 = 0.097) or T3 (BF10 = 0.198) were found.

    Conclusion

    The finding in the present study supports the hypothesis that outdoor exposure appears to decrease cortisol concentrations over time and provide with additional positive health effects, which could not be observed in an indoor or simulated outdoor environment. Therefore, the outdoors is suggested to be a favourable environment for the elderly to perform and recover after a stress response from physical activity. The result can partially be explained by Ulrich’s theory which states nature as a favourable environment to recover in. How society and other areas such as healthcare and city planning could use the outdoor environment to promote physical activity in the elderly, and for the long term, improve public health, is essential to discuss further.

  • 258.
    Aspeflo, Karina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Vendelstrand, Hanna
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Lär mig det jag vill, på mitt sätt: Patientundervisning utifrån informationsbehovet hos patienter med cancer2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Patients often experience that the information they are given is wrong. Wrong in the consideration of too little, to much, none at all, given at the wrong time, too complicated or in a difficult technical language that they do not understand. The purpose of this study was to illuminate what information needs patients with cancer may have. The study was based on 20 scientific articles and shows that most patients with cancer want to have all available information regarding both diagnosis and treatment including the available choices. However, there are some who only want limited information; therefore it is important to evaluate each patient's information needs. Well-informed patients experience less anxiety and distress and get a sense of control over their complex situation. It is therefore important for the nurse to have knowledge of the need for information and the important factors that can alter and satisfy the needs of patients. By providing patient education more space in the education of nurses, and make nurses more aware of new research, the patients' situation can in the future be further improved.

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  • 259.
    Asplid, Matilda
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Becerra Ponce, Gabriela
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Becerra Ponce, Paula
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Att leva med en smittsam blodsjukdom2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis b and c are contagious blood diseases that exists worldwide. These three diseases are considered to be generally dangerous and as a notifiable disease. Living with a contagious blood disease can be stressful to patients both physically and mentally. The purpose of this literature study was to describe patients' experience of living with contagious blood diseases. The study is a general literature study, where qualitative research was used to produce the result. The result consists of three themes and seven different subthemes. That resulted in the creation of three themes: fear, the feeling of being unseen and the feeling of being seen. Living with a contagious blood disease can be stressful to a patient. There is a great fear for the consequence of the disease. Getting social support from relatives and their social environment has a major impact on the patient's life. The lack of social support can make the patient avoid social contact. Patients’ take alternative means such as alcohol, drugs and the patient can develop depression. As a formal caregiver it is important to see the person behind the infection, as the patient experience the meeting with formal caregivers as negative. The formal caregivers are afraid of the disease and to be infected. The patient feels judged and chooses to avoid treatment.

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  • 260.
    Assarsson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    Sjöqvist, Amanda
    Halmstad University.
    Föräldrars påverkan på barns matvanor och fysiska aktivitet: En litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Övervikt och fetma är ett av de största folkhälsoproblemen i världen. I Sverige är vart femte barn i yngre skolåldern överviktig och fem procent utav dem är feta. Det är därför viktigt att veta hur stor påverkan föräldrar har på barns matvanor och fysisk aktivitet.

    Syfte: Syftet med litteraturstudien var att beskriva hur föräldrar påverkar barns matvanor och fysiska aktivitet.

    Metod: En systematisk litteraturstudie har gjorts med hjälp av databaserna PubMed och CINAHL. De inkluderade artiklarna (n=22) har analyserats och kvalitetsgranskats för att få fram ett så relevant resultat som möjligt. Dataanalys gjordes på artiklarna och dem var publicerade mellan 2009-2014.

    Resultat: Resultatet är redovisat i fyra temaområden om hur föräldrar påverkar sina barn och de områdena är föräldrars livsstil, föräldrars kunskap, föräldrars stöd och föräldrars regler och kontroll i hemmiljön. Dessa teman påverkar genom olika faktorer så som socioekonomi och utbildning, samt hemmiljön som påverkar både matvanor och den fysiska aktiviteten. Föräldrars kontroll och uppfostringsstil har en påverkan på matvanor medan stöd är det som har effekt på den fysiska aktiviteten.

    Implikation: Föräldrar behöver kunskap och medvetenhet om barnfetman och det kan uppnås med hjälp av ett högre socialt stöd. Det sociala stödet kan ges från skolan eller interventioner som involverar både föräldrar och barn.

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    Föräldrars påverkan på barns matvanor och fysiska aktivitet
  • 261.
    Astell, Mimi
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Truedsson, Henrik
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Individers upplevelser av att leva med urostomi: En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An individual that undergoes urostomy surgery is put under a lot of stress, since the individual loses control of a basic need. Both pre- and postoperative care is crucial in order for the individuals to prepare for their new life situation after the surgery. It is important that nurses possess knowledge of care of urostomy in order to be able to teach good self-care. This can lower the risk of complications and it gives the “individual” the opportunity to rediscover independence. Purpose: The aim of the literature study was to highlight the experience of individuals living with urostomy. Method: The study was done in the form of a general literature study were scientific articles were systematically reviewed. Result: The result is based on six scientific articles that resulted in three categories: The importance of the support, The effect on self-image and changed life situation. The individuals experienced that support from both family and friends as well as from healthcare personnel was of importance. The urostomy had an effect on body-image both physically and mentally. It was difficult to choose clothing since the urostomy was in the way. A change in self-esteem was also affected by the body-image and it was mentally stressful to look at yourself in the mirror. The fear of leakage restricted the life of many and obstructed individuals from performing every day activities. Because of the urostomy both the social and sex life was affected.

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  • 262.
    Atteia, A.
    et al.
    Depto. de Genética Molecular, Inst. de Fisiología Celular, Univ. Nacl. Auton. de Mex., Mexico.
    van Lis, R.
    Depto. de Genética Molecular, Inst. de Fisiología Celular, Univ. Nacl. Auton. de Mex., Mexico.
    Wetterskog, Daniel
    Department of Plant Physiology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Gutiérrez-Cirlos, E.-B.
    Department of Biochemistry, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, United States.
    Ongay-Larios, L.
    Unidad de Biología Molecular, Inst. de Fisiología Celular, Univ. Nacl. Auton. de Mex., Mexico.
    Franzén, Lars-Gunnar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Plant Cell Biology: Energy transduction in plant cells.
    González-Halphen, D.
    Depto. de Genética Molecular, Inst. de Fisiología Celular, Univ. Nacl. Auton. de Mex., Mexico.
    Structure, organization and expression of the genes encoding mitochondrial cytochrome c1 and the Rieske iron-sulfur protein in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii2003In: Molecular Genetics and Genomics, ISSN 1617-4615, E-ISSN 1617-4623, Vol. 268, no 5, p. 637-644Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sequence and organization of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii genes encoding cytochrome c 1 ( Cyc1) and the Rieske-type iron-sulfur protein ( Isp), two key nucleus-encoded subunits of the mitochondrial cytochrome bc 1 complex, are presented. Southern hybridization analysis indicates that both Cyc1 and Isp are present as single-copy genes in C. reinhardtii. The Cyc1 gene spans 6404 bp and contains six introns, ranging from 178 to 1134 bp in size. The Isp gene spans 1238 bp and contains four smaller introns, ranging in length from 83 to 167 bp. In both genes, the intron/exon junctions follow the GT/AG rule. Internal conserved sequences were identified in only some of the introns in the Cyc1 gene. The levels of expression of Isp and Cyc1 genes are comparable in wild-type C. reinhardtii cells and in a mutant strain carrying a deletion in the mitochondrial gene for cytochrome b (dum-1). Nevertheless, no accumulation of the nucleus-encoded cytochrome c 1 or of core proteins I and II was observed in the membranes of the respiratory mutant. These data show that, in the green alga C. reinhardtii, the subunits of the cytochrome bc1 complex fail to assemble properly in the absence of cytochrome b.

  • 263.
    Attema, Joanne L.
    et al.
    Immunology Unit, Institution for Experimental Medical Research, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Pronk, Cornelis J. H.
    Immunology Unit, Institution for Experimental Medical Research, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Norddahl, Gudmundur L.
    Immunology Unit, Institution for Experimental Medical Research, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Nygren, Jens Martin
    Immunology Unit, Institution for Experimental Medical Research, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bryder, David
    Immunology Unit, Institution for Experimental Medical Research, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hematopoietic stem cell ageing is uncoupled from p16 INK4A-mediated senescence2009In: Oncogene, ISSN 0950-9232, E-ISSN 1476-5594, Vol. 28, no 22, p. 2238-2243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Somatic stem cells are ultimately responsible for mediating appropriate organ homeostasis and have therefore been proposed to represent a cellular origin of the ageing process-a state often characterized by inappropriate homeostasis. Specifically, it has been suggested that ageing stem cells might succumb to replicative senescence by a mechanism involving the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16(INK4A). Here, we tested multiple functional and molecular parameters indicative of p16(INK4A) activity in primary aged murine hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). We found no evidence that replicative senescence accompanies stem cell ageing in vivo, and in line with p16(INK4A) being a critical determinant of such processes, most aged HSCs (>99%) failed to express p16(INK4A) at the mRNA level. Moreover, whereas loss of epigenetically guided repression of the INK4A/ARF locus accompanied replicative senescent murine embryonic fibroblasts, such repression was maintained in aged stem cells. Taken together, these studies indicate that increased senescence as mediated by the p16(INK4A) tumor suppressor has only a minor function as an intrinsic regulator of steady-state HSC ageing in vivo.

  • 264.
    Augustsson, Emelie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Sjösten, Josefin
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Att vara patient efter ett suicidförsök2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Suicid har länge varit den främsta dödsorsaken bland unga människor.Det är en stor uppgift för sjukvården att bemöta patienterna på ett respektfullt sätt med en öppenhet och acceptans. Att ge en personcentrerad vård kräver ett holistiskt synsätt, vilket kan vara en utmaning och bygger på god kommunikation. Det finns endast ett fåtal studier genomförda om patienters upplevelser av att bli vårdade på sjukhus. Det gör att behovet av fler studier kring ämnet bör genomföras. Syftet var att belysa patienters upplevelser av omvårdnad på sjukhus efter suicidförsök.Studien var en litteraturstudie där resultatet baserades på 11 vetenskapliga artiklar som granskades och bearbetades. Resultatet visade att de suicidala patienterna var känsliga för attityder och i behov av att vistas i en miljö där de kände sig trygga. De nämnde även vikten av att få prata med någon för att känna sig betydelsefull och bli tagen på allvar. Det framkom att patienterna tyckte att sjuksköterskan var i behov av att förbättra kompetensen kring kommunikation med patienter med psykiska problem.Patienternas upplevelser av omvårdnad på sjukhus efter suicidförsök är fortfarande otillräckligt utforskad och mer forskning och kunskap behövs.

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    Att vara patient efter ett suicidförsök
  • 265.
    Axelsson, Liza
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Söderblom, Sara
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Upplevelsen av att leva med schizofreni2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Schizophrenia is a mental illness where the person’s experience of the disease is an important basis for nursing care. To improve the care, more knowledge is required about the experience of living with schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to describe the experience of living with the mental illness schizophrenia. The study was conducted as a literature study. The literature search was done systematically, resulting in 14 scientific articles that shaped the outcome of the study. A content analysis was conducted, which resulted in three categories: alienation, losses and valuable life. The results showed that people with schizophrenia feel loneliness and alienation. The disease also contributed to huge losses of life. Despite setbacks several factors that could lead to a meaningful life was revealed. To create good caring, people with schizophrenia felt that health professionals need to show respect, listen and give space. Increased knowledge about the disease is recommended to reduce the stigma of schizophrenia. Further research on how health professionals should behave against people with schizophrenia is requested.

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  • 266.
    Axelsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Bång, Patrik
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Thorell, Snezana
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Sjuksköterskans upplevelse av arbetet med suicidala patienter inom psykiatrisk heldygnsvård.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Approximately 800 000 people around the world, are calculated to commit suicide in 2014. In most cases, the underlying explanation is psychiatric disorders. Depression and substance-use are the most common causes of suicide-attempts or completed suicide, and in many cases the suicidal patient has been in contact with psychiatric services short before the suicide-attempt. Dealing with suicidal patients in daily work demands specialized knowledge in psychiatric care, and also good knowledge concerning prevention-work in inpatient wards. The purpose of this study was to explore the nurses’ experiences in prevention-work concerning suicidal patients in inpatient wards. The study was a qualitative interview-study with a phenomenological approach. Results show that it is often hard to decide what causes suicide, but that being confronted with suicidal patients creates concerns about one’s own competence, about what the nurse might have missed and what could have been done in a better way. It is of importance to ventilate and process the experience of a suicide attempt or completed suicide, to maintain a correct approach and view of one’s own work as a nurse.

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  • 267.
    Axelsson, Pia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Rajkovic, Charlott
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Peer learning under specialistsjuksköterskeutbildningen inom intensivvård: - ett handledarperspektiv2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Peer learning is a precepting method that clarifies the link between theoretical knowledge and practical skills, and at the same time enables more students to be offered placement for clinical education. Therefore, it would be of interest to explore if the precepting strategy can be appropriate in the postgraduate nursing education in critical care. The purpose of the study was to explore peer learning as a precepting method in the postgraduate nursing education in critical care in preceptors’ point of view. The study was conducted by a focus group interview with a descriptive design with an inductive approach and data was analysed with manifest content analysis. The study revealed six categories and four subcategories. The interaction between the students was considered to develop the ability of communication and cooperation. The students could build on their former knowledge, considered as equals, and went from an inhibitive role as students. The patient and the relatives were not perceived to resent the student reasoning, they rather expressed they learned from it. The unique way to preserve students' knowledge and skills led to an early development of their already existing knowledge. The early training in communication and cooperation can be considered beneficial because deficiencies in these areas generate the most common incidents in healthcare today. The conclusion is that peer learning can be applied as a precepting method in the postgraduate nursing education in critical care. Further research of peer learning in postgraduate nursing educations is needed and also how the patient and family members experience the students' reasoning, are of great interest.

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  • 268.
    Axelsson, Sara
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Wyndhamn, Victoria
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Vuxna patienters upplevelser av perifer venkateter2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Peripheral intravenous catheter (PIVC) is an indwelling catheter in a vein, in purpose to administrate treatment. Patients can experience PIVC as unpleasant and it is in the nurses’ interest to provide a safe and patient-centered care to promote patient participation in care. The aim of the literature study was to illustrate factors that can affect adult patients experiences of peripheral intravenous catheters. The study was conducted as a structured literature review with an inductive approach. The result was based on ten scientific articles which highlighted factors that affect adult patients experiences of PIVC. Categories that emerged was Patients feelings, Information and communication, Patients’ experiences of health professionals and Pain. The result highlighted that patients’ feelings needed to be taken into consideration, as well as the nurse’s role and way of working affected a good experience. Lack of information, communication and documentation had a negative impact on patients experiences of PIVC-insertions. Pain was a recurrent factor when PIVC-insertion was performed, and several distraction-methods and tools appeared to reduce the patients experiences of pain. The conclusion was that the PIVC experience improved when nurses related to the factors affecting patients’ experiences of the procedure.

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  • 269.
    Axelsson, Åsa
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation: would they do it again?2001In: Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 0889-4655, E-ISSN 1550-5049, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 15-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last three decades, community education programs have been initiated with the purpose of teaching community citizens cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Millions of people have learned the technique. However, the frequency of bystander initiated CPR prior to emergency medicine service (EMS) arrival is still very low. This can lead one to ask if CPR training is optimal. Perhaps motivational aspects and psychological inhibitors to starting CPR should be included in CPR training. So far, CPR training has been skills oriented and has assumed that a bystander competent in CPR will intervene when required. However, this does not seem to be the case, as there are indications in recent research, for example, that the will to help and the courage to intervene are also needed. Bystanders who intervene in a cardiac arrest event improve the victim's chance of survival. However, there is little knowledge regarding the rescuers' reactions concerning their performance and whether they will overcome the trauma of the event and be prepared to do it again.

  • 270.
    Axelsson, Åsa B.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Zettergren, Margaretha
    Institute of Nursing, Faculty of Health Caring Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Christer
    Institute of Nursing, Faculty of Health Caring Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Good and bad experiences of family presence during acute care and resuscitation. What makes the difference?2005In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 161-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Family presence (FP) in the resuscitation room is still controversial, and its appropriateness for patient and family has been discussed. We examined both positive and negative experiences in order to establish the reasons for the difference.

    Aim:

    The aim of the present literature review was to describe patients', relatives' and staff's opinions and experiences of FP during invasive procedures and resuscitation.

    Method:

    12 original papers, published between January 1995 and February 2003, were reviewed. Most patients and relatives agreed that they had positive experiences of FP. They described how FP enhanced the feeling of support and connectedness within the family. Family members believed that FP helped them in their grieving process. Most staff members without FP experience felt that FP would increase the risk of psychological distress for the family. Those who had participated in an FP programme believed that FP was not only beneficial for the family but also for staff.

    Conclusion:

    Family presence during resuscitation and acute care has the potential to enhance the care of the patient and to benefit everyone involved. However, implementation of FP during resuscitation must take account of potential problems.

  • 271.
    Axelsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Herlitz, Johan
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    How bystanders perceive their cardiopulmonary resuscitation intervention: a qualitative study2000In: Resuscitation, ISSN 0300-9572, E-ISSN 1873-1570, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 71-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) prior to arrival of the emergency medical service is well documented. In Sweden, CPR is initiated prior to emergency medical services (EMS) arrival in about 30% of cardiac arrests out-of-hospital, a figure which should be improved urgently. To do so, it is of interest to know more about the bystanders' perceptions of their intervention. A qualitative method inspired by the phenomenographic approach was applied to 19 bystanders who had performed CPR. In the analysis, five main categories and 14 subcategories emerged. The main categories were: to have a sense of humanity, to have competence, to feel an obligation, to have courage and to feel exposed. Interviews described how humanity and concern for another human being were the foundation of their intervention. CPR training offers the possibility to give appropriate help in this emergency. If the aim of CPR training was extended beyond teaching the skill of CPR to include preparation of the rescuer for the intervention and his/her reactions, this might increase the number of people able to take action in the cardiac arrest situation.

  • 272.
    Axelsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Thoren, Ann-Britt
    Holmberg, S.
    Sahlgrenska Univ Hosp, Div Cardiol, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Herlitz, Johan
    Status of CPR in the Swedish population in the year 2000. A nation wide survey2002In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 23, p. 350-350Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 273.
    Axesol, Anita
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Rudin, Sofie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Synfältsinskränkningar och bilkörning2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 274.
    Axesol Greis, Anita
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Rudin, Sofie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Personers erfarenhet av besök vid sjuksköterskeledd ögonmottagning2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: People struck by glaucoma or diabetes shall be offered examination on a regular basis. Nurseled clinic is a measure to cope with the demand. The purpose of the study was to analyze people’s experience of a nurse-led clinic within ophthalmology. Method: Cross sectional study with quantified approach and consecutive selection. During one month, 187 participants who visited the clinic for control of diabetic and glaucoma responded to a survey. Six questions modified from the Swedish National Patient Survey were used. The data was collected in a digital format directly after the visit. Questionnaire responses were on a non parametric ordinal scale with responses between 1, no, not at all to 5 yes, I agree. Result: Median and mode showed 5 and the total mean value showed 4,96. There was no difference in the experience related to age, diagnosis, type of visit and vision impairment. Conclusion: Visitors to a nurseled ophthalmology clinic experienced the clinic to be carried out personcentered. The questionnaire was inquired targeted in personcentered care and was agreed by the majority.

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  • 275.
    Azdanlou Ghajar, Sahar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Gustafson, Ida
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Mödrars upplevelse av amningssvårigheter: Analys av bloggar från internet2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many women consider breastfeeding as the most natural way to give their newborn child nutrition. Mothers receive information from medical staff that breast milk contains all the nutrients that the infant needs and antibodies that protect the baby against common childhood diseases. Not all women can breastfeed in today's society and that could wake feelings in mothers that during the pregnancy has been thinking to breastfeeding but who involuntarily have been unable to do so. The aim of the study was to with blog texts describe mother’s experiences of breastfeeding difficulties in the first six months following the birth. The study was based on a qualitative approach with an inductive approach. Data were collected through blog posts and comments from fifteen different blogs and then analysed using qualitative content analysis. The results are based on two categories: “Living up to the norms and attitudes” and “Professional support in breastfeeding consulting”. These categories formed a theme: “Mothers struggle to balance between the requirements and expectations of breastfeeding”. Based on this study, the staff who work with mothers and breastfeeding consulting on various health care units enhance the understanding of how mothers experiencing breastfeeding difficulties. This furthermore could contribute to mother´s experiencing less distress interaction with health and medical care.

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    Mödrars upplevelse av amningssvårigheter: Analys av bloggar från internet
  • 276.
    Babic, Dragana
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Ferhatovic, Amila
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Hjälp till självhjälp: Åtgärder som förebygger exacerbation hos personer med kronisk obstruktiv lungsjukdom2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kronisk obstruktiv lungsjukdom (KOL) tillhör en av de vanligast förekommande sjukdomarna i Sverige och medför mycket lidande för den drabbade människan. En ständig andfåddhet, trötthet och hosta leder till en livslång kamp för den drabbade. Exacerbation är ett återkommande skov av grundsjukdomen KOL och yttrar sig i en förvärrad dyspné, skapar ett livshotande och ångestskapande tillstånd. Syftet med litteraturstudien var att belysa åtgärder som sjuksköterskan kan använda i omvårdnaden för att förebygga exacerbation hos personer med kronisk obstruktiv lungsjukdom. I resultatet framkom följande kategorier: Undervisning och Mentorskap. Det krävs individuellt anpassad patientundervisning och mentorskap för att öka patientens delaktighet och fysisk aktivitet för att förebygga exacerbationer, lindra lidande och minska ångestupplevelsen. Genom att sjuksköterskan använder dessa strategier i omvårdnaden kan en ökad egenvårdsförmåga till dyspnéhantering uppnås vilket leder till dyspnéns minskade intensitet, varaktighet och förekomst. Resultatet kan användas och tillämpas i utbildning av sjuksköterskor i klinisk verksamhet för att främja egenvård och hälsa till personer med KOL. Mer forskning om åtgärder som förebygger exacerbationer i samband med KOL behövs eftersom KOL inom den närmaste framtiden blir den mest förekommande dödsorsaken i världen.                                               

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  • 277.
    Backe, Christina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Persson, Jennie
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Pärna, Helena
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    En andra chans med Implanterbar Defibrillator: Upplevelser av förändrad livssituation2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Every year, there are 10 000 cases of sudden cardiac arrest outside of hospitals. Those who survive a cardiac arrest may be considered for treatment with an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD). The ICD has been in use since 1980 and the developments along with the number of implantations are continuously evolving.

    The health care system has an important role in supporting, educating and informing the patients and their families, to help them adapt to the new life as or with an ICD-bearer.

    The purpose of this study is to highlight the experiences and life alterations the ICD-bearer faces. The results are based on the analysis of eight qualitative and ten quantitative research articles.

    Patients with ICDs experience psychological distress; a dependence on other people; being forced to make life alterations and finding acceptance for the new life as an ICD-bearer. For many, an ICD is equivalent to a new chance at life, but it also represents every day physical, psychological and social changes. Changes that also affect close relatives.

    The care of these patients ought to be characterized by individual support and education, as the number of ICD implantations is constantly increasing and since it has been proven that life situations change. This in combination with good technical expertise facilitates the adaptation to life as an ICD-bearer.

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  • 278.
    Backe, Marita
    et al.
    Department of Medicine, Halmstad County Hospital, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Larsson, Kerstin
    Department of Medicine, Halmstad County Hospital, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Department of Primary Health Care, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Patients’ conceptions of their life situation within the first week after a stroke event: A qualitative analysis1996In: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing, ISSN 0964-3397, E-ISSN 1532-4036, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 285-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to find out how stroke patients conceived their life situation within the first week of the acute care phase as seen from the nurses’ viewpoint. Six patients were interviewed within 3 weeks from their first stroke, using questions based on a holistic philosophy and analysed with the phenomonographic approach. Two main categories emerged from the results: the feeling of unreality and the awareness of a changed role in life, together with six subcategories; feeling of a changed perception of the body; feeling of being confused; loss of capability; awareness of confined life space; the importance of support and encouragement; and the will to look for new opportunities. The study concludes that the body change resulting from a stroke leads to both physical and psychological trauma, in which the psychological crisis can be very deep and best described as a personal catastrophe. The patient’s capability to receive and understand information becomes blocked, which influences both the nurse and the patient’s next of kin with regard to their care of the patient. Conversations with the patient must be frequent so that the acute care can be evaluated and agreement reached between the patient’s wishes and the nurses’ objectives. The results indicate the significance of intervention programmes based on crisis theory within the first week of a stroke event.

  • 279.
    Backman, Ellen
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), The Wigforss Group.
    Ätutveckling hos barn – en gemensam utmaning för barn och dess vårdnadshavare2016In: Små & stora nyheter, ISSN 1400-4186, no maj, p. 10-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 280.
    Backman, Ellen
    et al.
    Region Halland, Kungsbacka, Sverige.
    Eberhart, Barbara
    Västerbottens läns landsting, Umeå, Sverige.
    Gustafsson, Carin
    Region Skåne, Malmö, Sverige.
    Häggström Qvist, Camilla
    Västra Götalandsregionen, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Lindberger, Lena
    Stockholms läns landsting, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Nolemo, Maria
    Landstinget Västmanland, Västerås, Sverige.
    Nylander, Eva-Marie
    Västra Götalandsregionen, Vänersborg, Sverige.
    Ragnar, Catarina
    Region Kronoberg, Växjö, Sverige.
    Metoder för att stimulera språk och kommunikation hos barn, ungdomar och vuxna inom habiliteringen2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Språkliga och kommunikativa begränsningar är vanligt förekommande vid ett flertal av de diagnoser och tillstånd som återfinns hos personer inom habiliteringsverksamheter i Sverige och förutsätter en tvärprofessionell och långvarig insats. Syftet med föreliggande arbete är att systematiskt beskriva bästa tillgängliga evidens avseende interventioner fokuserade på språklig och kommunikativ förmåga för personer med medfödda funktionsnedsättningar från sex års ålder och uppåt inom habiliteringsverksamhet. Arbetet kan ses som en fortsättning på EBH-rapporten ”Tidiga kommunikations- och språkinsatser till förskolebarn”.Internationellt publicerade interventionsstudier från de senaste 15 åren med fokus på språkliga och kommunikativa förmågor vid typiskt förekommande diagnoser inom habiliteringsverksamhet granskades och sammanfattades. Initialt inkluderades endast översiktsartiklar och metaanalyser, men då dessa till största delen hade fokus på autism och/eller Alternativ och Kompletterande Kommunikation (AKK) utökades sökningen till att även inkludera ett antal primärstudier med annat fokus. Rapporten omfattar 67 studier.Resultatet visar att ”stark rekommendation att använda” (enligt GRADE) endast förekommer i begränsad utsträckning, och när det förekommer är det vid insatser relaterade till autism och/eller AKK. ”Stark rekommendation att inte använda” finns vid insatser relaterade till akupunktur/akupressur och faciliterad kommunikation. Det kan konstateras att det finns en stor brist på studier avseende vuxna personer respektive intellektuell funktionsnedsättning.Detta arbete tillför ytterligare kunskap till området för evidensbaserade insatser vid svårigheter när det gäller kommunikation och språk, och visar att evidens i strikt bemärkelse är svår att erhålla bland annat beroende på de små och heterogena patientgrupperna och, som en konsekvens av detta, en brist på stora randomiserade studier.

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  • 281.
    Backman, Ellen
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Regional Habilitation Centre, Region Halland, Kungsbacka, Sweden.
    Granlund, Mats
    CHILD Research group, SIDR, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Ann-Kristin
    Department of Research and Development, Region Halland, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Documentation of everyday life and health carefollowing gastrostomy tube placement in children: a content analysis of medical records.2019In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Everyday routines play a vital role in child functioning and development. This study explored health professionals’ documentation of everyday life and health care during the first year following gastrostomy tube placement in children and the content of intervention goals. Methods: The medical records of 39 children (median age 38 months, min–max: 15–192) in one region of Sweden were analysed. A content analysis approach was used with an inductive qualitative analysis supplemented by a deductive, quantitative analysis of documented intervention goals following the ICF-CY. Results: One overall theme, “Seeking a balance”, captured the view of life with a gastrostomy and the health care provided. Two categories, “Striving for physical health” and “Depicting everyday life” with seven sub-categories, captured the key aspects of the documentation. Twenty-one children (54%) had intervention goals related to the gastrostomy, and these goals primarily focused on the ICF-CY component “Body functions”. Conclusions: To some extent the medical records reflected different dimensions of everyday life, but the intervention goals clearly focused on bodily aspects. Understanding how health care for children using a gastrostomy is documented and planned by applying an ecocultural framework adds a valuable perspective and can contribute to family-centred interventions for children using a gastrostomy.Implications for Rehabilitation There is a need for increased awareness in healthcare professionals for a more consistent and holistic healthcare approach in the management of children with gastrostomy tube feeding. This study suggests that an expanded focus on children’s participation in everyday mealtimes and in the healthcare follow-up of gastrostomy tube feeding is important in enhancing the intervention outcome. Multidisciplinary teams with a shared bio-psycho-social understanding of health would contribute to a situation in which the everyday lives of households adapt to living with gastrostomy. Routine care for children with gastrostomy should follow a checklist combining crucial physiological aspects of gastrostomy tube feeding with seemingly mundane family functions in order to achieve a successful gastrostomy tube feeding intervention.  © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 282.
    Backman, Ellen
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Regional Habilitation Center, Region Halland, Kungsbacka, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Ann-Kristin
    Department of Research and Development, Region Halland, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Sjögreen, Lotta
    Mun-H-Center Orofacial Resource Center for Rare Diseases, Public Dental Service, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gastrostomy tube feeding in children with developmental or acquired disorders: A longitudinal comparison on health care provision, and eating outcomes four years after gastrostomy2018In: Nutrition in clinical practice, ISSN 0884-5336, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 576-583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies on long‐term feeding and eating outcomes in children requiring gastrostomy tube feeding (GT) are scarce. The aim of this study was to describe children with developmental or acquired disorders receiving GT and to compare longitudinal eating and feeding outcomes. A secondary aim was to explore healthcare provision related to eating and feeding.

    Methods: This retrospective cohort study reviewed medical records of children in 1 administrative region of Sweden with GT placement between 2005 and 2012. Patient demographics, primary diagnoses, age at GT placement, and professional healthcare contacts prior to and after GT placement were recorded and compared. Feeding and eating outcomes were assessed 4 years after GT placement.

    Results: The medical records of 51 children, 28 boys and 23 girls, were analyzed and grouped according to “acquired” (n = 13) or “developmental” (n = 38) primary diagnoses. At 4 years after GT placement, 67% were still using GT. Only 6 of 37 (16%) children with developmental disorders transferred to eating all orally, as opposed to 10 of 11 (91%) children with acquired disorders. Children with developmental disorders were younger at the time of GT placement and displayed a longer duration of GT activity when compared with children with acquired disorders.

    Conclusions: This study demonstrates a clear difference between children with developmental or acquired disorders in duration of GT activity and age at GT placement. The study further shows that healthcare provided to children with GT is in some cases multidisciplinary, but primarily focuses on feeding rather than eating.

  • 283.
    Backman, Ellen
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Region Halland, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Ann-Kristin
    Department of Research and Development, Region Halland, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Sjögreen, Lotta
    Mun-H-Center Orofacial Resource Center for Rare diseases, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The use of gastrostomy in Swedish children – indications, and trends between 2005 and 20152017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children with complex medical needs requiring nutritional support are growing in number. This presentation will add new knowledge regarding gastrostomy in children by reporting primary diagnosis, and indications for the use of gastrostomy. Furthermore, the presentation will discuss and analyse data evolution trends from 2005 to 2015 in Sweden.

    Methods: The first part of the study used national statistics to provide a broad picture of gastrostomy use in Swedish children. The second part applied a retrospective observational study design, reviewing medical charts in order to obtain an in-depth picture of the children in need for gastrostomy, and its use in a five-year perspective.

    Results: The number of gastrostomy cases recorded in the national database was 3 946, 53% male, and 47% female. The distribution of age groups was: 0-4 years: 61% , 5-9 years: 17%, 10-14 years: 12%, and 15-19: years 10%.  When observing trends on a national level, the number of children receiving gastrostomy increased in average by 13% per year. Changes in the separate age groups were analysed. An increase was noted for children aged 0-4 years and for children aged 5-9 years. In the age groups 10-14 years and 15-19 years, there was no progressive increase. The results from the national statistics database will be discussed in relation to the medical chart-analyses of 75 children receiving gastrostomy in one Swedish administrative region between 2005 and 2015. 

    Conclusions: As in many parts of Europe, the number of children in need for gastrostomy is also growing in Sweden, with the youngest children seeming to be the group increasing most.

    Clinical implications: Nutritional support in Sweden is publicly financed, therefore these findings may be useful when planning both monetary and human resources in meeting the future challenges of paediatric health care.

  • 284.
    Backman, Linn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Kleveland, Therese
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Wetterlöv, Malin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Jag älskar mitt jobb men...: Aspekter i sjuksköterskors arbetsmiljö som påverkar omvårdnadskvalitén2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    By findingoutwhich aspectsofnurseworkenvironmentthatmayaffect the qualityofcarenursescanhavegreateropportunity to design their ideal work situation and ultimatelyprovide the best possiblecare. The aimofthisstudywas to investigateaspectsofnurses' workenvironmentthataffectcarequality. The result is based on 20 scientificarticles: bothqualitative and quantitative design. The results show thatifnursesexperience a goodworkingenvironmentthisimprovesnurses' and patients' assessmentofcarequality. Workload has a criticalimpact on the qualityofcare. Nursesareforced to set prioritiesdue to timeconstraints and a heavyworkload, thisnegativelyaffects patients and results in increasedcosts ofcare. Being part of a well-functioning team withgoodcommunicationimprovesnurses' jobsatisfaction. A leadershouldtakenurses' opinions seriously and ensureenoughqualifiedstaff. Salary, careeropportunities, skillsdevelopment, and nurse representation at decision-makinglevelsareseen as importantaspects to raise the profession's status and jobsatisfaction. Implication for further research on the subjectcould be interventional studies thatattempt to improve the revealedaspectsof the workenvironment. Decision-makers, patients and their relatives understandingof the qualityofcarerelated to nurses' workenvironmentare alsoneeded to clearlydescribe the subject.

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  • 285.
    Backman, Mayumi
    Halmstad University, School of Teacher Education (LUT).
    Högstadieelevers tankar kring sin uteblivna frukost2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats tar upp en annan vinkel på frukostätande och högstadieelevers tankar kring frukostätande och deras skolprestation. Målsättningen med uppsatsen är att redovisa och analysera tankar bakom ungdomars uteblivna frukost med hjälp av tidigare forskning av både för - och nackdelar med frukosten. Fältarbetet gjordes bland elever i årskurs sju: enkätundersökning med två klasser och djupintervjuer med fyra elever som inte åt frukost varje dag på skoldagarna. Hälsopedagogik och skolans roll tas också upp. Resultatet av undersökningen har visat att majoriteten av eleverna åt frukost varje dag och tre elever åt frukost endast på helgerna. De som hoppade över frukosten på vardagarna verkade klara sig ganska bra med sitt skolarbete trots allt. Det fanns viss koppling mellan vissa av elevernas vana att fasta och utebliven frukost när det gällde deras kroppskännedom och hur deras hälsotillstånd påverkar skolprestationer. Flickorna var mer medvetna om sin hälsa och hälsofrågor än pojkarna i intervjuerna. Förutom tidsbrist, trötthet eller dålig aptit som var orsaker till utebliven frukost, fanns det en elev som mådde dåligt av att äta frukost på morgonen. Frukost kan orsaka magont, stress, trötthet och därmed sämre skolprestation enligt henne, vilket ät motsatsen till vad de flesta tidigare forskning om frukost har visat. Eleven tyckte att det är det viktigt att äta frukost trots att hon själv inte upplevde någon nytta av att äta frukost. Frågan är om hon också ska äta en ordentlig frukost på morgonen när hennes kropp säger ifrån. Tål hon inte äta på morgonen eller uppstår besvären på grund av hennes ovana att äta frukost. Olika perspektiv och orsaker till symptomen och konsekvenser av utebliven frukost kommer att diskuteras. Studien har också visat att frukostätande är ett komplicerat fenomen där olika faktorer spelar in. Eftersom varje individ är olika, borde skolverksamheten ta hänsyn till individens olika behov. Så länge det finns nackdelar med att äta frukost, även om de som inte äter frukost är en monoritet, borde vikten av frukostätande introduceras försiktigt.

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  • 286.
    Bagdasaryan, Violeta
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Bladh, Ainura
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Khatsarevych, Tetiana
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Den andra våren: val av copingstrategier hos kvinnor underklimakterietransition2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Menopause is a natural process during a woman’slifecycle when her body goes through physiological changes due to hormonalalterations. Also, menopause is a development-related tran-sition.According to the theory of transition it will appear within a certain timeframe, follows a clear route and leads to alterations in identity, role,relations or behavioral patterns. Knowledge of these stages of change and whataffects women’s behavior during transition is a vital qualification requiredfor nurses to succeed in providing healthy transition. Thepurpose of this literature study was to high-light factors that affect thechoice of coping strategies. Twelve articles were studied and analyzed based onthe purpose of the study. The result showed that there are five groups offactors that can affect women’s choice of coping strategies; socio-cultural andsocio-economical, type and severity of menopause symptoms, availability ofsupportive social networks, personality related factors and the current lifesituation. Women with established networks can seek help and support withintheir family and amongst their friends. When there is a lack of these types ofnetworks, healthcare personnel can become the only resource for discussingmenopause-related issues. Keeping these factors in mind, which serve the basisfor different coping strategies, healthcare-institutions should createeducation and models to assist women with menopause symptoms and develop aneffective coping-strategy.

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  • 287.
    Baigi, Amir
    et al.
    FoU-enheten, Primärvården Halland.
    Bergh, Håkan
    FoU-enheten, Primärvården Halland.
    Haraldsson, Katarina
    FoU-enheten, Primärvården Halland.
    Lindgren, Eva-Carin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Lydell, Marie
    FoU-enheten, Primärvården Halland.
    Månsson, Jörgen
    FoU-enheten, Primärvården Halland.
    Wendt, Eva
    FoU-enheten, Primärvården Halland.
    Hälsa på lika villkor? Hallands resultat från en nationell folkhälsoenkät2005Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    N/A

  • 288.
    Baigi, Amir
    et al.
    R and D Unit, Primary Health Care, Halland County Council, Falkenberg, Sweden.
    Bering, Charlotte
    Department of Medicine, Visby Hospital, Visby, Sweden.
    Hildingh, Cathrine
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Almerud, Sofia
    School of Health Sciences and Social Work, Växjö University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Non-attendees' attitudes to the design of a cardiac rehabilitation programme focused on information of risk factors and professional involvement2009In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 62-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Enhancing the accuracy of the content of cardiac rehabilitation programmes (CRPs) and providing the mediators preferred by patients can increase attendance rates in line with secondary prevention goals. The aim of this study was therefore to explore non-attendees' attitudes to the design of a CRP focused on information of risk factors and professional involvement. Method: Consecutive patients with coronary heart disease (n = 100) who declined to participate in a CRP answered a questionnaire focusing on patients' attitudes to risk factors and cardiac rehabilitation. Results: Non-attendees considered that information of hypertension and information of sedentary lifestyle constituted the most important content of a CRP. Physicians, nurses and social workers were considered the most suitable professional categories. Females preferred nurses when discussing smoking issues while males preferred physicians. More males compared to females preferred occupational therapists for dealing with stress, physicians for depression and social workers for social isolation. Conclusions: Non-attendees' attitudes are similar to those of attendees and quite traditional in that they favour physician or nurse-led activities. There is a difference in attitude between male and female.

  • 289.
    Baigi, Amir
    et al.
    Primary Health Care Halland, Falkenberg.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Marklund, B.
    Göteborg University.
    Oden, A.
    Statistics, Göteborg.
    Cardiovascular mortality focusing on socio-economic influence: the low-risk population of Halland compared to the population of Sweden as a whole2002In: Public Health, ISSN 0033-3506, E-ISSN 1476-5616, Vol. 116, no 5, p. 285-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and socioeconomic status (SES) in Sweden and to estimate to what extent the difference between a province with low mortality and the rest of Sweden was dependent on socio-economic factors. A population-based retrospective study with a historical prospective approach was performed covering a 10-y period in the province of Halland, Sweden, as well as Sweden as a whole. Altogether 1654 744 men and 1592 467 women were included, of whom 45 394 men and 43 403 women were from Halland, distributed according to SES. Multivariate analysis with Poisson regression was used. Relative risks with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Both men and women with a low SES showed a significantly higher risk of death from CVD in Sweden as a whole. The risk was 23% higher for male blue-collar workers and 44% higher for female blue-collar workers when compared to their white-collar counterparts. The level of mortality in Halland was 14% lower compared to the country as a whole when only age was taken into account. When the socio-economic variable was also included, this figure was 8%. The results show the substantial significance of social differences with respect to CVD mortality. The effect of SES seems to be more important than that of geographical conditions when the latter are isolated from socio-economic influence.

  • 290.
    Baigi, Amir
    et al.
    Department of Primary Health Care, Göteborg University, Göteborg.
    Hildingh, Cathrine
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Virdhall, Helen
    Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Sense of coherence as well as social support and network as perceived by patients with a suspected or manifest myocardial infarction: a short-term follow-up study2008In: Clinical Rehabilitation, ISSN 0269-2155, E-ISSN 1477-0873, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 646-652Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective:

    To compare sense of coherence as well as social support and network as perceived by ischaemic heart disease patients at baseline and two weeks post-discharge in terms of age, sex, educational and marital status.

    Design:

    Multicentre study with a prospective short-term follow-up design.

    Setting:

    A university hospital, a central hospital and a district hospital in southern Sweden.

    Subjects:

    Consecutive sample of 246 patients with a suspect or manifest myocardial infarction.

    Main measures:

    The Lubben Social Network Scale (LSNS-R), the Medical Outcome Study (MOS) Social Support Survey and the Sense of Coherence Scale were included in a self-administered questionnaire and answered twice, together with sociodemographic variables.

    Results:

    Bivariate analyses indicated changes in social support (practical support increased in men and decreased in women; both P= 0.003) and social network (family network increased among >65 year olds; P= 0.001, men; P= 0.013, and women; P= 0.033, those with a low; P=0.017, and intermediate; P= 0.033, educational level, as well as those cohabiting; P= 0.0001), but did not reveal any difference in sense of coherence.

    Conclusions:

    Sociodemographic variables have no influence on sense of coherence but do affect social support (i.e. practical support and social network, family). Ischaemic heart disease patients' short stay in hospital implies that the network outside the hospital has to assume responsibility, but at the same time it is important for health care professionals to have sufficient knowledge to be able to support the specific needs of patients and their family members.

  • 291.
    Baigi, Amir
    et al.
    Primary Health Care Research and Development Unit, Halland County Council, Falkenberg, Sweden.
    Marklund, Bertil
    Department of Primary Health Care, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    The association between socio-economic status and chest pain, focusing on self-rated health in a primary health care area of Sweden2001In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 420-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study objective: The study objective was to determine, first, the association between men's and women's chest pain and their socio-economic status (occupation, smoking) and, secondly, the association between their socio-economic status and self-rated health, in a primary health care area. Design and setting: A population-based cross-sectional survey was made in a primary health care area of Sweden. Primarily based on occupation according to Swedish standards, 4,238 men and women were divided into two socio-economic groups; blue-collar and white-collar workers. Methods: Odds ratios with 95% Cl were calculated by multivariate logistic regression, controlling for the variable age as confounding factor. Student's t-test was used to compare self-rated health, and the chi (2)-test to determine any difference in smoking habits between the two groups. Main results: Both male and female blue-collar workers showed significantly more chest pain when excited than white-collar workers. In six of eight health indices, they also reported significantly worse self-rated health than the white-collar workers. Conclusions: These findings show that there are socio-economic inequalities in self-reported chest pain. Furthermore, socio-economic status has a major influence on self-rated health, acting across the working life of both sexes.

  • 292.
    Bakker, Roel H.
    et al.
    Department of Applied Research in Care, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    van den Berg, Godefridus Petrus
    GGD Amsterdam Public Health Service, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Stewart, R.E.
    Department of Community & Occupational Health, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Lok, W.
    Department of Applied Research in Care, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Bouma, J.
    Department of Health Care, Science shop, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Impact of wind turbine sound on annoyance, self-reported sleep disturbance and psychological distress2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 425, p. 42-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of the research: The present government in the Netherlands intends to realize a substantial growth ofwind energy before 2020, both onshore and offshore. Wind turbines, when positioned in the neighborhood ofresidents may cause visual annoyance and noise annoyance. Studies on other environmental sound sources,such as railway, road traffic, industry and aircraft noise show that (long-term) exposure to sound can havenegative effects other than annoyance from noise. This study aims to elucidate the relation between exposureto the sound of wind turbines and annoyance, self-reported sleep disturbance and psychological distress ofpeople that live in their vicinity. Data were gathered by questionnaire that was sent by mail to a representativesample of residents of the Netherlands living in the vicinity of wind turbinesPrincipal results: A dose–response relationship was found between immission levels of wind turbine soundand selfreported noise annoyance. Sound exposure was also related to sleep disturbance and psychologicaldistress among those who reported that they could hear the sound, however not directly but with noiseannoyance acting as a mediator. Respondents living in areas with other background sounds were less affectedthan respondents in quiet areas.Major conclusions: People living in the vicinity of wind turbines are at risk of being annoyed by the noise, anadverse effect in itself. Noise annoyance in turn could lead to sleep disturbance and psychological distress. Nodirect effects of wind turbine noise on sleep disturbance or psychological stress has been demonstrated,which means that residents, who do not hear the sound, or do not feel disturbed, are not adversely affected.

  • 293.
    Baldauf, Sara
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Onken, Jennifer
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans stöd till anhöriga: En studie om anhörigas upplevelser av stöd inom intensivvård2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The attention and support given to family members at the Intensive Care Unit can sometimes be limited due to that the nurses often focus on the patient's needs and forget about family members needs. Since nurses meet family members on a daily basis it is important for them to know what family members find supportive. The condition of patients at the intensive care unit is often critical and family members need support to cope, understand and adapt to the situation. The aim of the study was to highlight family members´ experiences of support from nurses at the intensive care unit. A structured literature review was conducted in which 10 articles with both qualitative and quantitative design underwent thematic analysis. The analysis gave four categories: Trust and reliance, Presence and participation, Comfort and empathy and Availability and continuity. To sum up; family members at the Intensive Care Unit have a great need of support. Family members are in general satisfied with the support, but there is need for more research in what kind of support they require and how family members experience the support.

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  • 294.
    Baltzar, Emma
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    Eriksson, Emeli
    Halmstad University.
    Självstigmatisering hos personer med schizofreni: Ett hot mot självet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Self-stigmatization is a complex process which implies that the person might internalize negative stereotypes and attitudes that are directed towards them. The interest for self-stigmatization has increased during the last decade, but there is still little research on the phenomenon. The aim of this study was to describe self-stigmatization amongst people with schizophrenia. The study was conducted as a literature study, where eight scientific articles were reviewed and analyzed. The results showed that the degree of self-stigmatization amongst people with schizophrenia was affected by a various of factors, including the number of psychiatric hospitalizations and the severity of the illness. Self-stigmatization also proved to result in a negative view on oneself and the own abilities. Further quantitative research is needed, but there is also a great need for qualitative research that focuses on individual’s own experiences. The health care needs to better understand and pay attention to self-stigmatization. Efforts in evidence-based nursing also needs to be developed based on all the steps in the nursing process to reduce self-stigmatization.

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  • 295.
    Bamba, Djeneba
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Persson, Josefine
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Bariatrisk kirurgi - Livet efter operationen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Obesity is today a chronic disease that represents a major health challenge both internationally and nationally. The obesity occurrence has globally almost tripled since 1975. For patients with severe obesity, lifestyle changes, diets and physical activity are not effective methods, nor do they provide sustainable results. Today, bariatric surgery has become a well-established method and is now considered a standard treatment. Purpose: To describe patients' experiences after bariatric surgery. Method: A general literature study has been conducted. Eleven scientific articles were analyzed for searches in three nursing databases. Result: Four categories emerged; Experiences of a changed relationship to food, experiences of a changed body and identity, experiences of a changed social interaction and the significance of support and experiences of health and illness. Conclusions: The experiences after bariatric surgery varied between patients and affected both physical and mental aspects of life. Even though the new body gave opportunities for increased physical ability, patients still experienced difficulties in embracing the new identity. The support was found to be essential to maintain the achieved weight loss. It is vital that the nurse is familiar with the patients’ situation in order to provide adequate support and make the patient feel familiar and confirmed. 

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  • 296.
    Banemark, Anna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Eliasson, Pernilla
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Hidradenitis suppurativas påverkan på livet: En allmän litteraturöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Hidradenitis suppurativa är en kronisk hudsjukdom som drabbar ca 1-4% av befolkningen. Trots att sjukdomssymtomen varit kända sedan mitten av 1800-talet är patofysiologin ännu inte klarlagd och patientgruppen är svårbehandlad. Syfte: Syftet var att undersöka hur livet påverkas av att leva med hidradenitis suppurativa. 

    Metod: Ansatsen som användes var allmän litteraturöversikt. Kvalitativa och kvantitativa artiklar valdes ut inom ämnet och analyserades för att sedan utgöra grunden i studien. Resultat: Resultatet delades in i följande kategorier: fysiska symtom, psykiska konsekvenser samt betydelsen av stöd. Att leva med hidradenitis suppurativa medför ett lidande som påverkar livskvaliteten i varierande omfattning. Prevalensen för psykiska sjukdomar är större hos patienter med hidradenitis suppurativa och de fysiska symtomen orsakar extensiva besvär som vidare kan leda till låg självkänsla och isolering. Slutsatser: Studiens resultat synliggör att det finns kunskapsluckor kring bemötande, omvårdnad och behandling av patienter med HS och många patienter lider av smärtproblematik relaterat till sjukdomen. På grund av de ofta omfattande fysiska symtomen hamnar den psykiska hälsan i skymundan och kan orsaka extensiva nedsättningar i patienternas liv. Behov av stöd från såväl närstående och sjukvård är en önskvärd tillgång för patienter med HS, som på grund av bristande kunskap i dagsläget inte tillräckligt tillgodoses. Med ökad kunskap om sjukdomsbilden blir sjuksköterskan bättre rustad att ge en hälsofrämjande och personcentrerad vård ur ett holistiskt perspektiv. 

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  • 297.
    Bang, Monica
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Berntsson, Janet
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Österberg, Emilia
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    eHälsa: - ett verktyg för samarbete mellan hälso- och sjukvård och den moderna patienten2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: eHealth is the present and, in particular, the futures of health care. It is considered to be able to strengthen the involvement and participation of the patient. The modern patient demand increased transparency, participation and autonomy.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Aim: The aim of this study was to highlight eHealth, focusing on patient empowerment.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Method: A literature study with 14 scientific articles, that have been reviewed, analyzed and compared with an inductive approach.                                                                                                                                                              Results and conclusions: The results show that eHealth increases the availability of health information and health care at home. eHealth can and should be used as a supplement in health care to enhance patient empowerment, provided that the patient has the ability to manage and understand information and communication tools, and that collaboration exists with the health care provider.                                                                                                                                 Implication: Further research on how nurses can implement eHealth within the nursing practice is needed. eHealth as a concept should also be highlighted along with other guidelines related to information and communication technology in the Description of Competence for Registered Nurses. Patient education in eHealth and its services should be included in the health care practice to optimize self care for patients, so that they thereby could receive empowerment. It is also of great importance that the student nurse, already during education, gains knowledge of eHealth and eHealth services.

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  • 298.
    Bank, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
     Hinder och problem med metoden FaR inom Primärvården.:  En intervjustudie.2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Metoden fysisk aktivitet på recept började användas 2001 inom primärvården, med avsikten att öka fysisk aktivitet bland befolkningen. Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva förskrivarnas upplevelser av hinder och problem, med att använda metoden FaR inom primärvården. Kvalitativ metod valdes och 12 intervjuer genomfördes. Data analyserades med hjälp av innehållsanalys. Resultatet som framkom bildade tre huvudkategorier; metoden, förskrivarna och samverkan. Resultatet visade, att trots att metoden ansågs vara bra, fanns det aspekter som behövde förbättras. Hjälpmedlen användes i liten utsträckning, tid och arbete behövdes för att väl förankra metoden på arbetsplatsen. Förskrivarna behöver motiveras för att kunna hjälpa patienten på bästa vis och även andra aktörer i samhället behövs i arbetet med att öka den fysiska aktiviteten bland befolkningen. Slutsatsen blev att metoden behövs inom primärvården, men att tydliga riktlinjer krävs om hur arbetet ska implementeras och användas praktiskt i vardagen. Även kontinuerliga påminnelser behövs för att arbetet ska fortgå, till exempel tävlingar och föreläsningar som sätter extra fokus på metoden. Aktivitetskatalogen behöver utvecklas och om möjlighet finns, även införa en prisreducering, så att alla oavsett ekonomisk situation, har chans att delta. Ett större samarbete med andra aktörer utanför hälso- och sjukvården krävs, för att möjliggöra och synliggöra arbetet, detta för att öka hälsan bland befolkningen. Slutligen så bör förskrivarna få större möjligheter att få vara med och utforma metoden, för att kunna eliminera det motstånd som finns.

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  • 299.
    Bauhn Eriksson, Janet
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Ivansson, Helen
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Varför avböjer föräldrar att vaccinera sina barn: En integrativ litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:Vaccination density has decreased in society. The primary concerns are the combination vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella (MMR). To decline vaccination leads to measles being re-established in the society. Measles is one of the most contagious infection diseases that exists, the risk of secondary diseases is substantial which affects 20% of the population. If the vaccination density goes below 95% measles is in the risk of being reaffirm in society. Method:A integrative literature study with article searches conducted in the database Academic Search Elite, Cinahl, PubMed and Social Service Abstract and resulted in 13 relevant articles.  Results:The study shows that most parents experienced that they did not get enough information from the health care sector. They searched for information on websites or through other parents. Therefore, credible information is necessary when visiting the children's health care and to distribute information sheets on different languages to reach those with different cultures. Conclusion and implication:The study shows how important it is with credible information about the vaccines for parents being able to take a stand. Knowledge makes it easier for healthcare personals to set up strategies to teach and inform doubtful parents. Increased knowledge gained from ongoing research in the subject, which increases the opportunities for WHO to reach the goal of eliminating measles. 

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  • 300.
    Bay, Bjorn
    et al.
    Institute of Odontology, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Hilliges, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Weidner, Christian
    Department of Physiology 1, University of Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
    Sandborgh-Englund, Gunilla
    Institute of Odontology, Karolinska Institutet, P.O. Box 4064, SE-141 04 Huddinge, Sweden.
    Response of human oral mucosa and skin to histamine provocation: laser Doppler perfusion imaging discloses differences in the nociceptive nervous system2009In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 67, no 2, p. 99-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To investigate the existence of histamine-excitable nerve fibers in the oral mucosa and to compare the response to histamine provocation in healthy volunteers with that in a small group of patients with chronic oral pain. Material and methods. Thirteen healthy volunteers and six patients suffering from chronic oral pain took part in the study. Blood perfusion was monitored in the hard palate, the tongue, and the skin of the cheek using laser Doppler perfusion imaging (Perimed; Sweden). Baseline scannings were performed, followed by 15 scannings after iontophoresis of histamine (1%). A free description of the sensations was then obtained from the participants after finishing the measurements. Results. Compared to pre-histamine scanning, histamine application resulted in a considerable increase in blood perfusion in all regions (p0.001) that was significantly higher in skin than in oral mucosa (p0.001). There were no significant differences between the healthy volunteers and the patients regarding baseline blood flow, increased blood perfusion, or flare size after histamine provocation. The sensory impression was reported to be more persistent and intense in the skin than in the oral mucosa. No effect on mucosa could be detected by visual inspection. Conclusions. Intra-oral flare could be induced by activating histamine-excitable nerve fibers. Both duration and intensity of the flare were considerably less pronounced than in the control skin site. Histamine application was not clearly associated with itch.

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