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  • 251.
    Lyamin, Nikita
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Bellalta, Boris
    Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.
    Cooperative awareness in VANETs: On ETSI EN 302 637-2 performance2018In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359, Vol. 67, no 1, p. 17-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative Awareness on the road is aiming to support the road users with knowledge about the surroundings relying on the information exchange enabled by vehicular com- munications. To achieve this goal European Telecommunication Standard Institute (ETSI) delivered the standard EN 302 637-2 for Cooperative Awareness Messages (CAM). The CAM trig- gering conditions are based on the dynamics of the originating vehicle, which is checked periodically. In this paper, we show that standardized ETSI protocol may demonstrate a decrease in communication performance under several realistic mobility patterns. The potential influence of the discovered phenomena on two typical mobility scenarios is studied.

  • 252.
    Lyamin, Nikita
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Loo, Jonathan
    Middlesex University, London, United Kingdom.
    Real-time Detection of Denial-of-Service Attacks in IEEE 802.11p Vehicular Networks2014In: IEEE Communications Letters, ISSN 1089-7798, E-ISSN 1558-2558, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 110-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for real-time detection of Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks in IEEE 802.11p vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) is proposed. The study is focused on the "jamming" of periodic position messages (beacons) exchanged by vehicles in a platoon. Probabilities of attack detection and false alarm are estimated for two different attacker models. © 2014 IEEE

  • 253.
    Lyamin, Nikita
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Smely, Dieter
    Kapsch TrafficCom, Vienna, Austria.
    Bellalta, Boris
    Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.
    ETSI DCC: Decentralized Congestion Control in C-ITS2018In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 56, no 12, p. 112-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ETSI DCC: Decentralized Congestion Control in C-ITS is a mandatory component of the 5.9 GHz ITS-G5 vehicular communication protocol stack that reduces radio channel overload, range degradation, and self interference. In this tutorial article we explain its principle, describe related ongoing standardization activities, evaluate its performance for emerging cooperative driving applications, and identify ways for improvement. We show that failure to use a proper DCC parameterization can impact negatively on the performance of cooperative vehicular applications.

  • 254.
    Lyu, Xinchen
    et al.
    Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, China.
    Tian, Hui
    Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Li
    Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, China.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Maharjan, Sabita
    Simula Research Laboratory, Oslo, Norway & University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Gjessing, Stein
    Simula Research Laboratory, Oslo, Norway & University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Zhang, Yan
    University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Selective Offloading in Mobile Edge Computing for the Green Internet of Things2018In: IEEE Network, ISSN 0890-8044, E-ISSN 1558-156X, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 54-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile edge computing provides the radio access networks with cloud computing capabilities to fulfill the requirements of the Internet of Things services such as high reliability and low latency. Offloading services to edge servers can alleviate the storage and computing limitations and prolong the lifetimes of the IoT devices. However, offloading in MEC faces scalability problems due to the massive number of IoT devices. In this article, we present a new integration architecture of the cloud, MEC, and IoT, and propose a lightweight request and admission framework to resolve the scalability problem. Without coordination among devices, the proposed framework can be operated at the IoT devices and computing servers separately, by encapsulating latency requirements in offloading requests. Then a selective offloading scheme is designed to minimize the energy consumption of devices, where the signaling overhead can be further reduced by enabling the devices to be self-nominated or self-denied for offloading. Simulation results show that our proposed selective offloading scheme can satisfy the latency requirements of different services and reduce the energy consumption of IoT devices. © 2018 IEEE 

  • 255.
    Magesacher, Thomas
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Statovci, Driton
    FTW Forschungszentrum Telekommunikation Wien GmbH, Vienna, Austria.
    Nordström, Tomas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Riegler, Erwin
    Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria.
    Performance analysis of vectored wireline systems embracing channel uncertainty2013In: 2013 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC): Bridging the Broadband Divide / [ed] Dong-In Kim and Peter Mueller, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers , 2013, p. 3986-3990Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future wireline communication systems aspire to boost the throughput in two ways: First, they exploit higher frequencies to gain more bandwidth on shorter lines in combination with vectoring. Second, they use non-differential transmission modes (such as phantom modes, common modes, split-pair modes) to exploit more dimensions. Performance predictions for systems exploiting these techniques are of great importance for upgrading copper networks to provide Internet access or deploying copper-based backhaul systems to connect mobile base-stations. Good predictions require accurate channel models. However, channel modeling for higher frequencies and nondifferential modes is still in its infancy. A mixed deterministic/stochastic channel model is proposed to remedy this problem. The outage rate is derived based on an asymptotic (in the number of participating transceivers) analysis. As application examples, performance predictions in access networks using phantom modes and frequencies up to 200 MHz are presented.

  • 256.
    Mapp, Glenford
    et al.
    Middlesex University, London, UK.
    Gosh, Arindam
    Middlesex University, London, UK.
    Paranthaman, Vishnu Vardhan
    Middlesex University, London, UK.
    Iniovosa, Victor Otite
    Middlesex University, London, UK.
    Loo, Jonathan
    Middlesex University, London, UK.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Exploring Seamless Connectivity and Proactive Handover Techniques in VANET Systems2016In: Intelligent Transportation Systems: Dependable Vehicular Communications for Improved Road Safety / [ed] Muhammad Alam, Joaquim Ferreira & José Fonseca, Cham: Springer, 2016, p. 195-220Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to provide Dependable Vehicular Communications for Improved Road Safety, it is necessary to have reliable Vehicular-to-Infrastructure (V2I) and Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication. Such requirements demand that the handover process as vehicles move between adjacent Roadside Units (RSUs) be examined in detail to understand how seamless communication can be achieved. Since the use of beacons is a key part of VANETs, it is necessary to investigate how the beaconing process affects the opportunities to effect handovers. A framework is needed to be able to calculate the regions of overlap in adjacent RSU coverage ranges to guarantee ubiquitous connectivity. A highly mobile environment, therefore, makes this a serious challenge and points to the need to look at proactive handover techniques. This chapter, therefore, explores the development of the proactive handover mechanisms required to provide seamless connectivity and dependable communication in VANET environments.

  • 257.
    Marinho, Marco A. M.
    et al.
    University of Brasília (UnB), Brasília, Brazil & German Aerospace Center (DLR), Cologne, Germany.
    da Costa, João Paulo C. L.
    University of Brasília (UnB), Brasília, Brazil; llmenau University of Technology, Ilmenau, Germany & Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS, Erlangen, Germany.
    Antreich, Felix
    German Aerospace Center (DLR), Cologne, Germany.
    de Almeida, André L. F.
    Federal University of Ceará (UFC), Fortaleza, Brazil.
    Del Galdo, Giovanni
    llmenau University of Technology, Ilmenau, Germany & Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS, Erlangen, Germany.
    de Freitas, Edison Pignaton
    University of Brasília (UnB), Brasília, Brazil & Informatics Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Array interpolation based on multivariate adaptive regression splines2016In: 2016 IEEE Sensor Array and Multichannel Signal Processing Workshop (SAM), Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many important signal processing techniques such as Spatial Smoothing, Forward Backward Averaging and Root-MUSIC, rely on antenna arrays with specific and precise structures. Arrays with such ideal structures, such as a centro-hermitian structure, are often hard to build in practice. Array interpolation is used to enable the usage of these techniques with imperfect (not having a centro-hermitian structure) arrays. Most interpolation methods rely on methods based on least squares (LS) to map the output of a perfect virtual array based on the real array. In this work, the usage of Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) is proposed instead of the traditional LS to interpolate arrays with responses largely different from the ideal.

  • 258.
    Marinho, Marco A. M.
    et al.
    University of Brasilia, Brasilia, Brazil.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Antreich, Felix
    Federal University of Ceara, Fortaleza, Brazil.
    da Costa, João Paulo Carvalho Lustosa
    University of Brasilia, Brasilia, Brazil.
    Pignaton de Freitas, Edison
    Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Antenna Array Based Localization Scheme for Vehicular Networks2017In: 2017 IEEE International Conference on Computer and Information Technology (CIT) / [ed] Lisa O’Conner, Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society, 2017, p. 142-146Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are emerging as the possible solution for multiple concerns in road traffic such as mobility and safety. One of the main concerns present in VANETs is the localization and tracking of vehicles. This work presents a passive vehicle localization and tracking method based on direction of arrival (DOA) estimation. The proposed method does not rely on external sources of information such as Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and can be used to mitigate the possibility of spoofing or to provide a second independent source of position estimation for integrity purposes. The proposed algorithm uses array signal processing techniques to estimate not only the position but also the direction of other vehicles in network. Furthermore, it is a fully passive method and can alleviate the network load since it does not require any location based data exchange and can be performed by any listening vehicle using the signal of any data transmission. A set of numerical simulations is used to validate the proposed method and the results are shown to be more precise than the average accuracy of Global Position System (GPS) receivers. © Copyright 2017 IEEE

  • 259.
    Marinho, Marco A. M.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology. University of Brasília (UnB), Department of Electrical Engineering (ENE), Brasília, Brazil.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Tufvesson, Fredrik
    Department of Electrical and Information Technology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Antreich, Felix
    Department of Teleinformatics Engineering - Federal University of Ceará (UFC), Fortaleza, Brazil.
    Da Costa, João Paulo C.L.
    University of Brasília (UnB), Department of Electrical Engineering (ENE), Brasília, Brazil.
    Performance Assessment for Distributed Broadband Radio Localization2018In: 2018 52nd Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, Washington, DC: IEEE, 2018, p. 20-23Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various emerging technologies, such as autonomous vehicles and fully autonomous flying, require precision positioning. This work presents a localization and tracking method based on joint direction of arrival (DOA), time delay, and range estimation using the SAGE algorithm. The proposed method does not rely on external sources of information such as global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). The method is opportunistic and does not require any location-based data exchange. A set of numerical simulations is presented to assess the performance of the proposed method.

  • 260.
    Marrocco, G.
    et al.
    FTW, Österrike.
    Wolkerstorfer, M.
    FTW, Österrike.
    Nordström, Tomas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Statovci, D.
    FTW, Österrike.
    Energy- Efficient DSL using Vectoring2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multi-user signal coordination scheme known as Vectoring will play a crucial role in next generation digital subscriber lines (DSL). Previous studies have demonstrated that vectoring increases the bitrate of DSL systems due to its ability to mitigate the interference. In this work we show how Vectoring improves the energy-efficiency of DSL over state-of-the-art spectrum balancing methods. In addition we investigate the impact of channel-state information errors and low-complexity implementations on the performance of Vectoring. We find that Vectoring yields large energy savings in terms of line-driver power consumption even under high channel estimation errors. © 2011 IEEE.

  • 261.
    Masood, Jawad
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Philippsen, Roland
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Duracz, Jan
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Taha, Walid
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Rice University, Houston, Texas, USA.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    SP Technical Research Institute, Borås, Sweden.
    Grante, Christian
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Domain Analysis for Standardised Functional Safety: A Case Study on Design-Time Verification of Automatic Emergency Breaking2014In: FISITA World Automotive Congress 2014: Maastricht, The Netherlands 2-6 June 2014: Volume 2 of 5, Hague: Royal Netherlands Society of Engineers (KIVI) , 2014, p. 845-854Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation traditionally computes individual trajectories, which severely limits the assessment of overall system behaviour. To address this fundamental shortcoming, we rely on computing enclosures to determine bounds on system behaviour instead of individual traces. In the present case study, we investigate the enclosures of a generic Automatic Emergency Braking (AEB) system and demonstrate how this creates a direct link between requirement specification and standardized safety criteria as put forward by ISO 26262. The case study strongly supports that a methodology based on enclosures can provide a missing link across the engineering process, from design to compliance testing. This result is highly relevant for ongoing efforts to virtualize testing and create a unified tool-chain for the development of next generation Advanced Driver Assistance Systems.

  • 262.
    Mecklenbräuker, Christoph
    et al.
    Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria.
    Bernadó, Laura
    FTW Forschungszentrum Telekommunikation Wien, Vienna, Austria.
    Klemp, Oliver
    BMW Forschung und Technik, Munich, Germany.
    Kwoczek, Andreas
    Volkswagen AG, Wolsburg, Germany.
    Paier, Alexander
    Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria.
    Schack, Moritz
    Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany.
    Sjöberg, Katrin
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Ström, Erik G.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Tufvesson, Fredrik
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Zemen, Thomas
    FTW Forschungszentrum Telekommunikation Wien, Vienna, Austria.
    Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications2012In: Pervasive Mobile and Ambient Wireless Communications: Cost Action 2100 / [ed] Roberto Verdone & Alberto Zanella, London: Springer London, 2012, p. 577-608Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses major results and conclusions from Special Interest Group C bringing together various aspects of mobile to mobile communication from all working groups. Vehicle-to-vehicle communication scenarios are emphasized. Traffic telematics applications are currently under intense research and development for making transportation safer, more efficient, and cleaner. Communication systems which provide “always on” connectivity at data rates between 1 and 10 Mb/s to highly mobile surface traffic (cars and trains) are urgently required for developing traffic telematics applications and services. Currently much attention is given to advanced active safety, but the application area also ranges to improved navigation mechanisms and infotainment services. mobile to mobile communications need to be reliable and trusted: Drivers in cars which are equipped with vehicle to vehicle communications need to rely on the accuracy and timeliness of the exchanged data. Automotive manufacturers, road authorities, broadcast companies, and telecom providers are the key players in the value chain for such future systems. These communication systems provide an extended information horizon to warn the driver or the vehicular systems of potentially dangerous situations in an early phase.

  • 263.
    Mendizabal, Jaizki
    et al.
    CEIT and TECNUN, University of Navarra, San Sebastián, Spain.
    Berbineau, MarionIFSTTAR, Villeneuve d’Ascq, France.Vinel, AlexeyHalmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).Pfletschinger, StephanDtsch. Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany.Bonneville, HervéMitsubishi Electric R&D Centre Europe, Rennes, France.Pirovano, AlainEcole Nationale de l’Aviation Civile, Toulouse, France.Plass, SimonDtsch. Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany.Scopigno, RiccardoIstituto Superiore Mario Boella, Turin, Italy.Aniss, HasnaaIFSTTAR, Versailles, France.
    Communication Technologies for Vehicles: 10th International Workshop, Nets4Cars/Nets4Trains/Nets4Aircraft 2016, San Sebastián, Spain, June 6-7, 2016, Proceedings2016Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 264.
    Moggi, E.
    et al.
    DIBRIS, Genova Univ., v. Dodecaneso 35, Genova, 16146, Italy.
    Farjudian, A.
    University of Nottingham Ningbo, China.
    Duracz, Adam
    Rice University, Houston, TX, United States.
    Taha, Walid
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Safe & robust reachability analysis of hybrid systems2018In: Theoretical Computer Science, ISSN 0304-3975, E-ISSN 1879-2294, Vol. 747, p. 75-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid systems—more precisely, their mathematical models—can exhibit behaviors, like Zeno behaviors, that are absent in purely discrete or purely continuous systems. First, we observe that, in this context, the usual definition of reachability—namely, the reflexive and transitive closure of a transition relation—can be unsafe, i.e., it may compute a proper subset of the set of states reachable in finite time from a set of initial states. Therefore, we propose safe reachability, which always computes a superset of the set of reachable states. Second, in safety analysis of hybrid and continuous systems, it is important to ensure that a reachability analysis is also robust w.r.t. small perturbations to the set of initial states and to the system itself, since discrepancies between a system and its mathematical models are unavoidable. We show that, under certain conditions, the best Scott continuous approximation of an analysis A is also its best robust approximation. Finally, we exemplify the gap between the set of reachable states and the supersets computed by safe reachability and its best robust approximation. © 2018 The Authors

  • 265.
    Mohaqeqi, Morteza
    et al.
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Sound Test-Suites for Cyber-Physical Systems2016In: Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Software Engineering (TASE 2016), Piscataway: IEEE Computer Society, 2016, p. 42-48, article id 7541884Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conformance testing is a formal and structured approach to verifying system correctness. We propose a conformance testing algorithm for cyber-physical systems, based on the notion of hybrid conformance by Abbas and Fainekos. We show how the dynamics of system specification and the sampling rate play an essential role in making sound verdicts. We specify and prove error bounds that lead to sound test-suites for a given specification and a given sampling rate. © 2016 IEEE.

  • 266.
    Mohaqeqi, Morteza
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Towards an Approximate Conformance Relation for Hybrid I/O Automata2016In: Proceedings of the The First Workshop on Verification and Validation of Cyber-Physical Systems / [ed] Mehdi Kargahi & Ashutosh Trivedi, Sydney: Open Publishing Association , 2016, Vol. 232, p. 53-64Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several notions of conformance have been proposed for checking the behavior of cyber-physical systems against their hybrid systems models. In this paper, we explore the initial idea of a notion of approximate conformance that allows for comparison of both observable discrete actions and (sampled) continuous trajectories. As such, this notion will consolidate two earlier notions, namely the notion of Hybrid Input-Output Conformance (HIOCO) by M. van Osch and the notion of Hybrid Conformance by H. Abbas and G.E. Fainekos. We prove that our proposed notion of conformance satisfies a semi-transitivity property, which makes it suitable for a step-wise proof of conformance or refinement.

  • 267.
    Mohaqeqi, Morteza
    et al.
    School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Taha, Walid
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Rice University, Houston, Texas, USA.
    Conformance Testing of Cyber-Physical Systems: A Comparative Study2014In: Proceedings of the 14th International Workshop on Automated Verification of Critical Systems (AVoCS 2014) / [ed] Marieke Huisman, Jaco van de Pol, Tiziana Margaria, Julia Padberg & Gabriele Taentzer, Berlin: European Association of Software Science and Technology , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For systematic and automatic testing of cyber-physical systems, in which a set of test cases is generated based on a formal specification, a number of notions of conformance testing have been proposed. In this paper, we review two existing theories of conformance testing for cyber-physical systems and compare them. We point out their fundamental differences, and prove under which assumptions they coincide.

  • 268.
    Molchanov, Pavlo
    et al.
    Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Astola, Jaakko
    Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Egiazarian, Karen
    Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Radar frequency band invariant pedestrian classification2013In: International Radar Symposium, IRS 2013: Proceedings, Volume II / [ed] Hermann Rohling, Göttingen, Germany: Cuvillier Verlag, 2013, p. 740-745Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of pedestrian classification by radars with different operating bands is considered. The proposed solutions are based on two observations of relation between Doppler spectrums collected within different frequency bands. According to the first observation the Doppler spectrum obtained from the radars with lower operating frequency is an approximate scaled version of the Doppler spectrum obtained within radar with higher operating frequency. According to the second observation the Doppler spectrum of lower operating frequency is similar to the Doppler spectrum of higher operating frequency at specific aspect angle. Two new approaches are proposed for pedestrian classification based on the observations. The first proposed approach deals with new features called local binary mask. The second approach is based on higher order spectral invariants estimated from the Doppler spectrum. The approaches are tested on real 24 GHz radar measurements and simulated 77 GHz radar measurements and show the robustness to operating frequency of the radar. © 2013 German Inst of Navigation.

  • 269. Mors, Niklas
    et al.
    Pettersson, Anders
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    A Ethernet based Metropolitan Area Open Access Architecture2003In: IASTED International Multi-Conference on Applied Informatics: Volume 21, IASTED/ACTA Press , 2003, p. 571-576Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Quality of Service (QoS) has become increasingly important in metropolitan area networks and even more important in open access networks where service providers should be able to offer their services on equal terms. This paper present a network architecture with a hierarchical star-mesh topology, which provides the scalability and redundancy required for future open access networks. To support QoS a combination of Ethernet and Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is proposed. With the use of a switch, on the highest level, based on micro electromechanical system (MEMS) technology this proposed architecture could reach aggregated bitrates above 10 Tbit/s. IPSec is proposed for solving the security issues in the network that emerges when different service providers share the same network and future applications are developed.

  • 270.
    Mostowski, Wojciech
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.
    Dynamic Frames Based Verification Method for Concurrent Java Programs2016In: Verified Software: Theories, Tools, and Experiments: 7th International Conference, VSTTE 2015, San Francisco, CA, USA, July 18-19, 2015. Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Arie Gurfinkel & Sanjit A. Seshia, New York: Springer International Publishing Switzerland , 2016, Vol. 9593, p. 124-141Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we discuss a verification method for concurrent Java programs based on the concept of dynamic frames. We build on our earlier work that proposes a new, symbolic permission system for concurrent reasoning and we provide the following new contributions. First, we describe our approach for proving program specifications to be self-framed w.r.t. permissions, which is a necessary condition to maintain soundness in concurrent reasoning. Second, we show how we use predicates to provide modular and reusable specifications for program synchronisation points, like locks or forked threads. Our work primarily targets the KeY verification system with its specification language JML* and symbolic execution proving method. Hence, we also give the current status of the work on implementation and we discuss some examples that are verifiable with KeY. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

  • 271.
    Mostowski, Wojciech
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Model-based fault injection for testing gray-box systems2019In: The Journal of logical and algebraic methods in programming, ISSN 2352-2208, E-ISSN 2352-2216, Vol. 103, p. 31-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivated by applications in the automotive domain, particularly the Autosar basic software standard, we present a technique to improve model-based testing by allowing model-level fault injections. These models are plugged into a larger system as executable components to test it for general tolerance to slightly varying, possibly faulty components or library implementations. Such model execution is possible through applying an automated mocking mechanism and model cross-referencing. Systematic modelling and testing is possible by having comprehensive fault models which both simulate faults and guide the model-based testing procedure towards quicker discovery of these faults. We show the principles of our method on an illustrative example and discuss how it is implemented in a commercial model-based testing tool QuickCheck and applied to a more realistic case study. More generally, this work explores multi-purpose (or meta) modelling – an approach where one parametric model is used for different test targets, like functional testing or safety testing.

  • 272.
    Mostowski, Wojciech
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Verifying Java Card Programs2016In: Deductive Software Verification – The KeY Book: From Theory to Practice / [ed] Wolfgang Ahrendt, Bernhard Beckert, Richard Bubel, Reiner Hähnle, Peter H. Schmitt & Mattias Ulbrich, Heidelberg: Springer, 2016, p. 353-380Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents the extension of KeY and JavaDL to handle a particular and peculiar dialect of Java, namely Java Card, for programming smart cards. The necessary extensions to the logic and the specification language are discussed, followed by a number of small case studies. The chapter is concluded with applications of the ideas presented here to on-going and future research, in particular in reasoning about concurrent Java programs. © Springer International Publishing AG 2016

  • 273.
    Mostowski, Wojciech
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Arts, Thomas
    QuviQ AB, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hughes, John
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden & QuviQ AB, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Modelling of Autosar Libraries for Large Scale Testing2017In: 2nd Workshop on Models for Formal Analysis of Real Systems (MARS 2017) / [ed] Holger Hermanns & Peter Höfner, 2017, Vol. 244, p. 184-199Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate a specific method and technology for model-based testing of large software projects with the QuickCheck tool using property-based specifications. Our specifications are very precise, state-full models of the software under test (SUT). In our approach we define (a) formal descriptions of valid function call sequences (public API), (b) postconditions that check the validity of each call, and (c) call-out specifications that define and validate external system interactions (SUT calling external API). The QuickCheck tool automatically generates and executes tests from these specifications. Commercially, this method and tool have been used to test large parts of the industrially developed automotive libraries based on the Autosar standard. In this paper, we exemplify our approach with a circular buffer specified by Autosar, to demonstrate the capabilities of the model-based testing method of QuickCheck. Our example is small compared to the commercial QuickCheck models, but faithfully addresses many of the same challenges. © W. Mostowski, T. Arts, J. Hughes.

  • 274.
    Mostowski, Wojciech
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Ulbrich, Mattias
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Dynamic Dispatch for Method Contracts Through Abstract Predicates2016In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349, Vol. 9800, p. 238-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic method dispatch is a core feature of object-oriented programming by which the executed implementation for a polymorphic method is only chosen at runtime. In this paper, we present a specification and verification methodology which extends the concept of dynamic dispatch to design-by-contract specifications.

    The formal specification language JML has only rudimentary means for polymorphic abstraction in expressions. We promote these to fully flexible specification-only query methods called model methods that can, like ordinary methods, be overridden to give specifications a new semantics in subclasses in a transparent and modular fashion. Moreover, we allow them to refer to more than one program state which give us the possibility to fully abstract and encapsulate two-state specification contexts, i.e., history constraints and method postconditions. Finally, we provide an elegant and flexible mechanism to specify restrictions on specifications in subtypes. Thus behavioural subtyping can be enforced, yet it still allows for other specification paradigms.

    We provide the semantics for model methods by giving a translation into a first order logic and according proof obligations. We fully implemented this framework in the KeY program verifier and successfully verified relevant examples. We have also implemented an extension to KeY to support permission-based verification of concurrent Java programs. In this context model methods provide a modular specification method to treat code synchronisation through API methods. © The Author(s) 2016.

  • 275.
    Motter, P.
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Allgayer, R. S.
    Department of Electrical Engineering Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Muller, I.
    Department of Electrical Engineering Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Pereira, C. E.
    Pignaton de Freitas, Edison
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Practical issues in Wireless Sensor Network localization systems using received signal strength indication2011In: Sensors Applications Symposium (SAS), 2011 IEEE, New York: IEEE Computer Society , 2011, p. 227-232Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The emergence of Wireless Sensor Networks brought many benefits in different application domains such as collaborative tasks, lower costs, equipment's autonomy and higher tolerance to failures. These advantages made the number of applications that use this kind of network grow in the past few years. Meanwhile, the possibility of employing these systems to trace the movement of an object, which can be part of the network itself, is of great utility. The present work aims at the study and development of a localization system of mobile nodes for Wireless Sensor Networks. Different methods to obtain the distances between network nodes are studied and received signal strength algorithms are developed to synthesize the data and to show the location of the nodes. Finally, simulations and experiments are presented in order to analyze the viability of the developed proposal.

  • 276.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Pang, Jun
    Faculty of Science, Technology and Communication, University of Luxembourg.
    Special issue: Software verification and testing2013In: Innovations in Systems and Software Engineering, ISSN 1614-5046, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 57-58Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 277.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Pang, Jun
    University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Special section on Software Verification and Testing2014In: Science of Computer Programming, ISSN 0167-6423, E-ISSN 1872-7964, Vol. 95, Part 3, p. 273-274Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 278.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Ravara, Antonio
    Department of Informatics, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, New University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Foreword: Special issue on the 10th International Workshop on the Foundations of Coordination Languages and Software Architectures (FOCLASA 2011)2014In: Science of Computer Programming, ISSN 0167-6423, E-ISSN 1872-7964, Vol. 89, p. 68p. 1-1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 279.
    Müller, Ivan
    et al.
    Electrical Engineering Department, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Cavalcante, André
    Electrical Engineering Department, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil & Electronics and Telecommunication Department, Federal University of Amazonas, Brazil.
    Pignaton de Freitas, Edison
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Institute of Informatics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Allgayer, Rodrigo
    Electrical Engineering Department, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Pereira, Carlos
    Electrical Engineering Department, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil & Institute of Informatics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Evaluation of RTSJ-Based Distributed Control System2011In: Smart Spaces and Next Generation Wired/Wireless Networking / [ed] Baladin, S Koucheryavy, Y & Hu, H, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, Vol. 6869, p. 295-303Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper an analysis of a distributed control system based on Java is presented. A classical PID controlled system is implemented simulating each part of a real control system running in different computers connected to a local area network. The communication message time periods and their jitter are measured running the system in different computer environments and the results are presented and discussed at the end. Real time specification for Java is used in the implemented software and the results are compared to other implementations. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  • 280.
    Nelson, Christian
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Lyamin, Nikita
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Gustafson, Carl
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Tufvesson, Fredrik
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Geometry Based Channel Models with Cross- and Autocorrelation for Vehicular Network Simulations2018In: 2018 IEEE 87th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Realistic network simulations are necessary to assess the performance of any communication system. In this paper, we describe an implementation of a channel model for vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication in the OMNeT++/Plexe simulation environment. The model is based on previous extensive measurements in a V2V multilink highway scenario and cover line-of-sight (LOS) as well as obstructed LOS (OLOS) scenarios, which occurs when one or more vehicles obstruct the LOS component. The implementation captures both the temporal autocorrelation and the joint multilink cross-correlation processes to achieve a realistic behavior. Preliminary results show that the implementation now generates stochastic large-scale fading with an autocorrelation function that agrees well with measured data. A representation of the cross-correlation process is now implemented through proper channel model selection since the geometry and location of objects are known in Plexe. We also show the impact of the suggested V2V physical layer (PHY) on the performance evaluation results observed at the facilities layer. As a metric, we use the data age, which is a measure how old the information about a vehicle is. When considering the autocorrelation in simulations, the experienced data-age increases. Examples show an increase of the 10% percentile data-age from 0.1s to 1.5s, which may affect the application performance significantly in critical situations. © 2018 IEEE.

  • 281.
    Ng, Robin
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Efficient Implementation of Histogram Dimension Reduction using Deep Learning: The project focuses on implementing deep learning algorithms on the state of the art Nvidia Drive PX GPU platform to achieve high performance.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 282.
    Nilsson, Björn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    A snoozing frequency binary tree protocol2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we describe and evaluate anenhanced version of an active RFID wake-up and tag IDextraction radio communication protocol. The enhancedprotocol further reduces the transponders’ power consumption(prolonging their battery lifetime). The protocol uses afrequency binary tree method for extracting the identificationnumber of each transponder. This protocol is enhanced byextending it with a framed slotted medium access controlmethod which decreases the number of activations of eachtransponder during tag ID extractions. Using this medium accessmethod, the average number of transponder activations isdecreased with a factor of 2.5 compared to the original protocol.The resulting increase in ID read-out delay is 0.9%, on average.

  • 283.
    Nilsson, Björn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    An application dependent medium access protocol for active RFID using dynamic tuning of the back-off algorithm2009In: Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE International Conference on RFID (RFID 2009), Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2009, p. 72-79Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Active Radio Frequency Identification (A-RFID) is a technology where the tags (transponders) carry an on-board energy source for powering the radio, processor circuits, and sensors. Besides offering longer working distance between RFID reader and tag than passive RFID, this also enables the tags to do sensor measurements, calculations and storage even when no RFID-reader is in the vicinity of the tags. In this paper we introduce a medium access data communication protocol which dynamically adjusts its back-off algorithm to best suit the actual active RFID application at hand. Based on a simulation study of the effect on tag energy cost, readout delay, and message throughput incurred by some typical back-off algorithms in a CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Avoidance) A-RFID protocol, we conclude that, by dynamic tuning of the initial contention window size and back-off interval coefficient, tag energy consumption and read-out delay can be significantly lowered. We also present specific guidelines on how parameters should be selected under various application constraints (viz. maximum readout delay; and the number of tags passing).

  • 284.
    Nilsson, Björn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    An Energy and Application Scenario Aware Active RFID Protocol2010In: EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, ISSN 1687-1472, E-ISSN 1687-1499, Vol. 2010, no Article ID 432938, p. 15-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The communication protocol used is a key issue in order to make the most of the advantages of active RFID technologies. In this paper we introduce a carrier sense medium access data communication protocol that dynamically adjusts its back-off algorithm to best suit the actual application at hand. Based on a simulation study of the effect on tag energy cost, read-out delay, and message throughput incurred by some typical back-off algorithms in a CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance) active RFID protocol, we conclude that by dynamic tuning of the initial contention window size and back-off interval coefficient, tag energy consumption and read-out delay can be significantly lowered. We show that it is possible to decrease the energy consumption per tag payload delivery with more than 10 times, resulting in a 50% increase in tag battery lifetime. We also discuss the advantage of being able to predict the number of tags present at the RFID-reader as well as ways of doing it.

  • 285.
    Nilsson, Björn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Selecting back off algorithm in active RFID CSMA/CA based medium-access protocols2008In: International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems, 2008. SIES 2008, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2008, p. 265-270Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Active radio frequency identification (A-RFID) is a technology where the tags (transponders) carry an on board energy source for powering the radio, processor circuits, and sensors. Besides offering longer working distance between RFID-reader and tag than passive RFID, this also enables the tags to do sensor measurements, calculations and storage even when no RFID-reader is in the vicinity of the tags. In this paper we study the effect on tag energy cost and read out delay incurred by some typical back-off algorithms (constant, linear, and exponential) used in a contention based CSMA/CA (carrier sense multiple access/collision avoidance) protocol for A-RFID communication.

  • 286.
    Nilsson, Björn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Bengtsson, Lars
    CERES, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Bilstrup, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    An active backscatter wake-up and tag identification extraction protocol for low cost and low power active RFID2010In: Proceedings of 2010 IEEE International Conference on RFID-Technology and Applications, RFID-TA 2010, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2010, p. 86-91Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) protocol used to wake up and extract the ID of every tag (or a subset thereof) within reach of a reader in an active backscatter RFID system. We also study the effect on tag energy cost and read-out delay incurred when using the protocol, which is based on a frequency binary tree. Simulations show that, when using the 2.45 GHz ISM band, more than 1500 tags can be read per second.With a population of 1000 tags, the average read-out delay is 319 ms, and the expected lifetime of the RFID tags is estimated to be more than 2.5 years, even in a scenario when they are read out very often.

  • 287.
    Nilsson, Björn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Protocols for active RFID - the energy consumption aspect2007In: 2007 Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems Proceedings, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2007, p. 41-48Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of Radio Frequency Identification systems (RFID) is growing rapidly. Today, mostly “passive” RFID systems are used because no onboard energy source is needed on the transponders. However, “active” RFID technology, with onboard power sources in the transponders, gives a range of opportunities not possible with passive systems. To obtain energy efficiency in an Active RFID system the protocol to be used should be carefully designed with energy optimization in mind. This paper describes how energy consumption can be calculated, to be used in protocol definition, and how evaluation of protocol in this respect can be made. The performance of such a new protocol, in terms of energy efficiency, aggregated throughput, delay, and number of air collisions is evaluated and compared to an existing, commercially available protocol for Active RFID, as well as to the IEEE standard 802.15.4 (used e.g. in the Zigbee mediumaccess layer).

  • 288.
    Nilsson, Emil
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Nilsson, Björn
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Bilstrup, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    A low power-long range active RFID-system consisting of active RFID backscatter transponders2010In: 2010 IEEE International Conference on RFID-Technology and Applications (RFID-TA), Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2010, p. 26-30Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a novel active radio frequency identification system consisting of transponders with low complexity, low power consumption, and long system reading range. The transponder’s low complexity and small circuit integration area indicate that the production cost is comparable to the one of a passive tag. The hardware keystone is the transponder’s radio wake-up transceiver, which is a single oscillator with very low power consumption. The communication protocol, based on frequency signalling binary tree, contributes to the low complexity of the tag architecture. More than 1500 tags can be read per second. The average transponder ID read-out delay is 319 ms when there are 1000 transponders within reach of the interrogator. The calculated expected life time for a transponder is estimated to be almost three years.

  • 289.
    Nilsson, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Electrical and Information Technology, Faculty of Engineering, LTH, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Shaik, Ateeq Ur Rahman
    Department of Electrical and Information Technology, Faculty of Engineering, LTH, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Gangarajaiah, Rakesh
    Department of Electrical and Information Technology, Faculty of Engineering, LTH, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hertz, Erik
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Hardware Implementation of the Exponential Function Using Taylor Series2014In: NORCHIP 2014 – 32nd NORCHIP Conference: The Nordic Microelectronics Event, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2014, article id 7004740Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents hardware implementations of Taylor series. The focus will be on the exponential function but the methodology is applicable on any unary function. Two different architectures are investigated, one, original, straight forward and one modified structure. The outcomes are higher performance, lower area, and lower power consumption for the modified architecture compared to the original.

  • 290.
    Nilsson, Peter
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Sun, Yuhang
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Gangarajaiah, Rakesh
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hertz, Erik
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Low Power Unrolled CORDIC Architectures2015In: 2015 Nordic Circuits and Systems Conference (NORCAS): NORCHIP & International Symposium on System-on-Chip (SoC) / [ed] Jim Tørresen, Snorre Aunet, Øyvind Kallevik Grutle, Ivan Ring Nielsen, Tor Sverre Lande, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper shows a novel methodology to improve unrolled CORDIC architectures. The methodology is based on removing adder stages starting from the first stage. As an example, a 19-stage CORDIC is used but the methodology is applicable on CORDICs with an arbitrary number of stages. The CORDIC is implemented, simulated, and synthesized into hardware. In the paper, the performance is shown to be increased by 23% and that the dynamic power can be reduced by 27%. © 2014 IEEE

  • 291.
    Nolte, Thomas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Zurawski, Richard
    ISA Group, Alameda, California, USA .
    Bate, Iain
    University of York, York, United Kingdom.
    Passerone, Roberto
    University of Trento, Trento, Italy.
    Di Natale, Marco
    Scuola Superiore S. Anna, Pisa, Italy.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Message from the Conference Chairs2011In: SIES 2011 - 6th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems, Conference Proceedings, article id 5953648Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 292.
    Noroozi, Neda
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Willemse, Tim
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Decomposability in Input Output Conformance Testing2013In: Proceedings of the 8th Workshop on Model-Based Testing / [ed] Alexander K. Petrenko & Holger Schlingloff, Open Publishing Association , 2013, p. 51-66Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the problem of deriving a specification for a third-party component, based on the specifi-cation of the system and the environment in which the component is supposed to reside. Particularly,we are interested in using component specifications for conformance testing of black-box components, using the theory of input-output conformance (ioco) testing. We propose and prove sufficientcriteria for decompositionality, i.e., that components conforming to the derived specification will always compose to produce a correct system with respect to the system specification. We also study thecriteria for strong decomposability, by which we can ensure that only those components conformingto the derived specification can lead to a correct system.

  • 293.
    Noroozi, Neda
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Willemse, Tim A.C.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    On the Complexity of Input Output Conformance Testing2014In: Formal Aspects of Component Software: 10th International Symposium, FACS 2013, Nanchang, China, October 27-29, 2013, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] José Luiz Fiadeiro, Zhiming Liu & Jinyun Xue, Heidelberg: Springer, 2014, p. 291-309Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Input-output conformance (ioco) testing is a well-known approach to model-based testing. In this paper, we study the complexity of checking ioco. We show that the problem of checking ioco is PSPACE-complete. To provide a more efficient algorithm, we propose a more restricted setting for checking ioco, namely with deterministic models and show that in this restricted setting ioco checking can be performed in polynomial time. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

  • 294.
    Oliveira, Bruno
    et al.
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Centro de Informática, Brazil.
    Carvalho, Gustavo
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Centro de Informática, Brazil.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Sampaio, Augusto
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Centro de Informática, Brazil.
    Simulation of hybrid systems from natural-language requirements2018In: 2017 13th IEEE Conference on Automation Science and Engineering (CASE), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Computer Society, 2018, p. 1320-1325Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-physical systems are characterised by a massive and tight interaction between computer systems and physical components. Hybrid systems provide an abstraction for modelling cyber-physical systems by featuring the integration of discrete and continuous behavioural aspects. Simulation is an important tool for validating hybrid system models, which are often too complex to be treated using other validation and verification techniques. Motivated by the industrial need for such tools, we propose a strategy (h-NAT2TEST) for simulation of hybrid systems from natural-language requirements. Using the proposed approach, one writes the system specification using a controlled natural language, from which an informal semantics is automatically inferred based on the case grammar theory. Then, a formal representation is built considering a model of hybrid data-flow reactive systems (h-DFRS). Finally, in order to allow for rigorous simulation, an Acumen specification is derived from the h-DFRS model. Simulation is supported by the Acumen modelling environment. A DC-DC boost converter is used as a case study to illustrate the overall approach. © 2017 IEEE.

  • 295.
    Olofsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Adapteva Inc., Lexington, MA, USA.
    Nordström, Tomas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Ul-Abdin, Zain
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Kickstarting High-performance Energy-efficient Manycore Architectures with Epiphany2014In: Conference record: Forty-Eighth Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems & Computers, November 2-5, 2014, Pacific Grove, California / [ed] Michael B. Matthews, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2014, p. 1719-1726Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we introduce Epiphany as a high-performance energy-efficient manycore architecture suitable for real-time embedded systems. This scalable architecture supports floating point operations in hardware and achieves 50 GFLOPS/W in 28 nm technology, making it suitable for high performance streaming applications like radio base stations and radar signal processing. Through an efficient 2D mesh Network-on-Chip and a distributed shared memory model, the architecture is scalable to thousands of cores on a single chip. An Epiphany-based open source computer named Parallella was launched in 2012 through Kickstarter crowd funding and has now shipped to thousands of customers around the world. ©2014 IEEE.

  • 296.
    Ourique de Morais, Wagner
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Architecting Smart Home Environments for Healthcare: A Database-Centric Approach2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of system architectures and applications for smart homes and ambient assisted living has been the main activity of a number of academic and industrial research projects around the world. Existing system architectures for smart environments usually employ different architectural styles in a multi-layer logical architecture to support the integration and interoperation of heterogeneous hardware and software technologies, which are subsequently used to provide two major functionalities: monitoring and assistance. It is also usual among existing architectures that the database management system is the most common but the least exploited architectural component, existing in the periphery of the system and devoted exclusively for data storage and retrieval. However, database technology has advanced and matured considerably over the years, and, as a result, current database management systems can be and do more.

    This thesis considers the hypothesis of several features of modern database management systems being employed to address functional (e.g. well-being and security monitoring, automated control, data processing) and non-functional (e.g. interoperability, extensibility, data security and privacy) requirements of smart environments, i.e. the database management system serves as a platform for smart environments. The scope of this thesis is therefore to investigate the possibility of using different features supported by database management systems to create a database-centric system architecture for the development of smart home environments and ambient assisted living. The thesis also investigates the development of applications for health monitoring and assistance: 1) a serious game for fall prevention that assists people in practicing Tai Chi at home, and 2) a non-intrusive home-based method for sleep assessment.

    These features are explored in this thesis to address general functional aspects of smart environments, such as monitoring, processing, coordination and control of various types of events in a given environment. Extensibility and security features and cross-platform capabilities of database management systems are employed to accommodate non-functional, but still technical, properties of smart environments, including interoperability, extensibility, portability, scalability, security and privacy. Heterogeneous technologies are integrated into the system using programming language and platform independent software resource adapters. Interoperation among integrated technologies is mediated in an active database.

    The feasibility of the proposed database-centric system architecture was pragmatically investigated with the development of a "smart bedroom'' demonstrator and with the implementation of a number of short-term and long-term types of services to support active aging, aging in place and ambient assisted living. In the proposed architecture, active in-database processing maintains sensitive data within the database. This increases data security and independence from external software applications for data analysis. Changes in the system are managed during runtime, which improves flexibility and avoids system downtime. The proposed system architecture was evaluated taking into account different application scenarios and heterogeneous computing platforms.

    As a conclusion, modern database management systems support features that can be successfully employed in a database-centric system architecture to effectively and efficiently address functional and non-functional requirements of smart environments.

  • 297.
    Ourique de Morais, Wagner
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Wickström, Nicholas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Evaluation of Extensibility, Portability and Scalability in a Database-centric System Architecture for Smart Home Environments2015Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advances in database technology allow modern database systems to serve as a platform for the development, deployment and management of smart home environments and ambient assisted living systems. This work investigates non-functional issues of a database-centric system architecture for smart home environments when: (i) extending the system with new functionalities other than data storage, such as on-line reactive behaviors and advanced processing of longitudinal information, (ii) porting the whole system to different operating systems on distinct hardware platforms, and (iii) scaling the system by incrementally adding new instances of a given functionality. The outcome of the evaluation is demonstrated, and analyzed, for three test functionalities on three heterogeneous computing platforms. As a contribution, this work can help developers in identifying which architectural components in the database-centric system architecture that may become performance bottlenecks when extending, porting and scaling the system.

  • 298.
    Ourique de Morais, Wagner
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Wickström, Nicholas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Sleep and night activities of care beneficiaries at the "Trygg om Natten" (Safe at Night) Project2013Report (Other academic)
  • 299.
    Parsapoor, Mahboobeh
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Brain Emotional Learning-Inspired Models2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis the mammalian nervous system and mammalian brain have been used as inspiration to develop a computational intelligence model based on the neural structure of fear conditioning and to extend the structure of the previous proposed amygdala-orbitofrontal model. The proposed model can be seen as a framework for developing general computational intelligence based on the emotional system instead of traditional models on the rational system of the human brain. The suggested model can be considered a new data driven model and is referred to as the brain emotional learning-inspired model (BELIM). Structurally, a BELIM consists of four main parts to mimic those parts of the brain’s emotional system that are responsible for activating the fear response. In this thesis the model is initially investigated for prediction and classification. The performance has been evaluated using various benchmark data sets from prediction applications, e.g. sunspot numbers from solar activity prediction, auroral electroject (AE) index from geomagnetic storms prediction and Henon map, Lorenz time series. In most of these cases, the model was tested for both long-term and short-term prediction. The performance of BELIM has also been evaluated for classification, by classifying binary and multiclass benchmark data sets.

  • 300.
    Parsapoor, Mahboobeh
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Towards Emotion inspired Computational Intelligence (EiCI)2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the main challenges in the computational intelligence (CI) community is to develop nature-inspired algorithms that can efficiently solve real-world problems such as the prediction of space weather phenomena. An early example in this context is taking inspiration from the biological neurons in the mammal’s nervous system and developing an artificial neuron. This work laid the foundation for artificial neural networks (ANNs) that aim to mimic the connections between neurons in the mammal’s nervous system and to develop an artificial model of the brain. ANNs are well-known CI models that have shown high generalization capability when solving real-world problems, e.g., chaotic time-series prediction problems. However, ANNs mostly tend to suffer from long computation time and high model complexity. This thesis presents a new category of CI paradigms by taking inspiration from emotions, and these CI models are referred to as emotion-inspired computational intelligence models (EiCIs). In the thesis, I have outlined the preliminary steps that have been taken to develop EiCIs. These steps include studying different emotional theories and hypotheses, designing and implementing CI models for two specific applications in artificial intelligence (prediction and optimization), evaluating the performance of the new CI models, and comparing the obtained results with the results of well-known CI models (e.g., ANNs) and discussing the potential improvement that can be achieved. The first step, and a significant contribution of this thesis, is to review the various definitions of emotions and to investigate which emotional theories that are the most relevant for developing a CI model. Amongst different theories and hypotheses of emotions, the fear conditioning hypothesis as well as affect theory have been two main sources of inspiration in the development of the EiCIs proposed in this thesis. The fear conditioning hypothesis that was first proposed by LeDoux reveals some important characteristics of the underlying neural structure of fear conditioning behavior in biological systems. Based on the features of such networks, it could be an applicable hypothesis to be the basis of the development of a subgroup of EiCIs that could be used for prediction applications, e.g. BELIMs (Brain Emotional Learning Inspired Models), and as emotion-inspired engines for decision-making applications.The second emotional theory of the thesis is the affect theory (which was first suggested by Silvan Tomkins) that describes what the basic emotions are and how they can be associated with facial expressions. A mechanism to express the basic emotional feelings is also useful in designing another category of EiCIs that are referred to as emotion-inspired optimization methods. The fundamental hypotheses of the thesis, have led to developing EiCIs, can be presented as follows. The first hypothesis is that the neural structure of fear conditioning can be considered to be a nature-based system with the capability to show intelligent behavior through its functionality. This hypothesis is stated on the basis of the three main characteristics of the neural structure of fear conditioning behavior.The first characteristic is that the amygdala is the main center for processing fear-induced stimuli and that it provides the fear reaction through its interaction with other regions of the brain such as the sensory cortex, the thalamus, and the hippocampus. The second characteristic is that the procedure of processing of fearful stimuli and the provision of emotional reactions is simple and quick. The third aspect is that the amygdala not only provides fear responses but also learns to predict aversive events by interacting with other regions of the brain, which means that an intelligent behavior emerges.The second hypothesis is that the system in which the three monoamines neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenalin and thus produces emotional behaviors, can be viewed as a biological system associated with the emergence of intelligent behavior.The above hypotheses state that a suitable way to develop new CI models is to take inspiration from the neural structure of fear conditioning and the natural system of three monoamine neurotransmitters. A significant contribution of this thesis is the evaluation of the ability of EiCIs by examining them to solve real-world problems such as the prediction of space weather phenomena (e.g., predicting real time-series such as sunspot number, auroral electrojet index, and disturbance time index) and the optimization of some central procedures in network communications. These evaluations have led to that comparable results have been obtained, which in turn supports the conclusion that EiCIs have acceptable and reasonable performance regarding computation time and model complexity. However, to achieve the final goal of the research study (i.e., to develop a CI model with low computation time and low model complexity), some enhancements of EiCIs are necessary. Moreover, new designs and implementations of these models can be developed by taking inspiration from other theories.

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