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  • 251.
    Bertilsson, Lovisa
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    "Problematiska användanden av hälsokunskap": Hälsoutbildades uppfattningar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med föreliggande studie var att belysa variationer av fenomenet ”problematiska användanden av hälsokunskap”. Metod: Studien hade en induktiv utgångspunkt och inspirerades av en fenomenografisk metodansats med intervju som datainsamlingsmetod. Deltagarna bestod av 6 hälsoutbildade med varierande yrken och utbildningsbakgrund som kom att beskriva sina uppfattningar av ”problematiska användanden av hälsokunskap”. Materialet har analyserats likt den fenomenografiska analysen. Resultat: Resultatet utgörs av 5 kvalitativt skilda beskrivningskategorier av problematiska användanden av hälsokunskap. Vidare bygger resultatet på de hälsoutbildades uppfattningar av problematiska användanden av hälsokunskap för att synliggöra vad medvetandeakten i uppfattningen riktas mot vilket bidrog till 5 kategorier. Slutsats: Studien har uppmärksammat ett relativt outforskat område kring hälsokunskap, hälsa och livsstil. Resultatet visar att det uppfattas finnas en problematik kring området, som kan ses utifrån en hög kunskap om hälsa. Vidare visar resultatet att denna problematik kan liknas vid vad i idag har kommit att klassa som en sjukdom, nämligen ortorexi. I resultatet blir det även synligt att den kontext där hälsa är central kan uppfattas ha betydelse för fenomenet på ett sätt som gör att vi lär och skapar våra föreställningar av hälsa genom andra. Uppsatsens bidrag och förslag till fortsatt forskning: Studien har kommit att uppmärksamma den hälsorelaterade kontexten som en betydelsefull aspekt för fenomenet. Studiens omfång har påverkat att denna relation inte kommit att bli belyst ingående. Jag ser därför att det är ett område som vi utifrån ett pedagogiskt perspektiv kan belysa närmare. Genom att synliggöra det lärande som skapas i den hälsorelaterade kontexten kan vi öka förståelsen för fenomenet

  • 252.
    Bexell, Tove
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Johansson, Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Sarman, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Specialistutbildade sjuksköterskans uppfattning av att kunna identifiera patienter med misstänkt stroke inom den prehospitala vården2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Region Skåne finns tydliga behandlingsriktlinjer gällande prehospitalt omhändertagande av patienter med misstänkt stroke i vårdprogrammet "Rädda hjärnan". Det saknas ett enhetligt bedömningsinstrument som specialistutbildade sjuksköterskor inom ambulans kan använda för att känna sig säkrare och tryggare i sin identifiering av patienter med misstänkt stroke. Syftet med studien var att undersöka specialistutbildade sjuksköterskors uppfattning av att kunna identifiera patienter med misstänkt stroke inom den prehospitala vården. Studien genomfördes med en kvantitativ ansats i form av enkätundersökning som delades ut till 35 specialistutbildade sjuksköterskor. Resultatet av studien visade att en majoritet av respondenterna upplevde att det hade underlättat med ett enhetligt bedömningsinstrument i deras bedömning av patienter med misstänkt stroke. Det framkom även att respondenterna upplevde en större säkerhet med att fastställa debuttiden med hjälp av anhöriga eller vittnen, jämfört med om bedömningen gjordes enbart med hjälp av patienten. Det framkom även att respondenterna kände sig relativt säkra på när vårdprogrammet skulle aktiveras, trots att över hälften upplevde att det inte fanns klara direktiv om hur en neurologisk undersökning skall utföras. Vår rekommendation för vidare utbildning är en gemensam stroke dag för alla medarbetare i vårdkedjan. Om fler patienter kommer under behandling snabbare kan det vara en samhällsekonomisk besparing på grund av mindre restsymtom och kortare vårdtider.

  • 253.
    Bigelius, Ulla
    et al.
    Kalmar County Hospital, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Eklund, Mona
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Faculty of Health and Society, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Erlandsson, Lena-Karin
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    The value and meaning of an instrumental occupation performed in a clinical setting2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 4-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate how patients in a clinical setting, combining acute stroke care and rehabilitation, perceived the value and meaning attached to a commonly used instrumental occupation, namely "Brewing coffee and making an open-face cheese sandwich with sliced vegetable". Another aim was to validate the ValMO model, proposing that value and meaning are related phenomena. Upon performing the occupation, 38 participants answered questionnaires concerning perceived meaning and occupational value. The results showed that the occupation was highly valued by the participants and that it was perceived as meaningful. No age or gender differences were found. The findings confirmed the proposed link between value and meaning. In conclusion, a commonly used and supposedly meaningful occupation was indeed found to be valued and meaningful by the patients and the findings validated the targeted aspects of the ValMO model. This study was unique in its focus on value and meaning in a clinical context. Futures studies should clarify if the link between meaningful occupation and well-being, which has been shown in many studies of everyday situations and is another of the assumptions in the ValMO model, can be proved in clinical contexts as well. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd.

  • 254.
    Billsten, Johan
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Fridell, Mats
    Department of Psychology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Holmberg, Robert
    Department of Psychology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Organizational Readiness for Change (ORC) test used in the implementation of assessment instruments and treatment methods in a Swedish National study2018In: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, ISSN 0740-5472, E-ISSN 1873-6483, Vol. 84, p. 9-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational climate and related factors are associated with outcome and are as such of vital interest for healthcare organizations. Organizational Readiness for Change (ORC) is the questionnaire used in the present study to assess the influence of organizational factors on implementation success. The respondents were employed in one of 203 Swedish municipalities within social work and psychiatric substance/abuse treatment services. They took part in a nationwide implementation project organized by the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions (SALAR), commissioned by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. Aim The aims were: (a) to identify classes (clusters) of employees with different ORC profiles on the basis of data collected in 2011 and (b) to investigate ORC profiles which predicted the use of assessment instruments, therapy methods and collaborative activities in 2011 and 2013. Design and recruitment The evaluation study applied a naturalistic design with registration of outcome at consecutive assessments. The participants were contacted via official e-mail addresses in their respective healthcare units and were encouraged by their officials to participate on a voluntary basis. Statistics Descriptive statistics were obtained using SPSS version 23. A latent profile analysis (LPA) using Mplus 7.3 was performed with a robust maximum likelihood estimator (MLR) to identify subgroups (clusters) based on the 18 ORC indexes. Results A total of 2402 employees responded to the survey, of whom 1794 (74.7%) completed the ORC scores. Descriptive analysis indicated that the respondents were a homogenous group of employees, where women (72.0%) formed the majority. Cronbach's alpha for the 18 ORC indexes ranged from α = 0.67 to α = 0.78. A principal component analysis yielded a four-factor solution explaining 62% of the variance in total ORC scores. The factors were: motivational readiness (α = 0.64), institutional resources (α = 0.52), staff attributes (α = 0.76), and organizational climate (α = 0.74). An LPA analysis of the four factors with their three distinct profiles provided the best data fit: Profile 3 (n = 614), Profile 2 (n = 934), and Profile 1 (n = 246). Respondents with the most favorable ORC scores (Profile 3) used significantly more instruments and more treatment methods and had a better collaborating network in 2011 as well as in 2013 compared to members in Profile 1, the least successful profile. Conclusion In a large sample of social work and healthcare professionals, ORC scores reflecting higher institutional resources, staff attributes and organizational climate and lower motivational readiness for change were associated with a successful implementation of good practice guidelines for the care and treatment of substance users in Sweden. Low motivational readiness as a construct may indicate satisfaction with the present situation. As ORC proved to be an indicator of successful dissemination of evidence-based guidelines into routine and specialist healthcare, it can be used to tailor interventions to individual employees or services and to improve the dissemination of and compliance with guidelines for the treatment of substance users. © 2017

  • 255.
    Birgersson, Rikard
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Eliasson, Eric
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Unilateralt och bilateralt genomförande av bänkpress och dess påverkan på varandra sett till muskelaktivering, effekt, och kraftutveckling2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It has been studied whether strength-exercises performed with two arms (bilateral) leads to better performance when compared to exercises performed with only one arm (unilateral), and it has been shown that both implementations result in similar results after a short training period. At the same time, research shows that mixed results between different implementations in terms of muscle activation and force development exists.

    Objective: The main purpose of this study was to see the effect of unilateral or bilateral warm-up in the bench press and its influence on subsequent unilateral and bilateral performance in the bench press, investigating the factors: muscle activation, power, and force development. A secondary purpose was to relate the results of the study to bilateral index, to see if bilateral deficit or bilateral facilitation dominates.

    Method: Strength-trained men (n = 13, age 25 ± 3 years) warmed up with two different implementations (unilateral or bilateral), and after each individual warm-up they performed three submaximal lifts (40 and 80% of 1RM) in unilateral and bilateral bench press. Muscle activity, power, and force development were measured in muscles pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, and triceps brachii, after each individual warm-up during three submaximal lifts (40 and 80% of 1RM) in unilateral and bilateral bench press.

    Results: Significant results were found in unilateral performance in power and force development after unilateral warm-up (184 ± 36 W and 164 ± 31 W; 416 ± 76 N and 412 ± 74 N) compared with bilateral warm-up (p = 0.05). There were no significant differences between the different implementations in bilateral performance. Significant differences were neither found in the muscle activation of any of the implementations. The study also found evidence of a difference between the test participants regarding bilateral deficit and bilateral facilitation in terms of power and force development, where the majority of the test participants had bilateral facilitation.

    Conclusion: Regardless of warm-up, no difference was seen in the strength-trained men regarding muscle activation in the bilateral or unilateral bench press, however, the warm-up  was of importance to performance. Therefore, unilateral warm-up should be applied before unilateral performance, as this showed significant improvement. Although no significant improvement was observed, a bilateral warm-up should also preceed a bilateral performance.

  • 256.
    Bjur, Jenny
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Sangüesa, Paloma
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Olausson, Sara
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Ögonsjuksköterskors upplevelser av beslutsstöd vid telefonrådgivning2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Telephone counseling is one of the tasks in ophthalmic nursing and research within this area was found inadequate. The aim was to describe the ophthalmic nurses’ experiences of using a decision making system in when counseling. The method was a descriptive qualitative de sign. Six ophthalmic nurses at three different eye clinics were interviewed. The data were analyzed according to qualitative content analysis. The result was four categories: a source of knowledge source if needed, supportive to the professional role, deficiencies in decision system and good quality of care from a patient perspective. Ophthalmic nurses were positive using a decision making system if inexperienced and in infrequent and complex situations. The use of decision making system facilitated the prioritization and coordination of the care taken, high quality of care from a patient perspective and a sense of security. Decision making system facilitated communication with other health care providers and patients. The system though was not useful in every situation and there was a need of a continuous development and update. Active listening and thinking in the combination of experience and knowledge were considered to be important components in the telephone counseling. Further development of the system in use today is needed.

  • 257.
    Bjurling-Sjöberg, Petronella
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Caring Sci, Sect Caring Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.;Uppsala Univ, Ctr Clin Res Sormland, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Jansson, Inger
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Wadensten, Barbro
    Uppsala Univ, Sect Caring Sci, Dept Publ Hlth & Caring Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Engström, Gabriella
    Florida Atlantic Univ, Christine E Lynn Coll Nursing, Boca Raton, FL 33431 USA..
    Pöder, Ulrika
    Uppsala Univ, Sect Caring Sci, Dept Publ Hlth & Caring Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Prevalence and quality of clinical pathways in Swedish intensive care units: a national survey2014In: Journal of Evaluation In Clinical Practice, ISSN 1356-1294, E-ISSN 1365-2753, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 48-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rationale, aims and objectivesTo identify the prevalence of clinical pathways (CPs) in Swedish intensive care units (ICUs) and to explore the quality, content and evidence base of the documents. MethodsA descriptive and explorative survey of all Swedish ICUs (N84) and a review of submitted examples of CPs (n12) were conducted. ResultsCPs were in use at 20% of the Swedish ICUs. There was a significant geographic variation but no relationship between the use of CPs and category of hospital, type of ICU, size of ICU or type of health record applied. In total, 56 CPs were reported within a range of scopes and extensions. The content of the ICUs' CPs, as well as the degree to which they were interprofessional, evidence based, and renewed varied. ConclusionsProgress has been made in relation to CPs in recent years, but there is potential for further improvements. None of the ICUs had CPs that contained all key characteristics of a high-quality, interprofessional and evidence-based CP identified in the literature. Greater knowledge sharing and cooperation within the field would be beneficial, and further research is needed.

  • 258.
    Bjärbo, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Barn som anhöriga i ett västsvenskt ambulansområde: En pilotkartläggning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Children as next of kin to patients who are treated by an ambulance nurse in Swedish ambulance service in unknown. Children under 18 years of age may sometimes be present when their parent or other next of kin, has to call the ambulance service due to illness or accident. How many children who experience their next of kin transported to hospital within a Western Swedish ambulance service district is unknown. The purpose of this survey is to identify how many children actually are present when their next of kin may need care and treatment from an ambulance service.

    Purpose: Survey how many children are present when an ambulance nurse cares and treats a next of kin due to illness or an accident, prioritized as priority 1 or 2.

    Method: a survey conducted by ambulance nurses in a western Swedish ambulance service. The survey has a quantitative design.

    Children as next of kin are present within a Swedish ambulance service district, in this survey 155 children was identified in a total of 95 ambulance missions. Children as next of kin are seen as adults, in most cases, a parent as well as children usually a sibling. Many children are present when their relative shows sign and symptoms of severe illness.

  • 259.
    Bjärne, Jenny
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Thulin, Linn
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Patienters upplevelse av hopp i palliativ vård: En allmän litteratudstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to highlight how hope is experienced by patients in a palliative care context. The background notes that about 90 000 palliative patients die in Sweden each year. The patients in palliative care experience several dimensions of pain, both physical and psychological. Hope is described as something that can lead patients towards more positive goals and actions and is therefore of great importance for their wellbeing. The method of this study is a general literature study based on qualitative research. The analysis is performed with an inductive approach. Following similarities identified 17 subcategories, six categories and two overall themes that where established. The result illustrates how hope is expressed in palliative care patients. Unchanged hope, transformational hope, strategic hope, overcoming hope and everyday hope were categories that emerged as hopeful. In contrast to the hope there were also a hopelessness. The hopelessness was identified as an obstacle to hope which increased passivity and the feeling of helplessness. The conclusion of this study is that the experience of hope is expressed in different ways through the care process. There are several categories that are recurring in earlier research. Most discoveries are identified as hopeful and proved to increase the quality of life for patients in the palliative care context. However, there is no research about how patients would like to be treated regarding their hope.

  • 260.
    Björck, Carolina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Svensson, Ingrid
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Organisationsfaktorer som påverkar sjuksköterskans omvårdnadsarbete2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    How healthcare is organized is significant to the nurse’s condition to perform nursing care. Leadership and the work environment are parts of the organization which influences the work of nurses. The purpose of this study was to examine which organizational factors that influence the work of nursing. A literature review was conducted in which 12 articles were reviewed and analyzed. Five categories emerged Support and Communication, Nurses' job satisfaction, Nurse’s experience of resource allocation effects, Nurse’s increased workload, and Changed terms of nursing care. The results showed that when the leader shared responsibility with the nurse, communicated and gave support he/she created a greater opportunity for nurses to provide adequate care. The leader influenced the nurse’s job satisfaction, which also favored patient satisfaction. It was considered important that the nurse felt in control over the work situation and that they were provided with enough resources to provide adequate nursing care. The technological development could increase the workload and lead to downsizing. The conclusions were that the workload could reduce patient safety and that the leader could create development possibilities for nurses and create a more patient-focused care, for example by increasing the collaboration among the workers. Future research should focus on organizational changes from the patients view, nurse’s experience before, during and after organizational changes and advantages and disadvantages with current organizational forms.

  • 261.
    Björk, Anders
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Haag, Jonathan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Psykologin bakom skadeprevention inom tyngdlyftning, styrkelyft, Crossfit och kroppsbyggning.: En Kvalitativ studie ur coachers perspektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Huvudsyftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka på vilket sätt coacher inom tyngdlyftning, styrkelyft, Crossfit och kroppsbyggning implementerar preventiva strategier designade för att förebygga skador genom inverkan på psykologiska riskfaktorer. Vidare var det av intresse att undersöka vilka personlighetsdrag hos en idrottare som coacher upplevde ökade risken för skador. Ett ytterligare syfte var att studera coachernas erfarenheter av relationen mellan idrottares stressnivå och skaderisk. Totalt genomfördes nio semistrukturerade intervjuer med coacher på distrikt till internationell nivå lokaliserade i Sverige. Samtliga coacher hade tidigare erfarenhet med skadade idrottare. Resultatet sammanställdes genom en deduktiv innehållsanalys. Under intervjuerna identifierades flera interventionsstrategier som kunde relateras till Williams och Andersens (1998) stress­skademodell. Det framgick att coacherna i studien fokuserar mycket på fysiologiska och stressrelaterade aspekter och inte personlighetsdrag när de implementerar interventioner för att förebygga skador. Implikationer för skadeförebyggande träning samt förslag på framtida forskning ges.

  • 262.
    Björk, Josefine
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Skär, Sanna
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Wahlberg, Cia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Att leva med fekal inkontinens: Ett begränsat liv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to illustrate experiences of living with fecal incontinence. Fecal incontinence, also known as FI, is a symptom that up to 15% of the population suffers from. The symptom is physical, but can also have a negative impact on quality of life, both on an emotional and social level. The stigmatization of FI makes many individuals suffer in silence. The results from the literature study is based on eleven scientific articles, and resulted into seven categories: Loss of control, Social isolation, Body image and self-esteem, Desire for affirmation, Life limitations, Inadequate treatment of health care, Feelings of shame, humiliation and To keep fecal incontinence a secret. The results showed that the taboo surrounding FI led to feelings of shame of those who lives with the symptom. The results also showed that individuals with FI usually limited their social life, resulting in a reduced quality of life and self-esteem. The shameful experience of FI correlates with lack of knowledge about the symptom. More knowledge generally leads to reduced feelings of shame. The health care may provide the individual with information and insight about their symptoms. It is important for the health professionals to have adequate education about the appearance of negative feelings, in order to help individuals with FI managing their feelings of shame. In this way, the health professionals can treat and support individuals on an individualized level. Hence the need for further research conducted on the subject. 

  • 263.
    Björk, Oscar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Post-activation Potentiation in Moderately Heavy Squats following a Heavy Pre-load Squat2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Post-activation potentiation (PAP) is a phenomenon where force output is acutely enhanced

    following muscular contraction. Previous research has documented enhanced performance in

    power-type light exercise following a heavy pre-load, such as vertical jumps following heavy

    squats. To date, the effect of PAP on moderately heavy exercise following a heavy pre-load

    has not been investigated. Purpose: The purpose was to examine whether PAP could be

    elicited in moderately heavy squats following a heavy squat pre-load, and if so, what intensity

    (as percentage of one repetition-maximum [1RM]) of pre-load elicited the highest PAP effect

    (measured as mean power, mean force and number of repetitions performed). Subjects:

    Seventeen resistance-trained males (age 24±2 years, length 182±8 cm, body mass 84.7±13.1

    kg, squat 1RM 147.6±29.6 kg) with at least 2 years of experience of the squat exercise.

    Methods: After testing parallel squat 1RM at a separate session, subjects performed three

    testing sessions in a randomized order in a cross-over design; performance test at 80% of

    parallel squat 1RM (control), one repetition at 85% of 1RM followed 8 minutes later by the

    same performance test (PAP85), and one repetition at 93% of 1RM followed 8 minutes later

    by the same performance test (PAP93). Sessions were separated by six days. Force and power

    output was recorded using a linear encoder. Friedman’s test was used to reveal differences

    between conditions, and a Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to identify these differences.

    Results: There was an increase in number of repetitions performed for PAP85 (p=0.009) and

    PAP93 (p=0.001) compared to control, but not for mean power or mean force. There was no

    significant difference between PAP85 and PAP93 for number of repetitions (p=0.091).

    Conclusion: PAP can be elicited to improve performance in moderately heavy squats

    following a heavy squat pre-load in trained subjects, but only measured as number of

    repetitions performed, not force or power. PAP could therefore be useful not only for

    designing power training, but also for strength and hypertrophy training.

    KEYWORDS: squat, post-activation potentiation, PAP, strength, power, hypertrophy.

  • 264.
    Björkegren, Adam
    Halmstad University.
    Mindfulness2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 265.
    Björklund, Cecilia
    et al.
    Division of Health and Rehabilitation, Department of Health Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Erlandsson, Lena-Karin
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Lilja, Margareta
    Division of Health and Rehabilitation, Department of Health Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Division of Health and Rehabilitation, Department of Health Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Temporal patterns of daily occupations related to older adults' health in northern Sweden2014In: Journal of Occupational Science, ISSN 1442-7591, E-ISSN 2158-1576, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 127-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of temporal patterns of daily occupations that could be related to high and low subjective health among older adults in Northern Sweden. A cross-sectional design imprinted by time-geographic methodology was used and participants 70 years and older were purposively selected and divided into groups of high and low health using the SoC-29 and SF-36 questionnaires. Daily occupations data were registered and analysed using VISUAL Time-PAcTS and related to health conditions using SPSS. The results showed that the participants in the high- and low-health groups showed similar patterns of participation in occupations during the 24-hour sequences describing their daily routines. Some differences in patterns of frequency and duration of occupations were shown between health groups during the 24-hour sequences as well as within six intervals. The low-health group showed higher frequencies and longer durations for “care for oneself” and “reflection and recreation” occupations and lower for “house-keeping” and “procure and prepare food” occupations compared to the high-health groups. There were few significant differences between the high- and low-health groups' mean durations for occupations. The results of this study could contribute to the support and assistance of occupations of older adults in society. © 2014 The Journal of Occupational Science Incorporated.

  • 266.
    Björkqvist, Kornelia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Svantesson, Eva
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Omvårdnad av patienter med smärta i palliativ vård.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The definition of palliative care is to provide a diligent care to all patients no matter what disease they suffer from in the end of life. To manage pain with nursing care in palliative care is important and the nurse has a significant role. Pain in palliative care is a symptom that often occurs and can be manage through nurse interventions. The aim is to describe nursing care of patients with pain in palliative care. A content analysis was made where nine scientific articles were audited. The nine scientific articles that were audited resulted in three categories; Pain assessment, Complementary treatment methods, Psychosocial support. The results of this study indicated that nurse interventions can relieve pain; heat and cold, distraction, change of position, relaxation and touch. Psychosocial support is given to both patients and relatives through information and communication. Teamwork in the palliative team is important to assess and manage pain in palliative care. Pain assessment can be hard because some patients cannot verbally tell that they suffer from pain. When family members were mistrustful of the care it was hard for the nurse to assess and manage pain. In order to relieve pain with the help of nursing documents, knowledge, experience and good communication skills are required. Within the subject there is a need for further studies such as; how the use of pain assessment instruments and documentation can be expanded in palliative care.

  • 267.
    Björn, Wihlborg
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Malin, Yderhag
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Ledarskap: en viktig nyckel till hälsa i arbetslivet: En litteraturstudie om transformativt ledarskap2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Psykosocial hälsa har en stor roll i bestämmandet av hälsa på arbetsplatser, svag psykosocial hälsa kan kopplas till försämrad allmän hälsa samt förhöjd sjukfrånvaro. Samtidigt visar forskning på hur transformativt ledarskap kan påverka arbetsmiljön och anställda vilket resulterade studiens syfte.

    Syfte: Syftet var att undersöka transformativt ledarskaps påverkan på anställdas psykosociala hälsa och arbetsmiljö.Metod: Studiedesign som antogs var en systematisk litteraturstudie där sju databaser genomsöktes och totalt 19 vetenskapliga artiklar som svarade på syftet användes. Alla artiklar genomgick granskning av vetenskaplig kvalité och en kvalitativ innehållsanalys som resulterade i tre kategorier.

    Resultat: Tre kategorier hittades och de benämns som medför positiva effekter på psykosocial hälsa, betydelse för den psykosociala arbetsmiljön samt hälsovinster i ett större perspektiv. Resultatet indikerar att transformativt ledarskap kan användas som ett kraftfullt salutogent verktyg för hälsopromotion på arbetsplatsen och att ledarskapet kan skapa bättre förutsättningar för förbättrad psykosocial hälsa.

    Implikation: Ytterligare forskning krävs för att kartlägga transformativt ledarskap i skilda kulturella, geografiska och praktiska kontexter samt att kvalitativa studier kan ge en mer nyanserad bild av effekterna och på så vis kan ge en tydligare indikation på hur integreringen av transformativt ledarskap kan ske i organisationer och verksamheter.

  • 268.
    Björnell, Rebecha
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Kristensson, Michaela
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Kan ett 5-veckors hembaserat träningsprogram förbättra smärtan hos personer med fibromyalgi?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om ett 5-veckors enkelt styrketräningsprogram i hemmet minskar den upplevda smärtan hos personer med fibromyalgi.

    Metod: Antal deltagare med fibromyalgi var 10 stycken som rekryterades för att genomföra ett 5 veckors träningsprogram med fokus på styrka i buk-, rygg- och magmuskulatur. Före och efter träningsprogrammet mättes styrka (rygg, mage och ben – 3 tester) och smärta (Visual Analog Skala - VAS). Fyra frågor kring smärta besvarades med VAS-skala. Skillnad mellan undersökning före påbörjad träning (pretest) till undersökning efter avslutad träning (posttest) analyserades. Wilcoxons rangtest användes för att undersöka om där fanns en signifikant skillnad mellan pretest och posttest.

    Resultat: Efter avslutat träningsprogram hade inte smärtan förbättrats. I styrketesterna framkom signifikant förbättrad benstyrka medan rygg- och magstyrka var oförändrad. För sju av tio av deltagarna förbättrades styrkan i magtestet utan signifikant skillnad och för fem av tio deltagare förbättrades styrkan i ryggtestet utan signifikant skillnad. Smärtan var efter avslutad träning förbättrad, dock ej signifikant skillnad.  

    Slutsats: Det studerade styrketräningsprogrammet under 5 veckor ledde inte till en minskning av smärta.

  • 269.
    Björnerhag, Linette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Kärrbrand, Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av faktorer som påverkar bemötandet av närstående i sorg2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Grief may occur in many stages in life and nurses are meeting grieving people throughout their work. Nurses responsibility is to prevent illness in both families and patients and with the complexity in the grieving process nurses can find it difficult to meet grieving people adequately.

    The aim of this study was to describe nurses’ experiences of factors influencing the meeting with families in grief.

    Method: The study was conducted as a structured literature review with an inductive approach.

    The result was constructed by nine scientific articles compiled in four categories: Stressful work environment, Coping with own uncertainty, Motivation and Nursing relationship.

    Conclusion: Several different factors contributed to the nurses experiencing a stressful work environment, affecting their meeting with families in grief negatively. Nurses experienced uncertainty in their meeting with families in grief, which they linked to a lack of experience and education. Even though it was difficult, the nurses felt motivated to meet families in grief and a deep relationship could be formed between them which affected the grieving process positively. Further research is needed to enable an improvement of nurses meeting families in grief.

  • 270.
    Björnstad, Maria
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Karlsson, Linda
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Larynxmask: - en metod för att möjliggöra fri luftväg och adekvat ventilation2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Airway obstruction can in the case of an unconsciousness patient be caused by the tounge that falls back in the throat or by secretion, blood, stomach fluid or foreign body. The knowledge of airway management of the unconsciousness patient is a necessary qualification in every nurse anesthetist. The purpose of this study was to describe if laryngeal mask airway is a safe method to establish a secure airway and adequate ventilation. The study was performed as a literature study in which 19 articles were analysed. During the analyse five themes occurred: LMA is a secure way for airway management, LMA is a secure way to maintain adequate ventilation, the staff competence when using LMA, the risk of aspiration when using LMA with subtheme LMA in overweight and LMA in elective and acute situations. The result of the study shows that LMA is a secure way to establish a safe airway and adequate ventilation. Further studies could study if LMA can be used to elective patients with increased risk of aspiration, for example in cesarean and obesity surgery. Studies could also focuse on the patients´ postoperative experiences between LMA and tracheal intubation.

  • 271.
    Björsing, Malin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Casparson, Ida
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Olofsson, Louise
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Skolsköterskans upplevelse av arbetet med att främja högstadieelevers psykiska hälsa2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research shows that the mental health of Swedish students is increasing and that the school nurse has an important health-promoting role. The mental health among students can lead to a weaker performance capacity or that the students don´t manage to finish their studies. The aim of the study was to describe the school nurse´s experience of the mental health promoted work among high school students. Six school nurses from two municipalities in Skåne were interviewed from a strategic selection on the basis of demographic data. The interviews were processed using a qualitative content analysis. The result of the study is presented in a general theme; collaboration and good organization, with a student centered approach to prevent mental health which are prerequisites in order to pursue the health promoting work successfully. Three categories emerged from the theme that describes the school nurses´ experience of the health promoted work; cooperation is needed in the health promoted work, the school nurse is an active operator in the health promoted work and it requires that the school nurses work from a student perspective. The subcategories describe further aspects that are meaningful in the health promoted work such as parental cooperation, the school nurse´s commitment, availability, capacity to form relations and empowerment. The results of this study are important in the school nurse´s health promoted work in order to strengthen the students mental health. Further research within the health promoted work from the student´s perspective is needed in order to obtain both aspects of health promotion and to get the knowledge what the pupils want and need.

  • 272.
    Bladh, Matilda
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Norrström, Ida
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Att våga tala om sexualitet: en del av sjuksköterskans roll i kommunikation med patienten2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As sexuality is an integrated part of every person’s life and it is the nurse’s responsibility to talk about the subject with the patient in order to conduct a holistic health care. Many diseases and treatments may impact the patient’s sexuality. Most patients feel the need to communicate regarding this subject, but still sexuality is an area that the nurse often avoids. It is therefore important to examine why this is so and what factors promote the nurse's communication regarding sexuality. Therefore, the aim was to highlight what inhibits and promotes the nurse's communication regarding sexuality with the patient. The work was carried out as a literature study where 12 scientific articles were analyzed in order to identify inhibiting and promoting factors. These factors formed the basis for the result. The results showed that the nurse's education, age, gender, work experience and feelings about sexuality were factors that could both inhibit and promote the nurse's communication regarding sexuality with the patient. The workplace also has bearing on whether or not the nurse talks to the patient about the subject. Cultural differences between nurse and patient also affected the conversation about sexuality. Sexuality's impact on health should be elucidated in the nurse education and then through training in the workplace. Clear guidelines and more in-depth research is needed to promote nurses in the future to speak more openly about sexuality.

  • 273. Blickander, Jacob
    Post Activation Potentiation – Effects onNumber of Repetitions and Average ForceOutput in Moderately Heavy Overhead Press2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 274.
    Blidell, Ylwa
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Kaire, Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Upplevelser av att leva med astma: När livet begränsas2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden there are approximately 800 000 people living with asthma, which classifies it as a public disease. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease with varying degrees of difficulty that have consequences in everyday life. Aim: To illustrate adult asthmatic persons experiences of the disease. Method: The study was conducted as a general literature study with inductive approach. All articles have been searched in Cinahl, pubmed and PsycInfo. Result: The result was based on ten qualitative scientific articles. After coding the material three main categories emerged: Limitations in everyday life, Relating to the disease, The need for knowledge and support. Under Limitations in everyday life the associated subcategories are: Physical limitations, Social limitation and Emotional limitation. Under Relating to the disease are the associated subcategories: Not being able to accept the disease and Learning to live with the disease. Under Need for knowledge and support are the associated subcategories: Information and support from healthcare professionals and Social support. Conclusion: Breathing difficulties causes feelings such as anxiety, fear, depression and frustration. That everyday life is adversely affected in the form of avoiding social situations leads to a large impact emotionally. Several people with asthma experienced a lack of information and lack of knowledge of the disease. There are difficulties in accepting there asthma, which leads to the persons denying that they were sick and they felt ashamed when the symptoms appeared an predictable. In order to gain control of their disease and learn to live with asthma required acceptant and to get to know their symptoms and limitations.

  • 275.
    Blizniuk, Viktoryia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Health literacy among young people in Sweden: Qualitative study of the school-based health education2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The basic components of the health literacy are ability to get access to the health-related informationand understand it. For the young people the most appropriate source of information, including abouthealth, is school. Studies on health education showed that there are some problematic issues in thehealth education in the schools in Sweden which result in non-application of the knowledge by thestudents.Thus, the aim of this study was to explore and analyze school-based health education in Sweden fromthe youth perspective. The purpose of the study was to indicate the best practices of health educationwithin schools in Sweden and reveal the most problematic fields and gaps in it from the point of viewof the youth.Qualitative research was conducted for exploring the research problem. Therefor semi-structuredinterviews were held with young people aged 18-25 having studied in the schools in Sweden. The datawas analyzed within social learning theory with application of thematic analysis methodology. Besides,literature and previous researches review has been conducted as a background study.In the result of this research it was revealed that although young people are satisfied with the resultsof the health classes and show trust to the school as a source of information, some information lacksin the health education, e.g. mental health education. Besides, some issues have been noticed as to theschool environment around health education which can impede application of the health knowledge.

  • 276.
    Blom, Cecilia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Fossheimer Stillfors, Evelina
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Self-management i relation till äldre personer som lever med kronisk sjukdom - en begreppsanalys2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research indicates that elderly people want to be independent and have the opportunity to stay in their own homes for as long as possible despite chronic disease. The district nurse can, by promoting the persons ability to self-management, create conditions for the elderly to be able to live at home. In this study, a conceptual analysis of self-management was done. Self-management is a term that has no clear definition and is under development. There is no matching swedish word. The purpose was to illustrate how self-management is used in relation to elderly people living with chronic disease. The study has an inductive approach. The method is based on Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis, a valid method for developing knowledge in nursing science. The result shows that self-management in relation to elderly people with chronic disease can imply both benefits and risks. The benefits can be increased confidence in their own ability as well as increased knowledge about the disease. The risks may be loneliness and anxiety. In summary, the study shows that research should focus on how the district nurse can contribute knowledge in order for older people to adopt self-management, but also the importance of including the negative aspects that self-management can cause.

  • 277.
    Blom, Hanna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Koobs Hultberg, Alice
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att ge palliativ vård till patienter i särskilt boende och hospice: En litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The palliative care is an overall care. The nurses’ must have an approach based on personal centred care. The care today is based in greater occurrence outside hospital services. It’s more common to die outside hospital services. The purpose was to illustrate nurses’ experiences of palliative care in nursing home and hospice. The study was conducted as a literature study based on eight qualitative scientific articles. The result showed three main categories: emotional experiences which included nurses’ emotional affects in caring of dying patients. The second main category relationships, intended the interplay between patients, relatives and nurses. The third main category different challenges of the work with associated subcategories: nurses’ competence in palliative care, experience of lack of time intended the valuable of time in caring of patients in the end of life. Communication between professions which included communication between nurses and physicians and teamwork between nurses, physicians, nurse assistants and other health care professionals. To care for patients in final stage of life in nursing home or hospice was emotional challenging. Nurses who constantly worked under time pressure experienced inadequacy which affected the palliative care negative. Corporation and communication between nurses, patients, relatives and other health care professionals were important parts for good nursing care. Nurses’ workload, work under constant time pressure and team work between healthcare professionals in nursing home and hospice should be illustrate through further research to develop national and local guidelines for palliative care in the end of life.

  • 278.
    Blomberg, Elin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Öhmark, Ulrika
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Malnutrition hos äldre patienter: Hur kan det förebyggas?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Malnutrition är ett vanligt förekommande tillstånd bland äldre som är inneliggande på sjukhus. Syftet med litteraturstudien var att belysa hur sjuksköterskan kan förebygga malnutrition hos äldre. Resultatet baseras på 15 vetenskapliga artiklar och visar hur sjuksköterskan kan förbygga tillståndet genom de fem teman som togs fram: att skapa delaktighet i vården med hjälp av information, att involvera anhöriga, struktur i vårdteamet, att använda sig av bedömningsinstrument och kunskap och utbildning. Resultatet visar hur god kommunikation och kunskap hjälper sjuksköterskan i arbetet att förebygga malnutrition. Det krävs även en struktur i vårdteamet för en tydlig rollfördelning bland professionerna. Patienternas delaktighet är en viktig faktor för att öka deras motivation, även anhörigas involvering lyfts fram. I framtiden behövs det fler studier på svenska förhållanden och mer uppmärksamhet till patienter som trots övervikt kan bli malnutrierade. Till sist måste information om äldre som aktivt väljer att sluta äta framarbetas, både till sjukvårdspersonal och anhöriga.

  • 279.
    Blomqvist, Marjut
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Erfarenheter hos barn till förälder med psykisk ohälsa2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the European union it has been estimated that 27% of adults suffer from at least one mental disorder; this is also one of the major public health problems in Sweden. About 36% of patients in psychiatric care have underage children and it is known that children of parents with mental illness have a higher risk of various problems but that there are many protective factors that can help these children. The Swedish Health and Medical Service Act obligates the professionals in psychiatric services to pay attention to these children. The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of the children to parents with mental disorder related to the parent’s illness and highlight the importance of professionals. Ten articles which were published in nursing journals were analyzed. The findings highlights the experiences of underage and adult children and the impact nursing staff may have on the children’s experiences. There is a need for further nursing research and development in clinical practice.

  • 280.
    Blomqvist, Marjut
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Carlsson, Ing-Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Experiences of data collection issues in qualitative studies involving people diagnosed with schizophrenia2016In: Abstracts: Narrative Nursing: Nordic Conference Of Mental Health Nursing: 14-16 September 2016, 2016, p. 41-41Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The viewpoint and special needs of individuals with severe mental illness are crucial for the development of mental health nursing. In-depth knowledge of the perspectives of people with schizophrenia is primarily established in dialogue with individuals with experience of the phenomenon investigated. Attaining trustworthiness in the findings in qualitative studies is of great importance and the interview approach used should assure trustworthiness in the data collection at different levels with regard to the perspectives of the individual, which is essential for developing nursing research and practice.

    Aim: The aim of the paper was to describe and discuss the issues related to data collection in qualitative studies involving people diagnosed with schizophrenia.

    Method: Six qualitative interview studies regarding experiences of different aspects of life among people diagnosed with schizophrenia were reflected on and discussed in terms of issues related to data collection involving people with severe mental illness such as schizophrenia (N=75).

    Results: The discussions that generated the results revealed three topics in qualitative studies involving individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia: 1) Selection of research context with respect to participants’ different aspects of life, 2) Sampling issues with regard to judgements of participants’ ability to contribute with information and 3) Choice of data collection methods to meet the aim of the enquiry.

    Conclusion: Three crucial areas in data collection in qualitative studies with individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia were revealed. Further studies regarding sampling procedures and analysis of collected data are needed to ensure trustworthiness of findings regarding interviews involving people with severe mental illness.

  • 281.
    Blomqvist, Marjut
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Carlsson, Ing-Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Sandgren, Anna
    Linneaus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    How to facilitate healthy living described by persons with persistent psychiatric disorders in psychiatric out-patient settings – challenging health care professionals2016In: Abstracts: Narrative Nursing: Nordic Conference Of Mental Health Nursing: 14-16 September 2016, 2016, p. 13-13Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Over the previous decades, scientific research has demonstrated that people with persistent mental illness like schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders have a reduced life expectancy and have a higher risk of being affected of preventable physical illnesses such as developing metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Additionally it have made evident for lower quality of life as well. These risk factors make health promoting essential in the care providing and therefore it ́s important for the health professionals to have a deeper knowledge about the facilitating factors to healthy living described by persons themselves.

    Aim: The aim of this qualitative study was to describe the experiences of persons affected by persistent mental illness such as schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders what facilitates healthy living in their everyday life. The presentation has the focus on the facilitative factors applying health professionals when providing care for persons in psychiatric out-patient settings.

    Method: The study was carried out in three different psychiatric out-patient settings in the southern Sweden. The data was collected through qualitative interviews (N= 16) and analyses by qualitative, inductive approach abased on Granheim and Lundmans ́ conceptualization of content analysis.

    Results: First, it is essential for persons with persistent and severe mental illness that they get support to bring out their needs to healthier living by having a dialogue about the issues of healthy living in their everyday life. In this dialog they may also need support to reflect and find out their own motivating factors to healthier living. Additionally, in this dialogue it is important to be aware of that they will be regarded as a whole person and include many areas of life like daily structure and social life. The professionals should show a truly involvement and active interest to persons when increasing healthy living.

    Conclusion: Many persons with persistent mental illness need practical support in their everyday life to maintaining healthier living. This requires the close cooperation between psychiatric out-patient settings, the housing support professionals from municipalities and the social services.

  • 282.
    Blomqvist, Marjut
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Carlsson, Ing-Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Sandgren, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Center for Collaborative Palliative Care , Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Växjö, Sweden.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Health Risks among People with Severe Mental Illness in Psychiatric Outpatient Settings2018In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 39, no 7, p. 585-591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life expectancy is greatly reduced in patients with schizophrenia, and cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of mortality. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and to investigate the relationships between self-rated health, sense of coherence, CVD risk, and body mass index (BMI) among people with severe mental illness (SMI) in psychiatric outpatient settings. Nearly 50% of the participants were exposed to moderate/high risk of CVD and over 50% were obese. The results showed no statistically relationships between the subjective and objective measures (Bayes factor <1) of health. The integration of physical health into clinical psychiatric nursing practice is vital. © 2018 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  • 283.
    Blomqvist, Marjut
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Experiences of methodological issues in qualitative studies involving people with severe mental illness such as schizophrenia2016In: Programme: Second Nordic Conference in Nursing Research, 2016, p. 60-60Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The viewpoint and special needs of individuals with severe mental illness is crucial in development of mental health nursing. In-depth knowledge of the perspectives of people with severe mental illness is primarily established in dialog with individuals experienced in the phenomenon investigated. To reach trustworthiness of findings in qualitative studies is central and the interview approach used should assure trustworthiness in data collection regarding perspectives of the individual essential in developing nursing research and practice.

    Aim: The aim of the paper was to describe and discuss methodological issues related to research interviews involving people with severe and persistent mental illness.

    Method: Five qualitative interview studies regarding experiences of different aspects of life among people with severe mental illness were reflected and discussed regarding methodological issues related to the interview situation involving people with severe and persistent mental illness (N=51).

    Results: The discussions forming the results revealed three crucial topics in qualitative interview studies with individuals with severe mental illness. Use previous experiences of interactions with persons with mental disabilities with an open mind without prejudices. Balance the interviewee’s need of support and encouragement during the interview without manipulating contents of statements. Comprehend the essential meaning in the interviewee’s statements even when statements are short and narrow.

    Discussion: Three crucial topics in qualitative interview studies with individuals with severe mental illness were revealed. Further studies regarding sampling procedures and analysis of collected data are needed to ensure trustworthiness of findings regarding interviews involving people with severe mental illness.

  • 284.
    Blomqvist, Marjut
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Sandgren, Anna
    Linneaus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Ing-Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Enabling healthy living: Experiences of people with severe mental illness in psychiatric outpatient services2018In: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1445-8330, E-ISSN 1447-0349, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 236-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that people with severe mental illness have a reduced life expectancy and a greater risk of being affected by preventable physical illnesses such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. There are still, however, only a few published studies focusing on what enables healthy living for this group. This study thus aimed to describe what enables healthy living among people with severe mental illness in psychiatric outpatient services. The data were collected in qualitative interviews (n = 16) and content analysis was used to analyze the data. The interviews resulted in an overall theme "Being regarded as a whole human being by self and others", which showed the multidimensional nature of health and the issues that enable healthy living among people with severe mental illness. Three categories emerged: (i) everyday structure (ii), motivating life events and (iii) support from significant others. The results indicate that a person with severe mental illness needs to be encountered as a whole person if healthy living is to be enabled. Attaining healthy living requires collaboration between the providers of care, help and support. Health care organizations need to work together to develop and provide interventions to enable healthy living and to reduce poor physical health among people with severe mental illness. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  • 285.
    Blomster, Carola
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Johansson, Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Kvinnors erfarenheter av våld i en nära relation: En litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Intimate partner violence is a public health problem. 12 422 cases of indoor assault in the intimate partnership against women over 18 were reported in 2010. An average of 30 women dies each year in Sweden due to physical violence. 17 of them are killed by their current or former partner. Psychological violence may be constituted by threats, control and harassment and can be difficult to identify. Sexual violence can be abuse during sex and compulsion into various sexual acts. Intimate partner violence occurs in all social classes and children are affected directly or in-directly by domestic violence. The government has presented a plan of action with measures and efforts to, among other things, fight men’s violence against women. The police are trained to better treat and help vulnerable women. Women and children can receive help and support from nonprofit organizations. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe women’s experiences of violence in an intimate partnership. Method: The method that was used in this study was based on facts from literature. The Databases that were used was Academic Search Elite and PsycINFO. Result: The nice and charming man that women met proved over time to be a violent man. The violence came stealthy and it increased gradually in the relationship. Women blamed themselves for the violence. They were ashamed of their situation and tried to keep up an appearance. Pregnancy did not seem to be any protection against the violence. Women experienced both that there was support around them and that the support did not came them to the benefit. Protected identity became an alternative for some women. Implication: The complex and growing problem of intimate partner violence needs to be a frequent topic on the agenda. It is of great importance that further research is conducted in Sweden in this area and that the knowledge will be transformed into practical tools in the community.

  • 286.
    Bodell Pettersson, Maria
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Gyrling, Therese
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    När stöttepelaren inte håller: Erfarenheter av att lära sig leva med en ryggmärgsskada2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige drabbas varje år omkring 100-150 personer av en traumatiskt orsakad ryggmärgsskada. En ryggmärgsskada innebär ofta ett funktionshinder som gör att stora förändringar måste göras i livssituationen, vilket kan vara en svår anpassning. Stress, ångest och depressiva symtom är relativt vanligt bland personer som skadats. Syftet med studien var att beskriva vuxna patienters erfarenheter av att lära sig leva med en ryggmärgsskada. Studien gjordes som en litteraturstudie där 15 vetenskapliga artiklar valdes ut, granskades och analyserades via färgkodning för att finna likheter. Resultatet gav fem teman: bedömningar av skadan, medpatienter som hjälp och tröst, stöd från omgivningen, kämparglöd och hopp om framtiden och finna mening och gå vidare med livet. Det är av vikt att sjuksköterskor som arbetar med dessa patienter känner till hur andra gjort för att gå vidare, för att på så sätt kunna hjälpa och stödja patienter, vid såväl rehabilitering som vid senare vårdtillfällen. Mer forskning behöver göras på hur god omvårdnad kan ges till personer som drabbats av en ryggmärgsskada.

  • 287.
    Bogren, Emma
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Westberg, Johanna
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Att leva ett förändrat liv: Mäns upplevelse av att leva med prostatacancer2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer that afflicts men in Sweden. The affliction creates different struggles that affect the men’s daily lives. During the progress of the disease the men experience a loss of their dignity. As a nurse it is important to care for the patient as a whole and provide a personal care, related to the nursing diagnosis of the patient. Aim: To shed light on the experiences of the men who are currently living with prostate cancer. Method: A study of literature focusing on qualitative data. Data was gathered from 12 scientific articles. Result: The study led to five categories that the men experienced: The lack of information, loss of dignity, anxiety surrounding own mortality, experience of different support forms and adjustment of the everyday life. Conclusion: The men’s daily lives are affected extensively by the disease prostate cancer and they need different forms of support. The nurse should level with the men in order to provide an individual care.

  • 288.
    Bohäll, Amanda
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Malmström, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Personliga assistenters psykosociala arbetsmiljö: En kvalitativ studie inom offentlig och privat sektor2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Personal assistance is a unique profession to the extent that the assistant comes the client close to life through participation in order to improve the individual's life and living conditions. The work is also unique as it uses the client’s home environment. The purpose of the following essay is to explore personal assistants’ experiences of a psychosocial work environment in order to increase knowledge about risk and health factors in work with people with disabilities. The collection of the empirical material has been done through a qualitative design to capture the respondents' experiences about the psychosocial work environment. The qualitative method which has been used is semi structured interviews with the aim of giving respondents a possibility to express themselves freely about their psychosocial work environment. In total seven interviews have been conducted through a selection from four respondents as in turn entered new people. The interviews have been transcribed to enable an analysis of the collected empiricism. The empiricism shows that personal assistants feel motivation in work when they witness the clients’ development. The empiricism also shows that demands and control especially come from the client’s family and affect the psychosocial work environment a lot. The empiricism at last shows that social support from both colleagues and managers represent a great value for the psychosocial work environment for personal assistants.

    The conclusion of the psychosocial work environment based on the results is a work situation based on high demands, low control and low social support. Although the psychosocial work environment is perceived to be difficult by the assistants they appreciate the possibility to enable a more worthwhile life for the clients. The conclusion is as well that each employer has an important work to do with the psychosocial work environment in order to make the personal assistants work environment better in the future. 

  • 289.
    Bokström, Malin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Svensson, Ingrid
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Tröst till personen med cancer som vårdas av sjuksköterska i livets slut: En begreppsanalys2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Comfort plays a central part in nursing care. The concept of comfort has been questioned whether it is relevant to the nursing care. Comfort associated with suffering and the importance of the concept of comfort are individually, physically, mentally and spiritually. The aim of the study was to investigate the concept from a nursing perspective at the end of life stage. Conceptual analysis follows Rodgers Evolutionary Concept Analysis. Article searches were conducted in 4 databases. 14 articles became the final selection. Where surrogate/related terms, antecedenter, features, examples and implications of consolation was identified. . The result shows that there are some common factors that promote comfort. Factors that emerged was the relationship with the nurse, family relationships and religious or spiritual beliefs. It is important that the nurse adapts the consolation to the individual when comfort is experienced individually. The results were discussed from the perspective of Ruland and Moore's nursing theory Peaceful End-Of-Life Theory and further analysis phase. More research is needed to further develop the concept of comfort in life´s final stage.

  • 290.
    Bokström, Malin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS). Halmstad University.
    Törnquist, Malin
    Halmstad University. Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    För patientens bästa: kommunikation mellan sjuksköterska och läkare2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It requires better communication between medical staff to ensure patient safety. It’s proved that communication is linked to the mistakes that occur in patient care. A special need for further research on communication between nurses and doctors are needed, this for the communication between them is a big part of patient care and safety. The purpose of this study was to illuminate factors that affect communication between doctors and nurses related to patient safety. The study was conducted as a literaturestudy. The results showed that C-HIP and SBAR were useful methods for promoting good communication between the professions and to promote patient safety. It requires good quality of the information and relevant information to foster good communication. Humor, empathy, understanding and openness are factors in behavior that promotes good communication. The hierarchy that still exists is affecting communication between the nurse and doctor negative. Raising his voice, depreciate each other and show a disrespectful behavior are barriers that effects the communication. More courses need to be introduced in the nurse and physician education to promote communication. One suggestion might be to introduce a common course in which professions can practice and also get an insight into each other's work.

  • 291.
    Bolanca, Anna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Kjellström, Johanna
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Patienters upplevelser av omvårdnaden på akutmottagningen efter ett trauma2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Trauma is something that appears unexpectedly and can lead to extensive consequences. Since the patients themselves cannot fully influence the situation itself, it is important that the nurse has the skills to offer the best possible care. Aim: The aim was to highlight patients' experiences of nursing care in the emergency department after experiencing a trauma. Method: A literature review was conducted with critical review and compilation of scientific articles within the chosen topic. A total of nine result articles were used. Results: Patients experiences could be divided into three themes: participation, security and hope. The result showed that patients' experiences of care in emergency rooms after a trauma alternated between positive and negative experiences. Participation was something that varied and affected patients' experience of nursing care. Being assigned information and relevant facts posed concerns and brought a sense of security. Hope was created by good quality care while lack of hope led to a reduced willingness to fight. Conclusions: Increased knowledge already in nursing education about trauma care in the emergency department can provide greater awareness about patients' experiences of care, which in turn can lead to better care. Research to raise awareness about patients' experiences of care after a trauma should be carried out.

  • 292.
    Bolling, Viktor
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Dahl, Cathrine
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Dahlbäck, Archie
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Att förstå varandra: Kommunikation i omvårdnaden trots demenssjukdom2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of a future with expected increased lifetime, more people will be diagnosed with various forms of dementia that causes communication problems. In order to promote good healthcare, it is important to use communication strategies that are adapted to persons with dementia’s potential. Focus should be on the person’s autonomy and integrity. The purpose was to illustrate communication in the care of persons diagnosed with dementia. The study was conducted as a case study where ten scientific articles formed the basis of the study’s results that formed three categories. Caregivers used, among other things, the voice pitch and encouraging comments in the verbal communication when nursing. It was also important that healthcare providers gave the time in the care that was needed to persons with dementia to communicate based on their conditions. Nonverbal communication included, inter alia, eye contact and physical touch. Songs and music was considered to affect the communication differently in the care of persons with dementia. Further research on communication strategies at specific dementias that strengthens the evidence for nurses’ ability to prescribe independent nursing interventions in nursing is considered essential. Education of nurses should include courses in communication strategies for specific dementia diseases.

  • 293.
    Bolse, Kärstin
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Caring for Patients with an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Experiences of Patients and Healthcare Professionals2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: An Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) is a technical device used in the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias. After the implantation of an ICD the entire life situation can be affected with psychological and social consequences for the patient and his/her next of kin. The healthcare professionals play a vital role in providing educational information, support, and technical follow-up of the device. During recent years more and more hospitals have introduced a more team based organisation where the physicians collaborate with specialised ICD nurses.

    Aim: The overall aim of the thesis was to explore how patients with an ICD experienced their life situation and howhealthcare professionals described their experiences of delivering care to ICD patients.

    Methods: The design was descriptive, combining both quantitative and qualitative approaches, and the data was collected from Sweden and the USA. The Uncertainty of Illness Scale (MUIS-C) and Quality of life Index (QLI) instruments were used to determine the level of uncertainty and satisfaction with life (I), in-depth interviews with a phenomenographic approach was used to describe how Swedish and US patients living with an ICD conceived their life situation (II, III) and how healthcare professionals’ experienced delivering care to patients with an ICD, (IV). Finally, to explore clinical aspects of ICD care in Sweden, the Delivery of ICD Questionnaire (DOIQ) was used to describe the healthcare professionals’ experiences and a content analysis was used to describe the written educational information material provided to patients (V).

    Results: There were no differences in uncertainty between pre and post ICD implantation either in Swedish or the US patients. Satisfaction with life was significantly higher among US patients compared to Swedish patients both before and after ICD implantation within the health-functioning, socio-economic and psychological-spiritual domains. The Swedish ICD patients experienced a significantly higher satisfaction with life within the socioeconomic domain after 3 months. (I). The patients felt safe in having an ICD implanted, but the conceptions varied from seeing the device as a life saver to being worried about what could happen. Gratitude at having an ICD varied from happiness at being alive to something that was alien and disturbed the patient. Being more or less dependent included how patient experienced feelings from well-being to grief. Having a network varied from having sufficient support to loneliness. Having a belief in the future ranged from having confidence to look forward to resignation. Gaining awareness described patients’ adaptation to living with an ICD and limitations due to the ICD (II). The patients also underwent a transition from becoming aware of the restriction in the life situation through a process of adaption and having trust in the ICD. This phase was followed by a reorientation phase where they adapted to their life situation and the patient and his/her family regained of their lives (III). The healthcare professionals strove to provide competent and individualised care and infuse confirmation to the patients in form of information, education and support. They gave the patients tools to handle their life situation, through existential support and mediating security (IV). Half of the hospitals had nurse-based clinic and others planned to introduce them. Three hospitals performed follow-up in the form of remote home monitoring. The nurse had specific ICD education from ICD companies and/or various university courses. In the educational information material the biophysical dimensions dominated while the emotional dimension was scarcely described, and the spiritual-existential was not referred to at all (V).

    Conclusions: This thesis offers a further contribution to the scholarly discussion about the relationship between technology and human existence and how to cope with this transition. Our studies revealed that the embodiment of the ICD reflects a merger of experiences about its presence and potential from both patients’ and healthcare professionals’ perspective. This research hopefully encourages healthcare professionals to carefully reflect on what it is like to live with an ICD and to consider practice improvement for the patients’ and the next of kin.

  • 294.
    Bolse, Kärstin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Flemme, Inger
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Ivarsson, Anita
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jinhage, Britt-Marie
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Carroll, Diane
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.
    Edvardsson, Nils
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg.
    Hamilton, Glenys A.
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Life situation related to the ICD implantation: self-reported uncertainty and satisfaction in Swedish and US samples2002In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 243-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to describe changes in the life situation related to the ICD implantation of Swedish and US samples with regard to uncertainty and satisfaction. The life situation was measured by reference to the uncertainty caused by the condition and satisfaction with the life situation. Inferential statistics were used to analyse changes within and between the Swedish and US samples. Uncertainty showed a statistically significant difference between the Swedish and US samples before as well as after the ICD implantation. A higher level of uncertainty was indicated for the US sample prior to the ICD implantation and for the Swedish sample following the implantation. In the Swedish sample, satisfaction with life showed a statistically significant difference within the socio-economic domain, indicating a higher degree of satisfaction 3 months after implantation. Satisfaction within the domains of health and functioning, socio-economics and psychological-spiritual showed a statistically significant difference between the Swedish and US samples both before and after ICD implantation, indicating a higher degree of satisfaction in the US sample. The previous study shows that the ICD-patient's life situation is changed after the implantation and that it is necessary to provide the patient with information and education based on their own preconditions. The fact that US sample was investigated at a later stage after ICD implantation than the Swedish sample may have influenced the results of the study.

  • 295.
    Bolse, Kärstin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Johansson, Ingela
    Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science, Linköping University.
    Strömberg, Anna
    Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science, Linköping University.
    Organisation of care for Swedish patients with an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator, a national survey2011In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 20, no 17-18, p. 2600-2608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim.

    To describe the clinical aspects of implantable cardioverter defibrillators care in Sweden with focus on organisation, the role and education of nurses, patient information and education and areas in need of improvement.

    Background.

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillators implantations have developed rapidly in recent years and are now an established arrhythmia treatment. The expanding indication for implantable cardioverter defibrillators implantation demands new competencies and resources in the implantable cardioverter defibrillators team members.

    Methods.

    Participants were recruited among physicians and nurses in all of the hospitals implanting implantable cardioverter defibrillators (n = 16). Data were collected by a questionnaire. Additionally, all written educational materials provided to patients pre- and postimplant were collected from all 16 hospitals. Deductive content analysis using Sarvimäki and Stenbock-Hult's five holistic dimensions was employed to ascertain how information was provided in brochures and information materials.

    Results.

    Half of the hospitals (n = 8) had nurse-based outpatient clinics and several others planned to introduce them. Three hospitals carried out distance follow-ups by means of tele-monitoring. The nurses had received specific implantable cardioverter defibrillators education from implantable cardioverter defibrillators companies and/or various university courses. The biophysical dimension dominated in the information material, while the emotional, intellectual and socio-cultural dimensions were scarcely described, and the spiritual-existential was not referred to at all.

    Conclusion.

    Holistic care of implantable cardioverter defibrillators patients can be achieved by means of a multidisciplinary implantable cardioverter defibrillators team and more patient-centred educational strategies. In Sweden, the organisation of implantable cardioverter defibrillators care and follow-up is developing towards more nurse-based clinics.

    Relevance to clinical practice.

    Development and implementation of structured care programmes with a more holistic approach can improve future implantable cardioverter defibrillators care. The content of the written educational materials need to be more holistic, rather than mainly focusing on the biophysical and technical aspects of living with an implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

  • 296.
    Boman, Ida
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Tryggvesson, Emmy
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Sjuksköterskans oberoende omvårdnadsåtgärder för barn med funktionell obstipation: En allmän litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Functional constipation is a common problem in children around the world. Functional constipation is defined as hard stools, feeling of incomplete defecation and difficulty in emptying the intestine. Experienced pain associated with intestinal emptying is the most common cause of children suffering from functional constipation, for this reason the child avoids defecation. Although laxantia can lead to a majority of side effects, it is often the first treatment for constipation. For this reason, the aim of this study was to investigate what independent nursing measures the nurse may use in the treatment of functional constipation of children in the ages 1-18 years. The nurse has a significant role in the care of functional constipation, therefore knowledge about the problem is required. The study is conducted as a general literature study and is based on ten scientific articles. The result has been processed and is being presented in three themes. It appears that teaching, encouragement and follow-up are parts that are of major importance in the treatment of functional constipation in children. The nurse should establish a supportive and encouraging relationship with the children and parents in order to achieve the best possible treatment outcomes. More research in the field is necessary to develop nurse's knowledge of independent nursing interventions in functional constipation.

  • 297.
    Bonafé, Fatima
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Donovan, Annie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Omvårdnad av patienter med smärta ur ett genusperspektiv: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I samhället råder ett genussystem som särhåller män och kvinnor och detta skapar genusskillnader där mannen är normen och kvinnan den avvikande. Genus är det människan formas till genom kultur och tänkande. Smärta är ett problem för patienter och omvårdnad av patienter med smärta är en viktig del av sjuksköterskeprofessionen. Omvårdnad av patienter med smärta baserat på inbillningar om genus kan skapa felaktig bedömning och behandling och kan leda till fara för patienten. Syftet med studien var att undersöka omvårdnad av patienter med smärta ur ett genusperspektiv. En litteraturstudie med systematisk sökning genomfördes. Artiklarna genomgick kvalitetsgranskning och etikgranskning. En kvalitativ innehållsanalys med en deduktiv ansats genomfördes utifrån sjuksköterskans omvårdnad av patienter med smärta. Resultatet är baserat på 13 vetenskapliga artiklar och presenteras i två kategorier; bedömning av patienter med smärta och behandling av patienter med smärta. Sjuksköterskor bedömer manliga patienters smärta som mer intensiv och trovärdig än kvinnliga patienters smärta som också rekommenderas mer psykologisk hjälp än manliga patienter. Resultatet visar också att sjuksköterskor kan låta egna fördomar påverka smärtbedömningen. Litteraturstudien både bekräftar och dementerar att det finns genusskillnader mellan manliga och kvinnliga patienter i farmakologisk smärtbehandling. Genuspåverkan kan ses genomgående från utbildningen som student till arbetsplatsen som sjuksköterska. För att skapa en mer personcentrerad omvårdnad av patienter med smärta är kunskap om genus något som behövs prioriteras, förslagsvis genom reflektion och utbildning, både i sjuksköterskeutbildningen och på arbetsplatsen. Ytterligare forskning om genusskillnader i andra delar av vården är önskvärt.

  • 298.
    Borcak Walder, Linda
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Johansson, Caroline
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Patienters upplevelser av utmattningssyndrom: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    If you are exposed during a certain period of time to prolonged stress without time to recover, you may develop exhaustion disorder. The diagnosis of exhaustion disorder is a relatively new diagnosis in Sweden; the diagnosis was formally accepted in year 2005. Aim: This study referred to lighten exhaustion disorder from the patient's perspective. Method:  A literature review was performed; the search was made by using selected keywords and were conducted in the databases Cinahl, PubMed and PsycInfo. The searches in this study included ten articles. Through content analysis the articles was structured and analysed. Results: Results are presented under five topics: Letting go, insight balance and self-image, perceptions of the warning signs and symptoms, assistance and support and recovery. The results of the literature study highlights the importance of patients' experience to come to the knowledge of the reason why they suffered exhaustion disorder, not until then could they begin their journey towards recovery. Evidence shows that patients working with their behavior patterns had their self-esteem and self-respect back. By learning strategies to manage stress patients learned to recognize the body's signals. Further research of patients’ experiences is important when the effects of rehabilitation methods for exhaustion disorders is deficient.

  • 299.
    Borg, Alexandra
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Burman, Evelina
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    "Se mig som en människa": Upplevelser av värdighet i omvårdnad av personer med demens2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Då demografiska förändringar sker i samhället där fler blir äldre och allt fler drabbas av demenssjukdom kommer vårdpersonal i större grad vårda personer med demens där det är av stor vikt som vårdpersonal att inte låta värdigheten negligeras. Syftet var att belysa upplevelser av värdighet i omvårdnad av personer med demens. Studien genomfördes som en litteraturstudie där 12 kvalitativa artiklar användes till resultatet. Artiklarna granskades och analyserades och fyra teman framkom som innehöll omvårdnad av personer med demens relaterat till värdighet. Upplevelser av delaktighet, sociala interaktioner, tid samt kunskap och säkerhet relaterat till värdighet upplevdes viktigt i omvårdnad av personer med demens vid bevarande av värdighet. Forskning gällande omvårdnad av personer med demens relaterat till värdighet kommer vara betydelsefullt för såväl anhöriga som vårdpersonal genom en fördjupad kunskap som kan leda till att värdighet bevaras och återupprättas. Ytterligare forskning i framtiden om demenssjukdom hos äldre med annan etnisk bakgrund än svensk kommer vara av stor betydelse då den ökade invandringen leder till att fler vårdas i Sverige.

  • 300.
    Borg, Christin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Spång, Ingela
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Att leva med en stomi: – upplevelser av livskvalitet2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden about 20 000 people live with an ostomy, which is a surgically constructed opening in the abdominal cavity. However, many patients have difficulty in dealing with this newly emerging circumstance in life. Frequently, a nurse’s daily activities will include the caretaking of people with an ostomy. Since the nurse's task is to support people in their recovery and their return to normal patterns in their lives, it is important to describe these people's experiences of quality of life. The purpose of this study was to describe patients’ experiences of quality of life after a surgery with an ostomy. A literature review was carried out with 13 articles related to the purpose. The results from these articles are sorted under two headings, which highlight the experiences that lead to reduced or increased quality of life. The ostomy involves a change in life, which initially leads to a reduction in quality of life and social life may also initially suffer. These experiences will over time transform into an awareness that the ostomy has saved their lives. Many, especially those with a permanent ostomy, learn to accept their ostomy and to adapt to it, resulting in improved quality of life. Research on quality of life in relation to the experiences related to living with an ostomy, should continue to enhance nurses’ understanding when meeting people with an ostomy.

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