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  • 251.
    Axelsson, Åsa B.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Zettergren, Margaretha
    Institute of Nursing, Faculty of Health Caring Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Christer
    Institute of Nursing, Faculty of Health Caring Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Good and bad experiences of family presence during acute care and resuscitation. What makes the difference?2005In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 161-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Family presence (FP) in the resuscitation room is still controversial, and its appropriateness for patient and family has been discussed. We examined both positive and negative experiences in order to establish the reasons for the difference.

    Aim:

    The aim of the present literature review was to describe patients', relatives' and staff's opinions and experiences of FP during invasive procedures and resuscitation.

    Method:

    12 original papers, published between January 1995 and February 2003, were reviewed. Most patients and relatives agreed that they had positive experiences of FP. They described how FP enhanced the feeling of support and connectedness within the family. Family members believed that FP helped them in their grieving process. Most staff members without FP experience felt that FP would increase the risk of psychological distress for the family. Those who had participated in an FP programme believed that FP was not only beneficial for the family but also for staff.

    Conclusion:

    Family presence during resuscitation and acute care has the potential to enhance the care of the patient and to benefit everyone involved. However, implementation of FP during resuscitation must take account of potential problems.

  • 252.
    Axelsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Herlitz, Johan
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    How bystanders perceive their cardiopulmonary resuscitation intervention: a qualitative study2000In: Resuscitation, ISSN 0300-9572, E-ISSN 1873-1570, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 71-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) prior to arrival of the emergency medical service is well documented. In Sweden, CPR is initiated prior to emergency medical services (EMS) arrival in about 30% of cardiac arrests out-of-hospital, a figure which should be improved urgently. To do so, it is of interest to know more about the bystanders' perceptions of their intervention. A qualitative method inspired by the phenomenographic approach was applied to 19 bystanders who had performed CPR. In the analysis, five main categories and 14 subcategories emerged. The main categories were: to have a sense of humanity, to have competence, to feel an obligation, to have courage and to feel exposed. Interviews described how humanity and concern for another human being were the foundation of their intervention. CPR training offers the possibility to give appropriate help in this emergency. If the aim of CPR training was extended beyond teaching the skill of CPR to include preparation of the rescuer for the intervention and his/her reactions, this might increase the number of people able to take action in the cardiac arrest situation.

  • 253.
    Axelsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Thoren, Ann-Britt
    Holmberg, S.
    Sahlgrenska Univ Hosp, Div Cardiol, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Herlitz, Johan
    Status of CPR in the Swedish population in the year 2000. A nation wide survey2002In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 23, p. 350-350Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 254.
    Axesol, Anita
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Rudin, Sofie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Synfältsinskränkningar och bilkörning2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 255.
    Axesol Greis, Anita
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Rudin, Sofie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Personers erfarenhet av besök vid sjuksköterskeledd ögonmottagning2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: People struck by glaucoma or diabetes shall be offered examination on a regular basis. Nurseled clinic is a measure to cope with the demand. The purpose of the study was to analyze people’s experience of a nurse-led clinic within ophthalmology. Method: Cross sectional study with quantified approach and consecutive selection. During one month, 187 participants who visited the clinic for control of diabetic and glaucoma responded to a survey. Six questions modified from the Swedish National Patient Survey were used. The data was collected in a digital format directly after the visit. Questionnaire responses were on a non parametric ordinal scale with responses between 1, no, not at all to 5 yes, I agree. Result: Median and mode showed 5 and the total mean value showed 4,96. There was no difference in the experience related to age, diagnosis, type of visit and vision impairment. Conclusion: Visitors to a nurseled ophthalmology clinic experienced the clinic to be carried out personcentered. The questionnaire was inquired targeted in personcentered care and was agreed by the majority.

  • 256.
    Azdanlou Ghajar, Sahar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Gustafson, Ida
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Mödrars upplevelse av amningssvårigheter: Analys av bloggar från internet2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many women consider breastfeeding as the most natural way to give their newborn child nutrition. Mothers receive information from medical staff that breast milk contains all the nutrients that the infant needs and antibodies that protect the baby against common childhood diseases. Not all women can breastfeed in today's society and that could wake feelings in mothers that during the pregnancy has been thinking to breastfeeding but who involuntarily have been unable to do so. The aim of the study was to with blog texts describe mother’s experiences of breastfeeding difficulties in the first six months following the birth. The study was based on a qualitative approach with an inductive approach. Data were collected through blog posts and comments from fifteen different blogs and then analysed using qualitative content analysis. The results are based on two categories: “Living up to the norms and attitudes” and “Professional support in breastfeeding consulting”. These categories formed a theme: “Mothers struggle to balance between the requirements and expectations of breastfeeding”. Based on this study, the staff who work with mothers and breastfeeding consulting on various health care units enhance the understanding of how mothers experiencing breastfeeding difficulties. This furthermore could contribute to mother´s experiencing less distress interaction with health and medical care.

  • 257.
    Babic, Dragana
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Ferhatovic, Amila
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Hjälp till självhjälp: Åtgärder som förebygger exacerbation hos personer med kronisk obstruktiv lungsjukdom2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kronisk obstruktiv lungsjukdom (KOL) tillhör en av de vanligast förekommande sjukdomarna i Sverige och medför mycket lidande för den drabbade människan. En ständig andfåddhet, trötthet och hosta leder till en livslång kamp för den drabbade. Exacerbation är ett återkommande skov av grundsjukdomen KOL och yttrar sig i en förvärrad dyspné, skapar ett livshotande och ångestskapande tillstånd. Syftet med litteraturstudien var att belysa åtgärder som sjuksköterskan kan använda i omvårdnaden för att förebygga exacerbation hos personer med kronisk obstruktiv lungsjukdom. I resultatet framkom följande kategorier: Undervisning och Mentorskap. Det krävs individuellt anpassad patientundervisning och mentorskap för att öka patientens delaktighet och fysisk aktivitet för att förebygga exacerbationer, lindra lidande och minska ångestupplevelsen. Genom att sjuksköterskan använder dessa strategier i omvårdnaden kan en ökad egenvårdsförmåga till dyspnéhantering uppnås vilket leder till dyspnéns minskade intensitet, varaktighet och förekomst. Resultatet kan användas och tillämpas i utbildning av sjuksköterskor i klinisk verksamhet för att främja egenvård och hälsa till personer med KOL. Mer forskning om åtgärder som förebygger exacerbationer i samband med KOL behövs eftersom KOL inom den närmaste framtiden blir den mest förekommande dödsorsaken i världen.                                               

  • 258.
    Backe, Christina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Persson, Jennie
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Pärna, Helena
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    En andra chans med Implanterbar Defibrillator: Upplevelser av förändrad livssituation2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Every year, there are 10 000 cases of sudden cardiac arrest outside of hospitals. Those who survive a cardiac arrest may be considered for treatment with an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD). The ICD has been in use since 1980 and the developments along with the number of implantations are continuously evolving.

    The health care system has an important role in supporting, educating and informing the patients and their families, to help them adapt to the new life as or with an ICD-bearer.

    The purpose of this study is to highlight the experiences and life alterations the ICD-bearer faces. The results are based on the analysis of eight qualitative and ten quantitative research articles.

    Patients with ICDs experience psychological distress; a dependence on other people; being forced to make life alterations and finding acceptance for the new life as an ICD-bearer. For many, an ICD is equivalent to a new chance at life, but it also represents every day physical, psychological and social changes. Changes that also affect close relatives.

    The care of these patients ought to be characterized by individual support and education, as the number of ICD implantations is constantly increasing and since it has been proven that life situations change. This in combination with good technical expertise facilitates the adaptation to life as an ICD-bearer.

  • 259.
    Backe, Marita
    et al.
    Department of Medicine, Halmstad County Hospital, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Larsson, Kerstin
    Department of Medicine, Halmstad County Hospital, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Department of Primary Health Care, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Patients’ conceptions of their life situation within the first week after a stroke event: A qualitative analysis1996In: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing, ISSN 0964-3397, E-ISSN 1532-4036, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 285-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to find out how stroke patients conceived their life situation within the first week of the acute care phase as seen from the nurses’ viewpoint. Six patients were interviewed within 3 weeks from their first stroke, using questions based on a holistic philosophy and analysed with the phenomonographic approach. Two main categories emerged from the results: the feeling of unreality and the awareness of a changed role in life, together with six subcategories; feeling of a changed perception of the body; feeling of being confused; loss of capability; awareness of confined life space; the importance of support and encouragement; and the will to look for new opportunities. The study concludes that the body change resulting from a stroke leads to both physical and psychological trauma, in which the psychological crisis can be very deep and best described as a personal catastrophe. The patient’s capability to receive and understand information becomes blocked, which influences both the nurse and the patient’s next of kin with regard to their care of the patient. Conversations with the patient must be frequent so that the acute care can be evaluated and agreement reached between the patient’s wishes and the nurses’ objectives. The results indicate the significance of intervention programmes based on crisis theory within the first week of a stroke event.

  • 260.
    Backman, Ellen
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), The Wigforss Group.
    Ätutveckling hos barn – en gemensam utmaning för barn och dess vårdnadshavare2016In: Små & stora nyheter, ISSN 1400-4186, no maj, p. 10-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 261.
    Backman, Ellen
    et al.
    Region Halland, Kungsbacka, Sverige.
    Eberhart, Barbara
    Västerbottens läns landsting, Umeå, Sverige.
    Gustafsson, Carin
    Region Skåne, Malmö, Sverige.
    Häggström Qvist, Camilla
    Västra Götalandsregionen, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Lindberger, Lena
    Stockholms läns landsting, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Nolemo, Maria
    Landstinget Västmanland, Västerås, Sverige.
    Nylander, Eva-Marie
    Västra Götalandsregionen, Vänersborg, Sverige.
    Ragnar, Catarina
    Region Kronoberg, Växjö, Sverige.
    Metoder för att stimulera språk och kommunikation hos barn, ungdomar och vuxna inom habiliteringen2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Språkliga och kommunikativa begränsningar är vanligt förekommande vid ett flertal av de diagnoser och tillstånd som återfinns hos personer inom habiliteringsverksamheter i Sverige och förutsätter en tvärprofessionell och långvarig insats. Syftet med föreliggande arbete är att systematiskt beskriva bästa tillgängliga evidens avseende interventioner fokuserade på språklig och kommunikativ förmåga för personer med medfödda funktionsnedsättningar från sex års ålder och uppåt inom habiliteringsverksamhet. Arbetet kan ses som en fortsättning på EBH-rapporten ”Tidiga kommunikations- och språkinsatser till förskolebarn”.Internationellt publicerade interventionsstudier från de senaste 15 åren med fokus på språkliga och kommunikativa förmågor vid typiskt förekommande diagnoser inom habiliteringsverksamhet granskades och sammanfattades. Initialt inkluderades endast översiktsartiklar och metaanalyser, men då dessa till största delen hade fokus på autism och/eller Alternativ och Kompletterande Kommunikation (AKK) utökades sökningen till att även inkludera ett antal primärstudier med annat fokus. Rapporten omfattar 67 studier.Resultatet visar att ”stark rekommendation att använda” (enligt GRADE) endast förekommer i begränsad utsträckning, och när det förekommer är det vid insatser relaterade till autism och/eller AKK. ”Stark rekommendation att inte använda” finns vid insatser relaterade till akupunktur/akupressur och faciliterad kommunikation. Det kan konstateras att det finns en stor brist på studier avseende vuxna personer respektive intellektuell funktionsnedsättning.Detta arbete tillför ytterligare kunskap till området för evidensbaserade insatser vid svårigheter när det gäller kommunikation och språk, och visar att evidens i strikt bemärkelse är svår att erhålla bland annat beroende på de små och heterogena patientgrupperna och, som en konsekvens av detta, en brist på stora randomiserade studier.

  • 262.
    Backman, Ellen
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Regional Habilitation Centre, Region Halland, Kungsbacka, Sweden.
    Granlund, Mats
    CHILD Research group, SIDR, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Ann-Kristin
    Department of Research and Development, Region Halland, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Documentation of everyday life and health carefollowing gastrostomy tube placement in children: a content analysis of medical records.2019In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Everyday routines play a vital role in child functioning and development. This study explored health professionals’ documentation of everyday life and health care during the first year following gastrostomy tube placement in children and the content of intervention goals. Methods: The medical records of 39 children (median age 38 months, min–max: 15–192) in one region of Sweden were analysed. A content analysis approach was used with an inductive qualitative analysis supplemented by a deductive, quantitative analysis of documented intervention goals following the ICF-CY. Results: One overall theme, “Seeking a balance”, captured the view of life with a gastrostomy and the health care provided. Two categories, “Striving for physical health” and “Depicting everyday life” with seven sub-categories, captured the key aspects of the documentation. Twenty-one children (54%) had intervention goals related to the gastrostomy, and these goals primarily focused on the ICF-CY component “Body functions”. Conclusions: To some extent the medical records reflected different dimensions of everyday life, but the intervention goals clearly focused on bodily aspects. Understanding how health care for children using a gastrostomy is documented and planned by applying an ecocultural framework adds a valuable perspective and can contribute to family-centred interventions for children using a gastrostomy.Implications for Rehabilitation There is a need for increased awareness in healthcare professionals for a more consistent and holistic healthcare approach in the management of children with gastrostomy tube feeding. This study suggests that an expanded focus on children’s participation in everyday mealtimes and in the healthcare follow-up of gastrostomy tube feeding is important in enhancing the intervention outcome. Multidisciplinary teams with a shared bio-psycho-social understanding of health would contribute to a situation in which the everyday lives of households adapt to living with gastrostomy. Routine care for children with gastrostomy should follow a checklist combining crucial physiological aspects of gastrostomy tube feeding with seemingly mundane family functions in order to achieve a successful gastrostomy tube feeding intervention.  © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 263.
    Backman, Ellen
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Regional Habilitation Center, Region Halland, Kungsbacka, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Ann-Kristin
    Department of Research and Development, Region Halland, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Sjögreen, Lotta
    Mun-H-Center Orofacial Resource Center for Rare Diseases, Public Dental Service, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gastrostomy tube feeding in children with developmental or acquired disorders: A longitudinal comparison on health care provision, and eating outcomes four years after gastrostomy2018In: Nutrition in clinical practice, ISSN 0884-5336, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 576-583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies on long‐term feeding and eating outcomes in children requiring gastrostomy tube feeding (GT) are scarce. The aim of this study was to describe children with developmental or acquired disorders receiving GT and to compare longitudinal eating and feeding outcomes. A secondary aim was to explore healthcare provision related to eating and feeding.

    Methods: This retrospective cohort study reviewed medical records of children in 1 administrative region of Sweden with GT placement between 2005 and 2012. Patient demographics, primary diagnoses, age at GT placement, and professional healthcare contacts prior to and after GT placement were recorded and compared. Feeding and eating outcomes were assessed 4 years after GT placement.

    Results: The medical records of 51 children, 28 boys and 23 girls, were analyzed and grouped according to “acquired” (n = 13) or “developmental” (n = 38) primary diagnoses. At 4 years after GT placement, 67% were still using GT. Only 6 of 37 (16%) children with developmental disorders transferred to eating all orally, as opposed to 10 of 11 (91%) children with acquired disorders. Children with developmental disorders were younger at the time of GT placement and displayed a longer duration of GT activity when compared with children with acquired disorders.

    Conclusions: This study demonstrates a clear difference between children with developmental or acquired disorders in duration of GT activity and age at GT placement. The study further shows that healthcare provided to children with GT is in some cases multidisciplinary, but primarily focuses on feeding rather than eating.

  • 264.
    Backman, Ellen
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Region Halland, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Ann-Kristin
    Department of Research and Development, Region Halland, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Sjögreen, Lotta
    Mun-H-Center Orofacial Resource Center for Rare diseases, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The use of gastrostomy in Swedish children – indications, and trends between 2005 and 20152017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children with complex medical needs requiring nutritional support are growing in number. This presentation will add new knowledge regarding gastrostomy in children by reporting primary diagnosis, and indications for the use of gastrostomy. Furthermore, the presentation will discuss and analyse data evolution trends from 2005 to 2015 in Sweden.

    Methods: The first part of the study used national statistics to provide a broad picture of gastrostomy use in Swedish children. The second part applied a retrospective observational study design, reviewing medical charts in order to obtain an in-depth picture of the children in need for gastrostomy, and its use in a five-year perspective.

    Results: The number of gastrostomy cases recorded in the national database was 3 946, 53% male, and 47% female. The distribution of age groups was: 0-4 years: 61% , 5-9 years: 17%, 10-14 years: 12%, and 15-19: years 10%.  When observing trends on a national level, the number of children receiving gastrostomy increased in average by 13% per year. Changes in the separate age groups were analysed. An increase was noted for children aged 0-4 years and for children aged 5-9 years. In the age groups 10-14 years and 15-19 years, there was no progressive increase. The results from the national statistics database will be discussed in relation to the medical chart-analyses of 75 children receiving gastrostomy in one Swedish administrative region between 2005 and 2015. 

    Conclusions: As in many parts of Europe, the number of children in need for gastrostomy is also growing in Sweden, with the youngest children seeming to be the group increasing most.

    Clinical implications: Nutritional support in Sweden is publicly financed, therefore these findings may be useful when planning both monetary and human resources in meeting the future challenges of paediatric health care.

  • 265.
    Backman, Linn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Kleveland, Therese
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Wetterlöv, Malin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Jag älskar mitt jobb men...: Aspekter i sjuksköterskors arbetsmiljö som påverkar omvårdnadskvalitén2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    By findingoutwhich aspectsofnurseworkenvironmentthatmayaffect the qualityofcarenursescanhavegreateropportunity to design their ideal work situation and ultimatelyprovide the best possiblecare. The aimofthisstudywas to investigateaspectsofnurses' workenvironmentthataffectcarequality. The result is based on 20 scientificarticles: bothqualitative and quantitative design. The results show thatifnursesexperience a goodworkingenvironmentthisimprovesnurses' and patients' assessmentofcarequality. Workload has a criticalimpact on the qualityofcare. Nursesareforced to set prioritiesdue to timeconstraints and a heavyworkload, thisnegativelyaffects patients and results in increasedcosts ofcare. Being part of a well-functioning team withgoodcommunicationimprovesnurses' jobsatisfaction. A leadershouldtakenurses' opinions seriously and ensureenoughqualifiedstaff. Salary, careeropportunities, skillsdevelopment, and nurse representation at decision-makinglevelsareseen as importantaspects to raise the profession's status and jobsatisfaction. Implication for further research on the subjectcould be interventional studies thatattempt to improve the revealedaspectsof the workenvironment. Decision-makers, patients and their relatives understandingof the qualityofcarerelated to nurses' workenvironmentare alsoneeded to clearlydescribe the subject.

  • 266.
    Backman, Mayumi
    Halmstad University, School of Teacher Education (LUT).
    Högstadieelevers tankar kring sin uteblivna frukost2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats tar upp en annan vinkel på frukostätande och högstadieelevers tankar kring frukostätande och deras skolprestation. Målsättningen med uppsatsen är att redovisa och analysera tankar bakom ungdomars uteblivna frukost med hjälp av tidigare forskning av både för - och nackdelar med frukosten. Fältarbetet gjordes bland elever i årskurs sju: enkätundersökning med två klasser och djupintervjuer med fyra elever som inte åt frukost varje dag på skoldagarna. Hälsopedagogik och skolans roll tas också upp. Resultatet av undersökningen har visat att majoriteten av eleverna åt frukost varje dag och tre elever åt frukost endast på helgerna. De som hoppade över frukosten på vardagarna verkade klara sig ganska bra med sitt skolarbete trots allt. Det fanns viss koppling mellan vissa av elevernas vana att fasta och utebliven frukost när det gällde deras kroppskännedom och hur deras hälsotillstånd påverkar skolprestationer. Flickorna var mer medvetna om sin hälsa och hälsofrågor än pojkarna i intervjuerna. Förutom tidsbrist, trötthet eller dålig aptit som var orsaker till utebliven frukost, fanns det en elev som mådde dåligt av att äta frukost på morgonen. Frukost kan orsaka magont, stress, trötthet och därmed sämre skolprestation enligt henne, vilket ät motsatsen till vad de flesta tidigare forskning om frukost har visat. Eleven tyckte att det är det viktigt att äta frukost trots att hon själv inte upplevde någon nytta av att äta frukost. Frågan är om hon också ska äta en ordentlig frukost på morgonen när hennes kropp säger ifrån. Tål hon inte äta på morgonen eller uppstår besvären på grund av hennes ovana att äta frukost. Olika perspektiv och orsaker till symptomen och konsekvenser av utebliven frukost kommer att diskuteras. Studien har också visat att frukostätande är ett komplicerat fenomen där olika faktorer spelar in. Eftersom varje individ är olika, borde skolverksamheten ta hänsyn till individens olika behov. Så länge det finns nackdelar med att äta frukost, även om de som inte äter frukost är en monoritet, borde vikten av frukostätande introduceras försiktigt.

  • 267.
    Bagdasaryan, Violeta
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Bladh, Ainura
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Khatsarevych, Tetiana
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Den andra våren: val av copingstrategier hos kvinnor underklimakterietransition2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Menopause is a natural process during a woman’slifecycle when her body goes through physiological changes due to hormonalalterations. Also, menopause is a development-related tran-sition.According to the theory of transition it will appear within a certain timeframe, follows a clear route and leads to alterations in identity, role,relations or behavioral patterns. Knowledge of these stages of change and whataffects women’s behavior during transition is a vital qualification requiredfor nurses to succeed in providing healthy transition. Thepurpose of this literature study was to high-light factors that affect thechoice of coping strategies. Twelve articles were studied and analyzed based onthe purpose of the study. The result showed that there are five groups offactors that can affect women’s choice of coping strategies; socio-cultural andsocio-economical, type and severity of menopause symptoms, availability ofsupportive social networks, personality related factors and the current lifesituation. Women with established networks can seek help and support withintheir family and amongst their friends. When there is a lack of these types ofnetworks, healthcare personnel can become the only resource for discussingmenopause-related issues. Keeping these factors in mind, which serve the basisfor different coping strategies, healthcare-institutions should createeducation and models to assist women with menopause symptoms and develop aneffective coping-strategy.

  • 268.
    Baigi, Amir
    et al.
    FoU-enheten, Primärvården Halland.
    Bergh, Håkan
    FoU-enheten, Primärvården Halland.
    Haraldsson, Katarina
    FoU-enheten, Primärvården Halland.
    Lindgren, Eva-Carin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Lydell, Marie
    FoU-enheten, Primärvården Halland.
    Månsson, Jörgen
    FoU-enheten, Primärvården Halland.
    Wendt, Eva
    FoU-enheten, Primärvården Halland.
    Hälsa på lika villkor? Hallands resultat från en nationell folkhälsoenkät2005Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    N/A

  • 269.
    Baigi, Amir
    et al.
    R and D Unit, Primary Health Care, Halland County Council, Falkenberg, Sweden.
    Bering, Charlotte
    Department of Medicine, Visby Hospital, Visby, Sweden.
    Hildingh, Cathrine
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Almerud, Sofia
    School of Health Sciences and Social Work, Växjö University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Non-attendees' attitudes to the design of a cardiac rehabilitation programme focused on information of risk factors and professional involvement2009In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 62-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Enhancing the accuracy of the content of cardiac rehabilitation programmes (CRPs) and providing the mediators preferred by patients can increase attendance rates in line with secondary prevention goals. The aim of this study was therefore to explore non-attendees' attitudes to the design of a CRP focused on information of risk factors and professional involvement. Method: Consecutive patients with coronary heart disease (n = 100) who declined to participate in a CRP answered a questionnaire focusing on patients' attitudes to risk factors and cardiac rehabilitation. Results: Non-attendees considered that information of hypertension and information of sedentary lifestyle constituted the most important content of a CRP. Physicians, nurses and social workers were considered the most suitable professional categories. Females preferred nurses when discussing smoking issues while males preferred physicians. More males compared to females preferred occupational therapists for dealing with stress, physicians for depression and social workers for social isolation. Conclusions: Non-attendees' attitudes are similar to those of attendees and quite traditional in that they favour physician or nurse-led activities. There is a difference in attitude between male and female.

  • 270.
    Baigi, Amir
    et al.
    Primary Health Care Halland, Falkenberg.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Marklund, B.
    Göteborg University.
    Oden, A.
    Statistics, Göteborg.
    Cardiovascular mortality focusing on socio-economic influence: the low-risk population of Halland compared to the population of Sweden as a whole2002In: Public Health, ISSN 0033-3506, E-ISSN 1476-5616, Vol. 116, no 5, p. 285-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and socioeconomic status (SES) in Sweden and to estimate to what extent the difference between a province with low mortality and the rest of Sweden was dependent on socio-economic factors. A population-based retrospective study with a historical prospective approach was performed covering a 10-y period in the province of Halland, Sweden, as well as Sweden as a whole. Altogether 1654 744 men and 1592 467 women were included, of whom 45 394 men and 43 403 women were from Halland, distributed according to SES. Multivariate analysis with Poisson regression was used. Relative risks with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Both men and women with a low SES showed a significantly higher risk of death from CVD in Sweden as a whole. The risk was 23% higher for male blue-collar workers and 44% higher for female blue-collar workers when compared to their white-collar counterparts. The level of mortality in Halland was 14% lower compared to the country as a whole when only age was taken into account. When the socio-economic variable was also included, this figure was 8%. The results show the substantial significance of social differences with respect to CVD mortality. The effect of SES seems to be more important than that of geographical conditions when the latter are isolated from socio-economic influence.

  • 271.
    Baigi, Amir
    et al.
    Department of Primary Health Care, Göteborg University, Göteborg.
    Hildingh, Cathrine
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Virdhall, Helen
    Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Sense of coherence as well as social support and network as perceived by patients with a suspected or manifest myocardial infarction: a short-term follow-up study2008In: Clinical Rehabilitation, ISSN 0269-2155, E-ISSN 1477-0873, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 646-652Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective:

    To compare sense of coherence as well as social support and network as perceived by ischaemic heart disease patients at baseline and two weeks post-discharge in terms of age, sex, educational and marital status.

    Design:

    Multicentre study with a prospective short-term follow-up design.

    Setting:

    A university hospital, a central hospital and a district hospital in southern Sweden.

    Subjects:

    Consecutive sample of 246 patients with a suspect or manifest myocardial infarction.

    Main measures:

    The Lubben Social Network Scale (LSNS-R), the Medical Outcome Study (MOS) Social Support Survey and the Sense of Coherence Scale were included in a self-administered questionnaire and answered twice, together with sociodemographic variables.

    Results:

    Bivariate analyses indicated changes in social support (practical support increased in men and decreased in women; both P= 0.003) and social network (family network increased among >65 year olds; P= 0.001, men; P= 0.013, and women; P= 0.033, those with a low; P=0.017, and intermediate; P= 0.033, educational level, as well as those cohabiting; P= 0.0001), but did not reveal any difference in sense of coherence.

    Conclusions:

    Sociodemographic variables have no influence on sense of coherence but do affect social support (i.e. practical support and social network, family). Ischaemic heart disease patients' short stay in hospital implies that the network outside the hospital has to assume responsibility, but at the same time it is important for health care professionals to have sufficient knowledge to be able to support the specific needs of patients and their family members.

  • 272.
    Baigi, Amir
    et al.
    Primary Health Care Research and Development Unit, Halland County Council, Falkenberg, Sweden.
    Marklund, Bertil
    Department of Primary Health Care, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    The association between socio-economic status and chest pain, focusing on self-rated health in a primary health care area of Sweden2001In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 420-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study objective: The study objective was to determine, first, the association between men's and women's chest pain and their socio-economic status (occupation, smoking) and, secondly, the association between their socio-economic status and self-rated health, in a primary health care area. Design and setting: A population-based cross-sectional survey was made in a primary health care area of Sweden. Primarily based on occupation according to Swedish standards, 4,238 men and women were divided into two socio-economic groups; blue-collar and white-collar workers. Methods: Odds ratios with 95% Cl were calculated by multivariate logistic regression, controlling for the variable age as confounding factor. Student's t-test was used to compare self-rated health, and the chi (2)-test to determine any difference in smoking habits between the two groups. Main results: Both male and female blue-collar workers showed significantly more chest pain when excited than white-collar workers. In six of eight health indices, they also reported significantly worse self-rated health than the white-collar workers. Conclusions: These findings show that there are socio-economic inequalities in self-reported chest pain. Furthermore, socio-economic status has a major influence on self-rated health, acting across the working life of both sexes.

  • 273.
    Bakker, Roel H.
    et al.
    Department of Applied Research in Care, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    van den Berg, Godefridus Petrus
    GGD Amsterdam Public Health Service, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Stewart, R.E.
    Department of Community & Occupational Health, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Lok, W.
    Department of Applied Research in Care, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Bouma, J.
    Department of Health Care, Science shop, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Impact of wind turbine sound on annoyance, self-reported sleep disturbance and psychological distress2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 425, p. 42-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of the research: The present government in the Netherlands intends to realize a substantial growth ofwind energy before 2020, both onshore and offshore. Wind turbines, when positioned in the neighborhood ofresidents may cause visual annoyance and noise annoyance. Studies on other environmental sound sources,such as railway, road traffic, industry and aircraft noise show that (long-term) exposure to sound can havenegative effects other than annoyance from noise. This study aims to elucidate the relation between exposureto the sound of wind turbines and annoyance, self-reported sleep disturbance and psychological distress ofpeople that live in their vicinity. Data were gathered by questionnaire that was sent by mail to a representativesample of residents of the Netherlands living in the vicinity of wind turbinesPrincipal results: A dose–response relationship was found between immission levels of wind turbine soundand selfreported noise annoyance. Sound exposure was also related to sleep disturbance and psychologicaldistress among those who reported that they could hear the sound, however not directly but with noiseannoyance acting as a mediator. Respondents living in areas with other background sounds were less affectedthan respondents in quiet areas.Major conclusions: People living in the vicinity of wind turbines are at risk of being annoyed by the noise, anadverse effect in itself. Noise annoyance in turn could lead to sleep disturbance and psychological distress. Nodirect effects of wind turbine noise on sleep disturbance or psychological stress has been demonstrated,which means that residents, who do not hear the sound, or do not feel disturbed, are not adversely affected.

  • 274.
    Baldauf, Sara
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Onken, Jennifer
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans stöd till anhöriga: En studie om anhörigas upplevelser av stöd inom intensivvård2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The attention and support given to family members at the Intensive Care Unit can sometimes be limited due to that the nurses often focus on the patient's needs and forget about family members needs. Since nurses meet family members on a daily basis it is important for them to know what family members find supportive. The condition of patients at the intensive care unit is often critical and family members need support to cope, understand and adapt to the situation. The aim of the study was to highlight family members´ experiences of support from nurses at the intensive care unit. A structured literature review was conducted in which 10 articles with both qualitative and quantitative design underwent thematic analysis. The analysis gave four categories: Trust and reliance, Presence and participation, Comfort and empathy and Availability and continuity. To sum up; family members at the Intensive Care Unit have a great need of support. Family members are in general satisfied with the support, but there is need for more research in what kind of support they require and how family members experience the support.

  • 275.
    Baltzar, Emma
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    Eriksson, Emeli
    Halmstad University.
    Självstigmatisering hos personer med schizofreni: Ett hot mot självet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Self-stigmatization is a complex process which implies that the person might internalize negative stereotypes and attitudes that are directed towards them. The interest for self-stigmatization has increased during the last decade, but there is still little research on the phenomenon. The aim of this study was to describe self-stigmatization amongst people with schizophrenia. The study was conducted as a literature study, where eight scientific articles were reviewed and analyzed. The results showed that the degree of self-stigmatization amongst people with schizophrenia was affected by a various of factors, including the number of psychiatric hospitalizations and the severity of the illness. Self-stigmatization also proved to result in a negative view on oneself and the own abilities. Further quantitative research is needed, but there is also a great need for qualitative research that focuses on individual’s own experiences. The health care needs to better understand and pay attention to self-stigmatization. Efforts in evidence-based nursing also needs to be developed based on all the steps in the nursing process to reduce self-stigmatization.

  • 276.
    Bamba, Djeneba
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Persson, Josefine
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Bariatrisk kirurgi - Livet efter operationen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Obesity is today a chronic disease that represents a major health challenge both internationally and nationally. The obesity occurrence has globally almost tripled since 1975. For patients with severe obesity, lifestyle changes, diets and physical activity are not effective methods, nor do they provide sustainable results. Today, bariatric surgery has become a well-established method and is now considered a standard treatment. Purpose: To describe patients' experiences after bariatric surgery. Method: A general literature study has been conducted. Eleven scientific articles were analyzed for searches in three nursing databases. Result: Four categories emerged; Experiences of a changed relationship to food, experiences of a changed body and identity, experiences of a changed social interaction and the significance of support and experiences of health and illness. Conclusions: The experiences after bariatric surgery varied between patients and affected both physical and mental aspects of life. Even though the new body gave opportunities for increased physical ability, patients still experienced difficulties in embracing the new identity. The support was found to be essential to maintain the achieved weight loss. It is vital that the nurse is familiar with the patients’ situation in order to provide adequate support and make the patient feel familiar and confirmed. 

  • 277.
    Bang, Monica
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Berntsson, Janet
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Österberg, Emilia
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    eHälsa: - ett verktyg för samarbete mellan hälso- och sjukvård och den moderna patienten2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: eHealth is the present and, in particular, the futures of health care. It is considered to be able to strengthen the involvement and participation of the patient. The modern patient demand increased transparency, participation and autonomy.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Aim: The aim of this study was to highlight eHealth, focusing on patient empowerment.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Method: A literature study with 14 scientific articles, that have been reviewed, analyzed and compared with an inductive approach.                                                                                                                                                              Results and conclusions: The results show that eHealth increases the availability of health information and health care at home. eHealth can and should be used as a supplement in health care to enhance patient empowerment, provided that the patient has the ability to manage and understand information and communication tools, and that collaboration exists with the health care provider.                                                                                                                                 Implication: Further research on how nurses can implement eHealth within the nursing practice is needed. eHealth as a concept should also be highlighted along with other guidelines related to information and communication technology in the Description of Competence for Registered Nurses. Patient education in eHealth and its services should be included in the health care practice to optimize self care for patients, so that they thereby could receive empowerment. It is also of great importance that the student nurse, already during education, gains knowledge of eHealth and eHealth services.

  • 278.
    Bank, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
     Hinder och problem med metoden FaR inom Primärvården.:  En intervjustudie.2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Metoden fysisk aktivitet på recept började användas 2001 inom primärvården, med avsikten att öka fysisk aktivitet bland befolkningen. Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva förskrivarnas upplevelser av hinder och problem, med att använda metoden FaR inom primärvården. Kvalitativ metod valdes och 12 intervjuer genomfördes. Data analyserades med hjälp av innehållsanalys. Resultatet som framkom bildade tre huvudkategorier; metoden, förskrivarna och samverkan. Resultatet visade, att trots att metoden ansågs vara bra, fanns det aspekter som behövde förbättras. Hjälpmedlen användes i liten utsträckning, tid och arbete behövdes för att väl förankra metoden på arbetsplatsen. Förskrivarna behöver motiveras för att kunna hjälpa patienten på bästa vis och även andra aktörer i samhället behövs i arbetet med att öka den fysiska aktiviteten bland befolkningen. Slutsatsen blev att metoden behövs inom primärvården, men att tydliga riktlinjer krävs om hur arbetet ska implementeras och användas praktiskt i vardagen. Även kontinuerliga påminnelser behövs för att arbetet ska fortgå, till exempel tävlingar och föreläsningar som sätter extra fokus på metoden. Aktivitetskatalogen behöver utvecklas och om möjlighet finns, även införa en prisreducering, så att alla oavsett ekonomisk situation, har chans att delta. Ett större samarbete med andra aktörer utanför hälso- och sjukvården krävs, för att möjliggöra och synliggöra arbetet, detta för att öka hälsan bland befolkningen. Slutligen så bör förskrivarna få större möjligheter att få vara med och utforma metoden, för att kunna eliminera det motstånd som finns.

  • 279.
    Bauhn Eriksson, Janet
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Ivansson, Helen
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Varför avböjer föräldrar att vaccinera sina barn: En integrativ litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:Vaccination density has decreased in society. The primary concerns are the combination vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella (MMR). To decline vaccination leads to measles being re-established in the society. Measles is one of the most contagious infection diseases that exists, the risk of secondary diseases is substantial which affects 20% of the population. If the vaccination density goes below 95% measles is in the risk of being reaffirm in society. Method:A integrative literature study with article searches conducted in the database Academic Search Elite, Cinahl, PubMed and Social Service Abstract and resulted in 13 relevant articles.  Results:The study shows that most parents experienced that they did not get enough information from the health care sector. They searched for information on websites or through other parents. Therefore, credible information is necessary when visiting the children's health care and to distribute information sheets on different languages to reach those with different cultures. Conclusion and implication:The study shows how important it is with credible information about the vaccines for parents being able to take a stand. Knowledge makes it easier for healthcare personals to set up strategies to teach and inform doubtful parents. Increased knowledge gained from ongoing research in the subject, which increases the opportunities for WHO to reach the goal of eliminating measles. 

  • 280.
    Bay, Bjorn
    et al.
    Institute of Odontology, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Hilliges, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Weidner, Christian
    Department of Physiology 1, University of Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
    Sandborgh-Englund, Gunilla
    Institute of Odontology, Karolinska Institutet, P.O. Box 4064, SE-141 04 Huddinge, Sweden.
    Response of human oral mucosa and skin to histamine provocation: laser Doppler perfusion imaging discloses differences in the nociceptive nervous system2009In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 67, no 2, p. 99-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To investigate the existence of histamine-excitable nerve fibers in the oral mucosa and to compare the response to histamine provocation in healthy volunteers with that in a small group of patients with chronic oral pain. Material and methods. Thirteen healthy volunteers and six patients suffering from chronic oral pain took part in the study. Blood perfusion was monitored in the hard palate, the tongue, and the skin of the cheek using laser Doppler perfusion imaging (Perimed; Sweden). Baseline scannings were performed, followed by 15 scannings after iontophoresis of histamine (1%). A free description of the sensations was then obtained from the participants after finishing the measurements. Results. Compared to pre-histamine scanning, histamine application resulted in a considerable increase in blood perfusion in all regions (p0.001) that was significantly higher in skin than in oral mucosa (p0.001). There were no significant differences between the healthy volunteers and the patients regarding baseline blood flow, increased blood perfusion, or flare size after histamine provocation. The sensory impression was reported to be more persistent and intense in the skin than in the oral mucosa. No effect on mucosa could be detected by visual inspection. Conclusions. Intra-oral flare could be induced by activating histamine-excitable nerve fibers. Both duration and intensity of the flare were considerably less pronounced than in the control skin site. Histamine application was not clearly associated with itch.

  • 281.
    Becic, Dino
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Galakvosciute, Kristina
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Studenters attityder till spelande om pengar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Spelandet om pengar ökar såväl nationellt som globalt och det har skett en dramatisk ökning bland unga. Mer än två procent av Sveriges befolkning har ett spelproblem vilket ses som ett folkhälsoproblem som ökat de senaste åren. Unga vuxna, 16-24 år, är den grupp som har mest problem med spelande.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva studenters attityder till spelande om pengar.

    Metod: Intervjuer genomfördes med fem studenter på en högskola i Sverige. En temaanalys användes, där intervjuerna transkriberades och analyserades.

    Resultat: Det framkom fyra teman som beskrev studenternas attityder till spelande om pengar: Social samvaro, Chansen att vinna pengar, Spelandets negativa följder samt reklamens påverkan.

    Slutsats: Trots den positiva upplevelsen som spelandet kan ge, är informanterna överens om att de negativa konsekvenserna så som ångest, väger mer. Spelproblem är ett relativt nytt folkhälsoproblem som fortsätter att växa i takt med utbudet på spelmarknaden. Spelandet börjar i tidiga åldraroch motiven till att börja spela är olika, dock ser man tydligt de negativa följder och konsekvenser som spelande om pengar medför. Vidare kan det utvecklas till en större studie genom en undersökning av ett större urval med en enkätundersökning där rapporten baseras på en kvantitativ metod. Fortsatt forskning kan undersöka relationen mellan spel om pengar och socioekonomisk status.

  • 282.
    Behrendt, Marek
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Ivarsson, Tommy
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Hunger indikerar inte akut energistatus hos friska människor: En måltidsintervention2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The increasingly sedentary lifestyle of our society combined with a constantly rising caloric intake has elevated the risk of developing obesity and other metabolic diseases. There is a need to understand the underlying mechanisms of hunger regulation to effectively prevent and treat these diseases. The magnitude of which an active regulation of blood glucose has an influence on hunger regulation is rather controversial.

    Objective

    The objective of this study was to investigate how the changes in hunger and blood glucose levels may differ after a mixed meal compared to the fasting state. Research questions include: Does intermittent fasting reduce general hunger? How does an entrenched meal-pattern affect hunger? How does hunger and blood glucose change in anticipation of a meal?

    Method

    Twelve healthy subjects (7 men, 5 women), of which seven subjects regularly practiced intermittent fasting and the remaining five did not, were randomized into two groups, one group was eating pizza (Pi), and the other group was fasting (F). Blood glucose levels and hunger ratings were collected every 30 minutes, with exception of initial values that were collected 15 minutes prior to the serving of the pizzas. The subjects were unaware of which group they would be designated to until 10 minutes prior to the serving of the pizzas.

    Results

    Decline in blood glucose did not significantly differ between groups during the 5 hour window following the meal ingestion. Hunger ratings differed significantly between individuals but not between groups. However, only Pi had significantly elevated hunger ratings in the end of the test period compared to their initial ratings. In anticipation of the meal a significant change in blood glucose was observed between the groups (P = 0.05), where values dropped for Pi and rose for F. Four out of five subjects in F and one subject in Pi were considerably hungrier during time periods they reported as habitual eating occasion.

    Conclusion

    Correlations between absolute blood glucose levels and hunger could not be found. An equal rise in hunger appear regardless if subjects were fed or fasting, meaning significant hunger can appear although dietary energy still is absorbed into the blood stream. Thus our results indicate that the acute availability of dietary energy is only a relatively small part of the total hunger signaling process. A disrupted meal pattern seemed to affect hunger feelings more than the ingestion of the served meal. Thus we conclude that more research should focus on meal-pattern regulation to enable better hunger control.

  • 283.
    Belandria, My
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Schagerström, Jonna
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Adolescenters upplevelser av sjuksköterskans omvårdnadsåtgärder och behandlingar vid depression2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mental illness among adolescents aged 10-19 years increases and there are several reasons why they suffer from it. Causes such as the desire of body change, increased accessibility and internet usage, pressure to fit in and exploration of sexual identity can affect the mental health. Depression is one of the leading causes of mental illness progression among adolescents. The purpose was to investigate how adolescents with depression experience nursing interventions and treatments. To answer the purpose, a literature study was conducted with article searches in three different databases. The result led to three main categories in this study: The nursing intervention physical activity as exercise was perceived to improve self-esteem, The nursing intervention participation was perceived to create a sense of security and the third category Treatments with focus on changes in thoughts and emotions was perceived to give insight. It is important to understand the adolescents’ experience of nursing interventions and treatment for depression because it gives an awareness into how they receive it. 

  • 284.
    Bengtsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Ottemark, Tilly
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Närståendes upplevelse vid oväntade dödsfall: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ibland sker döden oväntat och det finns ofta närstående som skall bemötas. För att kunna bemöta dem på ett adekvat sätt är det viktigt att belysa deras upplevelser i samband med dödsfallet. Syfte var att belysa upplevelser hos personer vars närstående dött en oväntad död. Metoden var en allmän litteraturstudie med 11 artiklar (tio kvalitativa och en kvantitativ) som svarade till syftet och analyserades med hjälp av färgkodning av meningsbärande enheter. Resultatet var att de närstående ville ha rak och tydlig information. De uppskattade små gester som till exempel att bli erbjuden mat eller dryck. Dödsorsaken var viktig att fastställa och att få se den döda kroppen samt att ta avsked upplevdes som betydelsefullt. Att få vara delaktig både i direkt anslutning till döden och i form av uppföljning var en del av resultatet. Relevant att beakta var den subjektiva upplevelsen då alla människor är unika. Ytterligare forskning rekommenderas för att belysa hur vårdpersonal kan påverka närståendes upplevelser i samband med oväntad död.

  • 285.
    Bengtsson, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Äldre individers upplevelser av vad som bidrar till den egna hälsan och välbefinnandet2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are four main factors contributing to good ageing: social community, meaningful occupation and participation, physical activity and good eating habits. The purpose of this study was to describe what elderly people experience contribute to their own health and well-being. Qualitative semi structured interviews were conducted with 15 people aged 75 or more. The interviews were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Three main categories emerged under the latent theme of “feeling of having access to and control over resources making it possible to live a continued active and meaningful life as an elderly”: “living in a good physical environment”, “feeling of meaningfulness” and “feeling of independence”. It was important to the informants to have a good home and a nice neighbourhood. Meaningfulness came from social sense of community and belonging, meaningful activities and a positive attitude and faith. Independence consisted of feeling well and healthy and adapting activities as well as having a good economy and access to transportation. Access and control over these conditions made it possible to keep living an active and meaningful life. The result is in accordance to previous research within the area. It is important that health promoting efforts for the elderly has a comprehensive view and that all needs of the elderly are met as far as possible. Future research could investigate the subject in elderly with a lower self-perceived health.

  • 286.
    Bengtsson, Anna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Östlinder, Nora
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Distriktssköterskans uppfattningar av hur äldre personer med demens kan få sina omvårdnadsbehov uppfyllda inom primärvården2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In primary care , the elderly population with memory difficulty , an updated and growing group where increased knowledge in psychiatry begin to play increasingly larger role in the identification of various degrees of memory difficulties facing dementia investigations. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe how district nurses in primary care perceive that older individuals with incipient dementia or dementia diagnosis can have their needs met by primary care interventions, based on a psychiatric nursing perspective. Method: In light of the purpose of the study was chosen by the design methodology of a descriptive qualitative study with phenomenographic research approach. The interviewees consisted of five district nurses at five medical centers, geographically evenly spread over Halland County. Results: The results revealed three categories of description to describe the informants' perceptions and experiences of how older persons with incipient dementia or dementia diagnosis can have their needs met byprimary care interventions : to meet different types of patient needs, to utilize existing resources and being aware of shortcomings , constraints and opportunities for development. Conclusion: District nurses in primary care encounters various forms of needs at older people with a dementia diagnosis or symptoms of dementia. They take advantage of the existing resources, such as district nurse’s professional ability, their strategies and development resources; they perceive even relatives as a resource and take advantage of integration of resources within and outside primary care. The district nurses are aware of the limitations, weaknesses and development opportunities within their own profession, and for the great need for skills.

  • 287.
    Bengtsson, Annika
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Johansson, Ann-Katrin
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Moberg, Linda
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Patientens upplevelse av synfältsundersökningstillfället2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Visual field examination is the most important method to diagnose and identify the progression of glaucoma. Conducting visual field examination is a common task for the ophthalmic nurse. Studies show that patients have difficulty in carrying out the visual field examination, but studies on how the patient experiences the visual field examination are scarce. The aim of the pilot study was to examine the patient's experience of the visual field examination. The pilot study was conducted using a qualitative approach and data was collected through semi-structured interviews of eight patients. The material was analyzed using content analysis. The analysis resulted in five categories: experience of fear and anxiety, difficulty with focusing, experience of information, sense of security, and bodily discomfort. Failing to perform well and to possibly become impaired in their disease were major concerns that created fear and anxiety. Focusing demanded a lot of concentration and was straining on the eye. The information was perceived as both good and flawed. Patients felt a sense of security since they had done the examination before and that they met the same staff. The majority of patients felt they sat uncomfortably and that it was not patient friendly. Continued development and training on how patients experience visual field examination is recommended to improve the way the staff treats and informs the patient, but also how the ophthalmic nurse can facilitate the examination of the patient. Since this study was conducted as a pilot study further research and a full-scale study is needed for the results to be considered reliable.

     

  • 288.
    Bengtsson, Camilla
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Sjuksköterskors uppfattningar om operationssjuksköterskans yrke2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    National Board of Health and Welfare describes an upcoming shortage of perioperative nurses in Sweden, and statistics show that the number of nurses applying to specialized training in the perioperative field is declining. In the literature, the perioperative nursing profession is described as non-visible to people in general, and that may be a reason for the lack of interest in choosing the profession. The purpose of this pilot study is to describe nursesʹ perceptions of the perioperative nursing profession. The study was conducted using qualitative inductive approach as an interview with open entry question. Data was analyzed by manifest content analysis. The results revealed three categories; Invisible and low valued, Member of the team and Practical work. The result is consistent with prior research conducted. A larger study is of value to obtain a deeper understanding of differences in perceptions. Knowledge of these perceptions may facilitate the recruitment of perioperative nurses. Specialized competence at the surgical departments increases the chances for patients to receive a safe perioperative care.

  • 289.
    Bengtsson, Camilla
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    Gisladottir, Kristin
    Halmstad University.
    Sjuksköterskornas upplevelser av att arbeta med tvångsåtgärder inom psykiatri2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Isolering, bältning och tvångsmedicinering är exempel på tvångsåtgärder som förekommer inom psykiatrin världen över. Sjuksköterskor möter patienter som tvångsvårdas, och ansvarar för att skapa relationer med dem. Mötet innebär en komplexitet, eftersom sjuksköterskans uppgift är att individanpassa vården och att bevara patientens autonomi, samtidigt som hen är skyldig att väga patientens önskemål mot läkarens ordinationer, lagtexter och avdelningens säkerhet. Förutom detta etiska dilemma finns även risk för att sjuksköterskan utsätts för våld. Syftet med studien var att belysa sjuksköterskornas upplevelse av att arbeta med tvångsåtgärder. Studien är en litteraturstudie. Upplevelserna som påträffades berörde sjuksköterskornas grundläggande tankar om tvångsvård, förnimmelsen av att utföra tvångsåtgärder, samt upplevelser om hur organisationen påverkade sjuksköterskornas arbete med tvångsåtgärderna. Slutsatser: Hos en del sjuksköterskor finns förhållningssätt som försvårar att individanpassa vården för tvångsomhändertagna patienter. Samtidigt har de flesta av sjuksköterskorna en medvetenhet om att synen på patienten kan brista, och om den avgörande betydelsen av att skapa tillitfulla vårdrelationer. Sjuksköterskorna har fler möjligheter att påverka antalet tvångsåtgärder än de tycks uppleva. Följden av handledda reflektionssamtal är ett minskat antal tvångsåtgärder och en större medvetenhet hos sjuksköterskan om sin betydelsefulla roll, både gentemot patienten och organisationen.

  • 290.
    Bengtsson, Charlotte
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Magnusson, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Överbeläggning: Konsekvenser för patienten2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Health care units are frequently and repeatedly working with overcrowding situations. This can pose consequences to patient safety. A literature review was done with the review of nine articles with the aim to illuminate the consequences for patients with overcrowding wards at inpatient care units. Main consequences for patients with overcrowding wards were identified as lack of information at handoff situations regarding to the care of the patients and the consequences of the relocation of patients. Relocated patients implies increased loads on several levels for nursing staff , mainly due to differences in skills and insufficient experience to meet the care needs of patients. Lack of communication was shown to be a contributing factor to adverse events. Deficiencies in basic nursing care can lead to increased suffering, prolonged hospital stay and complications. Continued research is important, since there are several interesting aspects that need to be elucidated.

  • 291.
    Bengtsson, Emelie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Karlsson, Sara
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Barncancer och den svåra tiden som följer: Föräldrars upplevelser av stöd2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Årligen rapporteras det in ungefär 320 fall av cancertumörer bland barn och ungdomar mellan åldrarna 0-18 år. I vården av cancersjuka barn är förutom barnen, även föräldrarna i stort behov av stöd. För att öka vårdkvalitén behöver föräldrarnas upplevelser av stöd när barnet har en cancerdiagnos belysas. Syftet med denna studie var att belysa föräldrarnas upplevelser av stöd när barnet har en cancer diagnos. Metoden som användes var en systematisk litteraturstudie där resultatet av 11 vetenskapliga artiklar sammanställdes. Tre kategorier framkom: Information till föräldrarna, Delaktighet för föräldrarna samt Bemötande gentemot föräldrarna. Upplevelser av stöd under barnets sjukdomstid var individuella men majoriteten av föräldrarna fann stöd i att samtala med vårdpersonal samt andra föräldrar till cancersjuka barn. Ytterligare upplevde föräldrar stöd i att få lov att vara med sitt barn på sjukhuset. Det behövs mer forskning kring hur kvalitén på stödjande åtgärder till föräldrarna kan utvecklas

  • 292.
    Bengtsson, Emma
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Gavette, Pierre
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Stress, trots allt: Om till synes god psykosocial arbetsmiljö och tidigare kända salutogena faktorer och dess effekter på medarbetarens upplevelse av arbetsrelaterad stress2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study addresses whether some office working graduates experienced stress as a result of a seemingly favorable work environment with a high degree of demands, control and support. The issue concerns which work environment factors that were perceived to cause high stress, whether any of these factors were previously known as salutogenic and whether these factors could be behind any differences in perceived stress between departments. Collection of empirical data was done using interviews with ten respondents, nine women and one man, from two different departments within the same organization. Questions were asked regarding the respondents' experience of demands, control, support, commitment and work related stress. The results showed that the degree of stress varied between departments, mainly due to an imbalance between demand and control and deficient instrumental social support within one department. Furthermore, the authors found that previously known salutogenic factors, such as control and social contacts were shown to have had negative consequences for the respondents' mental health. In addition, the authors found unclear job descriptions to be a contributing factor to the work-related stress in both departments.

  • 293.
    Bengtsson, Emmelie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Hallström, Elina
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Ta emot mig när jag faller: Partnervåldsutsatta kvinnors erfarenheter av mötet med hälso- och sjukvården2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Intimate partner violence is a major public health problem, both globally and in Sweden, which mainly affects women in different-sex relationships. Intimate partner violence refers to physical, psychological or sexual violence by a current or former partner. The violence involves both physical and mental suffering of the abused woman and it is estimated that 17 women in Sweden dies as a result of partner violence each year. The health care system is the instance that female victims primarily choose to contact. The aim of the study was to highlight how women exposed to intimate partner violence experience meeting with health care. The study was conducted as a literature study, based on 15 scientific articles. Four major themes were identified from the results of the articles. The result of the literature study shows that a good interpersonal relationship is very important for the woman to reveal her situation. Many women have negative experiences of meeting with health care. Experiences of being asked, being treated with respect and understanding, as well as obtaining relevant information rarely occurred but were strongly requested. Enhancing the ability of health care professionals through education is of great importance. Further research should, in addition to women's experiences, also focus on the experiences of men in different-sex relationships and men and women in same-sex relationships.

  • 294.
    Bengtsson, Eva Lena
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Biondic Rosander, Karolina
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Storn, Bibbi
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Faktorer av betydelse för att sjuksköterskans överrapportering på en akutmottagning ska ske patientsäkert.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The work environment of the emergency department is stressful and dynamic. It had a constant high flow of patient, who need an urgent multiple care and nurse care. The most common transition of information between nurse´s is the patient handover, where the information is used for the care and the nursing care. Patient safety is jeopardized in case of lack of communication, where essential information is unfulfilled in the case of handover, both within and between different professions in health care. Lack of communication causes frequently health injuries and the emergency department is the section at the hospital where handover is most common. The purpose was to investigate which factors are important for the nurse's handover at the emergency department to occur safe for the patient. A literature study was conducted which was based on 10 articles of quantitative and qualitative methods. The results revealed two main categories with five associated subcategories: Handover within the emergency department; The importance of a structure, The work environment´s importance and The teamwork´s importance. Handover to and from the emergency department; The importance of creating an overall picture and The importance of cooperation between units within health organizations. Factors which affected the handover and accordingly the patient safety was unstructured clinical handover model, shift changes, interruptions, the environment for handoffs, interruptions, clarity, collaboration in team and between organizations, working experience, working relationships, health cultures, and ethical issues. Further research needs to highlight the factors of importance in the handover for the nurse on emergency departments.

  • 295.
    Bengtsson, Ida
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Larsson, Hanna
    Att vårda sin livskamrat: Upplevelser av att vårda en anhörig som har insjuknat i stroke2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stroke is a common disease that annually affects 30 000 people in Sweden. Stroke survivors may suffer physical and psychological disabilities. The impact of stroke also affects the next of kin´s of the stroke survivor who often become an informal caregiver. Informal caregivers of a relative stroke survivor may experience a heavy caring responsibility. The purpose of this scientific study was therefore to illuminate informal caregivers experiences of caring for a relative who has suffered a stroke. The study was conducted as a literature review in which 16 scientific articles were reviewed. In the result two themes were found, To care is burdened and To care is to adapt. The result showed that informal caregivers experienced heavy burden, loneliness and frustration. Informal caregivers felt that it was difficult and time consuming to adjust their daily lives to the relative. It was found that informal caregivers did not get enough support, information and education from health- professionals which they would have needed to learn how to cope with their new life situation. Nurses, and all health professionals, should pay attention to the situation of the informal caregivers. Continued nursing research on informal caregivers copingstrategies, and, how, were and when the nurse will give informal caregivers support, information and education is desirable.

  • 296.
    Bengtsson, Jennie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Andersson Zaheri, Philip
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Att uppleva meningsfullhet som äldre vid depression: En litteraturstudie om sjuksköterskans omvårdnadsåtgärder vid depression hos äldre2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag lever det drygt 350 miljoner människor i världen med depression och år 2020 beräknas depression vara det ledande skälet till sjuklighet i världen. I Sverige lever cirka 1,6 miljoner äldre varav runt 150 000 lider av depression. Antalet äldre som drabbas av depression ökar och tillståndet medför ett stort lidande, sänkt livskvalité samt ökar risken för dödlighet och suicid hos äldre. Sjuksköterskan har den avgörande rollen för att sätta in rätt omvårdnadsåtgärder då hen har den närmsta kontakten med denna patientgrupp. Syftet med studien var att belysa sjuksköterskans omvårdnadsåtgärder vid depression hos äldre. En allmän litteraturstudie genomfördes och resultatet baseras på 14 vetenskapliga artiklar som granskades och analyserades. Vid analysen av artiklarna framkom två kategorier: narrativt samtal på olika nivåer och att uppmuntra till meningsfulla handlingar. I resultat framkom omvårdnadsåtgärder som egenvård där sjuksköterskan tillsammans med den äldre fann egenvårdstrategier, att samordna och uppmuntra olika former av aktivitet som dans, musik, rörelseträning och social interaktion samt det narrativa samtalet där den äldre verbaliserade tankar, känslor samt minnen. Då antalet äldre med depression ökar bör utbildningar för allmänsjuksköterskor innehålla mer utbildning om depression hos äldre, dessutom bör kliniska verksamheter ge sjuksköterskan mer tid för att på så sätt ge äldre den omvårdnad som krävs vid depression.

  • 297.
    Bengtsson, Linda
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Johansson, Susanna
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Omvårdnadsåtgärder för patienter med malign hjärntumör: Ett kunskapsunderlag2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Malign brain tumor is a common illness which gives different kinds of symptoms depending upon where the tumor is located. The treatment can give complications with many different symptoms. There are no clear guidelines how to practice nursing of the patient with a malign brain tumor. The aim of the study was therefore to compile knowledge about nursing interventions for patients with malign brain tumor. The study´s method was a review of literature of scientific articles, care programs, bachelor- and master´s thesis and books. Findings showed whom, how, where, what and when information should be given and how to manage the medication when patient was given chemotherapy, cortisone and epileptic seizures. Nurses must have knowledge of how observation/monitoring must be carried out. How nursing should be carried out at radiotherapy, nausea, malnutrition, fatigue/depression and at fever. One specific nurse is responsible for contacts and her role is to support and coordinate for the patient. The knowledge shows which nursing interventions the patient with a malign brain tumor needs. Implementation of the knowledge-based guidelines involves an evidence-based foundation for the nursing practice and an increased patient safety. More nursing research is needed in the future of patients with brain tumor.

  • 298.
    Bengtsson, Linnéa
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Johansson, Hanna
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    En plats för hälsa: Vårdmiljöns betydelse för patientens hälsa och välbefinnande2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nursing care is based on the humanistic perspective, which says that man should be seen in a holistic way, in which the environment is included. The purpose of this study was to illuminate the meaning of the health facility environment to the patients’ health and well-being. People are affected by places, as much as people affect each other and therefore it is important that nursing care also includes the impact of health facility environment on the patient. The results showed that various factors in the environment, both in the physical and psychosocial, can help the patient and promote his or her health and well-being. The most significant factors that can facilitate the patients’ health is the interaction between patient and nurse in the environment, safety in the new place, aesthetics in the health-care environment, continuity from the safe location to the new environment, distraction from the disease situation and facilitation of sense of control within the patient. Research shows that healthcare environment affects patients' health and well-being, however, there are no clear general guidelines on how good a health care environment should be created in the practical nursing work. It would be good for the nurses’ health care work for more knowledge and clearer general guidelines with focus on health facility environment were developed.

  • 299.
    Bengtsson Lundin, Hanna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Mjöberg, Sara
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Att skapa nya vanor och beteenden: Hur motivation påverkar människan2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kunskapen om motiverande faktorer som påverkar människor till att göra beteendeförändringar för att främja hälsa ökar kvaliteten i sjuksköterskans yrkesprofession. Syftet med studien var att beskriva faktorer som påverkar motivationen till livsstilsförändring. Studien genomfördes som en litteraturstudie där tolv vetenskapliga artiklar utgjorde underlaget för resultatet. I resultatet angavs två olika teman som kan relateras till motivationsfaktorer. Temana var sociala och psykologiska faktorer. De mest framträdande drivkrafterna relaterat till motivationsfaktorer var det sociala stödet, känslan av välbefinnande och somatiska symptom. Barriärer som framkom var bristen på engagemang, ohälsa och okunskap. Individer upplevde att tack vare ett socialt stöd och känslan av välbefinnande kunde hinder för motivation lättare övervinnas. En ökad medvetenhet bland sjuksköterskor kring vikten av motivation i det hälsofrämjande arbetet bör eftersträvas. Sjuksköterskans roll kopplas ofta ihop med vårdandet av sjuka människor men det promotiva arbetet måste också uppmärksammas. Fortsatt forskning kring vilka motivationsfaktorer som är drivande hos individer som genomgår livsstilsförändringar är nödvändig. Vidare forskning krävs för att sjuksköterskan på bästa sätt skall kunna uppmuntra och stötta individer i deras strävan mot hälsosammare levnadsvanor. Det är viktigt att sjuksköterskan under utbildningen får kunskap om motivationsfaktorer.

  • 300.
    Bengtsson, Malin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Palmgren, Fredrik
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Sjuksköterskors attityder till smärtbehandling av patienter med opioidmissbruk2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Patients with an opioid addiction may be perceived to have a socially deviant behavior which may lead to social stigmatization. To see patients as socially deviant in healthcare can lead to that they receive worse care and treatment than what they are entitled to. Pain is a subjective experience, where the patient has an individual perception of his pain and can not be compared with another's experience of pain. The purpose of the study was to examine nurses' attitudes to pain treatment of patients with opioid addiction. A systematic literature review was conducted consisting of 11 scientific articles. The results culminated in three categories: Attitudes towards patients with opioid addiction, Attitudes to the subjective pain and attitudes associated with experience and lack of knowledge. The results showed that nurses have negative attitudes towards patients with opioid addiction. The nurses were aware that patients with a previous or current opioid addiction experienced pain needed a higher dose of pain medication, they were perceived nonetheless as they lied to get an increased dose of opioids. The study highlighted a lack of knowledge of nurses regarding addiction and dependence, which could lead to a judgment of patients with opioid addiction. For further studies there is a need to study how patients with opioid addiction experienced nurses' attitudes in the caring encounter. 

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