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  • 251.
    Löfberg, Johanna
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science.
    Beteende och attityder gällande Köttkonsumtion: En studie av drivkrafter bakom en minskad köttkonsumtion2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 252.
    Magnheden, Marie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Mattsson, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science.
    Fleischer, Siegfried
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Berglund, Maria
    Hushållningssällskapet Halland, Halmstad, Sverige.
    Ekre, Erik
    Hushållningssällskapet Halland, Halmstad, Sverige.
    Aronsson, Helena
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala, Sverige.
    Lustgas i dräneringsvatten från åkermark: Resultat del 22014Report (Other academic)
  • 253.
    Magnusson, Marianne L.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Chow, Daniel H.
    Department of Health Technology and Informatics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Diamandopoulos, Zoe
    Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.
    Pope, Malcolm H.
    Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.
    Motor Control Learning in Chronic Low Back Pain2008In: Spine, ISSN 0362-2436, E-ISSN 1528-1159, Vol. 33, no 16, p. E532-E538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study design: A randomized prospective cohort study of participants with chronic low back pain, seeking physical therapy, with follow-up at weeks 6 and 28. Effects of conventional physiotherapy and physiotherapy with the addition of postural biofeedback were compared.

    Objective: To evaluate the benefits of postural biofeedback in chronic low back pain participants.

    Summary of background data: Biofeedback using electromyographic signals has been used in chronic low back pain with mixed results. Postural feedback had not been previously used.

    Methods: Demographic and psychological baseline data along with range of motion were analyzed from a sample of 47 chronic participants with low back pain randomized into conventional physiotherapy with or without the addition of postural biofeedback.

    Results: After 6 months, there were 21 dropouts. The participants with biofeedback had markedly improved status in visual analog pain scales, short form FS36, and range of motion.

    Conclusion: The study strongly suggests that postural feedback is a useful adjunct to conventional physiotherapy of chronic low back pain participants.

  • 254.
    Magnusson, Marianne L.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Pope, Malcolm H.
    Liberty Safework Research Centre, Department of Environmental & Occupational Health, Aberdeen, Scotland.
    Shoulder and Elbow Disorders: Epidemiology, Incidence, Prevalence, Risk Factors2007In: Musculoskeletal disorders in the workplace: principles and practice / [ed] Margareta Nordin, Gunnar B.J. Andersson, Malcolm H. Pope, Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier , 2007, 2, p. 149-154Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 255.
    Malm, Karina
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden, Spenshult Research and Development Center, Oskarström, Sweden & Capio Movement, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Arvidsson, Barbro
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Andersson, Maria
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health promotion and disease prevention. Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine. Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health promotion and disease prevention. Spenshult Research and Development Center, Oskarström, Sweden.
    THU0628-HPR Lifestyle Habits Relates to Quality of Life in Patient with Longstanding Rheumatoid Arthritis2015In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 74, no Suppl. 2, p. 1318-1318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Fatigue, pain, stiffness, impaired muscle function and impaired physical function are some of the most pronounced symptoms in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and these may be related to lifestyle habits such as physical activity, diet, smoking and alcohol.There is limited knowledge about how patient with longstanding RA understand their lifestyles habits in relation to their disease and quality of life.

    Objectives: To describe experiences of how lifestyle habits relate to quality of life in patients with longstanding RA.

    Methods: A qualitative study with a deductive content analysis design, including 17 patients from the Swedish BARFOT (Better Anti-Rheumatic FarmacoTherapy) cohort. BARFOT is a long time follow up study of early RA. Informants were strategically selected by gender (ten women and seven men), age (range 30-84 years), disease duration (8-23 years), function as measured by HAQ, and quality of life as measured by EQ5D. Semi-structured interviews focused on four lifestyle habits (main categories); Physical activity, Diet, Smoking, and Alcohol. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded into subcategories within each of the four main categories.

    Results: In patients with longstanding RA quality of life was related to the four given main categories (lifestyle habits). Each main category included two to three subcategories; (1) Physical activity means barrier, opportunities and well-being, (2) Diet means shame, well-being and social relationship, (3) Smoking means reward and fear, and (4) Alcohol means ambivalence and social relationship.

    Conclusions: In longstanding RA, lifestyle habits relates to quality of life through both positive and negative experiences. This has to be taken into account in clinical care for a better understanding of how patients conceive and adherer to advice on lifestyle.

    References: Scott DL, Wolfe F, Huizinga TW. Rheumatoid arthritis. Lancet. 2010;376(9746):1094-108.

    Hsieh HF, Shannon SE. Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qualitative health research. 2005;15(9):1277-88.

  • 256.
    Malm, Karina
    et al.
    Research and Development Center, Spenshult, Oskarström, Sweden & Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health promotion and disease prevention. Research and Development Center, Spenshult, Oskarström, Sweden & Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Andersson, Maria
    Research and Development Center, Spenshult, Oskarström, Sweden & Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine. Research and Development Center, Spenshult, Oskarström, Sweden & Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    BARFOT study group,
    Predictors of severe self-reported disability in RA in a long-term follow-up study2014In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 37, no 8, p. 686-691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Identify factors predictive for severe self-reported disability in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: Patients (n = 1910) were sent a questionnaire 5-18 years after disease onset. Outcomes were the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), Rheumatoid Arthritis Outcome Score (RAOS) and physical activity. The tertile of patients most affected by the disease were compared to those less affected. Proposed predictive factors were function, pain, general health, radiographic joint damage, swollen/tender joints and disease activity measures at baseline. Age, gender and disease duration were controlled for in logistic regression analyses. Results: Seventy-three percent (n = 1387) responded to the questionnaire, mean age 65 years (SD 15) and 70% were women. Worse scores in function, pain, general health and tender joints at baseline increased the risk of being in the most affected group, as measured by HAQ and RAOS 5-18 years after disease onset (p < 0.000). Conclusion: High levels of pain and worse reports of function at disease onset were risk factors for being in the most disabled tertile of patients after 5-18 years. Pain and function proved to be predictors of the outcome while some measures of inflammation were not. It is important to recognize these patients who may be in need of multidisciplinary treatments already at disease onset.

    Implications for Rehabilitation

    • Health care providers should be aware of the subgroup of patients with more severe symptoms of pain and impaired function at disease onset since they have an increased risk of being in the most disabled tertile of rheumatoid arthritis patients several years later.
    • Health care providers should assess pain and function and act on high pain and impaired function already at disease onset as they proved to be predictors of patient-reported outcomes controlled for inflammatory parameters.
    • These findings support European guidelines and research findings that patients with high pain and impaired function despite of well-managed inflammatory parameters should early in the disease course be referred to multidisciplinary treatment for supplementary regime.
  • 257.
    Malm, Karina
    et al.
    Spenshult Research and Development Center, Oskarström, Sweden & Rheumatology, Capio Movement, Halmstad, Sweden & Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS). Spenshult Research and Development Center, Oskarström, Sweden & Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Andersson, Maria
    Spenshult Research and Development Center, Oskarström, Sweden & Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Spenshult Research and Development Center, Oskarström, Sweden & Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Primary Health Care Unit, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Spenshult Research and Development Center, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Quality of Life in Patient with Established Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Qualitative Study2016In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 75, no Suppl 2, article id 1308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Fatigue, pain, stiffness and impaired physical function are some of the most pronounced symptoms in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that may affect quality of life. Quality of life is an individual experience composed of a wide range of factors, including physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships, and the patients' relationship to salient features of their environment. There is a need to describe and assess quality of life in chronic diseases like established RA. Previous research has mainly focused on disease-specific instruments for assessing quality of life. A deeper understanding of patients' experience of quality of life in established RA is important in both clinical research and daily clinical practice.

    Objectives: To describe variations in patients' experiences of quality of life in established RA.

    Methods: The study had a qualitative design with a phenomenographic approach, including 22 interviews with patients from the Swedish BARFOT (Better Anti-Rheumatic FarmacoTherapy) cohort, BARFOT, a long time follow up study of early RA. Patients were strategically selected by gender (14 women and 8 men), age (30 to 84 years old), disease duration (8–23 years), function as measured by HAQ (0–1.38), and quality of life as measured by EQ5D (0.52–1.00). The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded into categories.

    Results: Four categories emerged from the patients' experiences of quality of life in established RA: well-being, freedom, empowerment, and participation. Quality of life as well-being meant pleasure and being physical active. Quality of life as freedom meant dependence or independence in the ability to manage daily life activities. Quality of life as empowerment meant different coping strategies, such as positive thinking and resources to manage fatigue, pain and physical function. Quality of life as participation meant togetherness in different contexts with other people.

    Conclusions: Quality of life in established RA could be understood by the patients in different ways. The patients experienced quality of life as well-being, freedom, empowerment, and participation. This is important knowledge when evaluating the concept of quality of life in RA research, and for health professionals when promoting quality of life in patients with RA.

  • 258.
    Malm, Karina
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden & Rheumatology, Capio Movement, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS). Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden .
    Arvidsson, Barbro
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Andersson, Maria L E
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden & Primary Health Care Unit, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    The influence of lifestyle habits on quality of life in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis: A constant balancing between ideality and reality2016In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 11, article id 30534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, inflammatory, and systemic disease with symptoms that limit activities and affect quality of life. RA is associated with an increased risk of developing comorbidities, some of which are also known to be associated with lifestyle habits such as physical activity, diet, smoking, and alcohol. There has been an augmented focus on the implementation and maintenance of healthy lifestyle habits even for patients with RA in the past decade, but little is known about the link between patients' experiences of lifestyle habits and quality of life. The aim of the study was thus to describe and explore how patients with established RA experience the influence of lifestyle habits on quality of life.

    METHODS: The study had a descriptive and explorative design, based on qualitative content analysis. Strategic sampling was used in order to achieve variations in experiences. Twenty-two patients with RA (14 women and 8 men) from 30 to 84 years old, with a disease duration ranging from 8 to 23 years, were interviewed.

    RESULTS: The analysis of the influence of lifestyle habits on quality of life resulted in the theme balancing between ideality and reality. Three categories emerged about how lifestyle habits influenced quality of life by limitations (including insufficiency and adaptation), self-regulation (including guilt and motivation), and companionship (including belonging and pleasure).

    CONCLUSIONS: Quality of life for patients with established RA was influenced by the balance between ideality and reality in the lifestyle habits: physical activity, diet, smoking, and alcohol. This is important new knowledge for health professionals when discussing lifestyle habits with RA patients.

  • 259.
    Malmborg, Julia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Orthorexic Eating Behavior in Relation to Health Status and Physical Activity: A Comparison Between Students in Two University Programs2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is discussed whether people within the area of health are more prone to developing ‘unhealthy’ behaviors regarding diet and physical activity. Orthorexia nervosa (ON) is a condition that describes an unhealthy obsession with healthy food. The research on ON is scarce and there are no studies assessing ON in relation to health status and physical activity.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to examine and compare orthorexic eating behavior in relation to health status and physical activity between students enrolled in the university programs of Biomedicine – Athletic Training (Biomedicine) and Construction and Real Estate Business (Business).

    Method: 129 subjects (32 men and 38 women from Biomedicine and 23 men and 36 women from Business) participated in this cross-sectional study. The subjects completed three questionnaires; The Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), with eight different subscales, was used to assess mental and physical health status, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) measured levels of physical activity and ORTO-15 examined eating behavior that indicated ON. T-tests and chi-square tests were used to analyze the data.

    Results: A total of 105 out of 128 subjects had a score indicating ON. Students from Biomedicine had a higher frequency of ON in comparison to Business (p < 0.000) and through the SF-36 subscale for bodily pain, Biomedicine reported a higher frequency of pain (p = 0.006). Results from measurements of physical activity did not differ significantly between Biomedicine and Business, but high-intensity physical activity seemed to occur more frequently in men than in women in total (p = 0.014).

    Conclusion: ON is a common condition in university students and even more frequent in students enrolled in a program directed towards health and nutrition. The high frequency of ON seen in Biomedicine could be a problem that needs to be addressed since the students, after graduation, are expected to coach other people to a healthy living. Further studies are needed to explore associations with ON to health and physical activity. There is also a need to develop valid and reliable instruments for assessing the condition.

  • 260.
    Malmborg, Julia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Bergman, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health promotion and disease prevention. FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sverige.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sverige.
    Orthorexic Eating Behavior in Relation to Health Status and Physical Activity: A Comparison Between Students in Two University Programs2015In: Book of Abstracts of the 20th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science - 24th - 27th June 2015, Malmö - Sweden / [ed] Radmann, A., Hedenborg, S., Tsolakidis, E., Cologne: SporTools , 2015, p. 497-498Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Orthorexia nervosa (ON) is a condition described as ‘unhealthy’ behaviors regarding diet and physical activity. There is an ongoing discussion if ON is more common among adolescents studying in the area of health care and exercise. The research on ON is scarce and few studies assess ON and its association to health related quality of life (HRQoL).

    Aim

    The aim was to study orthorexic eating behavior, levels of physical activity and HRQoL in students enrolled at university programs focusing on health and exercise compared to those enrolled in business programs.

    Method

    128 subjects, 32 men and 38 women from Biomedicine – Athletic Training (Biomedicine) and 22 men and 36 women from Construction and Real Estate Business (Business) participated in this cross-sectional study. The subjects completed the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) to measure HRQoL, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) to measure levels of physical activity and ORTO-15 which examines eating behavior. A score less than 40 on ORTO-15 (score ranging from 0-60, worst to best) indicated an unhealthy relation to diet and was considered as ON in this study (Donini et al., 2005). Differences between groups were analyzed with t-tests and chi-square test.

    Results

    A total of 105 out of 128 (82%) subjects had a score indicating ON. Students from Biomedicine had a higher frequency of ON in comparison to Business (p < 0.000) and in the SF-36 subscale bodily pain, Biomedicine students reported a higher frequency of pain (p = 0.006). Results from measurements of physical activity did not differ significantly between Biomedicine and Business students, but there was a trend for high-intensity physical activity to occur more frequently in men than in women in general (p = 0.014).

    Conclusion

    ON is a common condition in university students and even more frequent in students enrolled in a program directed towards health and nutrition. The high frequency of ON seen in Biomedicine students could be a problem that needs to be addressed since the students, after graduation, are expected to coach other people to a healthy living. Further studies are needed to explore associations with ON to health and physical activity. There is also a need to develop valid and reliable instruments for assessing the condition.

  • 261.
    Malmborg, Julia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Årneby, Henrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Korrelationer mellan agility och unilateral och bilateral effektutveckling hos kvinnliga fotbollsspelare2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Unilateral training is considered to be a new field of interest within the science of sports. Traditionally most of the strength and conditioning training is performed bilaterally even though the majority of motions in sports are carried out unilaterally. Previous studies have examined the correlations between agility and power output but few of them investigated the difference between unilateral and bilateral power output and agility.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine whether the correlation between unilateral power output and agility is stronger than the correlation between bilateral power output and agility in female division 2 soccer players.

    Method: Female soccer players (n=13, age 23 ± 4 years) performed loaded counter movement jumps with 20 kg, 30 kg and 40 kg for both legs, left leg and right leg and with 50 kg for both legs and T-test and Pro agility test. Power output, in relation to body weight for both legs (PBbw), left leg (PVbw) and right leg (PHbw) was analyzed and correlated against T-test (Ttest) and Pro agility test (Proagility).

    Results: Significant correlations were found between agility and both left unilateral (PVbw-Ttest, r = -0,578) and bilateral (PBbw-Ttest, r = -0,741; PBbw-Proagility, r = -0,555) power output, where the bilateral correlation was the strongest. No significant correlation was found between the right leg and agility.

    Conclusion: Bilateral power output had a stronger correlation with agility than unilateral power output and agility in female division 2 soccer players.

  • 262.
    Malmqvist, Anton
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science.
    Återvinning av kompositer: Metoder och utbyte2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 263.
    Manderscheid, Remy
    et al.
    Institute of Agroecology, Federal Agricultural Reserach Centre, Bundesallee 50, D-38116 Braunschweig, Germany.
    Schaaf, Stefan
    Institute of Agroecology, Federal Agricultural Reserach Centre, Bundesallee 50, D-38116 Braunschweig, Germany.
    Mattsson, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Schjoerring, Jan K.
    Plant Nutrition Laboratory, Department of Agricultural Sciences, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Glufosinate treatment of weeds results in ammonia emission by plants2005In: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, ISSN 0167-8809, E-ISSN 1873-2305, Vol. 109, no 1-2, p. 129-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The herbicide glufosinate, which is also called phosphinothricin (PPT), is known to inhibit glutamine synthetase and thus causes a blockage of ammonium (re)assimilation in plants. The objective of the present study was to test whether application of this herbicide results in an ammonia volatilization from the plants and to quantify nitrogen loss via ammonia emission. Four different weed species (Chenopodium album, Echinocloa crus-galli, Solanum nigrum, Tripleurospermum inodorum) were grown as monocultures in the greenhouse and treated with PPT when their canopies covered the soil. In the first experiment, whole shoot samples were taken during the following days and analysed for ammonium, pH and total nitrogen content. In the second experiment, apoplastic pH and ammonium concentration of the leaves were measured after herbicide application and used for the calculation of Γ-values (ratio between NH4+ and H+ concentration), the stomatal NH3 compensation point and the canopy net NH3 flux with a soil vegetation atmosphere transport (SVAT) model.

    Herbicide treatment caused a rapid increase in shoot ammonium concentration and the ammonium portion of the plant total nitrogen ranged from 0.6 to 0.9% and from 17 to 44% before and after PPT application, respectively. S. nigrum showed a strong increase in ammonium portion (35%) followed by a decrease (20%), which may have resulted from ammonia volatilization. The difference in total shoot nitrogen content per ground area at the start and 2 weeks after PPT application averaged for the three C3 weed species to a nitrogen loss of ca. 0.4 g N m−2 or approximately 13% of the total nitrogen in the weed canopy. Analysis of the apoplastic fluid yielded an increase in ammonium concentration and a pH decrease after an initial increase on day 1 after the PPT treatment. In order to evaluate the potential for ammonia loss, the Γ-value was calculated for both apoplastic and tissue water. S. nigrum showed the most dramatic increases in both apoplastic and tissue–water Γ-values 4 days after PPT treatment. The calculated stomatal NH3 compensation point was strongly elevated after PPT treatment. However, temporal changes of apoplastic pH and ammonium concentration varied between the species and the modelled ammonia emission ranged from 0.03 to 0.09 g N m−2. It is concluded that PPT application results in an ammonia emission of ca.

  • 264.
    Martin, Ebba
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Fotledsdistorsioner hos svenska kvinnliga truppgymnaster på juniornivå - incidens och tillfälle: Betydelsen av uppvärmning/styrketräning för fot/fotled2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Truppgymnastik (eng. teamgymnastics) är en mycket populär form av gymnastik vars ursprung finns i Skandinavien. Idag finns det runt 20,000 tävlingslicensierade trupp-gymnaster i Sverige. Fot/fotled är de kroppsdelar som är mest utsatta för skador inom idrotten. Syftet var att undersöka skadeincidens och skadetillfälle av fotledsdistorsioner de tre månaderna innan och under en svensk juniortävling 2011 i kvinnlig truppgymnastik. Ytterligare syfte var att undersöka om uppvärmning och/eller styrketräning för fot/fotled minskar skadeincidensen.

    Uppsatsen var en retrospektiv deskriptiv studie, där nitton kvinnliga juniorlag inom truppgymnastik blev tillfrågade att delta i studien. Huvudledarna fick svara på ett frågeformulär om idrottsskador samt fotledsdistorsioner. Antal inkluderande lag var nio.

    Undersökningen resulterade i en låg skadeincidens (3,5 %) för fotledsdistorsioner i jämförelse med tidigare forskning inom svensk truppgymnastik. Fem (n = 146) truppgymnaster drabbades av fotledsdistorsioner de tre månaderna innan Junior-SM 2011 (september-november), varav två fotledsdistorsioner var återskador. Under Junior-SM 2011 var det en (n = 95) truppgymnast som drabbades av en fotledsdistorsion, en förstagångsskada. Majoriteten av huvudledarna ansåg att flest skador, oavsett lokalisering, uppstod under träning, samt vid moment på tumbling. Sju av nio lag utförde uppvärmning för fot/fotled med syftet att förebygga skador och alla nio lag utförde styrketräning för fot/fotled med syftet att förebygga skador.

    Kvinnliga truppgymnaster på juniornivå utförde en generell uppvärmning samt uppvärmning och/eller styrketräning för fot/fotled, som en del av eller enskilt från den generella uppvärmningen, med syftet att förebygga skador. Det preventiva arbetet som lagen utförde kan ha betydelse för den låga skadeincidensen i undersökningen. Det var dock truppgymnaster som drabbades av fotledsdistorsioner, vilket kan bero på att fotledsdistorsioner inte går att undvika helt och hållet, på grund av de krafter som gymnastens kropp utsätts för. Det är dock oklart om antalet fotledsdistorsioner hade varit fler och mer allvarliga utan dessa åtgärder. Ytterligare forskning om preventiva metoder, framförallt uppvärmning

  • 265.
    Mattsson, Marie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Herrmann, B.
    Agroscope Reckenholz-T¨anikon Rsearch Station ART.
    David, M.
    Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), UMR Environnement et Grandes Cultures, Thiverval-Grignon, France.
    Loubet, B.
    Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), UMR Environnement et Grandes Cultures, Thiverval-Grignon, France.
    Riedo, M.
    Natural Environmental Research Council, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh Research Station, Penicuik EH260QB, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Theobald, M.R.
    Natural Environmental Research Council, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh Research Station, Penicuik EH260QB, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Sutton, M.A.
    Natural Environmental Research Council, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh Research Station, Penicuik EH260QB, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Bruhn, D.
    Plant and Soil Science Laboratory, University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Life Sciences, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Neftel, A.
    Agroscope Reckenholz-T¨anikon Rsearch Station ART, Reckenholzstrasse 191, 8046 Z¨urich, Switzerland.
    Schjoerring, J.K.
    Plant and Soil Science Laboratory, University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Life Sciences, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Temporal variability in bioassays of the stomatal ammonia compensation point in relation to plant and soil nitrogen parameters in intensively managed grassland2009In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 171-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The exchange of ammonia between crop canopies and the atmosphere depends on a range of plant parameters and climatic conditions. However, little is known about effects of management factors. We have here investigated the stomatal ammonia compensation point in response to cutting and fertilization of a grass sward dominated by Lolium perenne. Tall grass had a very low NH3 compensation point (around 1 nmol mol−1), reflecting the fact that leaf nitrogen (N) concentration was very low. During re-growth after cutting, leaf tissue concentrations of NO3−, NH4+, soluble N and total N increased along with apoplastic NH4+ concentrations. In contrast, apoplastic pH decreased resulting in largely unaltered NH3 compensation points. Nitrogen fertilization one week after cutting caused the apoplastic NH4+ concentration of the newly emerging leaves to increase dramatically. The NH3 compensation point peaked between 15 and 25 nmol mol−1 the day after the fertiliser was applied and thereafter decreased over the following 10 days until reaching the same level as before fertilisation. Ammonium concentrations in leaf apoplast, bulk tissue and litter were positively correlated (P=0.001) throughout the experimental period. Bulk tissue NH4+ concentrations, total plant N and soil NH4+ concentrations also showed a positive correlation. A very high potential for NH3 emission was shown by the plant litter.

  • 266.
    Mattsson, Marie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Herrmann, B.
    Agroscope Reckenholz-Tänikon Research Station ART, Reckenholzstrasse 191, 8046 Zürich, Switzerland.
    Jones, S.
    Agroscope Reckenholz-Tänikon Research Station ART, Reckenholzstrasse 191, 8046 Zürich, Switzerland; Natural Environmental Research Council, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh Research Station, Penicuik EH26 0QB, Midlothian Scotland.
    Neftel, A.
    Agroscope Reckenholz-Tänikon Research Station ART, Reckenholzstrasse 191, 8046 Zürich, Switzerland.
    Sutton, M.A.
    Natural Environmental Research Council, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh Research Station, Penicuik EH26 0QB, Midlothian Scotland.
    Schjoerring, J.K.
    Plant and Soil Science Laboratory, University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Life Sciences, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Contribution of different grass species to plant-atmosphere ammonia exchange in intensively managed grassland2009In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 59-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Species diversity in grasslands usually declines with increasing input of nitrogen from fertilizers or atmospheric deposition. Conversely, species diversity may also impact the build-up of soil and plant nitrogen pools. One important pool is NH3/NH4+ which also can be exchanged between plant leaves and the atmosphere. Limited information is available on how plant-atmosphere ammonia exchange is related to species diversity in grasslands. We have here investigated grass species abundance and different foliar nitrogen pools in 4-year-old intensively managed grassland. Apoplastic pH and NH4+ concentrations of the 8 most abundant species (Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, Festuca pratensis, Lolium multiflorum, Poa pratensis, Dactylis glomerata, Holcus lanatus, Bromus mollis) were used to calculate stomatal NH3 compensation points. Apoplastic NH4+ concentrations differed considerably among the species, ranging from 13 to 117 μM, with highest values in Festuca pratensis. Also apoplastic pH values varied, from pH 6.0 in Phleum pratense to 6.9 in Dactylis glomerata. The observed differences in apoplastic NH4+ and pH resulted in a large span of predicted values for the stomatal NH3 compensation point which ranged between 0.20 and 6.57 nmol mol−1. Three species (Lolium perenne, Festuca pratensis and Dactylis glomerata) had sufficiently high NH3 compensation point and abundance to contribute to the bi-directional NH3 fluxes recorded over the whole field. The other 5 grass species had NH3 compensation points considerably below the atmospheric NH3 concentration and were thus not likely to contribute to NH3 emission but only to NH3 uptake from the atmosphere. Evaluated across species, leaf bulk-tissue NH4+ concentrations correlated well (r2=0.902) with stomatal NH3 compensation points calculated on the basis of the apoplastic bioassay. This suggests that leaf tissue NH4+ concentrations combined with data for the frequency distribution of the corresponding species can be used for predicting the NH3 exchange potential of a mixed grass sward.

  • 267.
    Mattsson, Marie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science.
    Karlsson, Niklas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Bergström Nilsson, Sara
    Hushållningssällskapet Halland, Halmstad, Sverige.
    Biogas från hästgödsel i Halland – från kvittblivningsproblem till ekonomisk och miljömässig resurs2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hästgödsel som substrat för biogasproduktion undersöktes i tre rötningsförsök. Resultaten från dessa tillsammans med olika strömedels för- och nackdelar, transportlogistik för gödseln och ekonomiska överväganden har bedömts med syfte att kunna presentera en helhetslösning för hästägare och hästföretag.

    Rötningsförsöken visade att hästgödsel kan samrötas med nöt-, svin-och hönsgödsel med godtagbar metanproduktion. Svingödsel har ett högt näringsinnehåll (framförallt kväve) som kompletterar den näringsfattiga hästgödseln på ett bra sätt samtidigt som den är mer flytande och därmed gör hästgödseln mer pumpbar. Både torv och halmpellets kan användas som strömedel med godtagbar metanproduktion. Kväveinnehållet blir lägre och kol-kvävekvoten högre med torv jämfört med halmpellets men halmpellets har praktiska och ekonomiska fördelar framför torv. Färsk hästgödsel producerade mer metan med torv än med halmpellets, men efter lagring i en månad producerade hästgödseln med halmpellets mer metan än torvgödseln. Lagring i två månader var däremot negativt för metanproduktionen från båda hästgödsel/strömedel kombinationerna.

    Sammantaget leder resultaten till en möjlig modell för hästgödselns utnyttjande för biogasproduktion innefattande samrötningssubstrat, strömedel, lagring, transport och ekonomi som kan rekommenderas för hästnäringen.

    Flera miljömässiga fördelar med en ökad biogasrötning av hästgödsel kan lyftas fram. Produktion av ett förnybart bränsle, minskade klimatgasutsläpp och näringsförluster samt ett bättre kretsloppstänkande är några uppenbara sådana.

    Rapporten ser stora möjligheter för utnyttjande av denna potential men pekar också på behovet av mer forskning och utveckling inom området.

  • 268.
    Mattsson, Marie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science.
    Magnheden, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Fleischer, Siegfried
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Catch Crop Known to Decrease N-leaching also Counteracts Soil CO2 Emissions2015In: Journal of Resources and Ecology, ISSN 1674-764X, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 180-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CO2 emissions to the atmosphere were studied in a fertilized sandy agricultural soil with and without a catch crop sown into the main crop. The catch crop was grown primarily with the purpose to decrease N-leaching but this study also wanted to find out if the catch crop could have an effect in a climate change perspective. Plots with catch crop showed decreased CO2 emissions from the soil. Since previous results have shown that catch crops effectively decrease N-leaching we recommend growing catch crops as an effective measure for helping both the climate and the eutrophication issue. Seasonal variations in CO2 emissions were pronounced with maximum emissions from the fertilized agricultural soil in June and from an adjacent unmanaged grassland in August. From the plot with catch crop emissions decreased in July and August but somewhat increased later in the autumn. Fertilized agricultural soil showed a within-soil CO2 sink after harvest, i.e. within-soil CO2 uptake. Availability of NH4+ or NO3- in the soil seems to influence the within-soil CO2 sink, with NH4+ enforcing the sink while the same amount of NO3- instead increased CO2 emissions. © 2015 BioOne All rights reserved

  • 269.
    Mavropalias, Georgios
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Changes in muscle activation during 72 hours following an acute plyometric bout2014In: Book of Abstracts of the 19th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science – 2nd - 5th July 2014, Amsterdam – The Netherlands / [ed] De Haan, A., De Ruiter, C. J., Tsolakidis, E., European College of Sport Science , 2014, p. 71-71Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Plyometric training (PT) has been used widely in sport training to improve characteristics such as power, strength and to induce beneficial neuromuscular improvements. Previous evidence has demonstrated a significant impact of this training method on muscle activation patterns during training, however there is a lack in research literature of studies examining its follow up effects in the recovery period. The purpose of this study was to examine any possible changes in the muscle activation of the lower extremities up to 72 hours after high intensity PT.

    Methods

    An experimental study design with repeated measures was used. Twelve (n=12) male subjects (mean age 24.33 ± 2.6) executed a high intensity PT protocol for the lower extremities. Countermovement jump test (CMJ) was performed pre, immediately post, 24, 48 and 72 hours after the PT. Surface electromyography (sEMG) evaluation examined the activation of Gluteus Maximus (GM), Vastus Lateralis (VL), Biceps Femoris (BF) and Gastrocnemius (GAS) during the CMJ in all the time points of the recovery. A one way ANOVA with repeated measures was used to analyze differences between the five time points (p≤0.05).

    Results

    The results indicated a statistical significant decrease in CMJ performance at 24 and 48 hours, compared with the baseline, that peaked at 24 hours (-7.16%), and recovered at 72 hours. Muscle activation levels for GM, VL and BF followed the same pattern, decreasing significantly post training compared to the baseline, recovering at 72 hours post. Muscle activation decrease peaked immediately post training for GM (-21.8%), VL (-14.04%) and BF (-19.82%). Muscle activation for GAS decreased significantly post training (-6.77%), recovering faster than the other muscle groups, at 48 hours.

    Discussion

    CMJ jump performance impairment was in accordance with previous research, peaking at 24-48 hours and recovering at 72 hours after the bout (Chatzinikolaou et al., 2010). The impairment pattern observed in the sEMG values peaked immediately post training, recovering at 72 hours; however the magnitude of the decrease was not as extended as observed after eccentric training (Hortobágyi et al, 1998). GAS activation recovered 24 hours faster than the rest of the tested muscle groups probably due to the higher percentage of slow twitch fibers which are less susceptible to muscle damage than fast twitch. In conclusion PT significantly decreases muscle activation and jump performance up to 72 hours after the bout in GM, VL and BF, while GAS recovered in 48 hours.

    References

    Chatzinikolaou A, Fatouros IG, Gourgoulis V, Avloniti A, Jamurtas AZ, Nikolaidis MG, et al.. (2010). J Strength Cond Res, 24, 1389–98.

    Hortobágyi T, Houmard J, Fraser D, Dudek R, Lambert J, Tracy J. (1998). J Appl Physiol, 84, 492–8.

    Contact georgios.mavropalias@gmail.com

  • 270.
    Meesters, Jorit
    et al.
    Epidemiology and Register Centre South Skåne, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden & Department of Orthopaedics, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, the Netherlands.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine. Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult, Research and Development Center, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult, Research and Development Center, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Petersson, Ingemar F.
    Epidemiology and Register Centre South Skåne, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden; Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Orthopaedics, Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Turkiewicz, Aleksandra
    Orthopaedics, Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Englund, Martin
    Epidemiology and Register Centre South Skåne, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden; Orthopaedics, Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Clinical Epidemiology Research & Training Unit, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.
    The risk for depression in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a population-based cohort study2014In: Arthritis Research & Therapy, ISSN 1478-6354, E-ISSN 1478-6362, Vol. 16, no 5, article id 418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Depression is frequent in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients. However, epidemiological data about the potential increase in risk are lacking. This study compares the rate of doctor-diagnosed depression in a well defined cohort of AS patients to the general population seeking care.

    Methods: The Skåne Healthcare Register comprises healthcare data of each resident in Region Skåne, Sweden (population 1.2 million), including ICD-10 diagnoses. Using physician coded consultation data from years 1999 to 2011, we calculated depression consultation rates for all AS patients. We obtained standardized depression-rate ratios by dividing the observed depression rate in AS patients by the expected rate based on the corresponding age- and sex-specific rates of depression in the general population seeking care. A ratio >1 equals a higher rate of depression among AS patients.

    Results: The AS cohort consisted of 1738 subjects (65% men) with a mean age of 54 years. The reference population consisted of 967,012 subjects. During the 13-year observation period 10% (n = 172) of the AS cohort had a doctor-diagnosed depression compared to 6% (n = 105) to be expected. The standardized estimate of depression-rate ratio was 1.81 (95% confidence interval 1.44 to 2.24) in women men and 1.49 (1.20 to 1.89) in men.

    Conclusions: The rate of doctor-diagnosed depression is increased about 80% in female and 50% in male AS patients. Future challenges are to timely identify and treat the AS patients who suffer from depression. © 2014 Meesters et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  • 271.
    Meesters, Jorit
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences in Lund, Orthopaedics, Lund University.
    Hagel, Sofia
    Department of Clinical Sciences in Lund, Orthopaedics, Lund University.
    Klokkerud, Mari
    National Resource Centre for Rehabilitation in Rheumatology, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Stovgaard, Inger
    University of South Denmark, Graasten, Denmark.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine. Spenshult Hospital.
    Grotle, Margreth
    FORMI (Communication Unit for Musculoskeletal Disorders), Oslo University Hospital, Norway.
    Hørslev-Petersen, Kim
    University of South Denmark, Graasten, Denmark.
    Petersson, Ingemar F
    Department of Clinical Sciences in Lund, Orthopaedics, Lund University.
    Hagen, Kåre Birger
    Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, Norway.
    Pont, Winke
    Department of Orthopaedics Rehabilitation Medicine & Physical Therapy, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Vlieland, Thea Vliet
    Department of Orthopaedics Rehabilitation Medicine & Physical Therapy, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Goal-setting in multidisciplinary team care for patients with rheumatoid arthritis: an international multi-center evaluation of the contents using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a reference.2013In: Journal of rehabilitation medicine : official journal of the UEMS European Board of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 45, no 9, p. 888-899Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To make a cross-cultural comparison of the contents of rehabilitation goals of patients admitted for rehabilitation and to compare the contents with the comprehensive International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Set for rheumatoid arthritis, by linking their contents to the ICF. PATIENTS: A random sample of 80 patients with rheumatoid arthritis was retrieved from rehabilitation clinics in 4 countries. METHODS: Rehabilitation goals were extracted from the medical records and linked to the ICF using standardized linking rules. RESULTS: A total of 495 rehabilitation goals were identified and linked to 952 ICF codes, resulting in 151 unique ICF codes. Two-hundred and seventy-five (29%) of the 952 ICF codes were related to "Body Functions" (b-codes), 80 (8%) to "Body Structures" (s-codes), 419 (44%) to "Activities and Participation" (d-codes) and 178 (19%) to "Environmental Factors" (e-codes). Thirty-five of the 151 unique ICF codes (23%) were not in the comprehensive ICF Core Set for RA, whereas 23 of the ICF codes in this Core Set (24%) were not in the rehabilitation goals. CONCLUSION: The goals set in a team rehabilitation setting for patients with rheumatoid arthritis are related to all ICF components, with "Activities and Participation" being the most frequently addressed. The contents of the goals are, to a considerable extent, covered by the comprehensive ICF Core Set for RA, but additional evaluation is required before the ICF Core Set is used as a rehabilitation tool in rheumatoid arthritis.

  • 272.
    Meesters, Jorit J. L.
    et al.
    Epi-centre Skåne, Skåne University Hospital, Medicon village, Lund, Sweden & Department of Orthopaedics, Rehabilitation and Physical Therapy, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands.
    Petersson, Ingemar F.
    Epi-centre Skåne, Skåne University Hospital, Medicon village, Lund, Sweden & Department of Orthopedics, Clinical Sciences, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult, Research and Development Center, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult, Research and Development Center, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Lennart T. H.
    Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine. Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult, Research and Development Center, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Sociodemographic and disease-related factors are associated with patient-reported anxiety and depression in spondyloarthritis patients in the Swedish SpAScania cohort2014In: Clinical Rheumatology, ISSN 0770-3198, E-ISSN 1434-9949, Vol. 33, no 11, p. 1649-1656Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anxiety and depression are common among patients with rheumatic diseases. This study aims to explore which factors are associated with self-reported anxiety and depression in a well-defined cohort of spondyloarthritis (SpA) patients. In 2009, 3,711 patients from the SpAScania cohort were sent a postal questionnaire to assess health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and physical and mental functioning. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale measured anxiety (HADS-A) and depression (HADS-D), subscales 0-21, best-worst. HADS ≥8 indicates possible cases of anxiety or depression. One-way ANOVA (p < 0.05) tested for differences among the SpA subtypes in HADS scores. Linear regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, and disease duration was used to test for associations between HADS and independent variables. In total, 2,167 (58 %) patients (52 % females, mean age 55.4 years) returned the questionnaire. In total, 683 (32 %) cases were classified as "possible anxiety" and 305 (14 %) as "possible depression" cases with mean (SD) HADS-A 5.9 (4.3) and HADS-D 4.4 (3.6). There were no differences among the SpA subtypes in HADS-A and HADS-D. HADS-A and HADS-D were associated with lower education, lower physical activity (HADS-D only), chronic pain problems, more fatigue, lower general health, lower HRQoL, lower level of functioning, higher disease activity, and lower self-efficacy. Associations with anxiety and/or depression appear multifactorial in patients with SpA including both personal and disease-related factors. Since these comorbidities are increased in SpA and treatable, they should be screened for in clinical practice, possibly with instruments like the HADS. © 2014, Clinical Rheumatology

  • 273. Milenkovski, S
    et al.
    Thiere, Geraldine
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Samuelsson, K
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Berglund, O
    Lindgren, P-E
    Denitrification in constructed wetlands in southern Sweden2007In: 2nd International Symposium on Wetland Pollutant Dynamics and Control - WETPOL 2007: Extended abstracts / [ed] Ülo Mander, Margit Kõiv, Christina Vohla, Institute of Geography, 2007, p. 220-222Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 274.
    Milenkovski, Susann
    et al.
    Department of Chemical Ecology/Ecotoxicology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Berglund, Olof
    Department of Chemical Ecology/Ecotoxicology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Thiere, Geraldine
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Samuelsson, Kristina
    Swedish County Administrative Board, Länsstyrelsen Kalmar län, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Medical Microbiology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Composition of denitrifying bacterial enzyme genes nirS, nirK and nosZ in constructed wetlandsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the composition of the denitrifying bacterial community among constructed wetlands in agricultural areas was investigated. Thirty-two constructed wetlands located in Southern Sweden were surveyed, and biofilm samples from each were analyzed by applying denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, to investigate the community composition of the three denitrifying bacterial enzyme genes nirK, nirS and nosZ. The DNA sequences of the enzyme genes were compared to known DNA sequences in GeneBank using BLAST. The results of the denitrifying bacterial enzyme genes indicated that these habitats may harbour a heterogeneous denitrifying bacterial community. Individual analysis of the enzyme genes revealed that nirS was more heterogeneous than both nirK and nosZ. Most sequences from the present study clustered with known sequences from species belonging to the group of α-Proteobacteria, and to a lesser extent with β- Proteobacteria and γ-Proteobacteria, and only nirS clustered with a member of gram-positive bacteria.

  • 275.
    Milenkovski, Susann
    et al.
    Department of Chemical Ecology/Ecotoxicology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Thiere, Geraldine
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Berglund, Olof
    Department of Chemical Ecology/Ecotoxicology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Medical Microbiology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Variation of eubacterial and denitrifying bacterial biofilm communities among constructed wetlandsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacteria play important roles in the transformation of nutrients in wetlands, but few studies have examined parameters affecting variation in bacterial community composition between wetlands. We compared the composition of eubacterial and denitrifying bacterial biofilm communities in 32 agricultural constructed wetlands in southern Sweden, and the extent to which wetland environmental parameters could explain the observed variation. Structure and richness of the eubacterial 16S rRNA gene and three denitrifying bacterial enzyme genes (nirK, nirS and nosZ), analysed by molecular fingerprinting methods, varied among the constructed wetlands, which could be partly explained by different environmental parameters. Results from the enzyme gene analyses were also compared to determine whether the practice of using a single denitrifying bacterial gene could characterize the overall community composition of denitrifying bacteria. We found that nirK was more diverse than both nirS and the nosZ, and the band structure and richness of the three genes were not related to the sam environmental parameters. This suggests that using a single enzyme gene may not suffice to characterize the community composition of denitrifying bacteria in constructed agricultural wetlands.

  • 276.
    Mirza Mahmoudi, Milad
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET). Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Markovic, Ljiljana
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET). Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    How does physical training affect sedentary long-term unemployed?: An intervention study in association with Halmstad Fastighet AB-Bureau2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Introduction: Unemployment cause poor health and poor health leads to unemployment. Those who are sedentary and experience unemployment may also experience negative effects on their physical and mental health such as obesity followed by cardiac illness, reduced muscle strength, chronic pain, anxiety and depression. All these factors can be categorised under physical and mental health, which are the essential factors for an optimal work ability.

    Methods: Our methods were to assess seven subjects (n = 7) of three male and four females, with the mean age of 35 ± 10 (25–54), who were all sedentary and long-term unemployed. These subjects were all part of a project organised by Halmstad Fastighet AB-Bureau (HFAB-Bureau) were they were undergoing education, coaching for employment and learning to apply for job. Our part in this project was to provide eight weeks of physical training to the subjects to reinforce their physical health which in turn supposed to improve their mental health. They were all assessed for grip strength with JAMAR® hydraulic hand dynamometer which represents overall muscle strength, BMI supplemented with waist circumference, blood pressure determination, self-assessing bodily pain with Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), anxiety and depression levels with Hospital Anxiety And Depression Scale (HADS) – a validated self-assessing questionnaire and Work Ability Index (WAI) by answering the self-assessing questionnaire for WAI.

    Results: T-test shows significance change in perceived pain over eight weeks of physical training as well as correlation between grip strength and perceived pain as well as anxiety and depression. No significant changes or correlations in remaining variables.

    Conclusion: Physical training contributes to decrease of chronic pain and physical training may give contribution to prevention of depression while increasing in muscle strength.

    Key word: Unemployment, mental health, physical health, physical training

     

  • 277.
    Miyaoka, Mark
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Sustainability Assessment for Strategic Material Flows Between Planned Construction Projects in the Stockholm County2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Urban development demands on construction aggregates are set to rise dramatically over the coming years within the Stockholm region and a significant environmental challenge will be associated with the large flows of construction aggregates and excavated materials in and out of future development projects respectively.   Material banks receive construction and demolition waste (CDW), process this waste and supply recycled aggregates to the construction industry helping to reduce the demand on natural construction minerals.  The transportation of these material flows between the material banks and development areas is predominantly by road in the Stockholm region.  With the transport sector responsible for almost one third of green-house-gas (GHG) emissions in Sweden, there is a motivation for investigating the environmental benefits of minimising transportation distances of construction aggregates.  Quantities of CDW in the form of excavated granular soil and rock from future development locations within a case-study area comprising three municipalities; Botkyrka, Huddinge and Haninge, in the south of Stockholm, have been estimated based on their municipal comprehensive plans up to the year 2030.  This has been done with the assistance of an earthworks estimation tool, the ESAR model, developed by Ecoloop AB.  Distances between existing and planned material banks and future development areas together with the estimated material quantities have been combined to approximate total vehicle-kilometres for the transportation of these materials under a business-as-usual scenario up until 2030.  A comparison has been made to an alternative scenario of strategically located material banks within the case-study area, whereby a methodology has been developed within this study to strategically locate material banks utilising GIS software ArcMap together with land availability map layers for siting material banks previously developed under a separate related study.  In comparison to the business-as-usual scenario, one strategically located material bank within the case-study area reduces total material haulage distances of excavated granular soils and rocks from development areas to the material banks by approximately 42% or 3.67 million vehicle-kilometres, equating to a reduction of 3478 tonnes of CO2e throughout the time horizon of this study.  Another output from the ESAR model is the estimated construction aggregate demand for sub-surface earthworks backfilling activities.  A material flow analysis for the strategically located material bank indicates that the material bank is able to satisfy the sub-surface backfilling construction aggregate demand in the form of recycled aggregates throughout its operation.  Considering the flow of recycled aggregates back to development areas for backfilling earthworks activities, a total combined reduction of 45% or 5.54 million vehicle-kilometres of material haulage distance is achievable, equating to a saving of 5248 tonnes of CO2e.  Reductions in GHG emissions from strategically located material banks are likely to also be significant beyond the boundaries of this study and warrant further research.

  • 278.
    Modig, Amanda
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science.
    Silverkontaminerat slam, hur påverkas markens organismer?: En litteraturstudie kring silvrets toxiska effekt i mark.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Dagens användning av antibakteriellt silver i vardagsprodukter leder till att

    silverförorenat avlopp hamnar i reningsverken. Ett näringsrikt slam bildas i reningsverken och

    används som växtnäring på jordbruksland. Ett problem som kan uppstå är att silverföroreningarna

    ifrån slammet överförs till mark. Eftersom silver är känt för sina antibakteriella egenskaper så är

    syftet med denna studien att undersöka silvrets effekt på jord och marklevande organismer.

    Resultat: Den lägsta koncentrationen på 0,56 mg/kg silvret NM-300K hämmade nitritproduktionen

    i jorden med 16%. Silvernitrat hämmade den mikrobiella massa i jord med 50% efter 7 dygn. Vid

    lägre silverkoncentrationer på 0,19 mg/kg gynnades nitritproduktionen i mark istället. Antalet

    markbakterier sjönk i den silverkontaminerade marken i jämförelse med kontrollgruppen. En PVP

    täckt silvernanopartikel visade sig vara mer toxisk mot nitrifikations bakterier än en silver

    nanopartikel otäckt yta.

    Slutsats: Silver har visat sig vara toxisk mot mikroorganismer i mark, dock kan ingen gemensam

    toxisk koncentration fastställas för alla markorganismer då olika typer av nanosilver och

    silverföreningar har olika effekt beroende på vilken storlek, form, yta och vad de omvandlas till i

    naturen.

  • 279.
    Mårtensson, Gustav
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    The effect of lifting speed on factors related to resistance training: A study on muscle activity, amount of repetitions performed, and time under tension during bench press in young males2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background Many different variables are important to consider when creating resistancetraining programs. However the lifting speed that exercises are performed with has not beenstudied as extensively as many of the other factors. Some research has indicated that trainingwith specific lifting speeds results in improved strength or hypertrophy adaptations comparedto other lifting tempos, but more research is needed to reach better knowledge on what liftingspeeds are optimal for specific goals.Aim The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of various lifting speeds on differentfactors known to influence resistance training. The measured variables were muscle activity,maximum amount of repetitions performed and time under tension during bench press.Method Thirteen males performed bench press at their individual 6 RM. The exercise wasperformed to fatigue with three different lifting tempos (4 second repetitions, 6 secondrepetitions and repetitions intentionally performed as fast as possible). Number of repetitions performed and total time under tension for each test was recorded in seconds. Surfaceelectromyography (EMG) was used to register muscle activity of pectoralis major anddeltoideus anterior. Reference values were gathered using MVIC (Maximum voluntaryisometric contraction) tests.Results EMG amplitudes were higher in pectoralis major when a fast lifting speed (60.1 ± 7.3% of MVIC) was used compared to the medium (54.8 ± 10.2) and slow (54.3 ± 7.1)conditions. More repetition were performed with faster lifting speeds. The time under tensionwas longer for the slow and medium lifting tempos than for the fast lifting tempo.Conclusion The result from this study can be considered when designing resistance trainingprograms. Based on the increased performance and muscle activity associated with the fastlifting tempo, faster lifting speeds may be beneficial when the training goal is to increasestrength levels. It is difficult to draw any conclusions regarding the optimal lifting tempo forspecific training designed to increase hypertrophy, but the time under tension appears to belonger for slower lifting speeds.

  • 280.
    Möller, Malin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Sander, Erik
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Effekt av olika stretchmetoder på agility och rörlighet hos elitinnebandyspelare2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In many sports such as floor ball static stretching (SS) is commonly used as part of the warm up to increase performance even though SS has shown to have a negative impact on activities involving strength, power, sprint and agility.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate if different stretching methods SS, dynamic stretching (DS) and no stretching (IS) as a part of the warm up affected agility and/or flexibility (ROM) of the hamstring in male elite floor ball players and if the possible effect lasted up to 10 minutes in the test occasion.

    Methods: At three different days the different stretching methods (SS, DS and IS) were tested after warm up. The three stretching methods were performed at every test occasion in a randomized order on three different test groups. Agility and flexibility were tested with T-test (s) and passive straight leg raise (o) at 0 min, 5 min and 10 min after warm up. A total of 9 subjects completed the study.

    Results: At both 0 min and 5 min after completed stretching the best time on T-test (s) was performed after DS (10,20 ± 0,98 and 9,92 ± 0,49). At 10 min the best time was performed after IS (9,68 ± 0,16). No significant difference between the different stretching methods and T-test was found at neither 0 min (p = 0,93), 5 min (p = 0,90) nor 10 min (p = 0,29). At both 0 min and 5 min after completed stretching the highest values on ROM (o) was measured after SS (73,56 ± 5,79 and 71,67 ± 7,12). At 10 min highest value was measured after DS (73,44 ± 8,75 ). No significant difference between the different stretching methods and ROM was found at neither 0 min 0 min (p = 0,92), 5 min (p = 0,94) nor 10 min (p = 0,71).

    Conclusion: The results of this study lack significance but show a weak trend that SS possibly could impair agility but increase flexibility in hamstring and that the performance impairment gradually stagnates. However both DS and IS gave equal or better results on T-test in comparison to SS and with that in mind SS should be performed at a separate occasion or adjacent to the end of the activity.

  • 281.
    Möllerström, Erik
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Vertical Axis Wind Turbines: Tower Dynamics and Noise2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) have with time been outrivaled by the today common and economically feasible horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs). However, VAWTs have several advantages such as the possibility to put the drive train at ground level, lower noise emissions and better scaling behavior which still make them interesting for research.

    The work within this thesis is made in collaboration between the Department of Construction and Energy Engineering at Halmstad University and the Division for Electricity at Uppsala University. A 200 kW VAWT owned by the latter and situated close to Falkenberg in the southwest of Sweden has been the main subject of the research even if most learnings has been generalized to fit a typical vertical turbine. This particular turbine has a wooden tower which is semi-guy-wired, i.e. the tower is both firmly attached to the ground and supported by guy-wires.

    This thesis has two main topics both regarding VAWTs: eigenfrequency of the tower and the noise generated from the turbine. The eigenfrequency of a semi-guy-wired tower is studied and an analytical expression describing this is produced and verified by experiments and simulations. The eigenfrequency of the wire itself and how it is affected by wind load are also studied.  The noise characteristics of VAWTs have been investigated, both theoretically and by noise measurement campaigns. Both noise emission and frequency distribution of VAWTs has been studied.

    The work has resulted in analytical expressions for tower and wire eigenfrequency of a semi-guy-wired tower as well as recommendations for designing future towers for VAWTs. The noise emission of VAWTs has been studied and proven low compared to HAWTs. The noise frequency distribution of the 200 kW VAWT differs significantly from that of a similar size HAWTs with for example lower levels for frequencies below 3000 Hz.

  • 282.
    Möllerström, Erik
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Whatever became of the vertical axis wind turbine?2019In: Modern power systems, ISSN 0260-7840, Vol. 39, no 4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Alongside the story of today’s commercially successful, propeller-type, horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT), there is the lesser known story of the vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT). Once seen as a competitor in setting the standard for wind turbine design, utility-scale VAWTs have become a more and more unusual sight. However, utility-scale VAWT prototypes do from time to time still appear as attempts are made to establish vertical axis technology in a market totally dominated by horizontal axis machines. This is a retrospective survey of utility-scale VAWT projects, with turbines of 100 kW or more.

  • 283.
    Möllerström, Erik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik. Division for Electricity, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bolin, Karl
    Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ottermo, Fredric
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Bååth, L.B.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK).
    Hylander, Jonny
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Noise directivity from a vertical axis wind turbine2015In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Wind Turbine Noise 2015, New Brighton: INCE/Europe , 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The directivity of wind turbine noise is of widespread interest and has received attention over an extended period. The reason for this is partly that noise optimization procedures can be implemented in order to increase the efficiency of the power output. Although directivity of horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs) are well understood, the directivity pattern around vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) are less well investigated.This paper presents measurements of directivity on a 200 kW VAWT, a so called H-rotor, with variable speed and a tower height of 40 m. The turbine, which is situated in a flat agricultural landscape close to Falkenberg at the Swedish west coast, is one of the world’s largest today operational VAWTs. Experimental results as well as a theoretical model based on the turbulent-boundary-layer trailing-edge (TBL-TE) noise suggest higher noise levels upwind of the rotor and the lowest noise levels in the perpendicular directions. Moreover, modulation analysis of the measurements indicates the presence of modulations but the results are inconclusive.

  • 284.
    Möllerström, Erik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Sandra
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Goude, Anders
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ottermo, Fredric
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Hylander, Jonny
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Turbulence influence on optimum tip speed ratio for a 200 kW vertical axis wind turbine2016In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 753, article id 032048Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of turbulence intensity (TI) on the tip speed ratio for maximum power coefficient, here called λCp-max, is studied for a 200 kW VAWT H-rotor using logged data from a 14 month period with the H-rotor operating in wind speeds up to 9 m/s. The TI - λCp-max relation is examined by dividing 10 min mean values in different turbulence intensity ranges and producing multiple CP(λ) curves. A clear positive relation between TI and λCp-max is shown and is further strengthened as possible secondary effects are examined and deemed non-essential. The established relation makes it possible to tune the control strategy to enhance the total efficiency of the turbine.

  • 285.
    Möllerström, Erik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Larsson, Sebastian
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Ottermo, Fredric
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Hylander, Jonny
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Bååth, Lars
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK).
    Noise Propagation from a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine2014In: Proceedings of 43rd International Congress on Noise Control Engineering: Internoise 2014 / [ed] John Davy, Charles Don, Terry McMinn, Liz Dowsett, Norm Broner & Marion Burgess, Brisbane, QLD: Australian Acoustical Society , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Initial noise measurements were performed on a 200kW vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) and results were compared to that of a Vestas V27, a similar size horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT). Multiple recording units were placed in line downwind of the turbine to investigate noise propagation. The frequency distribution of the noise were analyzed indicating that the VAWT has lower relative levels for frequencies under 3000 Hz, especially within 600-1200 Hz. Furthermore, VAWT noise seems to occur more around the same frequencies as the natural background noise, increasing masking probability. Results from propagation measurements seemed to indicate that noise declines more rapidly with distance for the VAWT then for the reference HAWT, possibly explained by the lower levels at low frequencies. Further investigation is needed to establish these differences and the 200 kW VAWT creates an opportunity doing so utilizing arguably the largest operational VAWT existing today.

  • 286.
    Möllerström, Erik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ottermo, Fredric
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Goude, Anders
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Sandra
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hylander, Jonny
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Turbulence influence on wind energy extraction for a medium size vertical axis wind turbine2016In: Wind Energy, ISSN 1095-4244, E-ISSN 1099-1824, Vol. 19, no 11, p. 1963-1973Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relation between power performance and turbulence intensity for a VAWT H-rotor is studied using logged data from a 14 month (discontinuous) period with the H-rotor operating in wind speeds up to 9 m/s. The turbine, designed originally for a nominal power of 200 kW, operated during this period mostly in a restricted mode due to mechanical concerns, reaching power levels up to about 80 kW. Two different approaches are used for presenting results, one that can be compared to power curves consistent with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard and one that allows isolating the effect of turbulence from the cubic variation of power with wind speed. Accounting for this effect, the turbine still shows slightly higher efficiency at higher turbulence, proposing that the H-rotor is well suited for wind sites with turbulent winds. The operational data are also used to create a Cp(λ) curve, showing slightly lower Cp compared with a curve simulated by a double multiple streamtube model. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 287.
    Möllerström, Erik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik. Division for Electricity, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, PO Box 534, SE - 751 21 Uppsala, SwedenDivision for Electricity, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ottermo, Fredric
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Hylander, Jonny
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Division for Electricity, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, PO Box 534, SE - 751 21 Uppsala, SwedenDivision for Electricity, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Avoidance of resonances in a semi-guy-wired vertical axis wind turbine2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resonance analysis for a vertical axis wind turbine is performed. The turbine may be described as semi-guy wired, being bolted stiffly to the ground as well as supported by guy wires. The influence of the first mode eigen frequency of the guy wires and how it is affected by wind load is examined. Using beam theory, an analytical model for calculating the first mode eigen frequency of the guy wire for different wind loads is derived. The analytical model is verified with FEM-simulations and then used to assemble a diagram showing how to combine the wire size, inclination angle and pre-tension for an eigen frequency range over the 3P load for nominal rotational speed and for a certain effective spring force acting on the tower. This diagram, here called an EA-T diagram, may be used as a quick tool for comparing wire setups and a similar diagram can be used for other guy wired structures.

  • 288.
    Möllerström, Erik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Ottermo, Fredric
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Hylander, Jonny
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Eigen Frequencies of A Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Tower Made of Laminated Wood and the Effect Upon Attaching Guy Wires2014In: Wind Engineering: The International Journal of Wind Power, ISSN 0309-524X, E-ISSN 2048-402X, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 277-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eigen frequencies of a vertical axis wind turbine tower made out of laminated wood which are both bolted to the ground and supported by guy wires are studied and compared. Using beam theory, an analytical model taking the guy wires into account for calculating the first mode eigen frequency of the tower has been derived. The analytical model is then evaluated by comparing with FEM-simulations and measurements performed on the actual tower. The model is found to be reasonably accurate keeping in mind that the estimated masses and second moments of area are somewhat rough. Furthermore the model can be used to give an indication of the magnitude of change in eigen frequency when modifying a tower or guy wire property.

  • 289.
    Möllerström, Erik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ottermo, Fredric
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Hylander, Jonny
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Noise Emission of a 200 kW Vertical Axis Wind Turbine2016In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The noise emission from a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) has been investigated. A noisemeasurement campaign on a 200 kW straight-bladed VAWT has been conducted, and the result hasbeen compared to a semi-empirical model for turbulent-boundary-layer trailing edge (TBL-TE) noise.The noise emission from the wind turbine was measured, at wind speed 8 m/s, 10 m above ground, to96.2 dBA. At this wind speed, the turbine was stalling as it was run at a tip speed lower than optimaldue to constructional constraints. The noise emission at a wind speed of 6 m/s, 10 m above groundwas measured while operating at optimum tip speed and was found to be 94.1 dBA. A comparisonwith similar size horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs) indicates a noise emission at the absolutebottom of the range. Furthermore, it is clear from the analysis that the turbulent-boundary-layertrailing-edge noise, as modeled here, is much lower than the measured levels, which suggests thatother mechanisms are likely to be important, such as inflow turbulence.

  • 290.
    Mühle, Lesley
    et al.
    Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany.
    Rohe, Lena
    Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany.
    Flenner, Ida
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Suhling, Frank
    Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany.
    Atmungsverhalten von Orthetrum cancellatum–Larven: Einfluss der aktuellen Temperatur und der Aufzuchtsbedingungen (Odonata: Libellulidae)2009In: Libellula, ISSN 0723-6514, Vol. 28, no 1-2, p. 59-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ventilation behaviour of Orthetrum cancellatum larvae: influence of the current temperature and rearing conditions (Odonata: Libellulidae) — The intensity of respiration of larval Anisoptera can be determined by observing the frequency of abdominal movements. We used this to study the influence of the current temperature on the larval respiration of O. cancellatum. We assumed that (1) the breathing rate of the larvae increases with rising temperature and that (2) the response to the current temperature depends on the rearing conditions. The larvae were kept for nine months under four different rearing conditions. The egg clutches originated from two countries in different climate zones, from southern France in the Mediterranean area and from northern Germany in the temperate zone. Our experiment revealed that the ventilation rate increased with increasing temperature. This was more pronounced with higher rearing temperatures that the larvae experienced. We interpreted this as a habituation effect. The size of the larvae influenced the ventilation rate as well. On the other hand, the genetic and geographic origin of the larvae had no significant effect.

     

  • 291.
    Namer, Barbara
    et al.
    University of Erlangen, Nürnberg, Germany.
    Hilliges, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Ørstavik, Kristin
    Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Schmidt, Roland
    University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Weidner, Christian
    University of Erlangen, Nürnberg, Germany.
    Torebjörk, Erik
    University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Handwerker, Hermann
    University of Erlangen, Nürnberg, Germany.
    Schmelz, Martin
    University Heidelberg, Germany.
    Endothelin1 activates and sensitizes human C-nociceptors2007In: Pain, ISSN 0304-3959, E-ISSN 1872-6623, Vol. 137, no 1, p. 41-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microneurography was used to record action potentials from afferent C-fibers in cutaneous fascicles of the peroneal nerve in healthy volunteers. Afferent fibers were classified according to their mechanical responsiveness to von Frey stimulation (75 g) into mechano-responsive and mechano-insensitive nociceptors. Various concentrations of Endothelin1 (ET1) and Histamine were injected into the receptive fields of C-fibers. Activation and heat sensitization were monitored. Axon reflex flare and psychophysical ratings were assessed after injection of ET1 and codeine into the forearms after pre-treatment with an H1 blocker or sodium chloride. 65% of mechanosensitive nociceptors were activated by ET1. One-third showed long lasting responses (>15 min). In contrast, none of thirteen mechano-insensitive fibers were activated. Sensitization to heat was observed in 62% of mechanosensitive and in 46% of mechano-insensitive fibers. Injection of ET1 produced a widespread axon reflex flare, which was suppressed by pre-treatment with an H1 receptor blocker. In addition, pain sensations were induced more often than itching by ET1 in contrast to codeine. No wheal was observed after injection of ET1. Both itching and pain were decreased after H1 blocker treatment. In summary: (1) In humans ET1 activates mechanosensitive, but not mechano-insensitive, nociceptors. (2) Histamine released from mast cells is not responsible for all effects of ET1 on C-nociceptors. (3) ET1 could have a differential role in pain compared to other chemical algogens which activate additionally or even predominantly mechano-insensitive fibers.

  • 292.
    Nicholas, Allen Christo
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science. allnic15@student.hh.se.
    A stochastic analysis of Turbulence Intensity influence over various sizes of HAWT: Study of hypothetical relationship between Rotor Diameter and influence level of Turbulence Intensity2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This disquisition aims for the study of turbulence intensity influence over the power performance of different sizes of turbines with the intent to validate a hypothesis. The hypothesis formulated for the analysis is the relationship between the rotor diameter (turbine size) and turbulence intensity. The hypothetical relationship is that the smaller turbines tend to experience more influence on the power performance from the turbulence in comparison with larger ones. For this examination, three different wind turbines of models Vestas V90, V100, V126 were chosen from three Swedish wind farms. The power performance of turbines at various levels of turbulence intensity were analyzed and the power deviation from the mean value due to influence of turbulence were assessed. The power deviation values of different turbines were compared at same level of wind speeds and also the power coefficients at same level of tip speed ratios were compared to validate the hypothesis. It was observed that the hypothesis seemed to appear true as higher influence on power curves were observed on V90 compared to others. Nevertheless, there were some obscene results which might be due to several factors such as influence of variation in hub height, site and inadequacy of data.

  • 293.
    Niklasson, Edvin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Coster, Albin
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Frånluftsvärmepumpens möjligheter i flerbostadshus2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    If a building is heated by a heat pump, it is of high importance that the heat pump has a high coefficient of performance. An exhaust air heat pump extracts heat from the building’s exhaust air. The air has a relatively high and constant temperature all year around, leading to a high seasonal coefficient of performance. This thesis examines whether it is profitable to complement an exhaust ventilation system with an exhaust air heat pump in an apartment block that already has geothermal heat pump, district heating, oil- or biofuel heated system. To determinate the profitability, a reference building in Strömstad has been used and was considered a representative of Sweden’s other apartment blocks. The result of the study indicated that it is economically justifiable to combine an exhaust air heat pump with district heating, oil- and biofuel heated system. However it must be added that exhaust air heat pumps are best suited for single-family houses since they provide relatively low energy compared to e.g. geothermal heat pumps.

  • 294.
    Niklasson, Emma
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Sundström Karlsson, Tina
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Analys av försäsongsträningen hos ett svenskt damfotbollslag på elitnivå2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to analyze which part of the pre-season trainings two cycles that affected strength and power in lower extremities, acceleration, agility and anaerobic endurance by compiling these abilities of a female elite soccer player team, and then evaluate whether the pre-season training improved these abilities.

    Tests that could prove important and crucial physical qualities in elite soccer players were selected and then performed on three occasions; before, during and after the pre-seasontraining. The selected tests were; squat, vertical jump, 15 m sprint, T-test and YO-YO Intermittent Recovery Test (YO-YO IR). The study included 24 female elite soccer playersfrom all playing positions.

    A significant improvement in strength, agility and anaerobic endurance were measured in the second test round. In the other tests there were no difference observed.

    The first cycle of the pre-season training partly developed the players in the right direction, which the significant improvement in strength revealed. The significant improvement in the agility and anaerobic endurance occurred a little too early, it would have been more beneficial after the second cycle. This means that other important qualities might have been neglected.

  • 295.
    Nilsson, Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science.
    Luftutsläpp från järnmalmsproduktion: - Strategier för systematisk luftkvalitetsmätning2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The mining company LKAB extracts iron ore in three areas in the north of Sweden, Kiruna, Malmberget and Svappavaara. The iron ore is refined and in the pelletizing plants the material is rolled to finished pellet product. The different steps of pelletizing plants causes among other things emissions to the air. It occurs occasionally stops in the production and the emissions are vented via an emergency chimney without purification. The aim for this work is to look into how LKAB may improve their monitoring of air emissions and control of ambient air quality and the analysis methods which are suitable for measuring. More recently, optical methods have been included in the measurements, which have an advantage over the collection of sample for analysis in a laboratory. The work has been limited to air emissions and optical methods. Through extensive literature review, questions has been answered on regarding which are the most important parameters to measure concerning air emissions, which methods that are suitable for continuous measurement and the parameters that are important in meteorological dispersion modeling. Three different methods of measurement are included, DOAS, FT-IR and LIDAR. The optical methods are discussed on the basis of how they can apply for adjustment to LKAB’s operations and its northern geographical location. A method suited better than the others, DOAS, which is the measuring method to be adapted best to LKAB’s operations and for measurement of the emergency chimney. Measurement results from DOAS can be used to make a dispersion model. 

  • 296.
    Nilsson, Christophe
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Beckne, Olle
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Specifik värmeanvändning: Metod för framtagning av den specifika värmeanvändningen för fjärrvärmeanslutna flerbostadshus via Metrias fastighetsregister2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    District heating is currently the most common form of heating for apartment buildings in Sweden, with a ratio up to 90%. It has for a long time been the cheapest heating option for real estate in urban areas but has recently been challenged by cheap and efficient heat pumps. Suppliers are required to work more customer oriented to keep their heating customers, for instance by analyzing the customers heating usage. One way to do that is to get the customer's specific heat consumption expressed in kWh/m2.

    This report presents a method for obtaining the specific heat consumption of apartment buildings among Öresundskraft’s district heating customers in Helsingborg and Ängelholm. The method assumes Metria’s land registry to compile surfaces for Öresundskraft’s heating customers. The area for each property is matched with the delivered heat from Öresundskraft’s customer database.

    In total there are 1,326 properties with apartment buildings. The results show a variation between 2.8 kWh/m2 to over 2,600 kWh/m2 with a median of 109 kWh/m2. Approximately 85% of the properties have a specific heat use between 64 kWh/m2 and 170 kWh/m2, which is considered the normal distribution.

    The values ​​of the heated areas as calculated from Metria’s land registry are compared with values ​​obtained directly from the real-estate company. The result of the comparison is mixed and has in most cases different values ​​for the same property. However, it can’t be distinguished if Metra or the real-estate company’s value is the most accurate.

    The heated surface and the quantity delivered heating for a number of properties with extreme high and low specific heat consumption are compared with its energy return. In most of these cases the cause of the extreme values ​​has been resolved through contact with the owners of the buildings, with the help of aerial photographs or by identifying the building's usage.

    The method is inexpensive, easy to use and can be used instantly to companies. The results provides a clear overview of the specific heat consumption for district heating connected apartment buildings and the method is ideal as a first screening to see which properties needs improvements.

  • 297.
    Nilsson, Eva
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Nilsson, Susanne
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Bålstabilitet: Test och mätning av vårdbiträde2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Inom vården är det idag vanligt med bland annat ryggproblem. Risken är stor att värken blir långvarig. En Australiensk studie visade att en tredjedel av dem som hade besvär från ländryggen fortfarande hade det ett år senare.

    Styrkan i bålmuskulaturen är central för alla typer av rörelser som vi utför funktionellt i det dagliga livet, i arbetssituationen och på fritiden. Har man en bra styrka i magmuskulaturen och i ryggmuskulaturen förebygger man skador och överbelastningsproblem bland annat i ländryggen.

    Syftet med studien har varit att visa om vårdpersonal kan få minskade problem i ländryggen av att bygga upp sin bålstabilitet genom övningar som stärker m.transversus abdominis och m.multifidus. Går det att förbättra förutsättningarna för att personalen ska kunna orka jobba inom vårdyrket, som är ett mycket tungt arbete med många osymmetriska lyft. Vårdyrket har idag en överrepresentation av kvinnor.

    Studien är en kvantitativ undersökning av 12 kvinnor mellan 20 och 55 år. Dessa kvinnor gick igenom en hållningsanalys för att vi skulle få en uppfattning om hur deras fysiska förutsättningar såg ut. Därefter har vi testat balansförmågan genom Elphinstons enbenstest. Som tredje test har vi mätt av styrkan i magmuskulaturen genom att använda oss av Kendalls nedre abdominala muskeltest. Slutligen testas Biering Sörensens ryggtest, som mäter styrkan i ryggmuskulaturen.

    Resultatet av balanstestet visar att 83 % hade förbättrat vänster ben medan 66 % har förbättrat sin balans på höger ben. Kendalls magtest visade en 100 %-ig förbättring för alla, där ursprungsstyrkan var mycket dålig. Sist testades Biering Sörensens ryggtest. Även detta visade en stor svaghet i ryggmuskulaturen från början. Resultatet var även här en 100 %-ig förbättring.

    Slutsatsen är att vårdpersonal som vi har undersökt har generellt en mycket svag muskulatur, främst i magmuskulaturen men även i ryggmuskulaturen. En dålig hållning kan vara ett resultat av en dålig bålstabilitet, vilket var uppenbart i våra testresultat. Dock har testpersonerna varit entusiastiska och tagit åt sig vår information, vilket har lett till en stor förändring av attityden till träning. Alla har under resans gång fått ett större medvetande för hur viktigt det är med en god hållning och en bra bålstabilitet.

     

    Nyckelord: bålstabilitet, core, multifidus, ländryggsbesvär, transversus abdominis, motion.

  • 298.
    Nilsson, Helge
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Solvärme i fjärrvärmesystem2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 299.
    Nilsson, Micke
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Lindqvist, Oscar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Intern energiåtervinning: En förstudie för att ersätta fossila bränslen medrestprodukter från egen produktion2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 300.
    Nilsson, Sara
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Zetterholm, Ylva
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Kan sex veckors plyometrisk träning förbättra maxhastighet, hopphöjd i vertikalhopp samt maxstyrka i knäböj  hos unga män?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Maxhastighet är en viktig faktor inom många idrotter. Olika faktorer som påverkar maxhastighet är anaerob kapacitet, anaeroba energikällor, muskelstyrka samt förmåga att utveckla power. Plyometrisk träning, där explosiva hopp utförs, har som mål att förbättra stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) och power, vilka är viktiga faktorer vid sprint.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur sex veckors plyometrisk träning påverkade maxhastighet, hopphöjd i vertikalhopp samt maxstyrka i knäböj. Studien undersökte även sambandet mellan maxhastighet och hopphöjd samt maxhastighet och maxstyrka. Den här studien är viktig då ingen tidigare studie till vår vetskap har undersökt hur plyometrisk träning påverkar maxhastighet, hopphöjd och maxstyrka.

    Metod: Tre test användes för att mäta maxhastighet, hopphöjd samt maxstyrka. Testen som genomfördes var flygande 30 meter, vertikalt hopptest (CMJ) samt maxstyrketest i knäböj. Från start deltog 19 unga män, vilka delades in i kontroll- och träningsgrupp. Testpersonernas ålder, längd och vikt var 23,4±3,5 år, 180±8,1 centimeter och 75,6±9,8 kilogram. Deltagarna utförde i genomsnitt 4,4±1,4.träningpass (minst 30 minuter) per vecka. Träningsgruppen genomförde plyometrisk träning två till tre gånger i veckan under en period av sex veckor. Övningarna som utfördes var squat jump (SJ), splitthopp, mångstegshopp och drop-jump (DJ)

    Resultat: Resultatet visade en signifikant förbättring (p=0,001) vid utförandet av 1RM i knäböj hos träningsgruppen. Vid maxhastighetstest och vertikalt hopptest påträffades ingen signifikant förbättring. Det fanns ett samband mellan maxhastighet och hopphöjd men samband mellan maxhastighet och maxstyrka saknades.

    Slutsats: Sex veckors plyometrisk träning gav en signifikant förbättring vid utförandet av 1RM (p=0,001) i knäböj. Ytterligare studier krävs för att se hur plyometrisk träning påverkar maxhastighet, hopphöjd och maxstyrka.

     

     

     

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