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  • 251.
    Andén, Sara
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science. 1993.
    How cases can be used as exams2016Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 252.
    Andén, Sara
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Hauser, Matilda
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Ledaren och organisationskulturens roll for anstalldas motivation2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ledarskap och organisationskultur är två avgörande parametrar för företags framgång och är två faktorer som tidigare visats har stor inverkan på anställdas motivationsnivå. Motiverade anställda leder i sin tur till högre prestationer och därmed även högre resultat för hela företaget. Tidigare forskningsresultat har visat hur ledarskap, organisationskultur och motivation har samvarierat men att det är ett komplext ämne som ständigt behöver undersökas i nya miljöer. Syftet med denna studie är därför att skapa en djupare förståelse för hur ledarskap och organisationskultur påverkar motivation samt se i vilken utsträckning det tidigare funna sambandet kan appliceras på arbetsgrupper i Sydsverige. Med hjälp av en kvalitativ studie som baserats på intervjuer med ledare och arbetsgrupper i sydvästra Sverige ska följande problemformulering besvaras Hur påverkar ledaren och organisationskulturen anställdas motivation i arbetsgrupper?. Resultatet visade att den transformativa ledarskapsstil som ledarna i de intervjuade bolagen arbetade efter med högre grad av empowerment hade positiv påverkan på de anställdas motivation. Det framgick dock ur studien att de grupper som arbetade inom standardiserade arbetsmiljöer där empowerment är begränsat resulterade i lägre genomsnittlig motivationsnivå. Organisationskulturens roll i strävan mot att öka motivationen hos de anställda visade sig i dessa fall inte ha någon större påverkan på hur motiverade de anställda var. Resultatet visade också att det fanns andra motivationsfaktorer som spelade in som varken ledaren eller organisationskulturen kan råda över som krävs mer forskning.

  • 253.
    Annekanavar, Sankarshan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Circular Business Model Innovation within the manufacturing industry in India: Integrated Barriers2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing is found to be crucial for the globally industrialized countries whereas its impacts on environment is a concern. Competition worldwide has challenged manufacturing industries with severe economic and environmental pressures, out of which resource scarcity is the most severe. Therefore, since Circular Economy (CE) mitigates these sustainable development challenges, a need to move from the linear “take-make-use-dispose” process to a CE is generated by adopting innovative business models which are called circular business models (CBM). However, a wide gap can be seen between how CE is conceptualized in the literature and how the real life practitioners in India face barriers in realizing it. Hence, the purpose of this thesis is to explore and examine in detail, the various barriers to the adoption of CBMs and thus, creating a shift towards CE among manufacturing firms by exploring challenges faced by practioners in India from various perspectives of the company and the external actors influencing the company and triangulate the barriers found out in the findings with the barriers from the existing literature with an aim of shrinking the literature gap mentioned previously. To fulfil the aims and objectives in this thesis, an extensive literature review is conducted to accumulate information about what information already exists about Sustainable Development (SD) in developing context, Business Model Innovation (BMI) and CE with its barriers. Further, an in-depth case study is conducted on Shree Renuka Sugars Limited (SRSL), which is a sugar manufacturing company in India who practice circular economic principles by achieving resource efficiency through conversion of by-products and wastes into new forms of value. Interviews are conducted on the case company to explore the barriers from the perspectives of the company staff as well as from the perspectives of external actors who influence the company by thinking of the company as a system dependent on its surroundings. Apart from this, additional secondary data has been researched which is used to triangulate with the findings in the later part of the thesis. The findings uncover that the challenges faced by the company are complex, diverse and multidimensional. These identified challenges are clubbed under four dimensions, that is, the barriers from the government, barriers from the supply chain, barriers from financial perspective and barriers from the organizational structure and culture. It was seen that CE was practiced differently in this context than conceptualized in the literature and therefore, other conditions along with this created new barriers for the firm. Also, different opinions were found from different people who were interviewed. This thesis aimed to fill the literature gap on how CE is conceptualized in the literature and how practitioners in India face barriers. The identified barriers in Indian context although not significantly different from the ones in literature yet has tremendous impacts when applied to manufacturing scenario within India. This further leads to also conclude that while all the barriers are interconnected, meaning that they depend on each other extensively, some barriers are more crucial than the other barriers in the Indian context as compared to the literature.

  • 254.
    Annie, Arvidsson
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Josephine, Scholey
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Fjärrvärmeinvesteringar för företag: En studie om investeringsbedömning, risker samt osäkerheter och riskhantering2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to describe how companies on the district heating market implements their investment analysis, identify which risks and uncertainties exists within investments in district heating and define the implementation of risk management.

    The theoretical framework includes two main sections: Financial theory and District heating theory. Some of the introduced theories are: Knight’s definition of risk and uncertainty, Lygnerud’s risk management model, discounted cash flow methods, discount rate, sensitivity and risk analysis, solidity, risk areas in district heating, price dialogue and Nils Holgersson investigation.

    Before companies on the district heating market make an investment there are various methods to assess the investment’s most important factors; economic value and environmental benefit. Every investment involves risks and uncertainties that must be managed by accepting, minimizing, avoiding or eliminating with different interventions. It is essential for companies to implement risk management to remain active on the district heating market.

    • Companies use discounted cash flow methods, discount rate, sensitivity and risk analysis and solidity when making investment analysis.
    • The primary risks are costly main investments, maintenance costs, production breakdown, competition, demand, price and politics.
    • The risk interventions most frequently used are diversification, continuous maintenance, participate in planning, price dialogue, Nils Holgersson investigation, agreement construction and attend to political decisions.
  • 255.
    Anongdeth, Alissa
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Lundgren, Amanda
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Intressenters påverkan på prissättning av hyresrätter: En jämförelse mellan kommunala bostadsaktiebolag och privata fastighetsbolag2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 256.
    Ansari, Jamshid
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Occurrence and Risk Assessment of Illicit Drugs in Wastewater Treatment Plants’ influent and effluent in Halland County, Sweden: Cocaine, MDMA, Amphetamine, Methamphetamine, and Cannabis.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, the presence of illicit drugs in effluents from Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) and the aquatic environment has raised concern over their possible negative effects on aquatic organisms. In this study, therefore ecotoxicological data was retrieved through a literature survey and by using the software ECOSAR. Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNEC) of five types of illicit drugs and their metabolites including 1. Cocaine (COC) and its metabolite Benzoylecgonine (BE), 2. Amphetamine (AMPH), 3. Methamphetamine (METH), 4. Cannabis ((delta 9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-Nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-CCOH)) and 5. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) for species of three trophic levels in aquatic ecosystems derived. Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PEC) of above-mentioned drugs in twelve WWTPs’ influent and two effluents in Halland County have been measured by Swedish Toxicology Research Center (SWETOX co). Acute and chronic Risk Quotients (RQ) of the mixture of illicit drugs based upon two novel approaches calculated for the effluents of two WWTPs. Wastewater treatment plant in Ängstorp found with better removal efficiency of above- mentioned illicit drugs and the lower total RQs of (0.01<MRQacute<0.1; MRQchronic = 0.13) in comparison with that of Västra Stranden with the total RQs of (0.1<MRQacute <1; MRQchronic = 1.4). Although the RQ of WWTPs’ effluent was higher than 1 in Västra Stranden, there was no potential of risk on aquatic organisms in surface waters receiving that effluent. AMPH and Cannabis found as the most degradable substances through the WWTPs with (90-100%) of removal efficiency. Moreover, the results revealed that Cannabis (THC-COOH) was the most hazardous illicit drug on aquatic species in case of acute and chronic effects while, in terms of genotoxicology, a mixture of Cocaine metabolites found the most dangerous mixture of illicit drugs on zebrafish embryos.

  • 257.
    Anstrén, Ludwig
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    The Reliability of Cooper ́s Test in Subjects Between 28-60 Years of Age2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is a determinant of an individual’s ability to handle oxygen during maximal exercise. To measure VO2max expensive equipment and expertise personnel are required. To make the process of measuring VO2max easier, several submaximal and maximal tests have been created in which an estimation of VO2max could be made. Cooper’s 12-minute run (12MR) was created in 1968 and was tested on 115 military men with a mean age of 22 years. Since then the 12MR test has been re- tested and validated towards maximal treadmill tests on several occasions. When an age of 30 years is reached, VO2max starts to decline with 9-10 percent per decade but can be halted by different forms of exercise. With exercise of moderate to high intensity the decline can be halted by almost 50 percent. Objective: To investigate the reliability of estimated VO2max in a test retest scenario of Cooper ́s 12MR on a mixed healthy population between the ages of 28-60. Method: Nine women and five men, healthy subjects with a mean age of 43 ± 8 participated in the present study. A test retest of Cooper ́s 12MR took place with a minimum of seven days between tests. The subjects had to run as many laps as possible on the track during a 12-minute period. Finished laps were then counted and the fraction of the last lap was measured with a measuring wheel and then added to the total distance. To estimate the subjects’ VO2max Cooper ́s table was used. Results: The single measure Intraclass correlation (ICC) that was found, between the estimated VO2max made from the initial test to the retest on Cooper ́s 12MR, was 0.979. ICC showed a small error variance correlation between the tests and was close to the optimal correlation of 1.0. Conclusion: A standardized protocol for performing Cooper ́s 12MR showed good repeatability for estimating VO2max in two separate tests for a mixed population between 28 to 60 years of age. 

  • 258.
    Antonsson, Emma
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Johansson, Carolina
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Värdering av kulturinvesteringar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Profitability assessments are made in traditional businesses before investments: possible revenues are compared to costs to determine which investments can be profitable. Investing in culture is often associated with high investment costs but not with high revenues, therefore it can be difficult to get a cultural investment to become profitable. Culture is valuable for the community, but is also difficult to valuate in monetary terms since it is perceived differently and existing valuation methods can be used to value the culture output in various ways. Municipalities often invest in culture, why it is interesting to examine how they proceed in order to justify such investments, which this report covers.

     

    Purpose: The purpose of this report is to describe and analyze the factors that can affect decisions in culture investments, and to explain how culture can be evaluated in monetary terms.

     

    Method: In this qualitative report Varberg municipality was selected as a case study. A deductive approach has been used, with a starting point in existing theories and then compared with collected empirical data. The theories are derived from scientific articles and printed literature, the collected empirical data are gathered through qualitative interviews and a quantitative survey.

     

    Conclusion: The report concludes that the municipality of Varberg takes into account the number of visits, population increases, the demand and needs of the residents when making decisions about cultural investments, and not traditional profitability assessments. Method of valuing culture is not used, but the municipality sees culture as an essential part of the community and instead examine the benefits it brings to local residents.

  • 259.
    Aradini, Adelina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Tahiri, Ilirian
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Mellanchefers användning av Simons fyra styrsystem via styrmedlet budget: En studie om Simons fyra styrsystem2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 260.
    Arakelyan, Arsen
    et al.
    Institute of Molecular Biology, National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia (NAS RA), Yerevan, Armenia.
    Zakharyan, Roksana
    Institute of Molecular Biology, National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia (NAS RA), Yerevan, Armenia.
    Hambardzumyan, Marina
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Petrkova, Jana
    Laboratory of Immunogenomics and Immunoproteomics, Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Medical Faculty of Palacky University, Olomouc, Czech Republic.
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Petrek, Martin
    Laboratory of Immunogenomics and Immunoproteomics, Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Medical Faculty of Palacky University, Olomouc, Czech Republic.
    Boyajyan, Anna
    Institute of Molecular Biology, National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia (NAS RA), Yerevan, Armenia.
    Functional Genetic Polymorphisms of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 and C-C Chemokine Receptor Type 2 in Ischemic Stroke2014In: Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research, ISSN 1079-9907, E-ISSN 1557-7465, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 100-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent findings indicated that monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and its C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) play a key role in ischemic stroke (IS) progression. This study was aimed at evaluating the potential association of the MCP1 gene (MCP1) rs1024611 (-2518 A>G) and CCR2 gene (CCR2) rs1799864 (V64I; 190 G>A) functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with IS in the Armenian population. For the purpose of this study, genomic DNA samples of 100 patients with the first-episode IS and 115 healthy subjects (controls) were genotyped for the selected SNPs using a polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers. The results obtained demonstrated that while the CCR2 rs1799864 SNP genotypes were equally distributed among patients and controls, the frequency and carriage rate of the of the MCP1 rs1024611*G minor allele were higher in patients. While a potential association between IS and CCR2 rs1799864 SNP was evaluated for the first time, the latest finding was in agreement with the earlier data reported for some other populations. In summary, this study revealed no association of CCR2 rs1799864 SNP with IS, and a positive association between G minor allele of MCP1 rs1024611 SNP and IS in the Armenian population. Based on the present and earlier reported data, we concluded that the minor G allele of the MCP1 rs1024611 SNP might be considered a risk factor for IS.

  • 261.
    Argento, Daniela
    et al.
    Department of Business and Social Studies, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.
    Grossi, Giuseppe
    Department of Business and Social Studies, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.
    Tagesson, Torbjörn
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Collin, Sven-Olof
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    The ‘externalisation’ of local public service delivery: experience in Italy and Sweden2010In: International Journal of Public Policy, ISSN 1740-0600, E-ISSN 1740-0619, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 41-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the local government sector in European countries has undergone important changes involving, among other things, the externalisation of local public service provision through various forms of corporatisation, public-public collaboration, public-private partnerships and contracting out. An important consequence of these institutional changes has been the recasting of local governance systems through the need for increased cooperation between public and private actors. This article addresses these matters with comparative reference to the experience in Italy and Sweden. In doing so, it considers local governments in their constitutional and legal contexts, leading to more detailed discussions of their externalisation initiatives and resultant organisational forms and governance arrangements. Issues of ownership have been important concerning the significance of 'community' and 'place' in the management of public affairs. © 2010 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  • 262.
    Arlegui, Leigh
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Changes in Anaerobic Sprint Performance, Perceived Muscle Soreness and Sleep Quality after Wearing Compression Garments during Recovery from a Strength Training Workout2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Compression garments are elastic, body-tight pieces of clothing with different pressure gradients used as a recovery method after exercise, such as strength training. Compression garments have increased in popularity within recreational and elite athletes as it is believed that they promote a reduction of muscle soreness and inflammation, which in turn may enhance performance. However, the exact physiological, psychological and performance enhancing effects of compression garments after recovery still remain unknown. Aim: To investigate whether female and male recreational athletes wearing full leg customised compression garments for at least 15 hours following a personalised strength training workout leads to an improvement in anaerobic sprint cycling performance as well as a reduction of perceived muscle soreness. Additionally a sleep quality assessment was conducted to assess the effects of the garments during sleep. Methods: Thirteen male and female subjects took part of a cross-over, randomised, controlled study. Subjects performed the first set of tests including Wingate anaerobic sprint test followed by their personalised strength training workout, after which they recovered with Compression Garments (CGS) or without compression garments (CON). They then returned 24hrs later to perform the second set of tests. Ten days later the same procedure was conducted however the other recovery method was used. Results: No significantdifferences were found between CGS and CON for the Wingate anaerobic test performance. Perceived muscle soreness was lower when subjects wore the garments and they felt better recovered 24hrs post-intervention compared to the CON condition. Some aspects of sleep were affected by wearing the compression garments during sleep however it was unclear whether this had an impact on performance. Conclusion: Recovering with customised full leg compression garments did not promote an improvement of physiological power performance 24 hours after a personalised strength training workout session. However perceived muscle soreness was reduced and the perception of recovery improved. The compression garments caused some sleep disturbances as subjects rated that they were too warm, suggesting a possible drawback of recovering with garments if worn during sleep.

  • 263.
    Aronsson, Cristian
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Stolt, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Revisionsberättelsens användbarhet -företagsrådgivares uppfattningar avrevisionsberättelsens innehåll.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 264. Aronsson, H.
    et al.
    Almqvist, J.
    Sundqvist, C.
    Timko, M.P.
    Dahlin, Clas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Plant Cell Biology: Energy transduction in plant cells.
    Characterization of the plastid import reaction of the pea NADPH-protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR)1998In: The Chloroplast: From Molecular Biology to Biotechnology / [ed] Joan H. Argyroudi-Akoyunoglou, Horst Senger, New York: Springer-Verlag , 1998, p. 167-170Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    NADPH: protochlorophyllide (POR) is a vital enzyme in the biosynthesis of chlorophyl where it catalyzes the reduction of Pchlide into Chlide in a light-dependent manner. POR is nucleus-encoded and imported into the plastids where it is found at the inner membranes. Together with its substrate and the co-factor NADPH it forms a ternary complex which is needed for catalytical activity. The anomaly of a decreasing POR level during active chlorophyll synthesis was cleared with the discovery of two different POR proteins, POR-A and POR-B, in barley and Arabidopsis thaliana. During greening, POR-A is negatively regulated by light both at transcriptional and proteolytical levels. In addition, the import of POR-A, but not POR-B, has been suggestedto require Pchlide in order to be translocated into the plastid. In this respect, POR-A differs from other known nucleus-encoded plastid proteins, and as it appears, this requirements represents a novel and exclusive import characteristic. In pea, only one POR gene has been found indicating that the situation for the regulation of POR import and accumulation is far from clear. We here present a characterization of the import conditions of the pea POR, including the potentional role of Pchlide inthe translocation step.

  • 265.
    Aronsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Department of Biology, Leicester University, Leicester, United Kingdom.
    Sundqvist, Christer
    Department of Plant Physiology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Dahlin, Clas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Plant Cell Biology: Energy transduction in plant cells.
    POR – import and membrane association of a key element in chloroplast development2003In: Physiologia Plantarum: An International Journal for Plant Biology, ISSN 0031-9317, E-ISSN 1399-3054, Vol. 118, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of proplastids or etioplasts to chloroplast is visualized by the accumulation of chlorophyll in leaves of higher plants. The biosynthesis of chlorophyll includes a light-dependent reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide (Chlide). This light-dependent step is catalysed by the nucleus-encoded NADPH:Pchlide oxidoreductase (POR, EC 1.6.99.1). POR is active within plastids and therefore has to be translocated over the plastid envelope membranes. The import of chloroplast proteins seems to follow a general import pathway using translocons at the outer and inner envelope membrane. POR cross-linking to Toc75, one of the major translocon components at the outer envelope membrane, indicates its use of the general import pathway. However, since variations exist within the so-called general import pathway one has to consider previous data suggesting a novel totally Pchlide-dependent import pathway of one POR isoform, PORA. The suggested Pchlide dependency of POR import is discussed since recent observations contradict this idea. In the stroma the POR transit peptide is cleaved off and the mature POR protein is targeted to the plastid inner membranes. The correct and stable association of POR to the membrane requires the cofactor NADPH. Functional activity of POR calls for formation of an NADPH–Pchlide–POR complex, a formation that probably takes place after the membrane association and is dependent on a phosphorylation reaction.

  • 266.
    Aronsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Department of Biology, Leicester University, United Kingdom.
    Sundqvist, Christer
    Department of Plant Physiology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Dahlin, Clas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Plant Cell Biology: Energy transduction in plant cells.
    POR hits the road: import and assembly of a plastid protein2003In: Plant Molecular Biology, ISSN 0167-4412, E-ISSN 1573-5028, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The biosynthesis of chlorophyll is a strictly light-dependent multistep process in higher plants. The light-dependent step is catalysed by NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR, EC.1.6.99.1), which reduces protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide (Chlide). POR is nucleus-encoded and post-translationally imported into plastids. It has been proposed that the import of a POR protein isozyme (PORA) is totally dependent on Pchlide and uses a novel import pathway. This proposal is based on findings that PORA import only occurs in the presence of Pchlide and that the presence of overexpressed precursor of Rubisco small subunit (pSS), a protein which is known to use the general import pathway, does not outcompete PORA import. Another study demonstrated that POR precursor protein (pPOR) can be cross-linked to one of the components in the translocation machinery, Toc75, in the absence of Pchlide, and that its import can be outcompeted by the addition of the pSS. This indicates that pSS and pPOR may use the same translocation mechanism. Thus, POR does not necessarily need Pchlide for import – which is in contrast to earlier observations – and the exact POR import mechanism remains unresolved. Once in the stroma, the POR transit peptide is cleaved off and the mature POR protein is associated to the plastid inner membranes. Formation of the correct membrane–associated, thermolysin-protected assembly is strictly dependent of NADPH. As a final step, the formation of the NADPH-Pchlide-POR complex occurs. When POR accumulates in the membranes of proplastids, an attraction of monogalactosyl diacylglycerol (MGDG) can occur, leading to the formation of prolamellar bodies (PLBs) and the development of etioplasts in darkness.

  • 267.
    Aronsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Department of Plant Physiology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Sundqvist, Christer
    Department of Plant Physiology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Timko, Michael P.
    Department of Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, United States.
    Dahlin, Clas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Characterisation of the assembly pathway of the pea NADPH:protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) oxidoreductase (POR), with emphasis on the role of its substrate, Pchlide2001In: Physiologia Plantarum: An International Journal for Plant Biology, ISSN 0031-9317, E-ISSN 1399-3054, Vol. 111, no 2, p. 239-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The homologous import and membrane association of a key enzyme for chlorophyll biosynthesis, the NADPH:protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) oxidoreductase (PAR, EC 1.6.99.1) into pea chloroplasts was investigated in vitro. The co-factor, NADPH, decreased binding of the precursor protein (pPOR) to the envelope membranes in the presence of ATP. The decrease of the binding reaction with NADPH was not observed with the precursor of the small subunit of Rubisco (pSS). To investigate possible substrate-dependency for the import reaction, internal Pchlide concentrations in the plastids were raised by either an addition of ÎŽ-aminolevulinic acid to isolated plastids or etiolation of the seedlings prior to plastid isolation. Increased amounts of plastid-bound Pchlide gave no observable differences in POR import. The capacity of POR and 11 different POR mutants, carrying charged-to-alanine scanning substitutions, to form a catalytically active POR-Pchlide-NADPH complex and to associate with the thylakoid membranes in a protease-resistant way were tested. Wild-type POR, as well as the mutants with charge substitutions in the N-terminal region of the protein, exhibited higher catalytic activity than the POR mutants carrying substitutions in the C-terminal region. Formation of a catalytically active complex did not, however, increase the association efficiency onto the thylakoids. We can, therefore, postulate that the import of pea POR into pea chloroplasts was not substrate-dependent, nor did formation of catalytically active complexes stimulate or inhibit the membrane association reaction of POR.

  • 268.
    Aronsson, Martin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Schrewelius, Karin
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Information Processing Problems: A comparative study of the Front End of new product development within radical and incremental projects2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The first phase of new product development (NPD) is today commonly referred to as the Front End (FE) of NPD. The phase has received a decent amount of attention during the recent years, nevertheless insufficient considering its ability to influence a project’s outcome. The phase begins when an idea is born, and ends when a formal meeting decides whether to invest in the idea or not. The investment then leads the project to enter a formal phase. During the FE, a large number of issues occur, which are believed to be the result of deficient processing of information. If the issues are not managed correctly, the NPD procedure will not be efficient. When information is being processed into knowledge, sometimes an uncertain, equivocal, or complex situation arises, which leads to delays, additional costs, and wasted efforts. These information processing problems (IPPs) need to be managed by firms in order to reduce their negative repercussions. Depending on a firm’s perception of the novelty towards a product, the project is considered to be either radical or incremental. Depending on that novelty, it is theorized that the IPPs will have different dispersions, and pose differently significant challenges to the project. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate the differences of the significance and dispersion of the IPPs, during the FE, when comparing radical and incremental NPD projects.

    For this purpose, a case study approach was deemed appropriate. In order to collect data concerning the IPPs, seven case studies were conducted. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews, with respondents that possess' an extensive experience from working with NPD within Swedish firms.

    The data analysis from the seven interviews proved that indeed there is a difference in how the IPPs vary, dependent on whether the project is of a radical or incremental nature. All the IPPs showed higher levels of significance in the FE in radical projects, than in incremental ones. Uncertainty proved to be the IPP that differed the most and therefore possessed the greatest significance difference. This means that differentiated approaches in radical respective incremental projects are needed in order to reduce uncertainty. Equivocality represented the IPP with the least difference in significance, meaning that the FE in radical and incremental projects require rather similar design in how to prevent equivocal problems. By understanding the differences in dispersion and significance, one can create differentiated management approaches during the FE, that fit the level of novelty of the product at hand. For some products, preventive actions must be taken to a larger degree compared to others. By doing so, the lead time of the FE can be shortened as less problems will arise, creating a faster and smoother process. The resources saved could be spent on improving activities, instead of being wasted on repairing unnecessary problems. The study contributes to the research field of NPD by adding newknowledge, aiding the collective effort of increasing firm’s proficiency in how to manage the FE.

  • 269.
    Arvidsson, David
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Hansen Charles, Christoffer
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Sponsorship of grassroots- and youth football teams: A qualitative study from the sponsors’ perspective2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Title: Sponsorship of grassroots- and youth football teams: A qualitative study from the sponsors’ perspective.

    Authors: David Arvidsson and Christoffer Rex Hansen Charles.

    Supervisor: Hèléne Laurell.

    Level: Bachelor thesis in marketing (15 Swedish credits), Spring 2016.

    Keywords: Sponsorship, Sport sponsorship, Local sponsorship, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), Football,Grassroots, Effectiveness measurement.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to increase the understanding of sponsoring grassroots- and youth football teams.

    Theoretical framework: The theoretical framework begins with theory regarding sponsorship. CSR and its importance are also discussed. A link between sponsorship and CSR is brought forward at the end of this chapter.

    Methodology: A deductive approach and a qualitative method have been used in order to get a more detailed, deeper and descriptive explanation of the chosen subject.

    Empirical framework: The empirical framework was collected through personal interviews with respondents from five different companies. The respondents were the ones responsible for the work with sponsorship at each respective company.

    Conclusion: Companies are involved in the sponsoring of grassroots- and youth football teams in order to be seen as good citizens. It is also seen as a brand building activity and away to build relationships. A link between CSR and sponsorship can be done and sponsorship can be used as a tool to communicate companies’ CSR-initiatives. Finally, are the effects from sponsorship not measured due to the difficulties in this process, however, methods for this purpose do exist, such as customer surveys.

  • 270.
    Arvidsson, Ida
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Ringvall, Angelica
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Vindkraftens framtida scenarier2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In several countries that have been early in the development of wind farms, there is today a second hand market for the used wind turbines. The European Union (EU) has established a waste hierarchy in order to minimize throwaway mentality. The second hand market is a part of this as the steps are to minimize, reuse, recycle, extract energy and landfill.

    In order to promote the development of renewable energy, there are energy certificates for the producers that provide it, wind power being one type of renewable energy. After 15 years the energy certificates for a specific wind turbine are no longer paid, and after that there are several different scenarios for the wind turbine. The scenarios investigated in this bachelor’s thesis are export of the wind turbine to countries that are not as far along as Sweden in their development towards renewable energy, selling in Sweden to individuals, and recycling of the wind turbine, as it mostly consists of metals and therefore is recyclable. In these three scenarios it is assumed that the sites for wind turbines are being reused for new larger wind turbines that produce more energy. Two additional scenarios are to reduce the number of wind turbines in a wind farm by half, in this way gaining access to free spare parts for the remaining wind turbines and continued operation, i.e. operate them for as long time as possible.

    To assure the decommissioning of the wind turbines and restoration of the site, there are several economical choices for the operator of the wind turbine. No matter what choice is made, the total amount should be 500 000 SEK according to the permission for the wind turbine. A Swedish authority, Miljöprövningsdelegationen, decides whether the operators choice in reassuring and make a decision based on that.

    To see which scenario is most profitable the economical part is crucial in this bachelor’s thesis. As a wind turbine is a large investment, the investment calculation is sensitive even to small changes. Inflation, interest rate, electricity price and energy certificate price can all vary a good deal but as it is almost impossible to predict the development of these factors, the inflation, interest rate and energy certificate price are all on a fixed level in this report. The electricity price is assumed to be dependent of the inflation solely. By using these assumptions and Microsoft Excel it has been clear that selling the wind turbine and reuse the site for a new larger wind turbine is the most profitable.

    Sweden has the goal to have 30 TWh, equivalent to 20 %, electricity from wind until year 2020. Today the part is 6.5 TWh, equivalent to 4 %. To make this goal reality it is necessary to make the permitting process easier and faster than the case is today. If Sweden compares to Denmark they already have 28 % electricity from wind and they aim for 50 %.

  • 271.
    Arvidsson, Susanne
    et al.
    School of Economics and Management, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL). Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Sense-Making and Sense-Giving: Reaching Through the Smokescreen of Sustainability Disclosure in the Stock Market2019In: Challenges in Managing Sustainable Business: Reporting, Taxation, Ethics and Governance / [ed] Susanne Arvidsson, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, p. 77-109Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Financial analysts’ role as information intermediaries between management teams and investors is vital for the efficient allocation of resources on the stock market. The increased focus on sustainability information in corporate reports has affected financial analysts in their important work of interpreting, assessing and communicating value-added information to their clients, i.e. the investors. The challenges they face relate to the ambiguous nature of sustainability information and its difference from traditional financial information. How do analysts reach through this smokescreen? How do analysts make sense of sustainability information, and how do they give sense to this information when they provide investment advices to their investors? In this chapter, these challenges are addressed from a cognitive-frame perspective. We argue that the first part of 2000s was characterized by cognitive dissonance due to both a low social legitimacy and a low cognitive legitimacy, i.e. sustainability was not yet requested by the investors to be attended to and it was regarded too ambiguous to be relevant for being considered in a valuation context. In the latter part of 2010s, we argue that there is only a partial cognitive dissonance. At this time, sustainability information is beginning to be socially legitimate and requested by investors. However, the complexity of the situation remains. This type of information is still not considered as cognitive legitimate due to the ambiguous nature, which renders difficulties for the sense-making and sense-giving processes. The findings have implications not the least in the ongoing quest of developing frameworks, standards and legislation (e.g. the EU directive (2014/EU/95)), that opt for improving the relevance, credibility and comparability of sustainability information. © The Authors 2019

  • 272.
    Aschinger, Philipp
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Muthsam, Michaela
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    The Influence of Universities on their Region: Twenty years of Universities in Krems2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Universities play an important role within their region and the common economy. They are source of the development of essential knowledge and industrially relevant technology, have a strong influence in economic development of a region, and, as employers, they are part of the regional society. In addition universities have an influence on the competitiveness of a region through a combination of people’s wellbeing, regional feeling, reputation, and everyday happiness. Students of universities get an impression of the universities themselves and of the surrounding environment. They promote their feelings about the universities, the campus, and the city to their relatives, families, and friends.

    The focus of the present study is to visualize the influence of universities on their region, the development in the past decade and the existing challenges to combine third level education with traditional occurrences and the vicissitude of a region influenced by the universities themselves.

    The research area is the Austrian municipality Krems at the Danube with five universities which has a long tradition in education. The foundation of the first two universities in the middle of the 1990s was the start of higher education within the region.

    Inductively based approach was used for investigating how universities are influencing their environment, which needs exist and which benefits are created through a common planning and confident cooperation with the regional government. Empirical data was collected through a mix of methods; in addition to literature and statistics the main data was extracted from interviews with involved persons of the universities and the local government.

    As a result of this study the predominating topics mentioned by the interviewees are the challenges for both participants which are given by a change of society through increasing numbers of students and young people, the tasks to solve infrastructural problems, the effects and advantages for the local labor market and the purchasing power of the region, the reputation and its effects to the region, and finally the common need and ways to intensify the cooperation between the local government and the universities.

    The aim of this study is to give a broad but detailed overview about the thinking of involved persons and to compile implications to focus further research.

  • 273.
    Asheim, Björn
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Annerstedt, Jan
    Copenhagen Business School, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Blazek, Jiří
    Charles University, Praha, Czech Republic.
    Boschma, Ron
    Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Brzica, Danes
    Institute of Slovak and World Economy, Bratislava, Slovakia.
    Lindholm Dahlstrand, Åsa
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Cooke, Phil
    Cardiff University.
    Del Castillo Hermosa, Jaime
    Información y Desarrollo S.L., Bilbao, Spain.
    Laredo, Philippe
    Laboratoire Territoires, Techniques, Sociétés, Paris, France.
    Moula, Marina
    Cyclotron Ltd, Athens, Greece.
    Piccaluga, Andrea
    Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, IN-SAT Lab, Pisa, Italy.
    Constructing Regional Advantage: Principles, perspectives, policies2006Report (Other academic)
  • 274.
    Aspizua, Lucía
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    OFFSHORE FOUNDATION - A CHALLENGE IN THE BALTIC SEA2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    This project deals with the search of the most proper offshore foundation to install in the Baltic Sea, in order to reduce costs and environmental impact. A pre-study was performed to define the Baltic Sea conditions and the required knowledge for the following steps. Afterwards, the specifications were set and clarified, and then the concept analysis phase was started. The analysis phase included the description of each one of the current foundations, those which are considered conventional foundations and those which are innovative ones. In order to evaluate these concept foundations, selection methods were used to assess the most relevant features of these foundations which should fulfil the requirements. The concepts ranking was studied and it led to the final results. Two different outcomes were obtained; such as, innovative concepts, which obtained the first position in this report; and conventional concepts, as a second finding. The continuous contact with different experienced professionals of this sector was essential during the whole project, in order to obtain advices, experienced knowledge and feedback.

  • 275.
    Assarsson, Karin
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science.
    Environmental exposure assessment of metals from reclaimed land in Halmstad harbour: Sweden  Part of an environmental risk assessment2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The harbour land fill in Halmstad has been described in the news as one of the most polluted areas in Halland County based on the a survey from the Swedish environmental protection agency. In order to identify the extent and severity of the situation several environmental investigations have been performed in this area. This report is based on available data from investigations and environmental reports from WSP, Höganäs AB, HEM and Halmstad municipality. This investigation focus on an “Area C” within the land fill where the main land fill material is i.a. slag from a steel work, construction waste, dredge spoil, waste from glass production and a casting shop. Of these material the focus have been on the metal rich slag from the steel work and its possible environmental impact. The environmental exposure of Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn, Ni, Mo and V have been calculated as an annual load from Area C. Unfortunately the data available for this investigation has not been complete, e.g. slag concentration data with corresponding leachate data was only obtained for one year. The groundwater data and land fill metal concentrations have been measured only once. This made it impossible to investigate e.g. annual variations like ageing effects of the material or weather variations, variation in the properties of the deposed slag material and statistical significance in differences could not be calculated. Further characterisation of the land fill would be worthwhile in order to be able to draw some conclusions.

    Calculations of the environmental load has been performed based on concentration in the slag, the land fill, the leachate data of the slag and groundwater concentrations. A model has been developed to calculate the weighted land fill metal concentration. The partitioning coefficient, Kd; between soil and liquid has been calculated and used to estimate the environmental load.

    It was assumed that the groundwater data was the most reliable data, which indicated that the exposure may be higher than from common soil, especially for Pb and Mo. Relating the environmental exposure values with guideline values based on MKM (less sensitive land use)-land using HQ (hazard quotient) indicates a decreasing risk in the order Pb>V>Mo. However, the exposure is well below that from MKM soil which could be assumed, according to Swedish environmental protection agency guideline values, to be an acceptable exposure.

  • 276.
    Atteia, A.
    et al.
    Depto. de Genética Molecular, Inst. de Fisiología Celular, Univ. Nacl. Auton. de Mex., Mexico.
    van Lis, R.
    Depto. de Genética Molecular, Inst. de Fisiología Celular, Univ. Nacl. Auton. de Mex., Mexico.
    Wetterskog, Daniel
    Department of Plant Physiology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Gutiérrez-Cirlos, E.-B.
    Department of Biochemistry, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, United States.
    Ongay-Larios, L.
    Unidad de Biología Molecular, Inst. de Fisiología Celular, Univ. Nacl. Auton. de Mex., Mexico.
    Franzén, Lars-Gunnar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Plant Cell Biology: Energy transduction in plant cells.
    González-Halphen, D.
    Depto. de Genética Molecular, Inst. de Fisiología Celular, Univ. Nacl. Auton. de Mex., Mexico.
    Structure, organization and expression of the genes encoding mitochondrial cytochrome c1 and the Rieske iron-sulfur protein in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii2003In: Molecular Genetics and Genomics, ISSN 1617-4615, E-ISSN 1617-4623, Vol. 268, no 5, p. 637-644Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sequence and organization of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii genes encoding cytochrome c 1 ( Cyc1) and the Rieske-type iron-sulfur protein ( Isp), two key nucleus-encoded subunits of the mitochondrial cytochrome bc 1 complex, are presented. Southern hybridization analysis indicates that both Cyc1 and Isp are present as single-copy genes in C. reinhardtii. The Cyc1 gene spans 6404 bp and contains six introns, ranging from 178 to 1134 bp in size. The Isp gene spans 1238 bp and contains four smaller introns, ranging in length from 83 to 167 bp. In both genes, the intron/exon junctions follow the GT/AG rule. Internal conserved sequences were identified in only some of the introns in the Cyc1 gene. The levels of expression of Isp and Cyc1 genes are comparable in wild-type C. reinhardtii cells and in a mutant strain carrying a deletion in the mitochondrial gene for cytochrome b (dum-1). Nevertheless, no accumulation of the nucleus-encoded cytochrome c 1 or of core proteins I and II was observed in the membranes of the respiratory mutant. These data show that, in the green alga C. reinhardtii, the subunits of the cytochrome bc1 complex fail to assemble properly in the absence of cytochrome b.

  • 277.
    Augustine, Akhil
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    COMPARISON OF SWEDISH AND INDIAN ELECTRICITY MARKET2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project aims to make a comparison between the Swedish and Indianelectricity market, the design of new improvements will achieve a betteroperation for both markets as well as the price forecasting for markets. Thisresults will give a clear idea about the electricity prices, different energy uses andpeak hours and also the carbon dioxide emissions.Also the main organizations of the market and their roles has been characterized,discussing about the functions of the Market Operator and the System Operator.And also the different markets, the trading products and the price formation havebeen explained and giving an idea about the market structure with enough details.Moreover, Time Series Analysis explained in a detail manner and some of themost used methods in Time Series Analysis are also explained in a very goodmanner. Mainly the results section includes the description of the market situationin Swedish and Indian electricity markets comparison, which includes Powerinstalled capacity, electricity generation, main renewable technologies andpolicies to increase the renewable energy share in total electricity generated.After this analysis, the strengths and weakness of both markets are presented andthe main problems of Swedish electricity system like dependency for nuclearpower, uncertainty for solar electricity generation and the Indian electricitysystem problems like high losses in power system, power quality issues, and veryless focus on energy mix with renewable systems.Finally, due to the quick development of the energy sector in the last few yearsto reach a new design for the electricity market, different kinds ofrecommendations for the future have been considered.

  • 278.
    Augustsson, Emil
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Jamel, Hussein
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Fukt i samverkanskonstruktioner: Bjälklag i KL-trä och betong2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Timber-concrete composites is more and more frequently used in timber structures, as the structures grow taller and taller. This is due to its ability to increase the span of the slabs, improve the acoustic characteristics and improve the capacity of side loads, such as wind loads. The issue when executing this kind of composites is the different materials and how they react differently to moisture. Despite this, there is not much research on the subject. The purpose of this report is therefore to investigate what moisture contents to expect, both on short- and long-term, when different kind of executions of the timber-concrete slab is applied and what impact these values could lead to. The aim has been to contribute to a better understanding of what impact moisture in timber-concrete composites have, and how to handle this. To find out the moisture content, both laboratory tests and simulations has been carried out. From these tests we have been able to make calculations and assumptions in order to give suggestions on moisture barriers between the materials.

  • 279.
    Avdullahi, Endrit
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Effektivisering och utveckling av monteringsutförande i produktion: Från fast till sekventiell montering2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has been carried out within the field of production systems and production development and is performed on SP Maskiner i Ljungby AB (SP Maskiner). SP Maskiner has predicted a growing market trend that they want to compete in. This is to be achieved by developing the current assembly process - fixed position assembly, as it fails to cope with the increased demand.

    The underlying method used to obtain the results is derived from Bellgran & Säfsten (2005) framework and is adapted to fit this project.

    The project begins with a present-situation analysis aimed to give a broader insight and a better sense for the system in development. Activities done were: evaluation questions, Rapid Plant Assessment, flow analyses and CAD drawing of current layout. A standard methodology on how to assemble the product was made, with individual process times of each activity, and divided into three workstations. The possible outcome and benefits of this approach was checked using simulation.

    The simulation demonstrates that the three-station divided methodology can increase productivity by about 66 % (an increase of 100 units annually compared to todays rating, 150 [units/year]). The result gives the company extended competitive possibilities and force to stay as a leading competitor in the expected market growth. Furthermore, the result shows the possibilities of simulation in production development projects to analyze possible outcomes of different changes. 

  • 280.
    Averfalk, Helge
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Enhanced District Heating Technology: Maintaining Future System Feasibility2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When heat demand and high temperature heat supply gradually decreases in the future, then it will effect district heating systems ability to compete on the heat market. A good way to mitigate less district heating feasibility is to operate systems with lower temperature levels and the most conceivable way to achieve lower temperature levels is to decrease return temperatures.

    Thus, this thesis emphasise temperature errors embedded in district heating systems. Only a selection of temperature errors are analysed in this thesis. First, the temperature error that occurs due to recirculation in distribution networks at low heat demands. Second, the temperature error that occurs due to hot water circulation in multi-family buildings. Third, the temperature error that occurs due to less than possible heat transfer in heat exchangers, i.e. too short thermal lengths.

    In order to address these temperature errors three technology changes have been proposed (i) three-pipe distribution network to separate the recirculation return flow from the delivery return flow, (ii) apartment substations to eliminate hot water circulation utilisation, and (iii) improved heat exchangers for lower return temperatures at a constant scenario. Analysis of proposed changes has resulted in annual average return temperatures between 17-21 °C.

    Furthermore, rapid introduction of intermittent renewable electricity supply in the energy system has prompted an increased necessity of power system balancing capacities. Large-scale conversion of power-to-heat in electric boilers and heat pumps is a feasible alternative to achieve such balancing capacities. Analysis of the unique Swedish experience with utilisation of large heat pumps installations connected to district heating systems show that since the 1980s 1527 MW of heat power has been installed, about 80 % of the capacity was still in use by 2013. Thus, a cumulative value of over three decades of operation and maintenance exists within Swedish district heating systems.

    The two papers presented in this thesis are related to future district heating systems through the five abilities of fourth generation district heating (4GDH), which are documented in the definition paper of 4GDH.

  • 281.
    Averfalk, Helge
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Morgondagens effektiva fjärrvärme: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is made as a literature review, focusing on the work done to increase understanding of efficiency in the categories of substations and secondary heating systems, with respect to the deviation from the theoretically possible cooling off in the distribution network as well as the economic benefit that appear. The main purpose of a considerable part of the literature used in this report addresses the issue of identifying individual causes of reduced cooling in district heating systems. These literature resources have been compiled and summarized as part of the report.

    The technology of district heating is associated with benefits such as better use of the energy in a fuel. This is the case of cogeneration plants where serial generation of electricity and thermal energy increases efficiency compared with the parallel generation where heat is generated locally and electricity is generated centrally. Serial generation thus allows for lower primary energy demand. Another benefit from combustion in units with higher capacity installed is that a higher control of emission with environmental impact is permitted. Additionally local environment change drastically when a few large supply units replace a large number of local supply units. It has also been shown that district heating can reduce greenhouse gas emissions in a cost efficient way. Thus being a part of the energy system to achieve the EU climate goals

    In Sweden, district heating is developed to a high degree. In connection with decreasing focus on expansion, the focus on maintenance and optimization and how district heating should look like in the future increases. In conjunction with lower heat demand from new and renovated buildings distribution cost will increase. For district heating to maintain competitiveness a development in distribution technology that move toward the next generation of distribution technology is necessary. Average temperatures today in Swedish district heating systems are for supply water 86 ° C and for return water 47 ° C. In the future temperature levels could decrease to current with temperatures down against 55 ° C supply temperature and 25-20 ° C return temperature. The latter system temperature levels moves towards the ideal possible.

    It is possible to distinguish four generations of district heating distribution technology. The differences between generations are essentially depending on temperature levels but also depend on state of matter. The first generation district heating used high-temperature steam for heat transfer and then the newer distribution technologies resulted in lower temperatures and change of phase, from gas to liquid. The third generation of district heating distribution technology meant lower temperature than the second generation, and likewise the fourth generation will have a lower temperature level than the third-generation distribution technology for district heating. The development is driven by the benefits of lower temperature levels. One of the more appealing benefits of lower supply temperature is the possibility to use low exergy heat, resulting in reduced need of primary energy. The potential heat sources where increased heat supply with lower system temperatures becomes available can be seen in the four next bullets.

    • Waste heat
    • Geothermal heat
    • Solar heat
    • Heat pump

    Other advantages obtained with lower temperature levels in heat distribution are.

    • Lower distribution losses
    • Higher electrical power efficiency in CHP
    • Increased efficiency in flue gas condensation
    • Increased capacity in the distribution network
    • Reduced need for pump power in the distribution network
    • Lower risk of serious scalding
    • Increased capacity in heat storage
    • Ability to use other materials for distribution at lower cost

    There seem to be a consensus in the literature that lower temperature levels in district heating systems are a desirable change. The reason for this is likely that there are mostly advantages of lower temperature levels. The drawbacks of lower temperature levels are negligible which make the risk of investment low.

  • 282.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Dalman, Bengt-Göran
    BG Dalman AB, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Kilersjö, Christer
    EKSTA, Kungsbacka, Sverige.
    Lygnerud, Kristina
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Welling, Sebastian
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Analys av 4e generationens fjärrvärmeteknik jämfört med 3e generationens: Simulering av sekundärnät i nybyggnationsområde2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrunden till studien är att nya förutsättningar genom energieffektivisering, konkurrens från värmepumpar och nya krav på kundsidan gör en modernisering av fjärrvärmeverksamhet nödvändig. En del av denna modernisering är att kunna dra nytta av de fördelar som lägre temperaturer i näten medför. Därtill skapas genom den nya tekniken förutsättningar för att ta hand om värmekällor som idag inte utnyttjas (t.ex. värme från kylprocesser och annan infrastruktur såsom värme från avloppsvatten och värme från kollektivtrafik).

    Befintlig teknik är beprövad och bygger på att det finns ekonomiska incitament att förbränna biobränsle och avfall. Steget till att pröva en ny teknik där andra värmekällor och en ny gränsdragning gentemot kund blir nödvändig är därför stort och förenat med ett antal frågor. Det är just de frågor som uppkommer i ett fjärrvärmeföretag inför implementering av 4e generationens fjärrvärmeteknik som projektet försöker identifiera. Det blir dock så att enbart en del av frågorna besvaras genom att studien har ett avgränsat fokus. Fokus är på jämförelse mellan ett 3GDHtvårörsystem och ett 4GDH-trerörsystem i ett sekundärnät i ett nybyggnationsområde.

    I projektet simuleras hur utfallet blir för olika parametrar om man hade valt att implementera 4e generationens teknik istället för 3e generationens teknik.

    Resultaten påvisar att:

    • 4e generationens lösning ökar energieffektiviteten i byggnader, detta främst genom att behovet av varmvattencirkulation försvinner.• Beaktas enbart distributionsförluster i näten så är 4e generationen mer effektiv än 3e generationen.• Genom lägenhetsväxlaren i 4e generationens lösning så elimineras risken för Legionella helt. En möjlig barriär för 4e generationens teknik består dock i att boverkets byggregler inte är konstruerade för att varmvattencirkulation inte finns.• Lägenhetsväxlarna innebär en kostnad per lägenhet vilket begränsar lösningens kostnadseffektivitet jämfört med en större värmeväxlare i fastighetens bottenplan. Idag är 4e generationens teknik lämpad för fastigheter med 10-15 lägenheter, är det fler lägenheter blir 4e generationens lösning dyrare än den konventionella 3e generationens lösning.• En viktig aspekt med 4e generationens lösning att värmeförlusten från huset förflyttas från fastighetsägaren till fjärrvärmeföretaget, genom att värmeleverans sker till varje lägenhet och inte vid husvägg. Initialt kan sådan börda på fjärrvärmeföretaget verka negativ med avseende på kostnad. Diskussionerna i projektet mynnade ut i att parterna enas om att affären blir mer rättvisande och att fastighetsägaren får ökad insyn i värmeförbrukningen vilket, med rätt affärsmodell, kan skapa ökat förtroende och en möjlighet att dela på förlusten mellan de två parterna.

    Projektet har omfattat löpande dialog med EKSTAs VD vilket varit värdefullt för att skapa förståelse kring fastighetsägarens perspektiv och frågor rörande 4e generationens teknik. Därtill har en workshop med EKSTAs driftspersonal hållits för att diskutera relevansen i de resultat som tagits fram. I projektet ingår BengtGöran Dalman med över 35 års erfarenhet av fjärrvärmeverksamhet vid Göteborg Energi. Projektets verklighetskoppling leder till slutsatsen att det inte föreligger någon särskild driftsproblematik för implementering av 4e generationens system.

    Som en egen del i projektet uppmärksammas den diskussion som förs i branschen kring möjligheten att dra nytta av billig el, främst under perioder då det blåser mycket och det blir ett överskott av el i elnätet. I studien analyseras möjligheten att inte använda en konventionell pelletspanna som tilläggsvärmekälla utan en eldriven panna. Resultaten visar att med dagens styrning genom skatter och avgifter så är det inte möjligt att dra nytta av att det förekommer perioder med mycket lågt elpris. Rådande regelverk stödjer istället installationer såsom pelletspannor.

    © ENERGIFORSK

  • 283.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Hansson, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Karlsson, Niklas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Mattsson, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Klimatgaser i Halland – en målinriktad analys med framtidsperspektiv2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten innehåller en analys av utsläppen av de sex klimatgaserna i Halland mellan 1990 och 2011, en skattning vad som kommer att genomföras till 2020 och förslag till åtgärder för att kunna leverera utsläppsreduktioner efter 2020. Resultaten visar att de halländska utsläppen har minskat med 20 procent sedan 1990, målet om 27 procent lägre utsläpp till 2020 kommer troligen att uppnås, transporter och jordbruk måste kunna leverera utsläppsreduktioner efter 2020, regionala plan- och styrdokument måste i större utsträckning kunna kvantifiera framtida utsläppsreduktioner samt att det behövs ett regionalt kompetenscenter i Halland för att länet ska kunna leverera utsläppsreduktioner i framtiden.

  • 284.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Ingvarsson, Paul
    ÅF, Division Industry, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Gong, Mei
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Large heat pumps in Swedish district heating systems2017In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 79, p. 1275-1284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Power-to-heat solutions like heat pumps and electric boilers are foreseen to be possible future tools to stabilise international power markets with high proportions of variable power supply. Temporary low cost electricity can be used for heat generation at times with high availability of wind and solar power through substitution of ordinary heat supply, hence contributing to increased energy system sustainability. Power-to-heat installations in district heating systems are competitive due to low specific investment and installation costs for large electric boilers, heat pumps, and heat storages. Several large-scale heat pumps were installed in Swedish district heating systems during the 1980s, since a national electricity surplus from new nuclear power existed for some years. The aim of this paper is to summarise the accumulated operation experiences from these large Swedish heat pumps to support and facilitate planning of future power-to-heat solutions with heat pumps in district heating systems. Gained experiences consider; installed capacities, capacity utilisation, heat sources used, refrigerant replacements, refrigerant leakages, and wear of mechanical components. The major conclusion is that many of the large thirty-year-old heat pumps are still in operation, but with reduced capacity utilisation due to internal competition from waste and biomass cogeneration plants in the district heating systems.

  • 285.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Ingvarsson, Paul
    ÅF, Division Industry, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    On the use of surplus electricity in district heating systems2014In: Proceedings from the 14th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling: September, 6-10, 2014: Stockholm, Sweden / [ed] Anna Land, Stockholm: Swedish District Heating Association , 2014, p. 469-474Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maintained balance between supply and demand is a fundamental prerequisite for proper operation of electric power grids. For this end, power systems rely on accessibility to various balancing technologies and solutions by which fluctuations in supply and demand can be promptly met. In this paper, balancing approaches in the case of surplus electricity supply, due to long-term, seasonal, or short-term causes, are discussed on the basis mainly of compiled experiences from the Swedish national power grid. In Sweden, a structural long-term electricity surplus was created in the 1980s when several new nuclear plants were commissioned and built. One of four explicit domestic power-to-heat solutions initiated to maximize the utilization of this surplus electricity, as export capacities were limited, was the introduction of large scale electric boilers and compressor heat pumps in district heating systems. In retrospective, this solution not only satisfied the primary objective by providing additional electricity demand to balance the power grid, but represents today – from an energy systems perspective – a contemporary example of increased system flexibility by the attainment of higher integration levels between power and heat sectors. As European power supply will be reshaped to include higher proportions of fluctuating supply technologies (e.g. wind and solar), causing occasional but recurring short-term electricity surpluses, the unique Swedish experiences may provide valuable input in the development of rational responses to future balancing challenges. The main conclusions from this study are that district heating systems can add additional balancing capabilities to power systems, if equipped with electrical heat supply technologies, hereby contributing to higher energy system flexibility. Consequently, district heating systems also have a discrete but key role in the continued integration of renewable intermittent power supply technologies in the future European energy system.

  • 286.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Ottermo, Fredric
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Pipe Sizing for Novel Heat Distribution Technology2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 7, article id 1276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper assesses pipe sizing aspects for previously proposed, novel, low heat distribution technology with three pipes. Assessment issues include heat loss, pressure loss, and pipe sizing for different typical pipe configurations. This assessment has been provided by the analysis of a case area with single-family houses. Concerning heat loss, the proposed three-pipe solutions have the same magnitude of heat loss as conventional twin pipes, since lower return temperatures compensate for the larger heat loss area from the third pipe. Regarding pressure loss, the main restriction on the size of the third pipe is limited to the pressure loss in the third pipe. Thermostatic valves to manage the flow rate of the third pipe are advocated, since alternative small pumps have not been found to be commercially available. The pipe sizing recommendation is that the third pipe for recirculation purposes can be two to three standard pipe sizes smaller than the corresponding supply and return pipe, if no prosumer is connected in the heat distribution network.

  • 287.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Economic benefits of fourth generation district heating2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, article id 116727Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main impetus for lower distribution temperatures in district heating systems is the lower heat supply costs obtained by these lower temperatures. In this paper, the differences in heat supply costs for two different temperature levels have been estimated for various future heat supply options. The estimations were obtained by modelling a district heating system characterised by typical climate conditions for Central Europe. High sensitivity to lower supply costs from lower temperatures was found for geothermal heat, industrial excess heat, and heat pumps, whereas low cost sensitivity was estimated for combined heat and power plants using waste or biomass. Lower heat distribution loss constitutes a minor component of the total cost reductions. The current use of high heat distribution temperatures was identified as an important barrier for the transition to renewable and recycled heat supply in district heating systems. Hence, lower distribution temperatures would facilitate this required transition because lower distribution temperatures provide higher profitability for these renewable and recycled heat sources. © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 288.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Efficient heat distribution in solar district heating systems2018In: SDH Solar District Heating: Proceeding, 2018, p. 63-66Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contains a short analysis showing the main benefit for solar district heating when a novel heat distribution concept with low temperatures is applied. The analysis is performed by comparing the annual solar heat output from a solar collector field for current heat distribution temperatures in Sweden with the corresponding output for the novel heat distribution concept. The results show that the new low temperature concept provides 66% more solar heat for a typical solar collector. Hereby, the solar collector field can be reduced with 40%, giving a corresponding cost reduction for solar heat generated. Another result is that the cost gradient for lower costs from lower return temperatures is five times higher for solar district heating compared to current heat supply in Swedish district heating systems. One major conclusion is that high heat distribution temperatures in current European district heating systems are a major barrier for the competitiveness of solar district heating.

  • 289.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Essential Improvements in Future District Heating Systems2016In: Proceedings of the 15th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling: September 4th - 7th, 2016, Seoul, South Korea / [ed] Rolf Ulseth & Kyung Min Kim, 2016, p. 194-200Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The major common denominator for future efficient fourth generation district heating systems is lower temperature levels in the distribution networks. Higher efficiencies are then obtained in both heat supply and heat distribution. Heat supply becomes more efficient with respect to combined heat and power, flue gas condensation, heat pumps, geothermal extraction, low temperature excess heat, and heat storage. Heat distribution becomes more efficient from lower distribution losses, less pipe expansion, lower scalding risks, and plastic pipes. The lower temperature levels will be possible since future buildings will have lower temperature demands when requiring lower heat demands. This paper aims at providing seven essential recommendations concerning design and construction strategies for future fourth generation systems. The method used is based on a critical examination of the barriers for lower temperature levels and the origins of high return temperatures in contemporary third generation systems. The two main research questions applied are: Which parts of contemporary system design are undesirable? Which possible improvements are desirable? Key results and the corresponding recommendations include temperature levels for heat distribution, recirculation, metering, supervision, thermal lengths for heat exchangers and heat sinks, hydronic balancing, and legionella. The main conclusion is that it should be possible to construct new fourth generation district heating networks according to these seven essential recommendations presented in this paper.

  • 290.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Essential improvements in future district heating systems2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 116, p. 217-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The major common denominator for future efficient fourth generation district heating systems is lower temperature levels in the distribution networks. Higher efficiencies are then obtained in both heat supply and heat distribution. Heat supply becomes more efficient with respect to combined heat and power, flue gas condensation, heat pumps, geothermal extraction, low temperature excess heat, and heat storage. Heat distribution becomes more efficient from lower distribution losses, less pipe expansion, lower scalding risks, and plastic pipes. The lower temperature levels will be possible since future buildings will have lower temperature demands when requiring lower heat demands. This paper aims at providing seven essential recommendations concerning design and construction strategies for future fourth generation systems. The method used is based on a critical examination of the barriers for lower temperature levels and the origins of high return temperatures in contemporary third generation systems. The two main research questions applied are: Which parts of contemporary system design are undesirable? Which possible improvements are desirable? Key results and the corresponding recommendations include temperature levels for heat distribution, recirculation, metering, supervision, thermal lengths for heat exchangers and heat sinks, hydronic balancing, and legionella. The main conclusion is that it should be possible to construct new fourth generation district heating networks according to these seven essential recommendations presented in this paper. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier

  • 291.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Framtida fjärrvärmeteknik: Möjligheter med en fjärde teknikgeneration2017Report (Refereed)
  • 292.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Novel low temperature heat distribution technology2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 145, p. 526-539Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lower future heat demands and lower availability of non-fossil high temperature heat supply are expected future market conditions that restrain the long-term viability of contemporary district heating systems. Hence, current district heating technology should be enhanced to increase system performance in new heat distribution areas. This paper aims to outline a proposal for technical improvements required to achieve lower annual average return temperatures in new residential buildings to improve viability in future market conditions. The proposed technical solution consists of three principle changes: three-pipe distribution networks, apartment substations, and longer thermal lengths for heat exchangers. The three technical modifications aims at addressing system embedded temperature errors. Furthermore, a simulation model was developed to assess the proposed technical solution concerning different energy performances of buildings and different thermal lengths in heat exchangers. The results show that implementation of the three technical modifications reaches time-weighted annual average return temperatures of 17–21 °C with supply temperatures of about 50 °C. The results also verify the increased necessity to separate the network return flows into delivery and recirculation flows in residential substations as energy performance in buildings increase.

  • 293.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Felsmann, Clemens
    Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.
    Rühling, Karin
    Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.
    Wiltshire, Robin
    Building Research Establishment (BRE), Garston, Watford, United Kingdom.
    Svendsen, Svend
    Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Li, Hongwei
    Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Faessler, Jérôme
    University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Floriane, Mermoud
    University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Quiquerez, Loïc
    University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Transformation Roadmap from High to Low Temperature District Heating Systems: Annex XI final report2017Report (Other academic)
  • 294.
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Acting in a Globalized World: Marketing Perspective2012In: Globalization: Education and Management Agendas, Croatia: INTECH, 2012, p. 153-164Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 295.
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Internationalization processes of firms as a challenge to handle exchange relationships2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Researchers have mostly focused on entry processes and entry forms. What happens to a firm that has been in a foreign market for a long time would be an issue of its ability to handle important exchange relationships. This paper aims to increase our knowledge of what it takes to establish and handle exchange relationships with some actors so as to achieve a win-win and stable exchange in a foreign market.

    Design/methodology/approach – An in-depth case study was used to study the phenomenon, where the conceptual framework, interconnected networks in value creation, was used to analyze the case.

     Findings – It was found out that the multinational company (MNC) has been able to prioritize and/or invest time and resources to closely co-operate with some important customers that have brought about ‘win-win’ and stable exchange relationships between them. It was also found out that mutual orientation and adaptations have helped them to overcome any mismatch resulting from cultural influences.

    Research limitations/implications – The in-depth study with only one case is a stark limitation. Future research should explore the same phenomenon by studying several cases; every effort should be made to also interview customers and not only suppliers.

    Practical implication – Despite limitations, this study’s results have significant implication for a firm in that its internationalization process would also be the ability to establish and handle relationships that enhance the development of competitive capabilities that enable it to compete in any market.

    Originality/value – The major contribution of this study is to emphasize the managerial problems associated with the establishment and handling of business relationships with some important actors (e.g. suppliers and customers) in foreign markets.

  • 296.
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The search for foreign direct investment (FDI): The case of Ghana2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    That foreign direct investment (FDI) is a valuable undertaking that all nations strive to attract and sustain is well known and well discussed in the literature. However, a systematic study and/or analysis of how some countries invest much in attracting FDI, but with poor results, is lacking. This paper contributes by analyzing the incessant efforts which countries make to attract FDI with very dissatisfying results. One important conclusion from this study is that while a country uses numerous incentives and alleged macro and micro policies as means to bring in much FDI, potential investors might not respond because they might be thinking about areas where they could profitably and securely put their resources to use. Ghana is a case in point when looking at a country that has not succeeded well, in spite of investments in attracting FDI.

  • 297.
    Awuah, Gabriel
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Abraha, Desalegn
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Interactive (Networked) Internationalization: The Case of Swedish Firms2007In: Bringing the country back in: the importance of local knowledge in a global economy : proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting of the Academy of International Business, Indianapolis, June 25-28, 2007, Indianapolis: Academy of International Business , 2007, p. 139-139Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The extant literature stresses that having foreign market presence is imperative for most firms these days. However, how firms conceive of which foreign markets to enter, the entry mode to take and the resource commitments to make are not information or decision-making processes solely confined to a firm that internationalizes its activities. The purpose of this study is to provide deeper insights into the extent to which an independent actor (s) actively collaborates with the internationalizing firm so as to jointly determine the choice of market, the mode of entry and the level of investment committed in the market to be entered and even after the entry (i.e. the on-going activities). Based on two multiple case studies, one major finding of the study shows that independent actors, with their interconnected networks, have played and are still playing a major role in influencing the internationalization processes of each of the two firms in this study.

  • 298.
    Awuah, Gabriel
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Amal, Mohamed
    Universidade Regional de Blumenau – FURB, Blumenau, Brazil.
    Impact of globalization: The ability of less developed countries' (LDCs') firms to cope with opportunities and challenges2011In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 120-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to contribute to the debate on the impact of globalization on the competitiveness of firms in least developed countries (LDCs). Two main research questions will be addressed. How does globalization affect the competitiveness of small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in LDCs? How can SMEs handle opportunities and challenges emerging from globalization?

    Design/methodology/approach – The methodology for this study is a conceptual attempt to review the existing literature and make some propositions about how SMEs can handle the opportunities and challenges emerging from globalization.

    Findings – Building on a developed operational framework affecting the competitiveness of firms, some of the expected results are that firms' capabilities with regards to innovation, learning, and internationalization, which increase their competitiveness, are enhanced by institutional setups. Second, establishing relationships with governmental and non-governmental institutions is crucial in terms of accessing resources, innovating, and entering into foreign markets.

    Originality/value – The paper represents a contribution to the debate on the impact of globalization on the competitiveness of firms, particularly SMEs, in LDCs. Although globalization has brought considerable benefits to many actors worldwide, its impact on competitiveness of (SMEs) are controversial. We suggest that globalization's effects depend on the capability of firms to learning, to innovate, and also on the institutional setup in LDCs.

  • 299.
    Awuah, Gabriel
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Amal, Mohamed
    Raboch, Henrique
    The Internationalization of Multinational Companies (MNCs): An intra-sector comparison among firms from developing and developed countries2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the international statistic data of the United Nations Conference of Trade and Development (Unctad, 2008), the majority of Multinational Companies (MNCs) are from developed countries. However, in the last decade the participation of MNCs from emerging economies in the international flows of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) increased significantly, making them important global players. Although several scholars have addressed the internationalization process of emerging MNCs, no attempt has been made in the sense of directly comparing the internationalization process of firms from both developed and developing countries. To fill this gap, the aim of the present paper is to highlight the differences and similarities of the determinants and patterns of their internationalization. The integrated analytical model used in this study, which draws on insights from the Eclectic Paradigm and the Uppsala Internationalization approaches, has proved useful by helping to shed some light on the literature about MNCs’ internationalization process. The model in question has been structured in order to explore the differences and similarities of the internationalization processes of MNC from a developed and a developing country. This research uses a qualitative method with an exploratory nature, which allows deeper cross- cultural understanding. Multiple case studies of MNCs from countries with different levels of development (Brazil and Sweden) were carried out; this type of research allows addressing questions related to the determinants and patterns of internationalization. The results of the study show that there are strong evidences, which point out differences in term of ownership advantage development. However, the firms did not show substantial differences regarding internalization advantages. On the other hand, learning and experience of internationalization have been factors that have influenced the pattern and structure of the MNCs in both contexts. However, as the MNC from the developed country is more international and has longer experience, location decisions are no longer heavily influenced by these factors. The international network the MNC is part of and access to technology and knowledge partners are nowadays influencing the MNCs internationalization processes more. These findings are in line with earlier research that has pointed out that learning is most important in the early phases of MNCs international development while networks and location advantages are more important in later stages.

  • 300.
    Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    A professional services firm's competence development2007In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 36, no 8, p. 1068-1081Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The conceptualization of a firm's competence development has undergone some developments, as seen from the extant literature. However, studies or explanations of a firm's competence development over time seem to concentrate on firms that manufacture physical goods. The literature is devoid of studies on the competence development of professional services firms (PSFs). With two in-depth case studies, this paper seeks to shed light on factors that impinge on PSFs' competence development over time. An important finding of this study is that all the two PSFs' competence development over time has been influenced, in large measure, by their close and regular interaction with their respective immediate customers as well as with some significant third parties in their network of exchange relationships, where the actors mutually adapt to each other and also learn from each other. Evidences in all the two cases show that each of the firms has won and kept important customers that give them the most and frequent assignments per year, thanks to the factors that have affected their competence to meet customers' demand over time.

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