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  • 2051.
    Yar Hamidi, Daniel
    et al.
    Borås University, Borås, Sweden.
    Gabrielsson, Jonas
    The chairperson and board strategy involvement in SMEs2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For decades boards of directors have been strongly encouraged to take on an active strategy role. However, while such behaviour is generally seen as an indicator of board effectiveness much is still unknown about drivers of board strategic involvement. This is particularly true for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) that make up around 95 percent of all business enterprises. A critical issue when setting up a board of directors in SMEs relate to the chairperson position. In this study we seek to contribute to scholarly research and literature on actual board behaviour in SMEs by examining whether and how the experience and leadership efficacy of the chairperson influence the extent to which the board of directors are involved in setting the strategic direction of the firm. We rely on questionnaire data collected from multiple respondents in 324 Norwegian SMEs. The variables used are based on validated scales related to behavioral aspects of actual board work developed by corporate governance scholars. We use multiple regression analysis to test our hypotheses. Overall, we find that the board experience and leadership efficacy of the chairperson has a positive and significant effect on the extent to which the board of directors are involved in strategy in SMEs. To this end, our findings suggest that chairperson behaviours have a greater impact compared to structural leadership conditions in explaining board outcomes in SMEs.

  • 2052.
    Yera, Daniel
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Pichou, Alexandra
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Sports Marketing in European Clubs2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Sports marketing have been growing constantly over the last years and have become a key for the success of the football clubs. The methods used have become more sophisticated and an increasing number of clubs are realizing the importance of the marketing and specially the promotion strategies. The purpose of this study is to have a better understanding on how the communication strategies are being used in the European football teams (French, Spanish and German) to attract fans to their stadiums. In order to reach this purpose, research question is focused on how the European teams use this promotion strategies to attract people to the stadium. Based on this research question, a review of relevant literature was conducted, resulting in a frame of references, which was used to guide this study's data collection. A qualitative, multiple case study approach was used to find the data. The findings indicate that although his individual objectives of the tools can be different they can still be used overall to lead to the same overall goal.

  • 2053.
    Yu, Cui
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Zhang, Ting
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    American Fast Food in Chinese Market: A Cross-Culture Perspective: The Case of KFC and McDonald's2009Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Culture differences play a significant role in the international marketing, which has drawn many researchers‟ attention. This dissertation will focus on how the cross-cultural environments influence the choice of marketing strategies.

    The theoretical framework of this study mainly contains cross-culture theories and 4P marketing strategy. These theories are put together in an analytical model where a connection between the two theories is explained that will be used as a foundation in gathering and analyzing the empirical findings.

    The qualitative research strategy is employed in this dissertation. Utilizing the multiple case studies, we choose two sample companies both from USA. The empirical data was gathered through semi-structured interviews on the telephone. Data was also supplemented with secondary data such as company web pages and scientific articles.

    The conclusion can be drawn from this study is that culture differences influence the 4P marketing strategies in both of the companies in different ways. Language, value and customer behaviors of a national culture are main factors to affect the implementation of marketing strategy in the international markets.

  • 2054.
    yu, cui
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    zhang, ting
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Internal factors affecting the organizational internationalization process: Evidence from Huawei case study2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The relevance of global economy are being enhanced day by day, organizational internationalization is becoming more and more important nowadays. Many companies have stated their internationalization process, but not all of them are successful. Thus, the main purpose and aim of this study is to research the relationship between the internal management of organization and firm internationalization process, and find out the most important internal factors (entrepreneur, corporate culture, organizational human resource management) which could push organization to identify the internationalization opportunity and to operate the internationalization process. In this paper, authors construct an original theoretical framework, and chooses Huawei Company as a real example to examine the theoretical results which are concluded from the existing studies.

  • 2055.
    Yu, Hyungmin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Wei, Yuxiang
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    An Exploratory Study: The Main Challenge of Chinese Expatriate Managers Working in Western Companies2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 2056.
    Yu, Lijing
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Fu, Yun
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Successful Entry Strategies on the Chinese Market: -A Case Study of a Swedish Industrial Company: SKF2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 40 poäng / 60 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, the Chinese market is attracting more and more attention from foreign countries, which consider China as a potential partner. Making feasible decisions is the foundation of accessing success in the Chinese markets. Thus, it is important to take the first step as choosing the entry strategies, and then analyzing the variety of social environment and economic circumstance. According to different situations, companies are required to prepare alternative strategies for the changeable markets.

    This is a case study of a Swedish industrial company- SKF, which entered into the Chinese market successfully. The purpose of this study is to analyze the strategies that SKF used during the process of entering the Chinese market, and find out the successful factors as well as the cause of failure. Our case study is aimed to provide an answer to the research questions and generate imitable entry strategies for western industrial companies who want to explore in the Chinese market.

    Our research questions are: Q1: What strategies have adopted by SKF and how these strategies worked out to enter into the Chinese market? Q2: What are the successful factors of industrial companies to enter the Chinese market?

    Two experienced product managers are invited to be the interviewee of our thesis. The collected data provided both Swedish and Chinese perspectives, which reflect the eastern western culture differences and concept differences.

    The results show that SKF made the acquaintance with big customers through distributors, which built up the customers’ network and company’s foundation at the early age of the expansion. However, failing experience of joint venture gave a lesson to SKF and encouraged SKF to work with independent consultant firms, which occurred to be an alternative solution to replace the position of joint venture. Although there are different perspectives from Swedish side and Chinese side, the successful factors have been concluded as unique products, marketing demands, communication and customers.

    The implication of this case study is to provide the strategies that contribute SKF to be the leaders in bearing industry, which is worth to be learned and imitated by other similar industrial companies. 

  • 2057.
    Yue Wen, Zhao
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Key Success Factors behind Mobile Games: A Business Model for the Chinese mobile game market2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 40 poäng / 60 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The research question is formulated as “what are the key success factors making a mobile game become a big success in China? ” to view the key success factors behind new launched mobile games and how company’s business model and marketing strategy that bring them into and help them succeed in the China market.

     

    A qualitative method with the deductive approach has been using in this paper to be able to answer and interpret the studied questions. Four in-depth interviews were conducted to collect the primary data, which have been following as the purpose is to do a cross-case analysis to identify the similarities and difference of each company behave their business model and marketing strategy, to contribute game success in China market.

     

    The main factors contributing to the success of mobile game in China market including internally strategic factors and externally tactic factors. Technical skill and resource, R&D ability and market knowledge and experience as the internal key success factors behind mobile game success in China. The mobile game companies use localization, wide distribution channel collaboration and social integration to suit the market needs and requirements.

     

    From the results of the study have been identified to as to how is the business model for the China mobile game market. Through collaborating with abroad local distribution channel can increase their knowledge capacity of the local market to create a better value proposition. In China mobile game market, social integration and cross promotion can be seen as very important and through collaborating firms can work around these factors and create, capture and deliver better value to the customers.

  • 2058.
    Zachrisson, Carin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Sjöström, Viktor
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Dagligvaruhandelns implementering av e-handel: En studie om hur företag arbetar i en pågående förändringsfas2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and problem: It is only in recent years that e-commerce of groceries has gained momentum. Between 2014 and 2016, the annual increase in digital food sales was approximately 30% and it is expected to increase sharply in the future. In an article from Svenska Dagbladet, it is found that food giants are making millions of e-commerce losses, but in spite of that, they strive to sell food online.

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to describe and explain how companies in the grocery trade are working to secure growth as a result of the e-commerce development of groceries.

    Method: The method is based on a qualitative approach with semistructured interviews as the basis for the primary data collection. The sample of interviewees comprised five respondents from various grocery stores in Halland and Northern Skåne, all offering e-commerce as analternative to the physical store.

    Theory: The theoretical reference framework on which the analysis is based consist of competition strategies, integration of different sales channels and customer loyalty.

    Conclusion: Through the study, we have come to the conclusion that the stores work in asimilar way to ensure future growth. What distinguishes them and which probably affects the degree of e-commerce growth is how well the stores prepared for the implementation of ecommerce in the form of offering a smooth solution for the customer, and how they then work with the range and pick-up efficiency.

  • 2059.
    Zadayannaya, Liudmila
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    ORGANIZATIONAL MEMORY SYSTEMS AS A SOURCE OF LEARNING FOR NEW EMPLOYEES IN AN INNOVATIVE CONTEXT2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational memory is said to be one of the essential factors of organizational learning, particularly in a part that is concerned with knowledge flowing from an organization to its employees. Often viewed as a system of knowledge repositories, organizational memory is argued to be important in various contexts. The purpose of this study is to explore an impact of the organizational memory in two such contexts, namely in a situation of presence of new employees and organization involved in innovation activity. The importance of organizational memory for the new employees can be explained by the fact that it is through facing it they socialize in the organization. Organizational memory also influences innovative behaviour of employees.

    This researched is performed in a form of a case study; where the object of study finds itself in a combined context – new employees of R&D department learn from different organizational memory systems. The data for this case study were collected through qualitative interviewing of both the newcomers and their supervisor.

    The results show that new employees face a range of memory systems, and this range does not depend on the innovativeness of the work they are involved in. It was found possible to look separately into the systems and methods the newcomers accessed them. The most important access methods in this case turned out to be personal communication and IT-enabled means, however a number of other methods were also found relevant for the case.

    Focusing on how this knowledge can support innovative behaviour of the new employees, this study has found several ways in which both incremental and radical innovations can be enhanced. The memory systems have been found to affect innovative behaviour of the newcomers by demonstrating expectance of this behaviour, by providing “old” knowledge, as well as hints where one can possibly find “old” and “new” knowledge.

    In general, the findings suggest that looking into memory systems separately from the ways to access them might give valuable insights for rethinking how properties of the memory systems have been defined so far.

  • 2060. Zahar, Timothé
    et al.
    Dupré, Nicolas
    Shock advertising and the French generation Y2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 2061.
    Zahra, Abdulkarim
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Ingenting är gratis!: En undersökande studie av affärsmodellen gratis på internet2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Titel:                                   Ingenting är gratis!                                             - En undersökande studie av affärsmodellen gratis på internet.

    Författare:                         Zahra Abdulkarim

    Handledare:                       Klaus Solberg Soilen

    Examinator:                      Ulf Aagerup

    Nivå:                                  Kandidatuppsats, ekonomi (15hp), VT16

    Nyckelord:                         Gåvor, freemium, treaktörsmarknad, korssubventionering, BMC,                           BMI,  gratis

    Syfte & Frågeställning:    Syftet med studien är att ta reda på vilka förutsättningar som finns                        för affärsmodellen gratis. Detta på grund av att internet med sin                                  stora trafik skapat stor konkurrens.

                                                          

                                                Vilka förutsättningar finns det med affärsmodellen                                                    "gratis/kostnadsfritt"?

                                                Hur kan affärsmodellen etableras i företag som inte arbetar med                            den idag?

     

    Metod:                               En kvalitativ och abduktiv ansats har använts för att undersöka                              studien. Kvaliteten ligger i att informationen från sekundärkällor                                         analyserat snarare än beräknats. Undersökningen består av ett                                        dokumenturval eftersom information inte är framtagen av                                             forskaren.

    Teori:                                 Business model canvas, BMI och SWOT är modeller som använts                         för att analysera de olika beståndsdelarna i affärsmodellen gratis.                                      Vidare har även prissättning och psykologiska aspekter av pris                                         tagits upp.

    Empiri:                              Affärsmodellen gratis har delats in i fyra underkategorier. Studien                         är baserad på tio olika företag som använder gratis som                         affärsmodell. Varje företag får representera något av de fyra                                       typerna av gratis.

    Slutsats:                             För att företag skall kunna implementera affärsmodellen gratis är                           de i behov av att skapa en stor kundkrets. Vidare måste de                                            upprätthålla produktutveckling så att intresset för deras erbjudande                                  inte sjunker. Om det ska vara möjligt att implementera                                             affärsmodellen bör företag se över sin kostnadsstruktur och dra ner                       kostnaderna så lågt att gratis generar vinst av varje användare.                               Hela konceptet med gratis är precis som andra affärsmodeller                                            byggt på ekonomisk vinning.

  • 2062.
    Zattoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    LUISS University and Business School, Rome, Italy.
    Witt, Michael A.
    INSEAD, Singapore, Singapore.
    Judge, William Q.
    Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, USA.
    Talaulicar, Till
    University of Erfurt, Erfurt, Germany.
    Chen, Jean Jinghan
    Xian Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou, China & Nankai University, Tianjin, China.
    Lewellyn, Krista
    University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, USA.
    Hu, Helen Wei
    University of Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Gabrielsson, Jonas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Luis Rivas, José
    ITAM School of Business, Mexico DF, Mexico.
    Puffer, Sheila
    D’Amore-McKim School of Business, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA.
    Shukla, Dhirendra
    University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, Canada.
    Lopez, Felix
    University of Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain.
    Adegbite, Emmanuel
    Leicester Business School, De Montfort University, Leicester, United Kingdom.
    Fassin, Yves
    Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Yamak, Sibel
    University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, United Kingdom.
    Fainshmidt, Stav
    Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA.
    van Ees, Hans
    University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Does board independence influence financial performance in IPO firms?: The moderating role of the national business system2017Ingår i: Journal of world business (Print), ISSN 1090-9516, E-ISSN 1878-5573, Vol. 52, nr 5, s. 628-639Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior evidence suggests that board independence may enhance financial performance, but this relationship has been tested almost exclusively for Anglo-American countries. To explore the boundary conditions of this prominent governance mechanism, we examine the impact of the formal and information institutions of 18 national business systems on the board independence-financial performance relationship. Our results show that while the direct effect of independence is weak, national-level institutions significantly moderate the independence-performance relationship. Our findings suggest that the efficacy of board structures is likely to be contingent on the specific national context, but the type of legal system is insignificant. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.

  • 2063.
    ZENG, LE
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    CHEN, SIYUAN
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Green marketing strategies for international firms in China: A case study of Emerson Electric Co., Ltd2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 2064.
    Zhang, Dongdong
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Challenges in Marketing Strategy of Online Travel Booking Industry in China: -A case study of Ctrip.com and Qunar.com2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Information technology plays an important role in the hospitality and tourismindustry. The internet has reshaped the distribution channels and thus suppliers andconsumers can contact directly. It also changes consumers searching and bookingbehaviors. So information technology brings online travel agents some challenges inthe marketing strategy.Literature Review includes the theoretical background of online travel bookingindustry and summaries the previous researches in the field of hospitality and tourismindustry. The analytical framework of this study mainly includes the impact ofinformation technology on the Porter’s five forces model which was used forgathering and analyzing the empirical data and the PEST model. Nowadays,intelligent travel is highly efficient and trendy.In conducting this study, I adopted a qualitative approach to analyze challengesfaced by online travel agents. I chose two sample companies Ctrip.com andQunar.com from China. The empirical data were mainly collected from twosemi-structured interviews and secondary data such as the official website andtravel-related information.The conclusion is that the information technology has a great impact on thetourism enterprises. The competition is fierce and consumers are more demanding.Through cooperating and integrating travel-related information resources, the tourismenterprises can provide better products and professional services to consumers andimprove their travel experiences.

  • 2065.
    Zhang, Pingying
    et al.
    Department of Management, Coggin College of Business, University of North Florida, FL, USA.
    Voordeckers, Wim
    KIZOK Research Center, Hasselt University, Belgium.
    Gabrielsson, Jonas
    CIRCLE, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Huse, Morten
    eDepartment of Innovation and Economic Organisation, Norwegian School of Management BI, Norway.
    From boards as value assemblers to value creators: Integrating static and dynamic perspectives on board information2009Ingår i: Contemporary Issues in International Corporate Governance / [ed] Suzanne Young, Prahran, Vic.: Tilde University Press , 2009, s. 43-57Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 2066.
    Zhu, Yuqi
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Zhang, Yunbu
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    A Comparative Case Study on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) between SMEs and MNCs2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 40 poäng / 60 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to describe the behaviors that multinational corporations(MNCs) and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are taking for carrying outcorporate social responsibility (CSR) under the context of sustainable development.Besides, the factors which drive and influence the performance are further exploredand discussed.The thesis is to be analyzed by means of a literature review, qualitative case study,semi-structured interviews, within case study and cross case study.By adopting these methods, the thesis shows that both MNCs and SMEs are aware ofand actively shouldering CSR in spite of different contents and approaches. MNCs areable to integrate economic, environment and social values into CSR strategy whileSMEs focus more on economic values. Competitive pressures, social expectations andinternal governance system are the main drivers of MNCs. By contrast, owners’ desiregives rise to the performance of carrying out CSR strategy by SMEs.It is suggested that a new domain of CSR namely, political social responsibility isfound through the study. It demonstrates that MNCs with the state-owned nature haveparticular missions and responsibilities to serve the country and society, which is notcommon but exists in the world.

  • 2067.
    Zhubi, Adrian
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Zhubi, Albert
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    K2 eller K3: Motiv till att redovisa enligt K32016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Titel: K2 eller K3 : Motiv till att redovisa enligt K3 

    Författare: Adrian Zhubi och Albert Zhubi 

    Färdigställt: Våren 2016 

    Handledare: Eva Berggren

    Bakgrund: BFN har sedan 2004 gett ut allmänna råd, vilket har medfört att K-projektet skapats där företag delas in i fyra olika kategorier beroende på företagsstorlek. K-projektets vanligaste regelverk är huvudregelverket principbaserade K3 och alternativregelverket regelbaserade K2. Sedan 2015 är det obligatoriskt för samtliga aktiebolag och ekonomiska föreningar att tillämpa ett av dessa två regelverk. Företag bör därmed reflektera över dess verksamhet och intressenter vid val av regelverk. Valet kan ställa krav på att årsredovisningen ska vara relevant för intressenter. Vi vill därför med studien undersöka vilka väsentliga skillnader som förklarar att företag väljer K3 framför K2. Detta utifrån redovisningsrådgivares perspektiv. 

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att förklara vilka skillnader som ligger bakom att företag föredrar K3 istället för K2 utifrån redovisningsrådgivares perspektiv. 

    Problemformulering: Vad anser redovisningsrådgivare förklarar företags val av K3 framför K2? 

    Metod: Studien består av en kvalitativ ansats. Den empiriska datan består av totalt fem intervjuer, varav en är pilotintervju. Studiens respondenter består av tre revisorer, en redovisningsexpert samt en redovisningsspecialist. Respondenterna har olika erfarenheter och är från olika revisionsbyråer.

    Resultat: Studien visar att redovisningsrådgivare anser skillnader i materiella, immateriella och finanisella anläggningstillgångar i K2 och K3 gör att företag föredrar K3. Avsättningar, uppskjuten skatt och intressenter är även påverkande faktorer. Samtliga respondenter var eniga om att K2 är enklare att tillämpa då regelverket innehåller handfasta regler för redovisning. K3 ställer större krav på kunskap vid professionell bedömning då regelverket tar hänsyn till en komplex verksamhet med fler företagsintressenter.

  • 2068.
    Zidan, Hussain
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Otálvaro Herrera, Nasly Andrea
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    How does leadership develop contextual ambidexterity in project – basedorganizations?2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Statistics show that a large number of companies struggle for their survival.About 20 % of the EU companies in all the different industries that were born in 2015 couldnot survive till 2016. More specifically, only less than half of the companies that were born in2011 are still active in 2016 (Eurostat, 2018). Moreover, corporate bankruptcies in Swedenincreased by 20 % in the years 2017 to 2018 compared to 2016 (Tillvaxtanalys, 2019 ).Therefore, the main challenge for managers is to consolidate short-term and long-termthinking, encourage visions while remaining focused on execution within employees.

    Problem background: While the current literature acknowledges both the importance oforganizational ambidexterity for companies’ survival, and the role played by managers todevelop ambidexterity, research on how to achieve such ambidexterity is still narrow.Moreover, the influence of the different leadership styles on contextual ambidexterity and itseffects on individuals have hardly been attended in the literature.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to develop an understanding on how leaders, throughambidextrous leadership styles, create a context that enables individuals to achieve contextualambidexterity. More specifically, this master’s thesis aims to define a conceptual frameworkthat shows the influence of the leadership styles on contextual ambidexterity

    Methodology: In order to answer our research question, a qualitative research was conductedwith a deductive approach. Eight Interviews, four managers and four employees, wereconducted in four project-based organizations within the software industry in Sweden.

    Findings: The key findings are that transformational leadership style was found to foster “trustand support” in social support, and “stretch” in performance management, while thetransactional leadership style was only found in discipline in the organizational context.

    Conclusions: This study shows how developing adaptability in an organization requiresmanagers to apply transformational leadership style to the social support dimensions of theorganizational context. On the other hand, developing alignment in an organization requiresmanagers to apply both transformation and transactional styles rather than transactional. Mangers also need to balance the intensity of their leadership styles as both styles need to be emphasized equally well.

  • 2069.
    Zuckermann Hirsch, Jørgen
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    How does a company Go green?: Important steps towards a sustainable business strategy2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The results of the supposed man-made climate change have lead to a concern for the environment that is affecting how businesses operate. Businesses are facing greater pressure from stakeholders and government regulations to take more responsibility and care for the environment. Thus companies are facing a wide spectrum of new problems, but also new opportunities. In facing these problems companies must react to how the world is changing and to integrate environmental concerns into the vision and company strategy to become a more environmentally friendly and thus greener company. An issue pressing is how to maintain sustainability for the environment as well as pursuing to be a sustainable company facing the threats of today and the future to come due to climate change. Important aspects a company must take into consideration in order to go green are: sustainability, company strategy, government regulations, internal processes and policies, corporate social responsibility and how to form a corporate culture as these are all parts of how a company changes into focusing on becoming greener and thus more environmentally friendly.

     

    This study brings forth the actions and reactions of three companies perceived as pioneers towards becoming greener in their respective industries. During the course of mapping out how a company goes green, an analytical model has been created with the help of already existing and accepted theoretical frameworks. The purpose of the model is to create structure and consistency to map out what important steps the company has taken to become greener. A qualitative method of research has been applied. Three respondents active in various fields, all with environmental connections, from Wilhelm Wilhelmsen (WW), Statkraft and Statoil has been interviewed with questions concerning their work towards sustainability and a green vision within the company. The analysis is based on relevant theories combined with the empirical data collected. What stands out in the conclusions is that the companies researched have taken different important steps when becoming greener and working to achieve sustainability. The differences can be illustrated in the own-developed model. The model is applied to crystallize what dimensions in the companies that are affected. Factors such as government regulations and how internal processes and policies are changed are standing out as examples of how a company’s dimensions are affected differently depending on the respective company’s strategy and business model. 

     

  • 2070.
    Åberg, Marcus
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Sönne, Johan
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Styrning och venture capital: En studie om styrningen förändras av venture capital i svenska företag2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 2071.
    Åsell, Julian
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Amoi, David
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Leasing - en studie om skillnader mellan K3 och IFRS: En komparativ studie mellan K3 och IFRS gällande redovisning av leasing ur ett intressentperspektiv2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Redovisningen har för avsikt att ge underlag och information till samhället. Därför är det viktigt att redovisningen återger verkligheten. Den nuvarande leasingstandarden IAS 17 för europeisk internationell nivå har varit föremål för kritik eftersom den har sin ansats i en klassificering mellan finansiell eller operationell leasing. Företag i Sverige som tillämpar K3 kapitel 20 behandlar leasingavtal på samma sätt genom en klassificering. Detta har skapat möjligheter för företag att uppföra en redovisning där stora värden i form av tillgångar och skulder hamnar utanför balansräkningen genom operationella leasingavtal. Därav har det pågått en internationell diskussion mellan IASB och FASB under en längre tid om leasingavtal som klassificeras som operationella verkligen återger en rättvisande bild av företag som tillämpar IFRS standarder. Denna debatt handlar om en ökning av transparens inom redovisning och företagens finansiella rapportering är konstant närvarande i dessa debatter. Därför att denna finansiella information oftast är det enda intressenter har till sitt förfogande som beslutsunderlag. På grund av dessa problem och för att utveckla en rapportering som är mer konsekvent har IASB därav valt att skapa en ny standard för leasingavtal - IFRS 16 Leasing.

    IFRS 16 har ett annat tillvägagångssätt för leasing då den har sin ansats i en nyttjanderätt. Detta medför betydande förändringar för leasingtagare då de, baserat på nyttjanderätten, behöver rapportera leasingavtal som tillgångar och skulder i sina balansräkningar. IASB har redan implementerat IFRS 16 men däremot är det inte krav på att följa standarden fram tills 1 januari 2019 då IFRS 16 träder i kraft.

    Studiens syfte är att beskriva samt analysera vilka skillnader det finns mellan företag som tillämpar K3 kapitel 20 och den kommande standarden IFRS 16 gällande leasingavtal. Vidare är syftet med studien att med hjälp av typfall undersöka och åskådliggöra skillnader i finansiella rapporter samt relevanta nyckeltal och hur dessa effekter kan påverka företagets intressenter.

    Genom en kvalitativ forskningsmetod har det konstruerats fiktiva typfall för att kunna dra slutsatser som besvarar denna uppsats syfte och forskningsfråga. Studien behandlar vad för skillnader det finns vid behandling av klassificering, värdering och definition av leasingavtal. Därmed kan det konstateras och påvisa att vid tillämpning av den kommande leasingstandarden IFRS 16, medför det att en ökning sker av tillgångar och skulder i företagens balansräkning. Detta innebär betydande förändringar eftersom de måste redovisa ett leasingavtals nyttjanderätt och förpliktelser. Dessa förändringar får en väsentlig påverkan på olika finansiella mått. Vidare kan det konstateras att intressenter berörs och påverkas på ett väsentligt sätt eftersom förändringar i finansiella rapporter påverkar deras analyser och i slutändan beslutsunderlag.

  • 2072.
    Öberg, Mikaela
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Stenberg, Anneli
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Smoothers och icke-smoothers: en kartläggning och probleminventering av income smoothing hos svenska börsnoterade företag2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 2073.
    Öberg, Theodor
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Oldby, Marcus
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Interactive Marketing: E-mail - Tomorrow´s Tool for Online Purchases2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to gain a better understanding of how customers behave with email

    and spontaneous online shopping and in which degree prospects or customer would be

    affected by functions in interactive e-mails.

  • 2074.
    Örnstedt, Adam
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Ejesson, Johanna
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    The survival story of a newsprint mill.: A single case study of an industrial transformation at Hylte Mill.2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The pulp and paper industry (PPI) and its products is one of Sweden's largest export goods, with newsprint as one of its major sources of income. The historically stable context had led to innovation inertia something that became clear when a sudden decrease for newsprint occurred. Hence, Stora Enso Hylte Mill, which is one of the largest producers of newsprint in Sweden realized that they needed to do something in order to secure their future. Therefore, the company started to investigate the possibility of moving into a new market, biocomposite.

    Problem discussion: Ambidexterity is a requirement for a firm to be successful over time (Birkinshaw & Gibson, 2004). In uncertain environments organizational ambidexterity appears to be positively linked to increased firm innovation, better financial performance, andhigher survival rates (O’Reilly & Tushman 2013). Hylte Mill has historically had a stablemarket, thus exploitive activities have been their main concern. As the conditions change, explorative activities are needed which creates uncertainty for the firm. How does a firm in a historically stable context that has worked with exploitation for many years organize for exploration? What changes needs to be done in the organization?

    Purpose: This master thesis will systematically go through and analyze how firms within previously stable market organize for ambidexterity and exploration. This is going to be done through three phases of an industrial transformation within the PPI. The purpose for this thesis is to increase the understanding of how organizations, operating in historically stable context, deals with radical innovation when the external environment demands it.

    Methodology: This study has been an inductive single case study. The data has been collected through five semi-structured interviews with key individuals from period of industrial turbulence.

    Findings: The barriers to innovation varies over time, when one barrier is solved another one occurs. By using ambidexterity, the firm can be better suited to handle these changes. The inertia in large established firms do not only depend on events occurring within the firm but can also be affected by external events.

    Conclusion: Ambidexterity has a positive impact on innovation in uncertain environments that creates a sense of urgency. By initially applying structural ambidexterity to provide slack, and later expand the desired culture by contextual ambidexterity, large established firms can overcome innovation inertia. Slack showed positive impact on radical innovation on both mill- level and group-level. Also, external help proved to be crucial for the radical innovation capability.

  • 2075.
    Örtenblad, Anders
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    A typology of the idea of learning organization2002Ingår i: Management Learning, ISSN 1350-5076, E-ISSN 1461-7307, Vol. 33, nr 2, s. 213-230Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A typology of the idea of 'learning organization' is developed and presented. The typology is inductively created and based on how the term 'learning organization' is used in the literature and by practitioners. Four distinct hypes of understanding were found: 'organizational learning, 'learning at work, 'learning climate' and 'learning structure'. The same types of understanding seem to appear both in the literature and in accounts made by practitioners. Thus the term 'learning organization' is probably not unduly confusing to the practitioners. Instead, the different versions of the idea in the literature seem to give companies the opportunity to choose a version suitable for their specific situation.

  • 2076.
    Örtenblad, Anders
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Are the right persons involved in the creation of the learning organization?2005Ingår i: Human Resource Development Quarterly, ISSN 1044-8004, E-ISSN 1532-1096, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 281-284Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A conventional explanation of the short notice that many management ideas get is that they are only fashions. This article presents a complementary explanation. Based on Jung's personality types and my own experiences, I suggest that mostly only people with a certain type of personality become interested in ideas such as the learning organization. I further argue that all four of Jung's personality types must join in the sculpting of learning organizations if organizations are to succeed in becoming such organizations and continue being it, and, accordingly, if the idea is to survive in the long run.

  • 2077.
    Örtenblad, Anders
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Educating everyone in humanities for both post-bureaucracy and bureaucracy: a response to John Hendry2006Ingår i: Management Learning, ISSN 1350-5076, E-ISSN 1461-7307, Vol. 37, nr 3, s. 291-294Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Comments on an article by John Hendry. In the main, the commentator agree with Hendry in his description of the 'intellectual tyranny of the economic mindset' and in his concern for other values and goals in business society. Management education definitely needs other than economic goals, as Hendry argues. The commentators arguments for the humanities are slightly different, though, from Hendry's, and he do not think that managers are the only group that needs education in the humanities. Finally, the commentator would like to add a few subjects and methods to those that Hendry suggests should be involved in humanities education for business students. In addition to history and literature, which Hendry suggests, the commentator also recommend education in ethics.

  • 2078.
    Örtenblad, Anders
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Of course organizations can learn!2005Ingår i: Learning Organization, ISSN 0969-6474, E-ISSN 1758-7905, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 213-218Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a comment for all those writers who claim that organizations cannot learn. The author consistently rejects this notion. Rather the author contends that organizations can learn, in at least two different ways. The author reviews some of the common arguments against organizational learning, and tries to answer the opponents. The main argument against the critics is that they are too busy to look for evidence that organizations are not like individuals and that organizations therefore cannot learn. Instead, the author argues that it is a question of level of analysis. The author also suggests that theories as well as knowledge in general are metaphoric, implying that organizations as such of course are able to learn. The organizational learning perspectives can, of course, be used by employers and managers in order to avoid efforts that help the individuals to learn. But they can also be appropriate perspectives of learning that help in avoiding large investments on organizational learning efforts that might be unnecessary.

  • 2079.
    Örtenblad, Anders
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    On differences between organizational learning and learning organization2001Ingår i: Learning Organization, ISSN 0969-6474, E-ISSN 1758-7905, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 125-133Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This conceptual paper looks at and discusses differences between the concepts of organizational learning and (the) learning organization. Since there still seems to be confusion regarding the meaning of the two concepts, aims to clarify the two main existing distinctions, that organizational learning is existing processes while learning organization is an ideal form of organization. Also distinguishes between a traditional and a social perspective of organizational learning, which the existing distinctions have not ‚ at least not explicitly. Thus, distinctions are made between three concepts. In addition to the improvement of the existing distinctions, suggests two complementary ones ‚ entities of learning and knowledge location. These two distinctions might make it easier to distinguish also between the two perspectives of organizational learning.

  • 2080.
    Örtenblad, Anders
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Organizational learning: a radical perspective2002Ingår i: International journal of management reviews (Print), ISSN 1460-8545, E-ISSN 1468-2370, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 87-100Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews the organizational learning literature. For many years, organizational learning theory has been based on a functionalistic paradigm, but an interpretive paradigm now seems to be attaining dominance. However, neither of these perspectives of organizational learning is truly radical in the sense of challenging conditions of power and control in organizations. There are some critical texts on organizational learning (and the learning organization), but they go no further than criticism. Therefore, this paper tries to illustrate what we can call a radical perspective of organizational learning, based on themes in the critical works. The radical perspective of organizational learning implies an organization where the individuals learn as free actors. However, there are norms or rules to guarantee freedom. The learning space in the organization guarantees the occurrence of different opinions, and allows everyone to reflect upon their actions and learning. Working time and employee commitment are restricted so that work does not interfere too much with other undertakings. All employees are guaranteed permanent appointments. Finally, in the radical perspective of organizational learning, organizations die to make place for others when their missions are accomplished. After presenting the radical perspective of organizational learning, I outline some questions for future research and indicate the necessity of further development of such a perspective.

  • 2081.
    Örtenblad, Anders
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Senge’s many faces: problem or opportunity?2007Ingår i: Learning Organization, ISSN 0969-6474, E-ISSN 1758-7905, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 108-122Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to discuss both possibilities and problems with Senge’s (1990) many faces in The Fifth Discipline, i.e. the fact that different authors refer to different excerpts from his book as his version of the learning organization. Design/methodology/approach - The paper shows that the authors’ understandings of Senge, in which a literature review resulted, are seen in the light of theories of travelling of management ideas, particularly the "translation model". Findings - The paper finds that both possibilities and problems with Senge’s many faces were found. A fatal problem is that the many faces jeopardize the confidence in the concept and eventually its existence. But the strong connections to Senge’s book, that the authors have, reduces the problems, and Senge’s many faces might not cause that much trouble after all. Research limitations/implications - The paper shows that anyone who wishes to can, for different reasons, refer to Senge, and his version of the learning organization, and thereby gain legitimacy. One does not have to be very accurate; as it seems, almost anything goes. Practical implications - In the paper the "translation model" is divided into two sub-models, which probably will sharpen future translation research. Originality/value - The paper is a study in which it is shown how authors understand other authors. This is an example that is rarely seen. Both possibilities and problems are discussed with vagueness to Senge’s many faces. This is not very common. A special case of the translation model is developed (the "smorgasbord model"), better suited to deal with the type of idea that focuses on copying of excerpts from a specific book than the traditional translation model (the "whispering game model").

  • 2082.
    Örtenblad, Anders
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    The learning organization: towards an integrated model2004Ingår i: Learning Organization, ISSN 0969-6474, E-ISSN 1758-7905, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 129-144Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an integrated model of the learning organization. It is based on empirical research of the learning organization literature, as well as on practitioners' understandings of the concept where learning organizations were often described in terms of four distinct individual aspects, no more and no less. This article argues these aspects cannot be treated as separate, and that the four aspects have to be combined in order to create a true learning organization. The four aspects are: learning at work; organizational learning; developing a learning climate; and creating learning structures. The article suggests that only those organizations that have implemented all of the aspects should be called ‚"learning organizations", and those organizations that have implemented only one aspect should be called "partial learning organizations"

  • 2083.
    Örtenblad, Anders
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Toward a contingency model of how to choose the right type of learning organization2004Ingår i: Human Resource Development Quarterly, ISSN 1044-8004, E-ISSN 1532-1096, Vol. 15, nr 3, s. 347-350Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The learning organization is in itself a vague idea, and many argue that the idea must be adapted to each single organization and its particular needs before it can be implemented. There is very little guidance, though, on how to adapt the (vague) idea. This forum piece therefore tentatively suggests a contextual model of how to choose the right type of learning organization, among four types. It also suggests some areas where research is needed in order to develop the model further.

  • 2084.
    Örtenblad, Anders
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Vague and Attractive: Five Explanations of the Use of Ambiguous Management Ideas2005Ingår i: Philosophy of Management, ISSN 1740-3812, E-ISSN 2052-9597, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 45-54Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews the literature on the diffusion and popularity of vague management ideas. Is it the vagueness in itself that makes them so popular, or are there other explanations? Five possible explanations for the attraction of ambiguous management ideas are suggested: (i) concretising; (ii) symbolic legitimisation; (iii) seduction; (iv) unknown use; and (v) challenge. Some of the explanations are explicitly suggested in the literature, whereas others are explanations offered by the present author on the basis of a review of the literature. The five explanations are categorised according to the level of consciousness of the use of vague ideas among the users, and according to whether the ideas are implemented in actual practice or used only in talk. The present paper also discusses what management researchers could do to help those who use vague management ideas. © 2005, Springer International Publishing AG.

  • 2085.
    Örtengren, Sofia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Gidlund, Alexander
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Riskhantering i infrastrukturprojektet Varbergstunneln2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet är att beskriva och analysera riskhantering av projektrisker och finansiella risker i infrastrukturprojektet Varbergstunneln under planeringsfasen där två aktörer har studerats, Trafikverket och Varbergs kommunala verksamhet, och deras perspektiv på riskhantering och hur dessa aktörers perspektiv skiljer sig åt för att få förståelse för hur olika typer av risker och aktörer riskhanterar utifrån deras perspektiv i ett infrastrukturprojekt.

    Bakgrund och problem: Trafikverkets uppgift är att se till att tågen kommer i tid, transporter sker så säkert som möjligt och med minsta möjliga miljöpåverkan. Tillsammans med andra aktörer ska de se till att den bästa möjliga samhällsnyttan skapas för pengarna. Den 21 mars 2013 kom regeringens tillåtlighetsbeslut för delprojektet genom Varberg för att bygga ut järnvägen från enkelspårig till dubbelspårig. Detta är en av de största utmaningarna i Varbergs kommun där den kommunala och den statliga planeringen måste gå hand i hand. Det finns stora risker kopplat till infrastrukturprojekt men det finns också stor möjlighet till samhällsekonomisk lönsamhet. Att identifiera risker kräver ett generellt tillvägagångsätt eftersom att individer inte innehar all den informationen som krävs för att veta vart alla diverse risker befinner sig i verksamheten. Problemet med riskvärdering är att kunskapen om vilka som påverkar vid tunnelprojekt är knappa. Verksamheter behöver hantera risker och verksamheter som inte gör det är mer sårbara om de ignorerar risk, betraktar risk som deras fiende eller endast planerar för en enda framtid.

    Forskningsfråga: Hur utförs riskhantering av projektrisker och finansiella risker i infrastrukturprojektet Varbergstunneln under planeringsfasen?

    Metod: Den här uppsatsen är en kvalitativ studie där vi som författare har använt en induktiv ansats. Empirin har samlats in från tre olika intervjuer kopplat till Varbergstunneln. 

    Resultat: Den största skillnaden mellan aktörerna är omfattningen av riskhanteringen och hur de metodiskt arbetar. Trafikverket genomför ett mycket större riskhanteringsarbete än Varbergs kommunala verksamhet. Riskidentifieringen är mer likartat mellan aktörerna, skillnaden är hur de metodiskt arbetar. Riskvärderingen är kvalitativ hos Trafikverket och kvantitativt hos Varbergs kommunala verksamhet. Hantering av risk genomförs inte på något metodiskt sätt hos Varbergs kommunala verksamhet, det enda som hanteras är ränterisker medan Trafikverket hanterar alla risker och genomför detta på ett metodiskt sätt.

    Slutsats: Riskhanteringen utförs på olika sätt beroende på vilket perspektiv aktören har och vilken typ av risk som riskhanteras. Riskhanteringen kan vara antingen metodisk eller icke-metodisk. Vår uppfattning är att detta beror på aktörens ansvar och hur komplicerat riskhanteringen är för aktören. Vilket perspektiv aktören har anser vi påverka om aktören är långsiktig eller kortsiktig. Trafikverket ska endast bli klar med projekteringen av tunneln medan Varbergs kommunala verksamhet ska leva med den i generationer framöver.

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