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  • 201.
    Blomkvist, Marita
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Hansson, Agneta
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Ulvenblad, Pia
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Lindholm Dahlstrand, Åsa
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Gendered structures in academic entrepreneurship and innovation – A development towards world-class standard in educational programmes in Sweden2010Inngår i: VIII Triple Helix International Conference on University, Industry and Government Linkages: Book of abstracts / [ed] Marcelo Amaral, Ilana Sender, Manuel Cendoya, Rafael Zaballa, 2010, s. 35-35Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An integration of activities such as incubators, technology transfer, student and alumni organisations etc related to entrepreneurship education is seen as promoting economic development and innovativeness in many parts of the world. This way of creating systems for entrepreneurship development has also recently been focused in Sweden. As a result of Swedish Government's ambition to stimulate growth economy, university entrepreneurship education program spring up all over the country in order to promote students' entrepreneurship.From previous research we know that the infrastructure has an impact for entrepreneurship (Delatte & Baytos, 1993; Hannon, 2003; Rosa & Dawson, 2006, Xu, 2010). The structure relates to the number of individuals in the management structure and the role the individual has in the management structure such as member of the board or manager. It also refers to characteristics of the individuals involved in the management such as diversity, gender, age, education competence and previous experience (Rosa & Dawson, 2006). Further, it has been shown that managers are important since a lack of role models have been shown to have an impact for both female entrepreneurs and female managers in decisions of starting and/or managing a business (Crampton & Mishra, 1999; Mattis, 2004). However, public and private initiatives aimed to support business development usually are following a gender blind norm both in the way it is presented, for example regarding language and psychological accessibility, and considering the fields pointed out. Research shows that women don't feel themselves addressed by these initiatives or that it concerns them (NUTEK, 2001; NUTEK, R 2007:34).Swedish Government recently challenged to higher education institutions to apply for finance to a development towards world- class standard in educational programmes in entrepreneurship and innovation (Prop. 2008/2009:1/16). The invitation was directed to higher education institutions that already run advanced studies in entrepreneurship and innovation and that also have a strong connection to research in the same area. Swedish National Agency for Higher Education was commissioned by the Government to examine the applications and invited a panel of international academic experts to asses the applications. Eleven applications were submitted from higher education institutions in the field of entrepreneurship and innovation. Four of the eleven institutions which applied where recommended by the panel of experts and these institutions were further ranked and recommended by Swedish National Agency for Higher Education to the University Chancellor. Two of these institutions were finally selected to be financed by the Swedish Government.This paper focuses on these eleven applications and the review process. The aim of the paper is to analyze and illustrate in what way the applications as well as the review process is gendered for example in terms of discourse and symbols in relation to educational setting, organizational structure, infrastructure, education management, education team assigned and branches of industry (Acker, 1992; Bruni, Gherardi & Poggio, 2005; Gunnarsson, Westberg, Andersson & Balkmar, 2007). We expect to find how gender is mirrored in these highly ranked applications and what impact the presence or absence of a gender focus will have for entrepreneurship and innovation education.

  • 202.
    Blomkvist, Marita
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN). Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Malmström, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Accounting Knowledge in Innovative Firms – Direct Contacts with Auditors for Strategic Actions2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Managers’ use of auditors in decision processes are well known in the accounting literature but little is known on managers in innovative firms and their acquisition of accounting knowledge through direct contacts with auditors. We conducted a multiple embedded study of exploratory character based on 19 interviews with managers and auditors connected to six innovative firms. We show that managers in innovative firms apply informal management control in early phases and thus also rely to a high extent on external auditors for such purposes. Management acquisition of accounting knowledge may however stepwise contribute to a more formalized control system as management competence increase. This study suggests that competence based view may be useful for understanding the role of accounting and auditors.

  • 203.
    Blomkvist, Marita
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL). Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Malmström, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Accounting knowledge in innovative firms - Direct contacts with external auditors for strategic actions2016Inngår i: International Journal of Managerial and Financial Accounting, ISSN 1753-6715, E-ISSN 1753-6723, Vol. 8, nr 3-4, s. 209-229Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Managers’ use of auditors in decision processes is well known in the accounting literature, but little is known about owner-managers in innovative firms and their acquisition of accounting knowledge through direct contacts with external auditors. We conducted a multiple embedded study of exploratory character based on 21 interviews with owner-managers and external auditors connected to six innovative firms. We show that owner-managers in innovative firms apply informal management control in early phases of the innovation process and thus also rely heavily on external auditors for such purposes. However, management’s acquisition of accounting knowledge may contribute over time to the development of a more formalised control system as their competence increases. This study suggests that a competence-based view may be useful for understanding the role of accounting and external auditors in innovative firms’ management control systems. Copyright © 2016 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  • 204.
    Blomkvist, Marita
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Rodgers, Waymond
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL). University of Texas el Paso, El Paso, Texas, United States.
    Examining Entrepreneurs' Knowledge Based View of the Firm: lnfluencing financial information in innovative activities2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on knowledge management and entrepreneurs’ perceptions in terms of knowledge sharing, the use of financial statement information and how these impact on their strategic business judgments and decision choices in innovative SME firms. Using a strategic decision making process model we test our assumptions regarding entrepreneurs´ knowledge routines implemented by non-Gazelle companies in strategic business decision. Combining survey data and financial data from a unique archival database we test our propositions on Swedish SMEs. The results of the structural equation analysis implied that non-Gazelle companies are propelled primarily by non-financial information captured by the expertise of managers and investors. Traditional financial information does not include entrepreneurs´ decision making however, the results indicate that entrepreneurs risk awareness is reported as a part of the frame why entrepreneurs´ make decisions.

  • 205.
    Blomkvist, Marita
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Paananen, Mari
    Brunel University, London, United Kingdom.
    The cost of debt implications of financial reporting quality among privately owned Swedish SMEs2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a unique database and manually collected data we analyse and document accounting choices made by Swedish SMEs between 2005 and 2008. We find that given an option to report under Swedish GAAP or a translation of IFRS (SFASC/IFRS), only 5 firms out of 1,500 opted to do so. Further analysis of choices of picking individual standards of SFASC/IFRS shows no significant difference across Gazelles and Non-Gazelles. Among firms that select individual SFASC/IFRS standards most opt to use the percentage-of-completion method for long-term contracts. We also investigate differences in quality of financial reporting across Gazelles and Non-Gazelles and find that the financial reporting quality is consistently higher among Gazelles compared to Non-Gazelles. Test of cost of debt implications show that creditors find Gazelles’ financial reporting more useful to assess the credit risk resulting in lower cost of debt for this group of firms. Thus, SMEs seem to have little incentive to switch to SFASC/IFRS, which may be an indication of their attitude to future adoption of IFRS for SMEs as well. Furthermore, the results suggest that SMEs with an incentive to produce high quality financial reporting to raise capital, Gazelles, are able to do so using Swedish GAAP. These findings raise the question whether the IFRS for SMEs project is worthwhile.

  • 206.
    Blomkvist, Marita
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Paananen, Mari
    Business School University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom.
    The Cost of Debt Implications of Information Environment Choices Among Privately Owned Swedish Small and Mid-Sized Companies2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate improvements of the information environment and cost of debt implications. Capturing choices of accounting standards, auditor quality, and board size reflecting improvements of the information environment we find that the need of financing triggers an improvement, the most common actions are to switch to more qualified accountants and add board members. Improvements of the environment result in a reduction of cost of debt. Tests show that increasing audit quality decrease cost of debt. This is relevant to the discussion on accounting regulation for private firms among U.S. and European policy-makers showing that stakeholders do not demand valuation-oriented accounting.

  • 207.
    Blomkvist, Marita
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Paananen, Mari
    University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom.
    The impact of managers´participating in the year-end accounting process on accounting quality and cost of debt among Swedish privately owned Gazelles2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a combination of survey data and unique archival databases we investigate the impact of managers´ participation in the year-end accounting process on the quality of financial reporting and cost of debt among Swedish privately owned Gazelles (rapidly growing firms) compared to Non-Gazelles. We find that managers of Gazelles are more prone to participate in the year-end accounting process compared to Non-Gazelles. Further, we find weak evidence that Gazelles produce higher quality financial reports (in terms of conservatism). Further, our results indicate that Gazelles experience lower cost of debt, though this is not statistically significant. We also find that private firms manage earnings to a greater extent the smaller they are and that the cost of debt systematically decreases with size for groups of firms.

  • 208.
    Blomkvist, Marita
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Ulvenblad, Pia
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Hansson, Agneta
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Is there a structural “glass ceiling” hindering women on the business incubator arena? – A study of Swedish business incubators web sites2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper seeks to explore if there is an indication of a structural “glass ceiling” hindering women within business support environments. By analyzing 44 Swedish incubators’ web sites from four different perspectives, the study wants to describe and discuss the particular way gender seem to be structured in incubators’ organisations. The results reveal that there is a male dominance in the incubators’ organisations. The criteria for becoming an entrepreneur in the incubator such as characteristics are subtle. It can be assumed that hidden gender structures can prevent female entrepreneurs from entering the incubator.

  • 209.
    Bohlin, Sofia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Inha, Eini
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Book review: Tools and concepts for strategic decision making on Market Intelligence2017Student paper other, 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 210.
    Bohlin, Sofia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Inha, Eini
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Market Intelligence: A literature review2017Student paper other, 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to provide insights of market intelligence and answer to the question “What is market intelligence?” by reviewing existing literature of market intelligence. This study also aims to investigate the connection between market intelligence and Game theory, which is believed by the authors to create the foundation for market intelligence studies. The search of relevant material for this literature review was conducted by using the databases of Halmstad University and Google Scholar. Due to the lack of literature on market intelligence as an overall theory, also other literature, such as books, were utilized besides the articles. This study recognizes six theoretical connections based on the reviewed literature and Game theory. Also, a general definition of market intelligence was recognized as a result of the literature review.

  • 211.
    Bohlin, Sofia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Inha, Eini
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Motivation as success factor for Entrepreneurs in rural areas of Sweden.: Case: Fotfavoriten AB, Nipsoft AB & Mickes Måleri i Ådalen AB2017Student paper other, 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to answer to a research question: “How does the entrepreneur’s motivation affect the success of the company in rural areas?” The theoretical framework conducted for this study discusses rural entrepreneurship and motivation as a success factor. Relevant material for this study is gathered by utilizing the databases of Halmstad university and Google Scholar. A case study approach is used and academic literature on the topic is reviewed. Different motivational factors of entrepreneurs in rural areas were identified based on this study. Further studies in this field is encouraged to strengthen this topic and/or provide with other aspects missing in this research due to limitations.

  • 212.
    Bohlin, Sofia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Inha, Eini
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Review Article: Development of innovation products by using Kano model2017Student paper other, 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this review is to provide insights to the usage of Kano-model and innovation product development, and at the same time, answer to the research question “How customer needs can be identified by using Kano-model for innovation product development?” The research is conducted by reviewing existing literature on Kano- model and innovation product development (IPD). The relevant literature used for this research is conducted by utilizing the databases of Halmstad University and Google Scholar. A model for customer needs identification by using Kano model for Innovation Product Development (IPD) was constructed based on the reviewed theories. In addition, a general recognition for the term of IPD was acknowledged.

  • 213.
    Borgström, Karin Margaretha
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Determination of the thermal conductivity of the insulation in district heating mains: Field measurements1994Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns the development of a measurement method for determination in the field of the thermal conductivity of the insulation in buried district heating mains.

    The thermal conductivity of the insulation is calculated from the measured value of the radial heat flow through the heating main, the measured temperature difference across the insulation, and the dimensions of the heating main. The heat flow has been measured with a heat flux sensor which was fitted to the surface of the casing. The temperature has been measured with copper/constantan thermocouples.

    It is a necessary condition for the method used in the project for determination of the thermal conductivity of the heating main insulation that the heating main is uncovered and is not in contact with the surrounding soil over a distance of about 1.5 m and that the measurements are made directly on the heating main. In this way, no account need be taken of the material surrounding the heating main, nor of the effect of this material on the measurements. No interference is needed with the heating main which would affect the distribution of the district heating water, and the heating main can remain in operation during measurements.

    Shielding insulation consisting of preformed insulation sections which were placed over the casing of the heating main and covered the heat flux sensor and some of the casing. The function of this insulation was to shield the heat flux sensor from external thermal disturbances. In the field measurements, a copper guard plate of 0.5 mm thickness, the temperature of which could be adjusted, was also placed over the shielding insulation in order to maintain the temperature on the heat flux sensor as constant as possible.

    When temperature and heat flow are measured, the instruments used will be affected by conditions which prevail at the time of measurement. It is therefore very important to analyse the sources of error which may arise in the measuring situation at hand.

    The effect of these factors on the measured values has been studied by

    ' laboratory measurements

    ' theoretical calculations

    ' field measurements

    On the basis of the resulting values of heat flows and temperatures obtained in field measurements on plastic heating mains which were operating under normal conditions, the thermal conductivity of the insulation of the main has been estimated.

    The method has been tested on plastic heating mains with directly foamed insulation, since this is the most common type of heating main both in the existing district heating network and in new construction. The measuring method can also be used on other circular heating mains.

     

  • 214.
    Borgström, Karin Margaretha
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Effects of energy saving actions in reconstruction: An evaluation of dwellings built in the period 1965-74 - proposal2003Inngår i: Construction economics and organization: Proceedings of the 3rd Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organization, 23-24 April 2003, Lund, Sweden / [ed] Bengt Hansson & Anne Landin, Lund: Division of Construction Management, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund University , 2003, s. 91-95Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 215.
    Borgström, Karin Margaretha
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Effects of Energy Saving Measures at Renovation2008Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2008 World Sustainable Building Conference: world SB08 Convention Centre 21-25 September 2008 / [ed] Greg Foliente et al, Balnarring, Vic.: ASN Events Pty , 2008, s. 441-444Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the necessity of having knowledge about different energy saving measures when renovations and reconstructions are planned and designed. It is also of great importance to have routines to follow up what effects the actions taken have had on the energy consumption as well as on the indoor climate when the renovation is completed. A big part of the existing buildings in Sweden are built during a ten-year period between 1965 and 1974. When these buildings are to be renovated there is a great potential for energy saving.

  • 216.
    Borgström, Karin Margaretha
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Energy efficiency in buildings after renovation2005Inngår i: Proceedings of the International Conference Sustainable Building 2005 SB05, Tokyo, 2005, s. 326-331Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 217.
    Borgström, Karin Margaretha
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Energy Efficiency in Buildings with a Good Indoor Climate: An Evaluation of Actions Taken at Reconstruction2006Inngår i: Proceedings of Healthy buildings 2006: Vol. 1 : Indoor air quality (IAQ), building related diseases and human response, Lisboa: Lisboa Institute of Mechanical Engineering (IDMEC) , 2006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 218.
    Borgström, Karin Margaretha
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Böhm, Benny
    A comparison of different methods for in-situ determination of heat losses from district heating pipes1996Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the IEA Network Supervision project a special method, the Tx-factor method, is investigated. Several other methods exist for in-situ heat loss determination from district heating (DH) pipes. These methods have advantages and disadvantages compared to the Tx-factor method. It is the purpose of this work to make a comparison of the methods on a particular DH pipe. This makes this investigation special as in most previous work only one or very few methods have been applied on the same DH pipe. The purpose of this work was thus to go out to the site and make measurements of the heat loss from the DH pipe at this particular time of the year - an estimate of annual heat losses could then to be made afterwards. The aim of this work being to develop methods for practical applications not very sophisticated tools were used at the experimental site. This means that although very advanced equipment could have been used for determining the centre line and the depth of the DH pipe only measurement sticks, water levels and strings were used. For the same reasons the temperature sensors were installed by using measurement sticks

  • 219.
    Borgström, Karin Margaretha
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Böhm, Benny
    Technical University of Denmark.
    A method for using thermistors to measure thermal conductivity1996Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents some measurements for determining thermal conductivity in different materials, using a single thermistor. This thermal conductivity measurement technique is appropriate for materials like fine-grained soils, gel-like materials such as silicon grease, and insulation materials. To verify the usefulness of this method, additional measurements are needed for several materials with well-known thermal conductivities, especially solid materials with thermal conductivity in the range of 0.5-2.5 W/m C.

  • 220.
    Borgström, Karin Margaretha
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Werner, Sven
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS).
    Distribution of heat use in Sweden2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The current heat use refers normally to the average heat use in a country or a sector during the course of a year. But it is also important to be aware of the distribution of high to low use when estimating the potential for reducing total heat use.Energy statistical data published in the annual report from Statistics Sweden have been supplemented by a deeper analysis of distribution of heat use and systematic causes regarding high heat use.The aim of this paper is to explain the variation in heat use with respect to construction year, degree days and energy efficiency measures.In the Swedish energy efficiency debate, many voices refer to systematic causes for high heat use. However, the results from this study do not support this opinion, since the use distribution mostly comes from individual causes. The most important implication of the study results is that systematic policy measures will have a low impact on the total national energy efficiency.

  • 221.
    Broberg, Pernilla
    et al.
    Department of Business Administration, School of Economics and Management, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Tagesson, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Collin, Sven-Olof
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    What explains variation in voluntary disclosure?: A study of the annual reports of corporations listed on the Stockholm Stock Exchange2010Inngår i: Journal of Management and Governance, ISSN 1385-3457, E-ISSN 1572-963X, Vol. 14, nr 4, s. 351-377Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for information and transparency from listed corporations has recently increased. In spite of an increased demand for mandatory disclosures from regulators, corporations choose to voluntarily disclose additional information in order to satisfy demands from the capital market. However, the extent and content of information in those voluntary disclosures vary across corporations. The aim of this study is to explain the variation in the content of information in voluntary disclosures by listed corporations. The analyses are based on data collected from 431 annual reports from corporations listed on the Stockholm Stock Exchange during the years 2002 and 2005. The findings support explanations from agency theory and positive accounting theory that size and the debt ratio are positively correlated with the content of information in voluntary disclosures. Corporations with a high share of management ownership disclosed less information than corporations with a low share of management ownership. The study also shows that variations in voluntary disclosures can be explained by factors derived from institutional theory and ’international capital market pressures’. The results indicate that foreign ownership and international listing to some extent have a positive effect on the content of information in voluntary disclosures. Industry was another factor that had a significant influence on voluntary disclosures. One important finding is that regulation to some extent can stimulate voluntary disclosures; our results did not indicate an ’unintended chilling effect’ due to too much regulation. In general, the corporations disclosed more voluntary information after the introduction of IFRS. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  • 222.
    Brundin, Ethel
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Florén, Henrik
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Tell, Joakim
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    The behavioral complexity of small firm entrepreneurs and the relation to firm performance: A framework2007Inngår i: Proceedings of the 4th International AGSE Entrepreneurship Research Exchange / [ed] L. Murray Gillin, 2007Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 223.
    Callaghan, Michael
    et al.
    Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    Lee, Tzong-Ru
    National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan.
    Donmez, Dilek
    Gokceada Vocational School, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Canakkale, Turkey.
    Ulgen Aydinlik, Arzu
    Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Svensson, Göran
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER). Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wood, Greg
    Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    Implementation, communication and the benefits of corporate codes of ethics in Taiwan and Turkey: A comparison across contexts2009Inngår i: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 278-298Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the corporate codes of ethics (CCE) that are put in place by companies in Taiwan and Turkey.

    Design/methodology/approach – This study examines the use of CCE among the top companies in Taiwan and Turkey. It is a replication of a study performed in Australia, Canada and Sweden and a follow-up study.

    Findings – The empirical findings show many similarities with top companies in Australia, Canada and Sweden, but more importantly identify key differences distinctly unique to each of the two countries under investigation. Statistical analysis suggests that the implementation, communication and benefits of CCE are paramount to Turkish companies operating in a domestic environment where the aspiration to participate globally and join the European Union is high, whereas in Taiwan it is low in favor of more traditional business practices (similar to the Chinese concept of guanxi) that focus on individual relationships in favor of formalized regulatory frameworks (such as CCE).

    Originality/value – This study makes a complementary contribution to the accumulated knowledge in the area of CCE, particularly given the cultural and historical differences these countries possess in comparison to each other and those previously studied and documented in the literature.

  • 224.
    Callaghan, Michael
    et al.
    Deakin University, Geelong, Vic, Australia.
    Wood, Greg
    Deakin University, Geelong, Vic, Australia.
    Svensson, Göran
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Singh, Jang
    University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, Canada.
    Andersson, Svante
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Codes of ethics artifacts in Australia, Canada and Sweden: A longitudinal study2013Inngår i: Looking Forward, Looking Back: Drawing on the Past to Shape the Future of Marketing: Proceedings of The 16th Biennial World Marketing Congress / [ed] Colin Campbell & Junzhao (Jonathon) Ma, Ruston, LA: Academy of Marketing Science , 2013, s. 108-108Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the Partnership Model of Corporate Ethics (Wood 2002), this longitudinal study examined the measures in place to communicate the ethos of the corporate codes of ethics to internal stakeholders in three countries: Australia, Canada and Sweden. This paper reports the comparative codification of ethics amongst the top companies in these countries over three time periods: 2001-2002, 2005-2006 and 2010-2011.

  • 225.
    Campbell, Derek
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Danilovic, Mike
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Halila, Fawzi
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Hoveskog, Maya
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The Clash of Business Models in Emerging Economies: The Case of Wind Energy Industry in Africa2013Inngår i: The International Journal of Management Science and Information Technology, ISSN 1923-0265, nr 10, s. 10-50Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With the rise of emerging economy EE as main engine of global growth, the intensified competition in the wind energy industry and internationalization to EE, enterprises need to rethink and innovate their business models in order to succeed. The overall purpose of this article is to increase our understanding of the drivers of business model innovation (BMI) in EE, particularly in the wind energy industry. Qualitative, multi-case design is applied, where three cases within the wind energy industry in Africa are studied - Siemens (Germany), Suzlon (India) and Goldwind (China). The results show that there is a difference between “Developed-country Multinational Enterprises” (DMNEs), such as Siemens, and “Emerging-country Multinational Enterprises”, such as Suzlon and Goldwind, in the way they approach BMI in EE. To gain a competitive advantage in EE requires capabilities to deal with the specific EE-related drivers of change: 1) fast growth and high demand combined with high uncertainty; 2) lower level of market-oriented socioeconomic development; 3) stronger governmental influence on the market; and 4) the need for simple, cheap and easy to maintain technologies. Therefore, it is important that managers position their enterprises in the EE first as local players and only then as multinationals. Our study indicates that future research should focus on the main elements and the drivers of change that would shape BMI by adding new variables, specifically related to EE.

  • 226.
    Cederholm Björklund, Jennie
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap. The Rural Economy and Agricultural Society, Eldsberga, Sweden.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL). Luleå university of technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Under the surface of the agricultural entrepreneurial support ecosystems: Through the lens of Complexity leadership theory2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 227.
    Cederholm Björklund, Jennie
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap. The Rural Economy and Agricultural Society, Eldsberga, Sweden.
    Ståhl, Jenny
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Perceptions of Barriers to Business Development in Swedish Agriculture2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 228.
    Chen, Le
    et al.
    Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.
    Manley, Karen
    Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.
    Lewis, Joanne
    Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.
    Helfer, Fernanda
    School of Engineering, Griffith University, Nathan, Australia.
    Widén, Kristian
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Procurement and Governance Choices for Collaborative Infrastructure Projects2018Inngår i: Journal of construction engineering and management, ISSN 0733-9364, E-ISSN 1943-7862, Vol. 144, nr 8, artikkel-id 04018071Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaborative approaches to infrastructure procurement are increasingly popular around the world due to their potential to provide improved project performance compared with more traditional approaches. The problem is that project outcomes continue to be unpredictable. Previous research has shown that this is the case regardless of whether the chosen procurement approach is based on price or non price selection of the project team. This is a major choice that clients make, but the presented research shows that governance choices for project execution are more important. This is significant because clients tend to focus more on procurement choices and typically do not differentiate governance based on those choices. This needs to change, and the authors show that optimal governance configurations vary on the basis of the chosen type of team configuration. For example, three specific governance arrangements for workshops are highlighted for single teams, and two specific governance arrangements for risk/reward sharing are highlighted for multiple teams. This study identifies governance actions that are associated with superior time and cost outcomes on collaborative infrastructure projects in Australia run by experienced public-sector clients under the two procurement scenarios. Based on a survey of 320 senior managers, independent sample t-tests were conducted to compare the application of governance actions among three distinct groups of projects, based on type of team selection and type of project outcome. The study provides evidence of the most effective approaches to project governance in a country that is a world leader. The results provide much needed recommendations for improved project performance based on large-scale quantitative analysis, which before now has not existed. Overall, the study recommends more attention be paid to noncontractual governance under both approaches to team selection, although the specific actions recommended vary. © 2018 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  • 229.
    Chhotray, Soma
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Sivertsson, Olof
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Tell, Joakim
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    The Roles of Leadership, Vision, and Empowerment in Born Global Companies2018Inngår i: Journal of International Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1570-7385, E-ISSN 1573-7349, Vol. 16, nr 1, s. 38-57Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the roles of leadership, vision, and empowerment in two Swedish born global companies. Using case studies and interviews with employees and managers, the article examines how managers can lead their companies by creating a vision and empowering their employees. The findings indicate that a company vision should reflect a culture that supports the employees’ daily activities and decisions. A leadership style that features delegation of responsibility and recognition of employee work autonomy empowers employees in a way that can advance the development and internationalization of the born global company, especially in situations when top managers are often away from company headquarters. © 2017 The Author(s)

  • 230.
    Chibba, Aron
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Maskinteknisk produktframtagning (MTEK).
    Rundquist, Jonas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Effective Information Flow in the Internal Supply Chain: Results from a snowball method to map information flows2009Inngår i: Journal of Information & Knowledge Management, ISSN 0219-6492, E-ISSN 1793-6926, Vol. 8, nr 4, s. 331-343Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Information sharing is an important factor for effectiveness within the internal supply chain. In this paper we use a methodology for mapping information flows in an internal supply chain, and case studies in two Swedish multinational organizations. Eight retrospective cases were used to map, describe and analyze the information flow that supports the physical material flow from the receipt of an order to point of delivery. Every involved person was interviewed on at least one occasion each. The interviews were conducted to map and describe the information and physical material flow. The aim was to identify factors that could improve and rationalise information flows and generate a better flow within the organization.

    The study shows the importance of an integrated information system, but also clearly indicates the importance of a collaborative culture and an awareness of the human-technology interface. The study also shows that three factors of interface distortions are most frequent in the cases: (1) changes registered in the database trigger no action among the staff, (2) new knowledge to staff is stored only orally and not in the database, and (3) interface between the paper system and the database, and between the old and the new information storage culture.

  • 231.
    Collin, Sven-Olof
    et al.
    Dept. of Business Administration, Lund University, P.O. Box 7080, S-220 07 Lund, Sweden.
    Johansson, Ulf
    Dept. of Business Administration, Lund University, P.O. Box 7080, S-220 07 Lund, Sweden.
    Svensson, Katarina
    Dept. of Business Administration, Lund University, P.O. Box 7080, S-220 07 Lund, Sweden.
    Ulvenblad, Per-Ola
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Market Segmentation in Scientific Publications: Research Patterns in American vs European Management Journals1996Inngår i: British Journal of Management, ISSN 1045-3172, E-ISSN 1467-8551, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 141-154Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ideal science should conform to certain criteria or goals, among them the goals of universalism and commonality. Realization of these goals may be limited, however, through the dividing up of researchers in terms of geographical borders. In this study the general hypothesis is tested that there is a segmentation of the society of management researchers into a North American (US) and a European (E) segment, a segmentation which is furthered by differences in incentive schemes and in paradigms. Four leading management journals from North America and from Europe, respectively, and the 242 articles they contained published in 1993 were selected to represent the different geographical segments. The results provide: support for the existence of two such segments; support for differences in incentive schemes influencing the articles; support for their being paradigm differences between the two segments; and support for a paradigm effect being stronger in US-journals than in E-journals, US-authors are more willing, however, to conform to the E-paradigm than vice versa. We argue for methodological pragmatism in order to reduce the presumed counter-productive effects of paradigmatic rigidity.

  • 232.
    Collin, Sven-Olof Yrjö
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    The Boards Functional Emphasis: A Contingency Approach2008Inngår i: Corporate Ownership & Control, ISSN 1727-9232, E-ISSN 1810-3057, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 73-88Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The understanding of the board of a corporation and its behavior is limited, despite the board’s societal importance. We present a contingency approach to the board’s functional emphasis, considering a fourth function in addition to monitoring, decision making, and service or resource provision. The additional function is conflict resolution (or principal identification). The approach contrasts with mainstream research by assuming that the firm is a nexus of investments, avoiding the empirical assumption that the shareholder is the sole principal. We derive propositions that are not restricted to any empirical category of a corporation, and address praxis implications for managing functional disharmony.

  • 233.
    Collin, Sven-Olof Yrjö
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    The boards functional emphasis a contingency approach2008Inngår i: Corporate Board: Role, Duties & Composition, ISSN 1810-8601, E-ISSN 2312-2722, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 24-39Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The understanding of the board of a corporation and its behavior is limited, despite the board’s societal importance. We present a contingency approach to the board’s functional emphasis, considering a fourth function in addition to monitoring, decision making, and service or resource provision. The additional function is conflict resolution (or principal identification). The approach contrasts with mainstream research by assuming that the firm is a nexus of investments, avoiding the empirical assumption that the shareholder is the sole principal. We derive propositions that are not restricted to any empirical category of a corporation, and address praxis implications for managing functional disharmony. © 2008 Virtus Interpress.

  • 234.
    Collin, Sven-Olof Yrjö
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Governance, Accounting and Development (GAD).
    Tagesson, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Governance, Accounting and Development (GAD).
    Governance Strategies in local government: A study of the governance of municipal corporations in a Swedish municipality2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Municipal corporations can be seen as a method of disintegrating municipal operations but retaining control through those corporations. We assume that the municipal influence of the corporation can be described through the concept of governance strategy. Through a case study of seven corporations in one Swedish municipality, we found that emphasis was put on corporate strategy as a governance mechanism and that the board only retained a latent capacity. Furthermore, financial control and executive compensation were hardly ever used as a governance mechanism, which led us to formulate the ‘chamber concert’ hypothesis: The use of governance mechanisms is influenced by traditions, norms, knowledge, and governance needs.

  • 235.
    Collin, Sven-Olof Yrjö
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Tagesson, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Governance strategies in local government: a study of the governance of municipal corporations in a Swedish municipality2010Inngår i: International Journal of Public Policy, ISSN 1740-0600, E-ISSN 1740-0619, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 373-389Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Municipal corporations can be seen as a method of disintegrating municipal operations, but retaining control through those corporations. We assume that the municipal influence of the corporation can be described through the concept of governance strategy. Through a case study of seven corporations in one Swedish municipality, we found that emphasis was put on corporate strategy as a governance mechanism and that the board only retained a latent capacity. Furthermore, financial control and executive compensation were hardly ever used as governance mechanisms, which led us to formulate the ’chamber concert’ hypothesis: the use of governance mechanisms is influenced by traditions, norms, knowledge and governance needs. Copyright © 2010 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  • 236.
    Collin, Sven-Olof Yrjö
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Governance, Accounting and Development (GAD).
    Tagesson, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Governance, Accounting and Development (GAD).
    Andersson, A.
    Department of Business Studies, Kristianstad University College, SE-291 88 Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Cato, J.
    Department of Business Studies, Kristianstad University College, SE-291 88 Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Hansson, K.
    Department of Business Studies, Kristianstad University College, SE-291 88 Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Explaining the choice of accounting standards in municipal corporations: Positive accounting theory and institutional theory as competitive or concurrent theories2009Inngår i: Critical Perspectives on Accounting, ISSN 1045-2354, E-ISSN 1095-9955, Vol. 20, nr 2, s. 141-174Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Municipal corporations exist in an institutional twilight area, being both private and public, a characteristic, which presumably would be reflected in their choice of accounting standards. The literature of accounting choice does not, however, live in a twilight area, but is fragmented into two main divisions: positive accounting theory (PAT) and institutional theory (IT); only in a very few cases do the theories meet or cross-fertilize. We use both theories in this paper and derive hypotheses from them to explain accounting choices made by municipal corporations. Through testing the hypotheses on a sample of 545 Swedish municipal corporations, we indicate the empirical relevance of both PAT and IT. We conclude by suggesting an integrative approach of PAT and IT in an eclectic alternative. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 237.
    Collin, Sven-Olof Yrjö
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Governance, Accounting and Development (GAD).
    Umans, Timurs
    Centre for Business Studies, School of Health and Society, Kristianstad University, Sweden.
    Turnover and heterogeneity in top management networks: A demographic analysis of two Swedish business groups2008Inngår i: International Journal of Business Science and Applied Management, ISSN 1753-0296, E-ISSN 1753-0296, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 31-55Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A theory based on the demography of top management teams is used to explain membership turnover in two Swedish business groups, network analysis being used to define group membership. The results suggest these business groups possess a combination of financial and industrial experience as a group resource and the socialising strategy of control as a force counteracting the conflict-producing force of heterogeneity. An organisational demographic perspective focusing on opposing forces of heterogeneity and homogeneity is developed. It is shown that the perspective can be applied both to formal organisations and to informal ones such as networks.

  • 238.
    Correa da Cunha, Henrique
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Asymmetry and the moderating effects of formal institutional distance on the relationship between cultural distance and performance of foreign subsidiaries in Latin America2019Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how Cultural and Formal Institutional distances and their interaction affect the performance of multinational foreign subsidiaries in Latin America. It is shown that using Kogut and Singh (1988) index or attributing the positive and negative signals to distances in opposite directions fail to capture asymmetric effects as it assumes either symmetry or opposing symmetry. To overcome such limitations, I propose an alternative measurement, which allows capturing the asymmetric effects of distances on the performance of foreign subsidiary firms. To test the main research question, I run a panel data model including 1466 subsidiaries, being 1216 from developed and 250 from developing countries, totaling 168 combinations of different home and host countries for a period ranging from 2013 to 2015.Cultural Distance is measured using Hofstede (1980) dimensions and Formal Institutional distances are calculated using the six World Governance Indicator’s variables. Findings show that when the direction of cultural and formal institutional distances is included, the effects on performance are in fact asymmetric. Moreover, not all formal institutional distances affect in a negative manner the performance of developed country subsidiaries operating in less developed countries as these firms seem to know how to interpret and respond to different regulatory quality conditions in the host countries. Latin American firms are in advantage when dealing with formal institutional distances while being affected in the same manner by cultural distances if compared to other emerging market firms from outside Latin America. Emerging market firms are affected in a positive manner while operating in less developed countries and in a negative way when institutions in the host country are superior to its home country. Finally, results show that formal institutional distance positively moderates the relationship between cultural distance and performance particularly when formal institutional distance is towards less developed countries. It can be concluded that despite the fact that cultural values remain fairly stable over time, the contextual changes in terms of formal institutions (and formal institutional distances among countries) will modify the way cultural distance affects the performance and the competitiveness of firms around the world.

  • 239.
    Correa da Cunha, Henrique
    et al.
    Universidade Regional de Blumenau, Blumenau, Brazil.
    Amal, Mohammed
    Universidade Regional de Blumenau, Blumenau, Brazil.
    Floriani, Dinora Eilete
    Universidade do Vale do Itajaí, Itajaí, Brazil.
    Andersson, Svante
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Institutional Distance Moderating Effects on Cultural Distance and Performance Relationship: Asymmetry of Distance and the Case of Foreign Multinational Subsidiaries in Latin America2019Inngår i: International Business in an Unsettling Political and Economic Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark, June 24-17, 2019, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate how Cultural and Formal Institutional distances affect the performance of foreign multinational subsidiaries in Latin America. We measure distance in opposite directions separately in a way that allows verifying its asymmetrical properties. Data is from Orbis database and includes 1466 foreign subsidiaries and 168 combinations of home and host countries for a period ranging from 2013 to 2015. Findings reveal that not all formal institutional distances affect the performance of developed country subsidiaries in a negative manner when operating in less developed countries as these firms know how to interpret and respond to different regulatory quality conditions in the host countries. We show that Latin American firms are in advantage dealing with formal institutional distances while they are affected in the same manner by cultural distances when compared to emerging market firms from outside Latin America. Subsidiaries from emerging markets are affected in a positive manner when operating in less developed countries and in a negative way when in more developed host countries. Results show that formal institutional distances may be easier to convert into firm specific advantages when compared to cultural distances. Formal institutional distances moderate in a positive manner the relationship between cultural distance and performance.

  • 240.
    Correa da Cunha, Henrique
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER). Universidade de Blumenau, Blumenau, Santa Catarina, Brazil.
    Amal, Mohammed
    Universidade de Blumenau, Blumenau, Santa Catarina, Brazil.
    Floriani, Dinorá Eliete
    Universidade do Vale do Itajaí, Itajaí, Brazil.
    Andersson, Svante
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    The moderating effects of formal institutional distance on the relationship between cultural distance and performance: The case of foreign subsidiaries in Latin America2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how Cultural and Formal Institutional distances and their interaction affect the performance of subsidiary firms in Latin America. We show that using Kogut and Singh (1988) index or attributing the positive and negative signals for distances in opposite directions fail to capture asymmetry as it treats distance as either symmetric or opposing symmetric. In order to overcome this limitations distance in opposite directions are measured separately and independently in a way that allows verifying its asymmetrical effects. Tests include 1466 subsidiaries and 168 combinations of home and host countries for a period ranging from 2013 to 2015. Findings confirm that formal and cultural distances are asymmetric as the effects depend on the direction. Moreover not all formal institutional distances affect in a negative manner the performance of developed country subsidiaries operating in less developed countries as these firms know how to interpret and respond to different regulatory quality conditions in the host countries. We show that Latin American firms are in advantage dealing with formal institutional distances while they are affected in the same manner by cultural distances when compared to other emerging market firms from outside Latin America. Findings indicate that emerging market firms are affected in a positive manner when operating in less developed countries and in a negative way when institutions in the host country are superior to its home country. Finally, results show that formal institutional distances moderate in a positive manner the relationship between cultural distance and performance. 

  • 241.
    Correa da Cunha, Henrique
    et al.
    Universidade Regional de Blumenau, Blumenau, Brazil.
    Andersson, Svante
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Amal, Mohammed
    Universidade Regional de Blumenau, Blumenau, Brazil.
    Floriani, Dinora Eilete
    Universidade do Vale do Itajaí, Itajaí, Brazil.
    Gomes, Giancarlo
    Universidade Regional de Blumenau, Blumenau, Brazil.
    Are we talking about country profile or distance?2019Inngår i: Balancing Globalization & Local Priorities: Challenges Facing Business in Developed and Emerging Markets, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Since its introduction in International Business research, Distance has been an important topic but recently there is an ever growing concern related to the country profile and distance conflation. Studies investigating the implications of distances should include a sufficiently diversified sample. In order to provide adequate assessments for the implications of country profiles and distances, it is essential to consider that firms may be affected in different ways depending on the direction of the distances. We argue that the asymmetric effects of distances might result not only from the ability of foreign subsidiary firms adapting to the host country’ conditions, but also on the characteristics of the host country environment that may be more or less receptive to foreign firms’ operations. We test these assumptions in Latin America due to its diversity in terms of cultural and formal institutional conditions and also because it includes a great number of emerging market and developed country foreign subsidiaries. Data comes from Orbis database, totaling 1466 subsidiary firms being 1216 from developed countries and 250 from emerging markets operating in 10 host countries in Latin America and a combination of 168 different home and host countries over a period of 3 consecutive years ranging from 2013 to 2015. By measuring distances in opposite directions independently we are able to verify the asymmetric effects of both Cultural and Formal Institutional Distances. Additionally, results show that the expertise in dealing with formal institutional conditions at the home country can be converted more easily into firm specific advantages in foreign host countries whereas cultural distances seem to affect firms in similar ways, depending more on the cultural characteristics at the host country than by the distances between home and the host countries.

  • 242.
    Cregård, Anna
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Förbättrad arbetsmiljö genom samarbete i gränsland2017Inngår i: Hälsofrämjande och förebyggande arbetsmiljöinsatser genom nya samarbetsformer: Metoder och resultat från FHV NySam-projektet / [ed] Roy Liff & Ewa Wikström, Göteborg: ISM , 2017, 1, s. 22-36Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 243.
    Cregård, Anna
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Inter-occupational cooperation and boundary work in the hospital setting2018Inngår i: Journal of Health Organisation & Management, ISSN 1477-7266, E-ISSN 1758-7247, Vol. 32, nr 5, s. 658-673Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to add a little piece to the research on boundary work and inter-occupational cooperation by addressing two questions: how do actors perform boundary work in an inter-occupational cooperation project that seeks to improve the personnel health work in a hospital setting? What impact does the boundary work have on such cooperation in the personnel health project?

    Design/methodology/approach: The study is based on individual, in-depth interviews and participative observations of focus group discussions conducted at a regional municipal organization in Sweden. Respondents are hospital line managers, experts and strategists in the HR departments, and experts from the internal occupational health service.

    Findings: The concepts on boundary work, which include closing/opening boundary strategies, provide the framework for the empirical illustrations. The cooperation runs smoothly in the rehabilitation work because of an agreed upon process in which the professionals’ jurisdictions are preserved through closing strategies. Illness prevention and health promotion are not areas of inter-occupational cooperation because the stronger actors use closing strategies. While the weaker actors, who try to cooperate, use opening boundary strategies in these areas, they are excluded or marginalized.

    Research limitations/implications: The empirical investigation concerns one cooperation project and was completed at one data collection point.

    Originality/value: No similar study of boundary work and inter-occupational cooperation in a hospital setting is available despite the frequency of this professional group configuration in practice. A more inclusive concept of professionalism may facilitate the study of boundary work and inter-occupational cooperation among actors with different professional authority. © Emerald Publishing Limited 2018

  • 244.
    Cregård, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Berntson, ErikStockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.Tengblad, StefanHögskolan i Skövde, Skövde, Sverige.
    Att leda i en komplex organisation: Utmaningar och nya perspektiv för chefer i offentlig verksamhet2018Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 245.
    Cregård, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Tengblad, Stefan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Skövde, Sverige.
    Andersson, Pia
    Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Lindgren, Hans
    Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sverige.
    En introduktion till ledarskap och organisatorisk komplexitet2018Inngår i: Att leda i en komplex organisation: Utmaningar och nya perspektiv för chefer i offentlig verksamhet / [ed] Anna Cregård, Erik Berntson & Stefan Tengblad, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2018, s. 9-21Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 246.
    Cregård, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Corin, Linda
    Institute of Stress Medicine, Region Västra Götaland, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Skagert, Katrin
    University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Voluntary turnover among public sector managers: A review2017Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Administration, ISSN 2001-7405, E-ISSN 2001-7413, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 89-114Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Managers are key assets to the public sector in creating effective and healthy organizations. However, there are indications of high managerial turnover, which may decrease organizational efficiency, increase costs, and lead to a less favorable view of the public sector. In this article we review the literature on actual voluntary managerial turnover in the public sector in order to describe the state of knowledge and discuss the ways forward. Searching in three large databases, we found a total of 12 empirical articles on actual managerial turnover in the public sector from 1992 to 2014. The research is scarce, especially on lower management levels, and little knowledge is available for human resource professionals in their work to support managers in creating healthy and meaningful managerial roles. We argue that more research is needed to understand to what extent and why managers leave, and what the actual effects are. © Anna Cregård, Linda Corin, Katrin Skagert and School of Public Administration 2017

  • 247.
    Cregård, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Eriksson, Nomie
    Högskolan i Skövde, Skövde, Sverige.
    Chefskap i professionella organisationer: Läkare som chefer2018Inngår i: Att leda i en komplex organisation: Utmaningar och nya perspektiv för chefer i offentlig verksamhet / [ed] Anna Cregård, Erik Berntson & Stefan Tengblad, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2018, s. 71-84Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 248.
    Cregård, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Forsberg, Tina
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Models for cooperation between line-managers and techno structure experts: creating value and professionalization in local government2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years the number of people working within the techno structure in public sector organizations has increased, for example within human resource, communication, financial control, and general administration, just as Mintzberg (1993) foresaw already in the beginning of the 1980’s[1]. Many of these occupations have initiated a professionalization process, which among other things has resulted in an increased focus on developing the profession itself, strengthening boundaries towards other occupations and functions, and elevating the jurisdiction. For example within local government human resource and communication functions the jurisdictional claim has been transferred from the operative, hands-on work to more strategic work and in partnership with strategic management[2]. The techno structure experts can be described as more professional, more knowledgeable and highly skilled, but also more detached from the everyday work of civil servants and operative managers trying to execute the public organization’s mission, hence creating public value.

    Professionalization within the local governments’ techno structure is theoretically interesting. For example there is a matter of gender, since women mostly inhabit the techno structure functions. It is also interesting from a cooperation and boundary work point of view, since different models of cooperation contain different logics of negotiations, conflict and agreements. And cooperation is hard to achieve, since that requires actual prioritization and redistribution of resources[3]. In this study our aim is to develop knowledge on cooperation models between the techno structure experts and line-managers in order to create sustainable and healthy organizing that can foster public value creation. Following Zhou, et al.[4] inter-occupational cooperation is defined here as working together across boundaries in order to achieve common goals, emphasizing the multi-actor and multi-occupational relationships.

    In order to investigate the content and effects of different models of cooperation we have conducted case studies in three Swedish local governments, including focus group interviews, survey data and secondary sources. We have also re-analyzed both survey data and interview data from our previous investigations on related issues in local governments.

    We present three analytical models of cooperation between line-managers and techno structure experts, derived from the empirical investigation. The three models are built up by different logics, and hence create different levels of value to the public organization and common good on the one hand, and to the different functions and professions involved on the other hand. The models may be used as analytical tools for empirical and normative work for the development of the public organization, but also as a foundation for adding a little piece of the theoretical puzzle of how to create cooperation and value within local government organizations. 

      

    [1] Mintzberg, H. (1993). Structure in fives: Designing effective organizations. Prentice-Hall, Inc. 

    [2] Condrey, S.E. (2015). Public Human Resource Management: How We Get Where We are Today. Riccucci, N. M. (ed) Public Personnel Management. 1-13. Routledge. 

    [3] Ashkenas, R. (2015). There’s a Difference Between Cooperation and Collaboration. Harvard Business Review, April 20, 1-6. 

    [4] Zhou, J., et al. (2014). Making collaborators happy: The outcome priming effect in integrative negotiation. Public Personnel Management, 43(3), 290-300.

  • 249.
    Cregård, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Liff, Roy
    Handelshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Wikström, Ewa
    Handelshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Att arbeta med förebyggande och hälsofrämjande genom samarbete2017Inngår i: Hälsofrämjande och förebyggande arbetsmiljöinsatser genom nya samarbetsformer / [ed] Roy Liff & Ewa Wikström, Göteborg: Institutet för stressmedicin (ISM) , 2017, s. 61-74Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 250.
    Cregård, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Solli, Rolf
    University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Top managerial role in transition – or not? Trajectories during 20 years in Swedish local government2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The top municipal managers – the CEOs – hold an important role in the Swedish municipalities. He or she is the highest non-politically appointed official, in charge of the administration. Often the position has ensured stability in municipalities with high turnover on politicians and changing political majority, and with the position also comes a comprehensive and professional bureaucracy. The municipal services are extensive in Sweden, and are characterized by high competence, independence from state intervention and a wide-ranging scope. Politics and management usually work close to each other. However, this makes the position of the municipal CEO both influential and difficult, as she or he moves in and between major political issues but always has to be perceived as apolitical and objective. The position is formally unregulated and is often described in terms of understanding and making sense about a golden interface. In this paper we analyze the past, present and the future of Swedish municipal administrative governance based on the perspective of the municipal CEO. We also discuss effects of the development of the role and its performance. We conclude by suggesting how the role - and thus also part of the municipal governance - could develop in the future.

    Two theoretical frameworks form the basis of our studies. Institutional theory forms the basis for analyzing path dependencies and change. Theoretical concepts of leadership form the basis for studying the managerial role of the municipal CEO. The framework provides the starting point for our operationalization of questions to a questionnaire sent to all Swedish municipal CEOs every five years for a 20-year period (a total of five times starting in 1995). In addition to the survey data, we use longitudinally collected interview data as well as secondary sources.

    Our investigations reveal that the municipal CEO holds his or her position in a shorter period (increased turnover) grows older and the proportion of women is increasing rapidly and steadily. The CEO puts less emphasis on economic crisis management, but puts more emphasis on ensuring compliance with rules, giving politicians advice and planning for regional development with other municipalities’ CEO. Comparing to other countries' corresponding positions, we notice that the Swedish municipal CEO has much in common with Northern Europe's local administrations, but not with Southern Europe's countries or Great Britain. The leadership style is more participatory than authoritative even if this changes slightly over the years. The CEOs describe their role as difficult, especially in relation to the political level. The changes in the role during the investigated 20 years suggest there are at least three trajectories to choose from in the future: 1) to become increasingly political (and perhaps even politically appointed), 2) to be clearly separated from the political level through increased formal regulation, or 3) to support continued informal interpreting of the mystic and undefined golden interface.

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