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  • 201.
    Linnér, Lukas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Lindahl, Kent
    Riksidrottsförbundet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Eriksson, Pernilla
    Umeå universitet, Umeå, Sverige.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Idrottares dubbla karriärer2018Inngår i: Specialidrott: Tränings- och tävlingslära / [ed] Avdelningen Elitidrottsstöd, Riksidrottsförbundet, Stockholm: SISU Idrottsböcker , 2018, s. 237-251Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 202.
    Lorenzo Fernández, Macarena
    et al.
    Centro de Estudios Universitarios San Isidoro, Centro Adscrito A la Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Seville, Spain.
    Cubero Pérez, Rosario
    Centro de Estudios Universitarios San Isidoro, Centro Adscrito A la Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Seville, Spain.
    López Jiménez, Ana María
    Universidad de Sevilla, Seville, Spain.
    Hertting, Krister
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    "Entrenando a familias". Evaluación de un programa de optimización de actitudes parentales en un club de fútbol2018Inngår i: Revista de Psicologia del Deporte, ISSN 1132-239X, E-ISSN 1988-5636, Vol. 27, nr Supplement 3, s. 37-42Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 203.
    Lundblad, Joel
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS).
    Assessment of Soldiers’ Physical Fitness: A comparison between the Swedish Armed Forces MULTI-test and tests of five physical fitness factors2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 204.
    Lundgren, Lina
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS).
    System analysis of kitesurfing: Understanding performance and injury risk for on-water board sports2011Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Board sports are examples of sports where the interaction of the task, environment and the athlete are essential. As for other sports, there are injuries and other issues associated with these sports, which affect performance and that can be avoided by proper preparation and well- designed equipment. By focusing on kitesurfing as a system structure the complex interactions between factors can help reveal which variables that are of interest to study to increase the level of performance and safety. Lack of research on the board sport kitesurfing makes this area interesting to study regarding performance and musculoskeletal problems. The purpose of this licentiate thesis was to further the understanding of on-water board sports, and specifically study kitesurfing by using a system analysis to structure factors that influence performance and injury risk for this board sport. The specific aims were:

    To reveal the most common self-reported injuries related to kitesurfing and their causes (Paper I).

    To evaluate in which body parts participants perceive musculoskeletal stress, pain and discomfort related to the performance of kitesurfing (Paper II).

    To identify usability problems related to the preparation of kitesurfing equipment (Paper III).

    To provide a system analysis to describe the relations between and identify characteristics that influence performance and injury risk of kitesurfing.

    Methods used for these studies were hierarchical task analysis, observations (n=8), web- questionnaires (n=206), interviews (n=17) and a focus group (n=7). The system analysis was executed in six steps and based on ideas adopted from general systems theory, dynamical systems and ecological task analysis. Tasks performed in freestyle kitesurfing consist of riding a board and performing jumps and tricks, whereof the latter have sub-tasks involving take-off, acrobatic air movements and landings. Within the system of kitesurfing, there are the sub-systems athlete, kite system, board system and harness/protection. There are also external factors acting upon the system. All sub- systems have characteristics that are less changeable during execution of the task and which effect on the athlete can be represented by identified output measures, i.e. harness line force, board reaction force, steering force, pressure distribution, movement patterns, body temperature, fatigue level, comfort and pain, choice of sub-task, mood, stress level, concentration, motivation, experience and usability. The results show that the most frequent locations for injury are in the lower extremities, i.e. knee and ankle, and that about 50% of the injuries reported were associated with jumps and tricks. Equipment and environmental factors also contribute to injuries, as well as to musculoskeletal stress, pain and discomfort. The abdominal muscles were most frequently reported as exposed to high musculoskeletal stress, but also thighs and lower back were perceived as highly stressed throughout the tasks. Knees and feet were areas described as sometimes painful, especially in combination with landings from tricks or strong winds.

    Furthermore, the lower back was reported painful when kitesurfing in strong winds. When hooking out from the harness for performing tricks, the shoulders were perceived as highly stressed. Before the execution of on-water kitesurfing starts, the preparation of the kite system must be accomplished. The results from Study III showed that there are usability problems related to this kitesurfing task, meaning risk for use error to arise. If use errors occur, serious consequences can follow later in the process. The results emphasize improvement of the products from a usability perspective. Some of the identified output measures were partly answered from the results of Papers I-III, where numbers of injuries, perceived musculoskeletal stress, pain and discomfort, and usability issues were evaluated for kitesurfing. The structure motives the need for further research within the area of on-water board sports and reveals variables that are affecting the system.

  • 205.
    Lundgren, Lina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS).
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS).
    Hilliges, Marita
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS).
    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS). Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sport performance and perceived musculoskeletal stress, pain and discomfort in kitesurfing2011Inngår i: International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, ISSN 1474-8185, E-ISSN 1474-8185, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 142-158Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to obtain an overview of the specific movement patterns in kitesurfing, and the participants' perceptions of musculoskeletal stress, pain and discomfort. Task analysis and survey studies were used to provide an overview of the sport, and to identify problematic issues associated with the performance of the tasks. Three different methods were complimentary used for data collection: observations (n=8), a web questionnaire (n=206) and interviews (n=17). Participants were contacted through kitesurfing events and online forums. Their ages ranged from 16-62 years. The results showed that participants experienced high musculoskeletal stress for short times during a session (jumps, tricks and strong winds), and lower, static musculoskeletal stress over a longer time (crossing). High stress was most frequently perceived in abdominal muscles. Knees and feet were the sites most frequently experienced as painful, followed by the shoulders and elbows. This study provides additional information on the performance of kitesurfing and perceived musculoskeletal stress, pain and discomfort. The results can be used as input data to develop training methods and equipment for safe and comfortable performance. © 2017, Routledge. All rights reserved.

  • 206.
    Lundgren, Lina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Biomekanik och biomedicin.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Biomekanik och biomedicin.
    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Biomekanik och biomedicin.
    Injuries related to kitesurfing2011Inngår i: World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, ISSN 2010-3778, nr 77, s. 1132-1136Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Participation in sporting activities can lead to injury. Sport injuries have been widely studied in many sports including the more extreme categories of aquatic board sports. Kitesurfing is a relatively new water surface action sport, and has not yet been widely studied in terms of injuries and stress on the body. The aim of this study was to get information about which injuries that are most common among kitesurfing practitioners, where they occur, and their causes. Injuries were studied using an international open web questionnaire (n=206). The results showed that many respondents reported injuries, in total 251 injuries to knee (24%), ankle (17%), trunk (16%) and shoulders (10%), often sustained while doing jumps and tricks (40%). Among the reported injuries were joint injuries (n=101), muscle/tendon damages (n=47), wounds and cuts (n=36) and bone fractures (n=28). Also environmental factors and equipment can influence the risk of injury, or the extent of injury in a hazardous situation. Conclusively, the information from this retrospective study supports earlier studies in terms of prevalence and site of injuries. Suggestively, this information should be used for to build a foundation of knowledge about the sport for development of applications for physical training and product development.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 207.
    Lundgren, Lina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS).
    Olandersson, Sofia
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, PRODEA: Centrum för produktframtagning inom hälsoteknik.
    Hilliges, Marita
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, PRODEA: Centrum för produktframtagning inom hälsoteknik.
    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa
    Department of Product- and Production Development, Division of Design Chalmers University of Technology.
    Biomechanics of extreme sports - a kite surfing scenario2007Inngår i: NES2007 Abstracts / [ed] Cecilia Berlin & Lars-Ola Bligård, Nordic Ergonomics Society , 2007, s. s.169-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Do extreme sports contribute to higher biomechanical stress compared to other sports? Kite surfing is one of the upcoming popular extreme sports,where very few have studied the mechanical forces that act on the body. There are several factors that contribute to mechanical stress. For preventing injuries, it is of high interest to investigate how these forces affect the body and how the equipment can be further developed to prepare the athletes for making the sport as safe as possible. This project will study injury prevalence, motion analysis and mapping of forces and pressure during kite surfing. The outcome will be a better understanding of biomechanics of kite surfing and a construction for testing and training as well as ergonomic design ideas for the equipment.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 208.
    Löfström, Joakim
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle (HOS).
    Effektiva ledarskapsstilar och ledares beteendemönster inom idrott2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 209.
    Löfström, Joakim
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle (HOS).
    Porss, Mikael
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle (HOS).
    ATTRIBUTIONER HOS GOLFSPELARE PÅ ELITNIVÅ2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur golfspelare på elitnivå förklarar (attribuerar) medgång respektive motgång samt att undersöka om det förekommer självtjänande tankemönster hos respondenterna. Studien byggde på följande frågeställningar: (1) Vilka attributioner förekommer bland golfspelare på elitnivå för framgång respektive motgång? (2) Till vilken grad stämmer dessa attributioner in på Weiners (1985a) attributionsteori som består av de fyra aspekterna ansträngning, tur, förmåga och uppgiftens svårighetsgrad? (3) Förekommer fenomenet självtjänande tankemönster hos respondenterna? Semistrukturerade intervjuer utfördes med fem manliga och fem kvinnliga golfspelare på elitnivå (M=20.6; SD= ± 0.8). En innehållsanalys enligt Graneheim och Lundman (2004) utfördes där relevant material bröts ned till meningsenheter som sedan kategoriserades. Utöver detta analyserades även respondenternas subjektiva uppfattning om attributionernas dimensionella tillhörighet. Resultaten visade att de attributioner som gavs endast till viss del stämmer in på Weiners teori (1985a). Exempelvis angavs tankar och känslor till stor del som förklaring till både medgång och motgång. Vad gäller självtjänande tankemönster fanns inga tecken på att detta förekom bland deltagarna. Resultaten diskuteras utifrån teoretiskt ramverk och tidigare forskning. Förslag på framtida forskning samt implikationer ges.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 210.
    Magnusson, Stefan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle (HOS).
    Johansson, Fredrik
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle (HOS).
    Fotboll <3 Pengar = Sant: - Fotbollstränares tal om avlönade amatörspelare och hur det påverkar konstruktionen av laget2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Pengar får allt mer betydelse inom idrottsvärlden. Sponsorintäkter, publikintäkter samt merchandise ar viktiga inkomstkällor for föreningar. Pengarna används sedan till att bland annat betala sportchefer, tränare spelare, etc. Detta gäller framförallt större föreningar som håller till på elitnivå och i den har studien ska vi som författare försöka att belysa vad som kommer till uttryck bland fotbollstränare nar de talar om vad det innebär att ha avlönade spelare i ett amatörlag, samt hur det påverkar konstruktionen av laget. Urvalet i studien är från fotbollsföreningar från västra Sverige där sex stycken tränare har valts ut.

    Tillvägagångssättet vid datainsamlingen var intervjuer där vi som författare hade en ”face to face”- intervju med deltagarna. I studien visar det sig att tränarna ställer sig positivt till att avlöna vissa spelare i ett fotbollslag dock att det däremot kan missgynna de övriga spelarnas utveckling som fotbollsspelare.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 211.
    Malmborg, Julia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Olsson, Charlotte M.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Bergman, Stefan
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Daily Musculoskeletal Pain Affects Health And Sports Performance Negatively In Youth Athletes2017Inngår i: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 49, s. 972-972Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In sports, musculoskeletal pain (MSP) is often studied from the perspective of sport specific injuries, why little is known about the prevalence of daily or multisite MSP that does not affect participation in sports. It is also unclear if daily or multisite MSP is a risk factor for worse health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and worse sports performance in youth athletes.

    PURPOSE: To study how HRQoL and sports performance is affected by daily MSP in youth athletes that are able to participate in sports.

    METHODS: 136 Swedish youth athletes attending a sport school (13 to 14 years, boys n=83, girls n=53) completed the EQ-5D measuring HRQoL (range 0 to 1, worst to best), a pain questionnaire including current pain (yes/no), pain in 18 body regions (never to rarely/monthly to weekly/more than once a week to almost daily), and pain intensity in the last week (0 to 10, best to worst), anthropometric measures to estimate biological age, and sports performance tests (grip strength, 20 meter sprint, and countermovement jump(CMJ)).

    RESULTS: 109 to 117 of the 136 students answered the different pain questions. 53 of 113 (47%) reported current MSP, and 28 of 109 (26%) experienced MSP ‘more than once a week to almost daily’ from one or more body regions (frequent MSP group), while 28% (n=30) stated ‘never to rarely’ in MSP (no MSP group). Boys in the frequent MSP group reported worse HRQoL, higher pain intensity, performed worse in all sports performance tests, and had a younger biological age than boys in the no MSP group. Girls in the frequent MSP group reported worse HRQoL and higher pain intensity than the girls in the no MSP group. No other differences were found (table).

    CONCLUSIONS: Every other youth athlete attending a sport school reported current MSP and one out of four reported almost daily MSP. MSP affects HRQoL negatively in both boys and girls, and sports performance negatively in boys. The prevalence of MSP in youth athletes is concerning since pain in younger ages may predict pain in adult ages.

    © 2017 American College of Sports Medicine

  • 212.
    Malmborg, Julia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Malmö Sports Academy, Malmö, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Musculoskeletal pain and its association with maturity and sports performance in 14-year-old sport school students2018Inngår i: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine, ISSN 2055-7647, Vol. 4, nr 1, artikkel-id e000395Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: In youth sports, musculoskeletal pain is often studied from the standpoint of sports injuries, but little is known about pain conditions in which athletes still participate. The aim was to study the frequency of pain and associations with maturity offset, health status and sports performance in 14-year-old sport school students.

    Methods: Cross-sectional design. One hundred and seventy-eight students (108 boys and 70 girls) completed anthropometric measures for maturity offset (height, weight and sitting height), questionnaires (pain mannequin and EQ-5D for health status) and sports performance tests (sprint, agility, counter-movement jump and grip strength). Differences between groups were analysed with Student’s t-test and analysis of covariance.

    Results: Thirty-one students (18.6%) reported infrequent pain, 85 (50.9%) frequent pain and 51 (30.5%) constant pain. Students in the constant pain group had worse health status than those in the infrequent pain group. Boys with constant pain (n=27) had a lower mean maturity offset (–0.38 vs 0.07 years; p=0.03) than boys with infrequent pain (n=22), and pain was associated with worse sports performance. There was no difference in maturity or sports performance between girls with constant pain (n=24) and girls with infrequent pain (n=9).

    Conclusion: Musculoskeletal pain is common in sport school students and coincides with worse health status and with a younger biological age in boys. The high prevalence of pain should be acknowledged by coaches and student healthcare workers in order to promote a healthy and sustainable development in young athletes. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2018.

  • 213.
    Malmborg, Julia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Biomekanik och biomedicin.
    Årneby, Henrik
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Biomekanik och biomedicin.
    Korrelationer mellan agility och unilateral och bilateral effektutveckling hos kvinnliga fotbollsspelare2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Unilateral benträning är ett relativt outforskat område inom träningsvetenskapen. Traditionellt genomförs fysträning för intermittenta idrotter bilateralt, trots att idrottens rörelser sker unilateralt. Det finns många studier som behandlar samband mellan agility och effektutveckling, men få som har undersökt skillnaden mellan unilateral och bilateral effektutveckling sett till agility.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om unilateral effektutveckling har en starkare korrelation med agility än vad bilateral effektutveckling och agility har hos kvinnliga fotbollsspelare i division 2.

    Metod: Kvinnliga fotbollsspelare (n=13, ålder 23 ± 4 år) utförde vertikalhopp med tilläggsbelastning på båda benen, vänster ben och höger ben på 20 kg, 30 kg, 40 kg samt för båda benen på 50 kg och T-test och Pro agility test. Effektutveckling i förhållande till kroppsvikten på båda benen (PBbw), vänster ben (PVbw) och höger ben (PHbw) analyserades och korrelerades sedan mot T-test (Ttest) och Pro agility test (Proagility).

    Resultat: Signifikanta korrelationer hittades mellan agility och både vänster unilateral (PVbw-Ttest, r = -0,578) och bilateral (PBbw-Ttest, r = -0,741; PBbw-Proagility, r = -0,555) effektutveckling, där korrelationen bilateralt var starkast. Ingen signifikant korrelation hittades mellan höger ben och agility.

    Konklusion: Bilateral effektutveckling hade en starkare korrelation med agility än vad unilateral effektutveckling och agility hade hos kvinnliga fotbollsspelare i division 2.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 214.
    Martin, Ebba
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Biomekanik och biomedicin.
    Fotledsdistorsioner hos svenska kvinnliga truppgymnaster på juniornivå - incidens och tillfälle: Betydelsen av uppvärmning/styrketräning för fot/fotled2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Truppgymnastik (eng. teamgymnastics) är en mycket populär form av gymnastik vars ursprung finns i Skandinavien. Idag finns det runt 20,000 tävlingslicensierade trupp-gymnaster i Sverige. Fot/fotled är de kroppsdelar som är mest utsatta för skador inom idrotten. Syftet var att undersöka skadeincidens och skadetillfälle av fotledsdistorsioner de tre månaderna innan och under en svensk juniortävling 2011 i kvinnlig truppgymnastik. Ytterligare syfte var att undersöka om uppvärmning och/eller styrketräning för fot/fotled minskar skadeincidensen.

    Uppsatsen var en retrospektiv deskriptiv studie, där nitton kvinnliga juniorlag inom truppgymnastik blev tillfrågade att delta i studien. Huvudledarna fick svara på ett frågeformulär om idrottsskador samt fotledsdistorsioner. Antal inkluderande lag var nio.

    Undersökningen resulterade i en låg skadeincidens (3,5 %) för fotledsdistorsioner i jämförelse med tidigare forskning inom svensk truppgymnastik. Fem (n = 146) truppgymnaster drabbades av fotledsdistorsioner de tre månaderna innan Junior-SM 2011 (september-november), varav två fotledsdistorsioner var återskador. Under Junior-SM 2011 var det en (n = 95) truppgymnast som drabbades av en fotledsdistorsion, en förstagångsskada. Majoriteten av huvudledarna ansåg att flest skador, oavsett lokalisering, uppstod under träning, samt vid moment på tumbling. Sju av nio lag utförde uppvärmning för fot/fotled med syftet att förebygga skador och alla nio lag utförde styrketräning för fot/fotled med syftet att förebygga skador.

    Kvinnliga truppgymnaster på juniornivå utförde en generell uppvärmning samt uppvärmning och/eller styrketräning för fot/fotled, som en del av eller enskilt från den generella uppvärmningen, med syftet att förebygga skador. Det preventiva arbetet som lagen utförde kan ha betydelse för den låga skadeincidensen i undersökningen. Det var dock truppgymnaster som drabbades av fotledsdistorsioner, vilket kan bero på att fotledsdistorsioner inte går att undvika helt och hållet, på grund av de krafter som gymnastens kropp utsätts för. Det är dock oklart om antalet fotledsdistorsioner hade varit fler och mer allvarliga utan dessa åtgärder. Ytterligare forskning om preventiva metoder, framförallt uppvärmning

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Fotledsdistorsioner hos svenska kvinnliga truppgymnaster på juniornivå - incidens och tillfälle: Betydelsen av uppvärmning/styrketräning för fot/fotled
  • 215.
    Martin Ginis, Kathleen A.
    et al.
    Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Prapavessis, Harry
    School of Kinesiology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.
    Who cares what other people think?: Self-presentation in exercise and sport2007Inngår i: Handbook of sport psychology / [ed] Gershon Tenenbaum, Robert C. Eklund, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2007, 3, s. 136-157Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 216.
    Mattsson, Emil
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Dispositionell mindfulness, ältande och idrottspsykologiska färdigheter2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Problemet med dysfunktionella tankar hos elitidrottare har länge varit känt. Mindfulness har på senare tid både testats och diskuterats som en strategi för att komma tillrätta med detta problem (Gardner & Moore, 2012; Birrer, Röthlin & Morgan, 2012).

    Syftet med den befintliga studien var att med hjälp av en pathanalys pröva delar av Birrer et al.’s (2012) föreslagna modell genom att vid tre mätningar undersöka sambanden mellan dispositionell mindfulness, en påverkansmekanism (ältande) och två idrottspsykologiska färdigheter (self-efficacy och återhämtning).

    Som underlag för studien användes en enkät som sammanlagt 65 idrottare varav 33 kvinnor och 32 män besvarade. Medelåldern var 22,78 år (SD=4,66).

    Resultatet av pathanalysen visade att dispositionell mindfulness vid mättillfälle 1 var en signifikant prediktor för ältande vid mättillfälle 2 och att ältande i sin tur var en signifikant prediktor för återhämtning vid mättillfälle 3. En korrelationsanalys visade även att återhämtning hade ett signifikant samband med tävlingsprestation.

    Det kan utifrån den befintliga studiens resultat konstateras att den del av Birrer et al.’s (2012) modell som avser dispositionell mindfulness, påverkansmekanismen ältande och den idrottspsykologiska färdigheten återhämtning stämmer. Idrottares self-efficacy verkar dock inte påverkas av hur mycket de ältar. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 217.
    Mavropalias, Georgios
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    CHANGES IN MUSCLE ACTIVATIONDURING 72 HOURS FOLLOWING AN ACUTEPLYOMETRIC BOUT2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 poäng / 60 hpOppgave
  • 218.
    Mavropalias, Georgios
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Bremander, Ann
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Biomekanik och biomedicin.
    Changes in muscle activation during 72 hours following an acute plyometric bout2014Inngår i: Book of Abstracts of the 19th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science – 2nd - 5th July 2014, Amsterdam – The Netherlands / [ed] De Haan, A., De Ruiter, C. J., Tsolakidis, E., European College of Sport Science , 2014, s. 71-71Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Plyometric training (PT) has been used widely in sport training to improve characteristics such as power, strength and to induce beneficial neuromuscular improvements. Previous evidence has demonstrated a significant impact of this training method on muscle activation patterns during training, however there is a lack in research literature of studies examining its follow up effects in the recovery period. The purpose of this study was to examine any possible changes in the muscle activation of the lower extremities up to 72 hours after high intensity PT.

    Methods

    An experimental study design with repeated measures was used. Twelve (n=12) male subjects (mean age 24.33 ± 2.6) executed a high intensity PT protocol for the lower extremities. Countermovement jump test (CMJ) was performed pre, immediately post, 24, 48 and 72 hours after the PT. Surface electromyography (sEMG) evaluation examined the activation of Gluteus Maximus (GM), Vastus Lateralis (VL), Biceps Femoris (BF) and Gastrocnemius (GAS) during the CMJ in all the time points of the recovery. A one way ANOVA with repeated measures was used to analyze differences between the five time points (p≤0.05).

    Results

    The results indicated a statistical significant decrease in CMJ performance at 24 and 48 hours, compared with the baseline, that peaked at 24 hours (-7.16%), and recovered at 72 hours. Muscle activation levels for GM, VL and BF followed the same pattern, decreasing significantly post training compared to the baseline, recovering at 72 hours post. Muscle activation decrease peaked immediately post training for GM (-21.8%), VL (-14.04%) and BF (-19.82%). Muscle activation for GAS decreased significantly post training (-6.77%), recovering faster than the other muscle groups, at 48 hours.

    Discussion

    CMJ jump performance impairment was in accordance with previous research, peaking at 24-48 hours and recovering at 72 hours after the bout (Chatzinikolaou et al., 2010). The impairment pattern observed in the sEMG values peaked immediately post training, recovering at 72 hours; however the magnitude of the decrease was not as extended as observed after eccentric training (Hortobágyi et al, 1998). GAS activation recovered 24 hours faster than the rest of the tested muscle groups probably due to the higher percentage of slow twitch fibers which are less susceptible to muscle damage than fast twitch. In conclusion PT significantly decreases muscle activation and jump performance up to 72 hours after the bout in GM, VL and BF, while GAS recovered in 48 hours.

    References

    Chatzinikolaou A, Fatouros IG, Gourgoulis V, Avloniti A, Jamurtas AZ, Nikolaidis MG, et al.. (2010). J Strength Cond Res, 24, 1389–98.

    Hortobágyi T, Houmard J, Fraser D, Dudek R, Lambert J, Tracy J. (1998). J Appl Physiol, 84, 492–8.

    Contact georgios.mavropalias@gmail.com

  • 219.
    Moberg, Evelina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle (HOS).
    Tovstedt, Ebba
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle (HOS).
    Ett aktivit företag: Undersökning av motivationsfaktorer och barriärer samt underlag till utveckling för fler fysiskt aktiva anställda2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka den fysiska aktivitetsnivån hos de anställda samt ta reda på vilka motivationsfaktorer och barriärer de upplevde till fysisk aktivitet. Syftet innefattade även att se om motiv och barriärer skiljde sig beroende på aktivitetsnivå, ålder och kön. En del av syftet var även att undersöka hur aktiviteten kring företagets erbjudande till fysisk aktivitet såg ut. Undersökningen genomfördes genom att deltagarna (n=139) besvarade en omarbetad form av Motivation Till Upprätthållande Av Motionsvanor (MTUAM), en svensk version av Physical Activity Stages Of Change samt några bakgrundsfrågor. Resultatet visade att 55 procent var tillräckligt fysiskt aktiva enligt Folkhälsoinstitutets rekommendationer. Resultatet visade även att de främsta motivationsfaktorerna var förbättrad kondition, förbättrad hälsa samt ökad fysisk styrka. De främsta barriärerna var mycket att göra i hemmet, stress/tidsbrist och brist på motivation. Resultatet visade även att det fanns signifikanta skillnader i motiv och barriärer beroende på aktivitetsnivå och kön. Det fanns även en signifikant skillnad mellan ålder och motiv. Det framkom att 28 procent utnyttjar företagets erbjudande till fysisk aktivitet och att de främsta orsakerna till att det inte utnyttjades var tidsbrist, avsaknad av målsättning samt att de tränar på egen hand. Resultatet diskuterades sedan i förhållande till den tidigare forskningen.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Ett aktivit företag
  • 220.
    Moesch, Karin
    et al.
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hauge, Marie-Louse Trier
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Late specialization: the key to success in centimeters, grams, or seconds (cgs) sports2011Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 21, nr 6, s. e282-e290Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A controversial question within elite sports is whether young athletes need to specialize early, as suggested by Ericsson et al., or if it is more beneficial to follow the path of early diversification proposed by Côté et al., which includes sampling different sport experiences during childhood and specializing later on during adolescence. Based on a Danish sample of 148 elite and 95 near‐elite athletes from cgs sports (sports measured in centimeters, grams, or seconds), the present study investigates group differences concerning accumulated practice hours during the early stages of the career, involvement in other sports, career development, as well as determining whether or not these variables predict membership in the elite group. The results clearly reveal that elite athletes specialized at a later age and trained less in childhood. However, elite athletes were shown to intensify their training regime during late adolescence more than their near‐elite peers. The involvement in other sports neither differs between the groups nor predicts success. It can be concluded that factors related to the organization of practice during the mid‐teens seem to be crucial for international success within cgs sports. Future research should adopt a longitudinal design with means of drawing causal inferences. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S

  • 221.
    Moesch, Karin
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Mayer, Cecilie
    (University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Reasons for career termination of female Danish elite athletes2011Inngår i: Sport and Exercise Psychology: Human Performance, Well-Being and Health : Proceedings of the 13th FEPSAC European Congress of Sport Psychology / [ed] Sidónio Serpa, Nelson Teixeira, Maria João Almeida, António Rosado, Madeira: Institute of Sport of the Autonomous Region of Madeira , 2011, s. 193-193Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past, career termination research has focused on many different aspects (e.g. cultural differences, transitional phases, adaptation processes, psychological problems, etc.). Research on gender differences of these aspects, however, is rather scarce.The aim of this study is to investigate gender-specific reasons for why elite athletes competing at the highest international level stop their careers. In one of the few existing studies on the topic Reints and Wylleman (2010) identified gender differences concerning career lengths as well as reasons for career termination.The purpose of this study is to analyze the lengths of the different career stages as well as career end of 32 female and 38 male Danish top-level athletes who all achieved either a medal at European level or placed among the top ten at world level.The data was collected in an online study in 2009. Results indicate that on average Danish female elite athletes end their career at the age of 28.5 years and that the three most frequent reasons for ending are injury (28%), starting a family (22%) and lack of motivation / achieved it all (17%). No gender differences appear concerning career length or length of the different career stages. However, females and males differ on reasons for career termination.These differences will be discussed on the basis of how to improve the situation of female athletes ending their career and how career support services could be better designed to match their needs.

  • 222.
    Moesch, Karin
    et al.
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Trier Hauge, Marie-Louise
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Talent Development in Danish Elite Athletes2011Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 223.
    Moesch, Karin
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Trier Hauge, Marie-Louise
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Volition distinguishes elite football players from near elites and talented dropouts2011Inngår i: Sport and Exercise Psychology: Human Performance, Well-Being and Health: Proceedings of the 13th FEPSAC European Congress of Sport Psychology / [ed] Sidónio Serpa, Nelson Teixeira, Maria João Almeida, António Rosado, Madeira: Institute of Sport of the Autonomous Region of Madeira , 2011, s. 155-155Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivational and volitional characteristics are considered important factors for athletic success but can also be connected to drop-out from elite sports (Elbe et al., 2003; Ericsson et al., 1993). This study investigates volitional and motivational factors of top-level Danish football players. Sixty five female and 42 male players (N = 107; age: M = 21.03 years, SD = 4.89) completed an online survey requesting information about sport success, career development and reasons for retirement (if applicable). In addition they filled in the short version of the Achievement Motives Scale -Sport (Elbe & Wenhold, 2005) and four scales of the Volitional Components Questionnaire-Sport (Wenhold et al., 2009).The sample was divided into elite (n = 23), near-elite (n = 65) and dropouts (n = 19) based on athletic success and reasons for retirement. A one-way between-subjects ANOVA was used to calculate differences between these three groups concerning motivational and volitional factors. The ANOVA revealed significant differences regarding the volitional scales self-determination (p < .05), avoiding effort (p < .01) and postponing training (p < .01).The elite athletes showed the most beneficial values in all three scales, whereas the dropouts showed the lowest scores. No significant differences were found regarding the other variables. The results identify volition as a crucial personality factor for elite football players, which might also be connected to dropping out of sport.

  • 224.
    Moesch, Karin
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hauge, Marie-Louise Trier
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Making It to the Top in Team Sports: Start Later, Intensify, and Be Determined!2013Inngår i: Talent Development and Excellence, ISSN 1869-0459, E-ISSN 1869-2885, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 85-100Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is debated whether young athletes need to specialize early, or if it is more beneficial to follow the path of early diversification. The present study investigates the career paths and related motivational and volitional factors of Danish elite and nearelite team sport athletes. Seventy-six athletes matched by sport, age and sex participated in the study. Elite athletes started their career later and showed higher self-determination and lower values in postponing training. The logistic regression showed that fewer accumulated training hours up to age 12, but more up to age 15 significantly predicted elite group membership. All other investigated variables did not show significant results. It is concluded that there are more similarities than differences between the two groups. © 2013 International Research Association for Talent Development and Excellence

  • 225.
    Moesch, Karin Silvia
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Trier Hauge, Marie-Louise
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Is late specialization the key to success in CGS sports?2010Inngår i: Sport Science: Where the Cultures Meet: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Feza Korkusuz, Hayri Ertan & Elias Tsolakidis, Antalya: European College of Sport Science , 2010, s. 511-512Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 226.
    Moesch, Karin Silvia
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Trier Hauge, Marie-Louise
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Späte Spezialisierung als Erfolgsfaktor in cgs-Sportarten?2010Inngår i: Psychophysiologie im Sport - zwischen Experiment und Handlungsoptimierung: 42. Jahrestagung der Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Sportpsychologie (asp) vom 13.–15. Mai 2010 in Salzburg / [ed] Günter Amesberger, Thomas Finkenzeller, Sabine Würth, Hamburg: Feldhaus Verlag , 2010, s. 140-140Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [de]

    Einleitung: Das „Developmental model of sport participation“ (Côté, Baker & Abernethy, 2007) beschreibt zwei Wege die zu Expertise im Sport führen: Die frühe Spezialisierung wird gekennzeichnet durch einen Trainingseinstieg in der Kindheit und dem Verfolgen von zielgerichtetem und intensivem Training („deliberate practice“). Dies wird von einigen Autoren (z. B. Ericsson, Krampe & Trösch, 1993) als Notwendigkeit angesehen um sportliche Höchstleistungen zu erzielen und von vielen Befunden bestätigt. Auf dem Weg zur Höchstleistung durch frühe Diversifikation dagegen beginnt die Karriere durch einen spielorientierten Einstieg in verschiedene Sportarten, während die Spezialisierung auf die Hauptsportart erst in der Adoleszenz erfolgt. Dies soll zu bewegungsintelligenteren und intrinsisch motivierteren AthletInnen führen und dadurch längerfristig mehr Erfolg versprechen (Côté et al., 2007). Die vorliegende Studie mit dänischen SpitzensportlerInnen aus cgsSportarten geht der Frage nach, welcher dieser Wege mehr Erfolg verspricht.

    Methode: Mittels einer retrospektiven Online-Erhebung wurden 114 Athletinnen und 181 Athleten (N = 295; Alter: M = 24.4 Jahre, SD = 7.3) aus cgs-Sportarten zu folgenden Bereichen befragt: sportliche Erfolge, Entwicklung der Trainingsumfänge, Karriereeckpunkte und Engagement in anderen Sportarten. Mittels Gruppenvergleichen und logistischen Regressionen werden Unterschiede zwischen TopathletInnen und AthletInnen der erweiterten Kader analysiert.

    Ergebnisse und Diskussion: Gruppenvergleiche zeigen u. a. auf, dass TopathletInnen weniger Jahre im Juniorennationalkader verbringen (t = 2.89, df = 153, p < .005) und bis zum Alter von 15 Jahren weniger trainieren (t = 3.46, df = 165, p < .005). Zudem können eine kürzere Zugehörigkeit im Juniorennationalkader, ein zusätzliches Jahr im Seniorennationalkader, weniger Trainingsstunden im Alter von 15 Jahren sowie mehr Trainingsstunden im Alter von 18 Jahren den internationalen Erfolg vorhersagen (χ2(4) = 79.01, p < .001). Das Engagement in anderen Sportarten hingegen liefert keinen signifikanten Erklärungswert. Die Resultate zeigen, dass späte Spezialisierung in cgs-Sportarten vorteilhaft ist. Entgegen den Annahmen der frühen Diversifikation erfolgt kein Vorteil durch das Engagement in zusätzlichen Sportarten. Diese Schlussfolgerung muss allerdings vorsichtig betrachtet werden, da keine Angaben zum Trainingsinhalt in der Hauptsportart erhoben wurden und somit nicht ausgeschlossen werden kann, dass dort polysportive Erfahrungen gesammelt werden konnten. © 2010 EDITION CZWALINA FELDHAUS VERLAG

  • 227.
    Moesch, Karin
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Trier Hauge, Marie-Louise
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Do elite and sub-elite athletes show different career development paths? A study with Danish athletes involved in individual sports2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 228.
    Moesch, Karin
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Trier Hauge, Marie-Louise
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Welche Faktoren können Erfolg in Teamsportarten hervorsagen?2010Inngår i: Höchstleistungen in den Sportspielen. Vom Talent zur Expertise: 7. Symposium der dvs-Kommission Sportspiele gemeinsam mit dem Bundesinstitut für Sportwissenschaft (BISp). Abstractband des Symposiums in Münster 22. – 24. September 2010 / [ed] Bernd Strauss, Hamburg: Deutsche Vereinigung für Sportwissenschaft , 2010, s. 29-29Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [de]

    Das ”Developmental model of sport participation” (Côté, Baker & Abernethy, 2007) beschreibt zwei Wege die zu Expertise im Sport führen: Die frühe Spezialisierung (z.B. Ericsson, Krampe & Tesch-Römer, 1993) wird gekennzeichnet durch einen frühen Trainingseinstieg und dem Verfolgen von zielgerichtetem und intensivem Training („deliberate practice“). Um dies erfolgreich zu bewältigen sind u.a. hohe Motivation und Anstrengungsbereitschaft erforderlich. Auf dem Weg zur Höchstleistung durch frühe Diversifikation beginnt die Karriere durch einen spielorientierten Einstieg in verschiedene Sportarten, während die Spezialisierung auf die Hauptsportart erst in der Adoleszenz erfolgt. Dies soll zu bewegungsintelligenteren und intrinsisch motivierteren Athlet/innen führen und längerfristig mehr Erfolg versprechen (Côté et al., 2007). Die vorliegende Studie mit dänischen SpitzensportlerInnen aus Teamsportarten geht der Frage nach, welcher Weg mehr Erfolg verspricht.

    Methode: Mittels einer retrospektiven Online-Erhebung wurden 115 Athletinnen und 130 Athleten (N = 245; Alter: M = 21.96 Jahre, SD = 5.52) aus Teamsportarten zu folgenden Bereichen befragt: sportliche Erfolge, Entwicklung der Trainingsumfänge, Karriereeckpunkte, Training in anderen Sportarten sowie motivationale und volitionale Persönlichkeitsfaktoren. Mit t -Tests und logistischen Regressionen wurden Unterschiede zwischen Topathlet/innen und Athlet/innen der erweiterten Kader analysiert.

    Ergebnisse und Diskussion: Gruppenvergleiche zeigen u. a. auf, dass Topathlet/innen höhere Werte in Selbstbestimmung (t = -2.09, df = 178, p < .05) und niedrigere Werte in Anstrengungsvermeidung (t = 2.37, df = 178, p < .05) aufweisen. Zudem können eine längere Zugehörigkeit im Seniorennationalkader und eine niedrigere Ausprägung von Anstrengungsvermeidung den internationalen Erfolg vorhersagen (Χ2 = 21.99, df = 5, p < .001). Die anderen untersuchten Faktoren hingegen liefern keinen signifikanten Erklärungswert. Die Trainingsgestaltung während der Kindheit und Adoleszenz unterscheidet sich nicht signifikant zwischen den beiden Gruppen. Folglich können sowohl eine frühe Spezialisierung als auch eine frühe Diversifikation in Teamsportarten zu späterem Erfolg führen. Volitionale Aspekte scheinen hingegen bedeutungsvoll zu sein.

  • 229.
    Möller, Malin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Biomekanik och biomedicin.
    Sander, Erik
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Biomekanik och biomedicin.
    Effekt av olika stretchmetoder på agility och rörlighet hos elitinnebandyspelare2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: I många idrotter såsom innebandy används vanligen statisk stretching (SS) som en del av uppvärmningen i tron om att öka prestation trots att statisk stretching har visat sig ha negativ inverkan på aktiviteter som involverar styrka, power, sprint och agility.

    Syfte: Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka om olika stretchmetoder SS, dynamisk stretching (DS) och ingen stretching (IS) som en del av uppvärmningen påverkade agility och/eller rörelseomfång (ROM) i hamstring hos manliga innebandyspelare i superelitligan och om en eventuell effekt varade upp till 10 min in i testtillfället.

    Metod: Vid tre testtillfällen testades de olika stretchmetoderna (SS, DS och IS) efter avslutad uppvärmning. Alla tre stretchmetoderna utfördes vid varje testtillfälle efter randomiserad ordning på tre olika grupper. Agility och rörlighet testades med T-test (s) och passive straight leg raise test (o) vid 0 min, 5 min och 10 min efter avslutad stretching. Totalt 9 testpersoner slutförde studien.

    Resultat: Vid både 0 min och 5 min efter avslutad stretching noterades bäst tid på T-test (s) efter DS (10,20 ± 0,98 samt 9,92 ± 0,49). Vid 10 min noterades bäst tid efter IS (9,68 ± 0,16). Ingen statistisk signifikant skillnad fanns mellan de olika stretchmetoderna och T-test vid varken 0 min (p = 0,93), 5 min (p = 0,90) eller 10 min (p = 0,29). Vid både 0 min och 5 min efter avslutad stretching gav SS det högsta medelvärdet (o) för ROM (73,56 ± 5,79 samt 71,67 ± 7,12). Vid 10 min gav DS det högsta medelvärdet (73,44 ± 8,75). Ingen statistisk signifikant skillnad fanns heller mellan de olika stretchmetoderna och ROM vid varken 0 min (p = 0,92), 5 min (p = 0,94) eller 10 min (p = 0,71).

    Slutsats: Resultaten i denna studie saknar statistisk signifikans men visar på en svag trend att SS skulle kunna försämra agility samtidigt som den ökar ROM i hamstring och att prestationsförsämringarna gradvis stagnerar. Emellertid gav både DS och IS likvärdiga eller bättre resultat på T-test i förhållande till SS och med det i åtanke rekommenderas för utförande av SS att förlägga den vid separata tillfällen eller i anslutning med avslutad aktivitet.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Stretchmetoder på agility och rörlighet
  • 230.
    Nielsen, Glen
    et al.
    Copenhagen Centre for Team Sport and Health, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    Copenhagen Centre for Team Sport and Health, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Jensen, Christian Jais
    Copenhagen Centre for Team Sport and Health, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Schmidt, Jakob Friis
    Copenhagen Centre for Team Sport and Health, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Gliemann, Lasse
    Copenhagen Centre for Team Sport and Health, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard
    Copenhagen Centre for Team Sport and Health, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Health promotion: The impact of beliefs of health benefits, social relations and enjoyment on exercise continuation2014Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 24, nr Suppl. 1, s. 66-75Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore how and why participants in structured exercise intervention programs continue or stop exercising after the program is finished. We conducted four focus group interviews with four groups of middle-aged and elderly men (total n=28) who had participated in exercise interventions involving playing either a team sport (football) or a more individually focused activity (spinning and crossfit). Our results show that different social, organizational and material structures inherent in the different activities shape the subjects' enjoyment of exercise participation, as well as their intention and ability to continue being active. In conclusion, team sport activities seem to be intrinsically motivating to the participants through positive social interaction and play. They are therefore more likely to result in exercise continuation than activities that rely primarily on extrinsic motivation such as the expectation of improved health and well-being. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  • 231.
    Niklasson, Emma
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Biomekanik och biomedicin.
    Sundström Karlsson, Tina
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Biomekanik och biomedicin.
    Analys av försäsongsträningen hos ett svenskt damfotbollslag på elitnivå2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att analysera vilken del av försäsongsträningens två cykler som påverkade styrka och explosivitet i nedre extremitet, accelerationsförmåga, agility och anaerob uthållighet genom att sammanställa dessa egenskaper hos kvinnliga elitfotbollsspelare, för att därefter kunna utvärdera om försäsongsträningen förbättrade dessa egenskaper.

    Tester som kunnat påvisa viktiga och avgörande fysiska kvalitéer hos elitfotbollsspelarevaldes ut och dessa genomfördes vid tre tillfällen; före, under och efter försäsongsträningen. Testerna var; knäböj, vertikalhopp, 15 m sprint, T-test och YO-YO Intermittent Återhämtningstest (YO-YO IÅ).Studien innefattade 24 damfotbollsspelare på elitnivå från alla spelarpositioner.

    Till den andra testomgången observerades en signifikant förbättring av styrka, agility och anaerob uthållighet. Vid de andra testerna observerades ingen skillnad.

    Första delen av försäsongsträningen utvecklade till viss del spelarna åt rätt håll genom en förbättring av styrkan i nedre extremiteten. Den signifikanta förbättringen i agility och anaerob uthållighet kom lite för tidigt, det vill säga under den första cykeln avförsäsongsträningen, vilket hade varit mer önskvärt efter den andra cykeln. Detta innebär attandra viktiga egenskaper kan ha försummats.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Analys av försäsongsträningen hos ett svenskt damfotbollslag på elitnivå
  • 232.
    Nilsson, Sara
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Biomekanik och biomedicin.
    Zetterholm, Ylva
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Biomekanik och biomedicin.
    Kan sex veckors plyometrisk träning förbättra maxhastighet, hopphöjd i vertikalhopp samt maxstyrka i knäböj  hos unga män?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Maxhastighet är en viktig faktor inom många idrotter. Olika faktorer som påverkar maxhastighet är anaerob kapacitet, anaeroba energikällor, muskelstyrka samt förmåga att utveckla power. Plyometrisk träning, där explosiva hopp utförs, har som mål att förbättra stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) och power, vilka är viktiga faktorer vid sprint.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur sex veckors plyometrisk träning påverkade maxhastighet, hopphöjd i vertikalhopp samt maxstyrka i knäböj. Studien undersökte även sambandet mellan maxhastighet och hopphöjd samt maxhastighet och maxstyrka. Den här studien är viktig då ingen tidigare studie till vår vetskap har undersökt hur plyometrisk träning påverkar maxhastighet, hopphöjd och maxstyrka.

    Metod: Tre test användes för att mäta maxhastighet, hopphöjd samt maxstyrka. Testen som genomfördes var flygande 30 meter, vertikalt hopptest (CMJ) samt maxstyrketest i knäböj. Från start deltog 19 unga män, vilka delades in i kontroll- och träningsgrupp. Testpersonernas ålder, längd och vikt var 23,4±3,5 år, 180±8,1 centimeter och 75,6±9,8 kilogram. Deltagarna utförde i genomsnitt 4,4±1,4.träningpass (minst 30 minuter) per vecka. Träningsgruppen genomförde plyometrisk träning två till tre gånger i veckan under en period av sex veckor. Övningarna som utfördes var squat jump (SJ), splitthopp, mångstegshopp och drop-jump (DJ)

    Resultat: Resultatet visade en signifikant förbättring (p=0,001) vid utförandet av 1RM i knäböj hos träningsgruppen. Vid maxhastighetstest och vertikalt hopptest påträffades ingen signifikant förbättring. Det fanns ett samband mellan maxhastighet och hopphöjd men samband mellan maxhastighet och maxstyrka saknades.

    Slutsats: Sex veckors plyometrisk träning gav en signifikant förbättring vid utförandet av 1RM (p=0,001) i knäböj. Ytterligare studier krävs för att se hur plyometrisk träning påverkar maxhastighet, hopphöjd och maxstyrka.

     

     

     

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 233.
    Nordin, Michelle
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Does Static stretching and/or Muscle fatigue create a Cross-over effect?: An experimental study2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Extensive literature has described a decrease in force output performance in the local muscle groups after static stretching, and static stretching has therefore been recommended not to be performed during warm-ups. A recent study showed evidence of a cross-over effect in regard to static stretching, i.e. non-local muscles were also affected by static stretching. This result could however be due to fatigue in the muscle groups stretched, and a fatigued condition has previously shown cross-over effects in several studies.

    Aim: The aim of the study was to (1) examine if upper-limb static stretching and muscle fatigue display a cross-over effect that show changes in force output in the lower limbs, and (2) if there was a difference between the effects of the static stretch protocol and the muscle fatigue protocol for the purpose of examining if fatigue is the larger factor for cross-over.

    Methods: Concentric maximal jump height of 15 subjects with previous strength training experience of at least one year was measured and the subjects subsequently performed both intervention protocols in a random order. After each protocol concentric jump height was measured again. The static stretch protocol consisted of a static stretch for the shoulder at an intensity of “Very hard”, 10 repetitions of 30 second stretches with 15 seconds rest in between repetitions. The muscle fatigue protocol consisted of 10 repetitions of 30 seconds isometric muscle contraction in the same position with 15 seconds rest between repetitions at an intensity of “Very hard”. The data was collected on an infra-red contact mat and differences between the mean jump heights pre- and post each protocol and between the different protocols were analyzed with pair sample t-test.  

    Result: Mean concentric jump height (± standard deviation, SD) was 25.31 (±9.4) cm for the baseline jumps, 23.66 (±8.89) cm post static stretch intervention jumps and 24.13 (±8.90) cm post muscle fatigue intervention jumps. This indicates a cross-over effect on force output in the legs post static stretching with a mean reduction of 1.65 cm (p=0.001). Upper-limb muscle fatigue indicated a cross-over effect on force output in the legs with a mean reduction of 1.18 cm (p=0.032). There was no statistical significance between the two protocols (p=0.146).

    Conclusion: The results presented a cross-over effect on both conditions. This is in line with previous research in the area. The results implicate that static stretching and muscle fatigue effects the central nervous system, which can lead to impairments in performance in non-local muscles. This can be considered in warm-up and exercise program design when force output is of great importance for performance

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 234.
    Nordström, Evelina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för lärarutbildning (LUT).
    Wetterling, Frida
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för lärarutbildning (LUT).
    Rörelse och matematik: En studie om lärares uppfattningar av sambandet mellan rörelse och matematik.2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med vår uppsats är att undersöka lärares uppfattningar av på vilket sätt rörelse har någon påverkan på lärandet i matematik. Vårt empiriska material har vi fått fram genom kvalitativa intervjuer med sju lärare, som arbetar på tre olika skolor, om deras uppfattningar. Alla intervjuer spelades in på band och blev därefter transkriberade. Transkriberingarna har sedan legat till grund för vår analys och vårt resultat. Många av våra intervjudeltagare menar att rörelsen är viktig för att elevernas motorik ska utvecklas. Detta leder till att eleverna får en annan drivkraft och förbättrad koncentration i klassrumssituationer. Vidare anser deltagarna att matematiken förekommer naturligt på idrottslektionerna, den sorts matematik som äger rum är begrepp och enheter. Intervjudeltagarna nämner även att självförtroendet är viktigt för elevernas lärande, i alla ämnen. Det har även visat sig att individualisering är viktig, då elever har olika lärstilar. Vår slutsats är att rörelsen påverkar lärandet i matematik och stärker självförtroendet.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 235.
    Nyberg, Linnea
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Differences in lower extremity kinematics in barefoot running: A study done on habituated shod runners in two age groups2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Ageing affects human body with decreased muscle mass, decreased range of motion (ROM) and decreases flexibility in lower extremity. Previous research has found differences in the relationship between age and shod running kinematics such as decreased step length, decreased ROM in the knee and ankle, changes in knee angles and decreased muscle strength in plantar flexors with age. Barefoot running is a current subject in the training world and many people today converts to barefoot running. This study aims to evaluate if barefoot running kinematics in an older group of runners are different compared to a younger group.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether there are any differences in lower extremity kinematics; foot strike pattern, step length, and angles in knee and ankle at foot strike, midstance and toe-off between two age groups running without shoes.

    Method:!The method used were a 2D-video analysis with a cross-sectional study design. Twelve participants in the older group, mean age 26.6 years (48-58) and thirteen in the younger group, mean age 52.3 years (23-31) fulfilled the study. The participants ran five minutes barefoot on a treadmill whilst video recording in sagittal and lateral plane of motion. Foot strike pattern (heel/mid-forefoot strike), step length (meters) and angles (degrees) were analyzed in the Dartfish software. Independent t-tests, Mann Whitney u-tests and chi-square tests were used to study significant differences between the two groups. 

    Results: No significant differences were seen in foot strike pattern (p=0.54), step length (p=0.90) or in the angles of the knee, though a slight trend of increased flexion for the older runners could be seen in the phase of toe-off (p=0.13). No significant difference was seen in the angles of the ankle in frontal and sagittal plane.

    Conclusion: No significant differences were seen in foot strike pattern, step length or angles in knee and ankle between the older and the younger group while running barefoot for a short period of time. A slight trend of increased flexion at toe-off for the older runners in barefoot running has been observed. The results of the study could indicate that an older group of well-trained runners could keep their running style whilst running barefoot for a short period of time, but further research in the area is needed, with a broader age- range and extended running interval to make any further conclusions. 

  • 236.
    Olausson, David
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle (HOS).
    Emotion and concentration regulation training in Swedish female handball players: A short-term IZOF-based intervention.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of this mixed-method intervention study were: (1) To examine idiosyncratic profiles of emotions and performance of 3-4 leading handball team players in successful and less successful games and identify their strengths and limitations in emotion-concentration regulation; (2) To develop, implement, and evaluate an intervention program aimed at optimizing the players' emotion-concentration regulation and performance. The participants (n= 4, age= 24,5) consisted of four female elite handball players from the same team. An emotion-performance profiling process was conducted to facilitate objective one. To facilitate objective two, a small group IZOF based short term intervention was developed and implemented. The participants’ emotion-performance profiles are presented. The evaluation of the intervention indicated that the intervention increased the participants’ awareness and knowledge, and stimulated psychological skills development (i.e., emotion regulation and concentration). Methodological issues,future directions, and implications are discussed.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 237.
    Olsson, Charlotte M.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Bernhardsson, Lina
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Bremander, Ann
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Electromyographic Analysis of Left and Right Side Gluteus Medius in Unilateral and Bilateral Bodyweight Exercises2017Inngår i: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 49, nr 5S, s. 464-465Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 238.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS).
    Frandsen, Björn
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS).
    Lower body electromyography muscle activity differences between unilateral and bilateral squats with relative loads2014Inngår i: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 46, nr 5S, s. 962-963Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 239.
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Fälth, Jenny
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Ahlebrand, August
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Andersson, Åsa
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Haglund, Emma
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bench press muscle activation with triceps brachii pre-exhaustion in females and males2019Inngår i: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 37, nr Supp1, s. 71-72, artikkel-id D2.P6.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 240.
    Papachristou, Georgios
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    The effects of an active re-warm-up protocol during the half time of a competitive soccer game on sprint, agility & jump performance of male amateur soccer players.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 60 poäng / 90 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Pre-game warm-up routines are a common component of soccer. Warm-up prior to a high-demand sport as soccer, has demonstrated positive effects in the physiological responses of athletes, as well as their performance. The rise of muscle and core temperature stimulates a number of physical mechanisms, responsible for many proposed benefits in performance. The lower activity pattern of soccer players observed during the initial phase of the second half, is attributed- among other possible reasons- to remaining passive during the 15 min half time, as re-warm-up is not usually implemented before the beginning of the second half of a soccer game. Objectives. The purpose of this study was to investigate if an active re-warm-up protocol is more beneficial than no warm-up during half time on the physiological soccer-specific performance indicators; sprint, agility and vertical jump. Methods. 11 male amateur soccer players participated in a 3-occasion test, conducted in a lab setting and an indoor sports hall. Participants were submitted in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (level 1), to estimate their maximum aerobic capacity. For the other 2 test occasions, participants performed a cross-over design test, which included remaining passive (PS) and performing a 5 min active re-warm-up (RW), during half time. Identical experimental procedures were used for the other 2 occasions, including a regular pre-game warm-up, a 46.11 min simulation of one half of a competitive soccer game on a motorized treadmill, as well as sprint (10 m-20 m-30 m), agility and counter movement jump (CMJ) tests, before (baseline values) and 15 min after the simulation (second half values). Blood lactate, rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and weight loss after the simulation, as well as heart rate (HR) during the simulation, were also measured. Results. Participants’ estimated maximum aerobic capacity was 52.8±2.9 (ml· kg-1 ·min-1). Subjects’ performance decreased (p<0.01) after PS in all the performance tests. However, performance was maintained to baseline levels with the exception of agility which was improved after RW (p=0.047). Moreover, subjects performed better in all the tests after RW compared to PS (PSdiff  and RWdiff) (p<0.01). Similar was the effect of the treadmill simulation on the subjects on both occasions, since there were no differences between PS and RW in blood lactate (p=0.61), RPE (p=0.50), weight loss (p=0.26) and HR (p=0.80). Conclusion. Our results demonstrate that an active re-warm-up of 5 min during the half time of a competitive soccer game has beneficial effects on the sprint, agility, and jump performance of soccer players in the initial phase of the second half compared to no warm-up.

  • 241.
    Parker, James
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    A multi-disciplinary approach to studying performance among high-level golfers: physiological and biomechanical aspects2018Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In competitive golf, the player’s ability to hit the ball a long distance affects the score in a positive way. Swing kinematics is considered an important factor in driver performance; one way of improving swing kinematics is through strength and power training. Subsequently, high-level golfers and their coaches often explore novel ways of increasing the distance of a shot, in particular driver carry distance (CD). This licentiate thesis presents two studies with the overall aim of studying how swing kinematic and physical characteristics are associated with driver performance among intercollegiate golf players. The studies report swing kinematics associated with driver performance (study 1) and the impact of isokinetic rotational training on driver performance and swing kinematic variables (study 2).

    The methods used were (1) a cross-sectional correlation study (n=15) and (2) an open trial intervention study (n=20). The studies investigated (1) the relationship between golf swing kinematics and driver performance, and (2) the impact of strength training on swing kinematics and driver performance variable.

    The results show variables that were distinctive for the club head speed (CHS) were mainly during the downswing: greater X-factor stretch; and higher pelvis peak speed. Whilst, factors distinctive to the regression model for CD were mainly at impact: reduced thorax rotation; and greater thorax lateral bend. Nine weeks of isokinetic training increased seated rotational force and power, peak arm speed and arm acceleration, ball speed, and CD more compared to isotonic training. Even though isokinetic training did not increase CHS, it did result in greater CD.

    This licentiate thesis contributes to the understanding of which variables influence driver performance, in particular CD, among high-level golfers. Segmental interactions (pelvis-thorax), lead arm speed and acceleration, isokinetic and isotonic training. These results may guide training interventions aiming to improve driver and golf performance among high-level golfers, particularly those with a background of strength training. Future studies could investigate how the interaction between swing kinematics, clubhead trajectory, and driver performance variables differ between male and female golfers.

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    fulltext
  • 242.
    Parker, James
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Construct validity and test-retest reliability of the force-velocity profile in a golf specific rotation movement2017Inngår i: Book of Abstracts of the 22nd Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science – 5th - 8th July 2017, MetropolisRuhr – Germany / [ed] Ferrauti, A., Platen, P., Grimminger-Seidensticker, E., Jitner, T., Bartmus, U., Becher, L., De MArées, M., Muhlbauer, T., Schauterte, A., Wiewelhove, T., Tsolakidis, E., Cologne: European College of Sport Science , 2017, s. 294-294Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Assessing the isoinertial force-velocity (F-V) and power relationships has previously been found valuable to assist the understanding of the underlying mechanisms responsible for maximal power output. Multiple studies have investigated the F-V profile in the lower body, however, few studies have investigated F-V profiling in rotational movements, in particular, the golf swing. There is a need for isoinertial strength assessment protocols which can relate to final swing performance. The specific objective of the study was to investigate if measurements of force, velocity, and power using five different loads in a golf specific rotational movement are valid and reliable. Methods: 12 elite golfers (handicap -1.5±1.2) 8 men and 4 women performed a golf relevant rotational movement using five different loads (2, 6, 10, 14, and18 kg) in a motorised cable machine (1080 Motion AB, Sweden), measuring exercise peak force (PF), peak velocity (PV), and peak power (PP). In addition, normal-swing driver clubhead speed (CHSnor), and maximum clubhead speed (CHSmax) was measured using radar (Trackman, Denmark). The best of three trials for CHSnor, CHSmax, and the golf rotation was used for further analysis. Test-retest occasions were separated by 7-14 days. Statistical analysis: Change in mean (CIM) individual inter-session coefficient of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to analyze test-retest reliability, a Spearman's correlation between the rotation output variables and the CHS was used to assess construct validity.For reliability, an ICC of >0.70 was considered acceptable and results for correlation was considered excellent (≥0.90), good (0.75–0.89), moderate (0.50–0.74), poor (<0.50).was considered to be acceptable. Results: PF, PV, and PP for all of the five loads, apart from PP with 2 kg (CIM=12.2%, CV=14.1%, &ICC= 0.29) and PP with 18kg (CIM=8.6%, CV=19.1%, & ICC= 0.93), showed good reliability (CIM= 0.05-3.6%, CV=1.4-8.5%, & ICC= 0.84-0.97). PF (r=0.780-0.89 & 0.75-0.88), PV (r=0.76-0.86 & 0.78-0.85), and PP (r=0.75-0.84 & 0.76-0.85) for all loads had statistically significant strong correlations with both CHSnor and CHSmax respectively, apart from PF at 2kg (r=0.33). The average day to day variation among all loads for PF, PV and PP were 17.9 ±13.7 N, 0.30 ± 0.23 m/s, and 135.9 ± 128.1 W respectively. Greatest PP was achieved with the 14 kg load, although PP at 6, 10, and 14kg only differed by 90 W (8%) between these loads. Discussion: Isoinertial force-velocity-power profiling in high-level golfers can be assessed after a familiarization session. The strongest correlation among the rotational tests and CHS was between PF at 10 kg and CHSnor (r=0.89) and in general, the PF, PV, and PP variables had a strong relationship with both CHSnor and CHSmax. Such profiling may provide valuable information insight into the neuromuscular capabilities of high-level golfers and may be used to monitor specific training adaptions.

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  • 243.
    Parker, James
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Scandinavian College of Sport, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hellström, John
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap. Swedish Golf Federation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Johnson, Urban
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Olsson, Charlotte
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    The Variability in Kinematics and Carry in a Longitudinal Intra-individual Study of Elite Golfers2016Inngår i: Abstracts: July 18-22, 2016, 2016, s. 47-48Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To hit further and with high accuracy is important for success in the long game in golf. Even for very accomplished golfers a certain degree of between shot variance is evident even when trying to consistently repeat a successful shot. The consistency is determined by the biomechanics of the golfer, which influences club head speed (CHS) and position, and initial ball launch conditions, which in combination with environmental factors determine shot outcome. Previous research has identified several biomechanical variables associated with variance in CHS, including thorax rotation speed  and lead arm speed (LAS). Pilot data from our laboratory have indicated moderate non-significant relationship between CHS and carry in elite male golfers when studied over time. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the relationship between peak speed of the pelvis, thorax, and lead upper arm and carry over time, investigating both within and between session variability in elite male golfers.

    Methods: Six elite male golfers (handicap range -3 to +0.5) (age range 21-23 years) were included in this study. The golfers were studied on four separate occasions over a year.  Each test occasion included a golf specific warm-up of the golfers’ choice, then subjects were instructed to hit five balls with their driver and use the swing that was as ‘normal ‘as possible. Data on swing kinematics was collected using a four sensor electromagnetic motion capture system at 120Hz (Polhemus Inc. USA). Nine landmarks were digitized to define segment lengths, orientations and joint axes. CHS and carry were collected using a launch monitor (Trackman3e, v.3.2, Trackman, Denmark). The swing events were determined from sensors on the club; top of backswing was determined when the club changes direction from backswing to downswing. Impact was determined when the clubhead reaches the horizontal position equivalent to where it was at address. Angular velocities and displacements of the pelvis, thorax, and lead arm were calculated using standard biomechanics principles in conjunction with advanced motion measurement software (AMM 3D, USA). No data smoothing techniques were used before data analysis. IBM SPSS v.22 was used to analyse the data through hierarchical multilevel modelling (MLM). First a baseline model without predictors was run, then MLM was repeated with predictors where the first level of the data contained carry and kinematic data from each shot (within session level). At the second level, the carry scores were nested within sessions and analysed between sessions. Lastly, at the third level, the sessions were nested within players (between players). Carry was used as outcome variable and kinematics as predictor variables with a probability level of 0.05.

    Results: Initially MLM baseline model for carry only, was tested) without predictors. The results showed a statistical significant intercept (Estimate = 226.24, p<.001). Intraclass correlations (ICC) suggested that 32.5% of the variance in carry were present within sessions (level 1), whilst 38.0% were attributed to differences in carry between sessions (level 2). Results from the second MLM generated an improved model fit (-2 LL & BIC) where peak speeds of the pelvis, thorax, and lead upper arm were included as fixed effect covariates on level 1. The result showed that peak LAS was a statistically significant predictor of carry (β=.17, p=.001) whereas peek speed of neither thorax (β=-.04, p=.364) nor pelvis (β=.02, p=.673) had any statistically significant relationship with carry.

    Discussion: The present study found that 32.5% of variation in shot consistency can be explained at the within session level (influenced by for example variance in centeredness of impact), and 38% of variation in shot consistency can be explained at the between session level (influenced by for example environmental factors). Furthermore, LAS was the only significant predictor of within session variance in carry. Our results indicated peak LAS speed as a predictor of within session variance in carry and this is partly supported by previous research who found golfers with higher arm speed had higher ball velocity than golfers with lower arm speed(Healy et al., 2011). However, results from our pilot study differ from previous research which reports a relationship between peak thorax speed and driver performance. The difference could be due to our results being based on longitudinal data at intra-individual level, whereas previous studies have used a cross-sectional study design, different analysis methods and reported at an inter-individual level. In conclusion, our preliminary data show that within session LAS is a predictor of carry distance when the objective is shot consistency. Practitioners may consider training strategies to optimize arm speed when improve driving consistency among elite golfers. 

    References

    Healy, A., Moran, K. A., Dickson, J., Hurley, C., Smeaton, A. F., O'Connor, N. E., . . . Chockalingam, N. (2011). Analysis of the 5 iron golf swing when hitting for maximum distance. Journal of sports sciences, 29(10), 1079-1088. 

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    fulltext
  • 244.
    Parker, James
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Hälsa och idrott. Scandinavian College of Sport, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hellström, John
    Swedish Golf Federation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Differences in kinematics and driver performance in elite female and male golfers2019Inngår i: Sports Biomechanics, ISSN 1476-3141, E-ISSN 1752-6116Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to compare swing kinematic differences between women and men and investigate which variables predict clubhead speed (CHS) and carry distance (CD) whilst accounting for individual variation. Methods: Swing kinematics and driver performance data were collected on 20 (10 women) elite golfers (HCP 0.7 ± 1.4). We used Bayesian T-test for between sex comparison of swing kinematics and Bayesian Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to produce general linear models for CHS and carry distance for elite female and male golfers separately. Results: There was strong evidence that the driver performance variables CHS and CD were decreased in women compared to men, and two kinematic variables; time to arm peak speed downswing and angular wrist peak speed were slower in women. The ANCOVAs identified very strong to overwhelming evidence that participant as a fixed factor was a determinant of CHS for both women and men but was not a determinant of CD. Conclusion: when looking to enhance driver performance among high-level golfers, coaches should be aware that variables that determine CHS and CD differ among women and men and if the aim is to improve CHS coaches should not forget the importance of individual swing characteristics. © 2019 Parker, Hellström & Olsson. Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 245.
    Parker, James
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Hellström, John
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Swedish Golf Federation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Relationships between golf swing kinematics and driver performance in elite golfersManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Swing kinematics and driver performance are considered important factors in golf performance. In golf research clubhead speed (CHS) is commonly used as the driver performance measure, whereas carry distance (CD) is less investigated and together with final ball position determine the success of a drive. The aim of this study was to investigate which kinematic factors of the pelvis, thorax, and lead arm explain CHS and/or CD. Swing kinematics data on 15 elite golfers were collected using an electromagnetic 3-D system and a doppler-radar launch monitor system. Variables that emerged as important for both CHS and CD were: reduced pelvis rotation top of backswing (TOB); reduced X-factor TOB; and more thorax lateral bend TOB, along with greater thorax peak speed during the downswing. Variables that were distinctive for the CHS model were mainly during the downswing: greater X-factor stretch; and higher pelvis peak speed. Finally, factors distinctive to the regression model for CD were: reduced thorax rotation; and greater thorax lateral bend. Implications from the results suggest whilst greater peak pelvis speed and x-factor stretch effect CHS they do not significantly influence CD. Likewise, the variables unique to CD do not significantly influence CHS but may be a technical attributes which allow for more optimal clubhead delivery leading to improved CD.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Swing kinematics and driver performance
  • 246.
    Parker, James
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Johnson, Urban
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Is perceived autonomy support provided by a coach related to the frequency of injury preventative behavior among elite golfers?2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that perceived autonomy support can have an indirect effect on behaviors via autonomous motivation (Hagger & Chatzisarantis, 2015). This indirect effect has, for example, been found in relation to injury preventive behaviors within sport (Chan & Hagger, 2012). Overuse and acute injuries are a common problem among golfers (McHardy & Pollard, 2005) and exploring factors that might increase the frequency of preventive behaviors is warranted. The aim of the study was to investigate if perceived autonomy support from the coach has an indirect effect on the self-reported frequency of injury preventive behaviors via the level of autonomous motivation. A total of 59 elite golfers, (handicap M=-1.2, SD=4.9, age M=21, SD=5.5), completed a questionnaire with questions related to autonomy support from the coach, autonomous motivation for injury prevention, and the frequency of five injury preventive behaviors (e.g., how often do you ask for advice about injury preventive exercises, how often to you train to improve your physiological status). A mediation analysis, using Hayes (2012) process macro in SPSS 20.0, was performed. The results showed that perceived autonomy support and autonomous motivation could explain 45% of the variance in the frequency of preventive behaviors, F (1,56) = 22.71, p < .001. The result showed that perceived autonomy support had a statistically significant positive indirect effect on the frequency of preventive behaviors via autonomous motivation (ab = .16, 95% CI = 0.05-0.34, p<.05). Based on the results, coaches should consider giving feedback that supports autonomous motivation among golfers when aiming to encourage injury preventative behavior. Injury prevention programs should include strategies to improve the athlete’s autonomous motivation to carry out preventive activities. Future research should investigate the relationship between estimated and the objective frequency of injury prevention behavior. 

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    abstract
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  • 247.
    Parker, James
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Scandinavian College of Sport, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lagerhem, Charlie
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Hellström, John
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap. Swedish Golf Federation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olsson, Charlotte M.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Effects of nine weeks isokinetic training on power, golf kinematics, and driver performance in pre-elite golfers2017Inngår i: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation, ISSN 2052-1847, Vol. 9, artikkel-id 21Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    It has previously been shown that isotonic strength training can improve driver performance among golfers, though few studies have investigated effects of strength training on swing kinematics together with driver performance. In this study we investigated whether isokinetic rotational training could improve driver performance and swing kinematic variables amongst elite golfers.

    Methods

    Twenty competitive pre-elite golfers (handicap better than −3.0), 13 men and 7 women, were split into two groups, one group received the isokinetic power training (IK) alongside their normal isotonic pre-season strength-training and the other group continued with their normal isotonic pre-season strength-training regime (IT). The IK group completed 12 sessions of isokinetic power training on a standing rotation exercise (10% body weight at 1 m/s) and barbell squat (25 kg plus 10% body weight at 0.5 m/s). The IT group continued with their normal isotonic pre-season strength-training regime. Participants were tested for rotational power, lower body power, golf swing kinematics, and driver performance before and after a nine-week training period.

    Results

    After the nine-week training period both the IK and the IT groups increased their dominant side rotational force and power (effect sizes between 0.50–0.96) and magnitude based inference indicated that IK had a likely (> 80%) more beneficial increase in dominant side rotational force and power. For swing kinematics, IK had a likely (> 80%) more beneficial improvement in lead arm speed and acceleration compared to the IT group. For driver performance, IK had a possible (65%) beneficial effect on ball speed and likely (78%) beneficial effect on carry distance when compared to IT, whereas neither of the groups improved club head speed.

    Conclusion

    In the present study on pre-elite golfers we found that 9 weeks of isokinetic training increased seated rotational force and power, peak arm speed and arm acceleration, ball speed, and carry distance more compared to isotonic training. Even though isokinetic training did not increase CHS, it did result in greater carry distance. © The Author(s). 2017

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 248.
    Parker, James
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Lundgren, Lina
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Surfing the Waves of the CMJ: Are There between-Sport Differences in the Waveform Data?2018Inngår i: Sports, E-ISSN 2075-4663, Vol. 6, nr 4, s. 1-12, artikkel-id 168Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to analyse countermovement jump (CMJ) waveform data using statistical methods, like principal component analysis, can provide additional information regarding the different phases of the CMJ, compared to jump height or peak power alone. The aim of this study was to investigate the between-sport force-time curve differences in the CMJ. Eighteen high level golfers (male = 10, female = 8) and eighteen high level surfers (male = 10, female = 8) performed three separate countermovement jumps on a force platform. Time series of data from the force platform was normalized to body weight and each repetition was then normalized to 0–100 percent. Principal component analyses (PCA) were performed on force waveforms and the first six PCs explained 35% of the variance in force parameters. The main features of the movement cycles were characterized by magnitude (PC1 and PC5), waveform (PC2 and PC4), and phase shift features (PC3). Surf athletes differ in their CMJ technique and show a greater negative centre of mass displacement when compared to golfers (PC1), although these differences are not necessarily associated with greater jump height. Principal component 5 demonstrated the largest correlation with jump height (R2  = 0.52). Further studies are recommended in this area, to reveal which features of the CMJ thatrelate to jumping performance, and sport specific adaptations. © 2018 by the authors.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Parker_Lundgren_2018_Sports
  • 249.
    Parker, James
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI). Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Lundgren, Lina E.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Pedal to the Metal: Velocity and Power in High Level Golfers2019Inngår i: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In most rotational power assessments, discrete variables are used for subsequent examination; however, movements are continuous, and data can be collected in time series. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the velocity- and power-time series characteristics of a standing rotation test and identify relationships with golf performance. Thirty-one golfers performed a golfspecific rotation test (GSRT) with 3 different resistances (6, 10, and 14 kg) in a robotic engine system. Time series of velocity and power was calculated from the raw data, and each repetition was then normalized to 0–100%. Principal component analyses (PCAs) were performed on velocity and power waveforms. The PCA used an eigenvalue analysis of the data covariance matrix. The relationship between clubhead speed (CHS) and all principal components (PC) was examined using linear regression. Ten velocity parameters and 6 power parameters explained 80% of the variance in the data. For velocity, the first 2 PCs identified both magnitude and phase shift features while PCs 3–5 identified difference features. For power, the first 2 PCs identified both magnitude and phase shift features, the third PC identified a phase shift feature, and the fourth PC identified a difference feature. The highest relationship with CHS was shown for GSRT with 14 kg in PC2 for power (R2 5 0.48, p , 0.001). The PCA of the GSRT power test could distinguish intraindividual differences, external loads, and sex-based differences. Athletes should focus on accelerating smoothly through the movement, particularly with heavier loads, and not pulling aggressively at the beginning of the rotational AU3 movement to achieve maximum power. Copyright © 2019 by the National Strength & Conditioning Association.

  • 250.
    Parker, James
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Biomekanik och biomedicin.
    Olsson, Charlotte
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Biomekanik och biomedicin.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Biomekanik och biomedicin.
    A One Year Study on Changes in Flexibility and Stability Characteristics in Elite Golfers2011Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The results from this study show that training strategies can lead to improved flexibility and stability in golfers during the off season, however maintaining these improvements, particularly flexibility, during the in-season is not as easy. Decreased flexibility on the left side leads to reduced ROM to manage deceleration of  forces produced in the golf swing that probably lead to an increased risk of injury. Significant improvements can be made after no more than 3 months of  training, including flexibility and stability training. Technique training may be more successful if it follows a period of concentrated physical training.  During the in-season, emphasis ought to be on maintaining ROM by effective implementation of stretching programs.

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