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  • 201.
    Johansson, Jannica
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science.
    Traditionell köttproduktion och produktion av insekter: En jämförelse av miljöpåverkan och näringsinnehåll i kött från traditionell boskap respektive insekter2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The production of meat is a resource consuming process that affects the environment considerably and the demand for meat is expected to increase as the population grows. A large part of all anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions come from the livestock sector  which uses a third of the earth's surface. Insects emit fewer greenhouse gases than traditional livestock, and also uses less resources, such as land and feed.

    Entomophagy, consumption of insects, has long been part of the human diet and are still eaten on all continents. But modern people in Western countries find it difficult to accept insects as food, as their mental barriers prevent them from doing so.

    Insects are a newly discovered alternative protein source that is positive for the environment, nutrition, economy and biodiversity. However, there are currently many uncertainties about insects, they may be toxic or allergenic, and these risks must be evaluated before they can be classed as food insects. Researchers suggest that insects begin reared commercial to ensure access without pose a risk to consumers or damaging the environment.

  • 202.
    Johansson, Kim
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Jernberg, John
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Martinsson, Ted
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Postaktiveringspotentiering i knäböj med hjälp av countermovement jumps2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 203.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Jens
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Grimsö, Sweden.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Flykt, Anders
    Academy of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Factors Governing Human Fear of Brown Bear and Wolf2012In: Human Dimensions of Wildlife, ISSN 1087-1209, E-ISSN 1533-158X, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 58-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes people's subjectively experienced fear in areas with presence of brown bear or wolf. Departing from the Human-Environment Interaction Model (Küller, 1991), a hypothetical model of environmental and individual antecedents of fear was tested using structural equation modeling of survey data (n  = 391). In the model of fear of brown bear, the main predictor was the appraisal of the species as dangerous/uncontrollable and unpredictable. In the model of fear of wolf, the greater experience with the species and a stronger appraisal of wolf as dangerous, uncontrollable, and unpredictable led to low social trust and this, together with the appraisal of wolf as dangerous/uncontrollable and unpredictable, increased the likelihood of fear. Efforts to reduce human fear of wolves should focus on building trust between the public and authorities, whereas efforts to reduce fear of brown bear should focus on the individual's appraisal of the species. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  • 204.
    Johansson, Martin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science.
    Martell, Philip
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science.
    Gröna utsikter: En analys av hampas (Cannabis sativa L.) förutsättningar som energigröda i Sverige2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hemp is a versatile plant with many uses that has been around for thousands of years. The plant is highly adaptable andwill cultivate in almost any soil. It has excellent remediation properties and has shown to be relatively consistent when itcomes to crop yields. The aim of this literature survey is to examine how hemp can be used to be considered asustainable energy crop in Sweden through database searches and interviews. Hemps characteristics as an energy cropand its remediation properties is evaluated and compared with other plants that are used in Sweden. The result showsthat hemp is a competitive crop when used for solid fuel and that a closed-loop solution is achievable. Further studiesare needed for a closed-loop solution to be possible when using hemp as a biogas crop, mainly for establishing asustainable waste treatment.

  • 205.
    Jonsson, Elin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Larson, David
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Designing an appliance to ease entering the Ziesel2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Schwaz, Austria, there is a company developing energy solutions and all-terrain vehicles, i.a. the Ziesel. The wheelchair users, who constitute an estimate of a third of all customers, are attracted by the Ziesel particularly because it doesn’t look like a wheelchair. It also helps them enjoy all the benefits from getting out into the nature. However, the structure of the frame gives this customer group a challenge to enter the Ziesel, as the seat is situated both high up and far into the Ziesel. Because of this position of the seat and obstructing elements on the Ziesel, it will be problematic to choose an optimized angle between the wheelchair and the seat at the transfer moment. Because of the current frame structure of the Ziesel, the company does not have a lot of possibilities to make the transfer easier for wheelchair drivers. The goal of this project is to develop an appliance that would ease entering their vehicle for wheelchair users.

    The project is divided into two parts, creating a requirement specification and developing several concepts. The requirement specifications were written after taking consideration to the company, user and customer criteria. Relevant input and feedback was gathered through meetings and surveys directed to wheelchair users. Multiple concepts have been developed and sent to Mattro, some of them good from a user perspective and some from a time, effort and budget friendly perspective.

    A requirement specification and four concepts, of which two are recommended, are presented as a result of this project.

    During this project, a thorough study has been done to examine which transfers are easy or hard to practice to and from a wheelchair. With the results from this project, more people that did not have this opportunity before can take part of and enjoy nature. This knowledge will make a great difference in future development of new products and vehicles for Mattro.

  • 206.
    Jorlöv, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Hammarström, Jessica
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Comparison Study of the Two Pediatric ATDs: Hybrid III 6-Year-Old and Q62011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As a new pediatric dummy family, the Q-family, is suggested for the European childsafety regulations (R44) and the updated EuroNCAP, it needed to be tested andcompared to the older pediatric dummy family, Hybrid III, used in testing at Autolivtoday.In this study, tests were performed with the Q6 and the Hybrid III 6-year-old. Bothdummies were subjected to eight sled tests using a EuroNCAP acceleration pulse. The sled represented the interior of a Volvo V70, with integrated booster cushions mounted onto the car body through a rigid fixture. Standard belt were used for all tests, except one where pretensioning was used. Static tests investigated how the chest deflection on Q6 was affected by the shoulder belt geometry. Large difference in belt interaction was observed between the dummies. The beltslipped off the Hybrid III’s shoulder for all tests except one, while the belt on the Qdummy’swas hard to provoke off the shoulder. The overall kinematic behavior, beforethe belt slipped off the Hybrid III’s shoulder, were similar for both dummies. Differences in chest deflection on the Q6, depending on the belt geometry, were observed in both the dynamic and the static tests; a shoulder belt geometry closer to theneck resulted in minor displacement than a mid-shoulder belt geometry. After testing, five different damages were observed on the Q6.

  • 207.
    Jönsson, Anna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Brettéus, Emily
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    dentÆd: Utveckling av medicintekniskt instrument som ökar säkerheten samt underlättar vid oral protetik.2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The project was initiated by dental personnel at the Specialist dentistry in Halmstad, Sweden, because they experienced problems when working with oral prosthetics. There is a risk that components are dropped and due to gravity and the patient's position, being inhaled or swallowed. This means stress and concerns, contributing to the deterioration of the psychosocial work environment for dental personnel.

     

    The Swedish dental State support was introduced in 2008, which gives the patient a reduced cost for dental prosthetic procedures. This allows more people to afford oral prosthetics. Therefore, the problem becomes more and more prevalent and the demand for a solution is requiered.

     

     The project has implemented dynamic product development with a major focus on the involvement of future users. The project was based on literature reviews, observation and survey, which was performed in the product definition phase. Different concept generation methods and evaluation methods were applied and resulted in a final prototype. A continuous dialogue and testing with the clients where performed throughout the project.

     

    This product development project resulted in an instrument that facilitates for dental personnel and increase safety for the patient during oral prosthetics. The solution is a specially designed forceps which slips onto the screwdriver and secures components.

  • 208.
    Jönsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Söderström, Kristian
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Relationship between field based measures for strength and power, and golf club head speed in elite women golf players.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The game of golf has developed a lot since the beginning of the 21th century and especially the importance of physical conditioning for elite players. Club head speed (CHS) is one important variable, which has been shown to be positively affected by muscle power. Studies on women elite golf players, as well as consideration of accuracy when measuring CHS, are limited and results from male counterparts does not necessarily transfer to women players because of the possible different body anthropometrics and recruitment patterns during different aspects of the game of golf.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare measures for strength and power, with golf club head speed (CHS) in elite women golf players. A secondary aim was to compare CHS with a new test for CHS corrected for accuracy (CHSac).

     

    Method: Women golf players (n=4, mean age 21.0 SD 1.4, mean height 168.8 cm SD 5.3, mean weight 70.7 SD 9.0, mean handicap +1.8 SD 1.0) performed a test measuring golf CHS and four different physical tests which included squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), medicine ball seated throw (MBST) and medicine ball rotational throw (MBRT).

    Results: A moderate correlation of r=0.53 was found between CHS and SJ and a low correlation of r=0.36 between CHS and CMJ. A high correlation was obtained between CHS and MBST (r=0.76) and CHS and MBRT (r=0.81).

    Conclusion: Higher correlations were seen between CHS and upper body power compared to correlation between CHS and lower body strength in women elite golf players. This gives indications of what elite women golf players should prioritize during physiological conditioning in order to increase golf CHS. A test was developed for CHS correcting this variable for accuracy, but the usefulness of this accuracy related CHS could not be determined in this study. 

  • 209.
    Jönsson, Linnea
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Sänkt returtemperatur: Potentiell besparing i fjärrvärmesystem2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Optimizing energy systems is, in Sweden, as in many other countries, of growing interest. District heating systems are no exception. In 2012, 285 out of 290 municipals in Sweden had district heating in use and the majority of these systems have a higher return temperature than that which is possible with an error-free substation of day current technology. To, when possible, lower the return temperature is a way of increasing the effectiveness of the district heating system.This study means to investigate, through simulations and calculations, how big of a reduction in production cost a lower temperature in the city of Ystad’s district heating system would correspond to. The results show that a cold year, such as 2010, 1.8 SEK of the production cost could be saved per MWh sold heat for a whole year and 1°C temperature lowering. Equivalent value for a warm year such as 2011 was concluded to be 1.2 SEK/MWh,°C.

  • 210.
    Jönsson, Linnea
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Thermal energy storage systems in an energy company's district heating system: Exploring ways of handling daily and seasonal heat load variations in Höganäs2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 211.
    Kallastu, Henri
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Dietära kolhydraters effekt på sömn: en litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Recent studies tend to focus on how dietary nutritional intake can affect human beings and also how we are affected by sleep. When symptoms like overweight, diabetes, cardiovascular disease becomes more common daily, partly caused by refined carbohydrates and bad dietary habits, it is important to verify how we are affected by our dietary habits. Recent studies have shown that shortened sleep, decreased sleep efficiency and quality are associated with the same symptoms which bad dietary habits can lead to. Therefor it would be of interest to examine the association between sleep and dietary habits.

    Purpose: By a systematic literature review examine the studies that exist of association between carbohydrates and sleep.

    Method: A systematic literature search was done to examine the studies that exist up to date with the association between carbohydrates and sleep. By certain search words and limits 9 studies were found and were carefully examines and compiled.

    Results: The results from the studies found showed that an increased total energy intake mainly from carbohydrates can reduce sleep duration. An increased intake from carbohydrate with higher Glycemic Index close to bedtime decreased the sleep latency and affect sleep quality.

    Conclusion:The association between carbohydrates and sleep is strong but still needs to be further investigated. Further studies are needed on the subject to better understand the effect of carbohydrate intake on our sleep.

  • 212.
    Kallner Bastviken, Sofia
    et al.
    IFM Biology, Linköping University, Campus Valla, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan E.B.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Thiere, Geraldine
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Svensson, Jonas M.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Tonderski, Karin S.
    IFM Biology, Linköping University, Campus Valla, Sweden.
    Effects of vegetation and hydraulic load on seasonal nitrate removal in treatment wetlands2009In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 946-952Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimising nitrate removal and identifying critical factors for nitrate removal in wetlands is an important environmental task in the effort to achieve better surface water quality. In this study, eighteen free water surface wetlands with similar shape and size (22 m2 each) received groundwater with a high nitrate-N concentration (about 11 mg l−1). The effects of two hydraulic loads, 0.13 m d−1 and 0.39 m d−1, and three vegetation types – emergent, submersed and freely developing vegetation – on the nitrate-N removal were investigated through mass inflow and outflow measurements.

    No significant difference in nitrate removal between the different hydraulic loads could be detected. Significantly higher area-specific nitrate removal and first-order area-based rate coefficients were found in the basins with emergent vegetation, with no difference between the basins with submersed and freely developing vegetation. The nitrate-N removal increased as the wetlands matured and the vegetation grew denser, emphasizing the role of dense emergent vegetation for nitrate removal at high nitrate concentrations.

  • 213.
    Kalén, Jonas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Åkerlund, Nathan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Gårdsbaserad biogas på Nya Skottorp: utvärdering och optimering av anläggningen och uppgradering av biogasen2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas is an expanding sector within the broad field of agriculture and animal production. Small-scale biogas offers local combined power and heating production and the substrate is transformed into high-quality biological fertilizer. This bachelor thesis focuses on a pig farm in south-western Sweden, where biogas is produced from pig manure, evaluates and suggests ways of optimizing the process and investigates whether investing in an upgrading plant would be a feasible and more cost-efficient option. The results show that the biogas plant is working well, although the production differs from the original plans. This shows in turn that planning and examining the basic conditions before making the investment is of great importance, as well as monitoring and keeping detailed statistics of the running process. Logistical factors make optimizing the process through additional substrates difficult. The thesis shows that investing in a Biosling upgrading plant would be a profitable option, supposing that the upgraded gas is sold via the natural gas infrastructure. Furthermore, many farmers are interested in producing their own fuel for tractors and other machines, which offers more future alternatives for the upgraded biogas. However, biogas producers in Sweden today are not offered any particular subsidies, which makes it especially hard for small-scale producers.

  • 214.
    Karlsson, Amanda
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Validering av det submaximala cykeltestet Ekblom-Bak för yngre och äldre män jämfört med det submaximala cykeltestet Åstrand2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In today’s society the population is becoming more and more inactive and this is leading to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and also to a low physical capacity. Physical inactivity is now classified as the fourth highest cause of premature death in the world. Physical capacity can be measured through aerobic capacity and the lower the aerobic capacity level, the lower the physical capacity will be. One way of measuring fitness is through a submaximal bicycle test, such as Åstrand or Ekblom-Bak. A submaximal test means that the test is performed on a workload that represents 60-80% of the persons maximal capacity and will be presented in both absolute and relative values, the latter takes bodyweight into account.

    Aim : This study is a validation of the submaximal bicycle test Ekblom-Bak set against Åstrand test, examining their correlation in testing of younger and older men. Further examining the absolute and relative values for the Åstrand and Ekblom-Bak tests in younger and older men.

    Methods: This study included 31 male subjects that where divided into two groups, younger (n=17, average age 25 (SD 2) years) and older (n=14, average age 49 (SD 7) years). The tests were performed on a Monark ergomedic model 818 E at the University of Halmstad, Sweden. Both tests results were obtained in absolute and relative values. Parametric statistic was used.    

    Results: The relative values for young men showed a moderate positive correlation and for older men a high positive correlation. The absolute values showed a week positive correlation, in young men, and a week negative correlation, in older men. The Ekblom-Bak test showed a lower standard deviation than the Åstrand test. The results show that older men have a lower VO2max, both for Åstrand and Ekblom-Bak test.

    Conclusion: This study shows that the relative values correlates higher between the submaximala bicycle tests Åstrand and Ekblom-Bak when testing younger and older men, while the absolute values showed contradictory results. Future studies should be on a larger number of subjects so that more data can be included.

  • 215.
    Karlsson, Maria
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Koch, Kamilla
    University of Mainz.
    Continuous and stepwise oocyte production in Libellulidae (Anisoptera)2010In: Odonatologica, ISSN 0375-0183, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 107-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compared to other insect groups, libellulids have a rather high mean number of ovarioles. In addition, the mean ovariole diameter differs greatly between and within species. In general, 2 different types of ovariole arrangement exist: (1) all developing oocytes mature and equal in size; in some species without, and in others with, surrounding connective tissue and (2) oocytes displaying gradual maturation, with only the outermost ovarioles mature. These differences have ecological consequences: the first arrangement occurs in spp. that have stepwise egg production. These spp. will lay one or more clutches, after which an interclutch interval of ovariole regrowth follows. Spp. with the second arrangement have continuous egg production and are able to lay at least some eggs all the time, reducing the length of interclutch intervals. However, no direct connection between mate-guarding strategies and ovariole arrangements can be seen. Nevertheless, it is believed that the process of ovariole maturation differs between these groups. It is concluded that ovary morphology in libellulids may exhibit evolutionary fixed traits, although the whole picture still remains complex. The ovariole arrangement may have a crucial impact on the reproductive ecology of the species.

  • 216.
    Kip, David
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Willman, Peter
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    ÖVERENSSTÄMMELSE MELLAN RESULTAT I COOPERTEST OCH 30-15 INTERMITTENT ICE TEST PÅ MANLIGA JUNIORISHOCKEYSPELARE2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Majoriteten av tester inom ishockeyn utförs off-ice vilket kan begränsa testresultatets applicerbarhet till on-ice prestation, på grund av brist på sportspecificitet. Ishockey har karaktäriserats som en intermittent kontaktsport, med högintensiv skridskoåkning som förutsätter snabb acceleration, förändringar i hastighet och riktningsförändringar. Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om ett bra resultat på det löpningsbaserade Coopertestet (CT) överensstämmer med ett bra resultat på det mer idrottsspecifika 30-15 Intermittent Ice Test (30-15IIT) hos manliga juniorishockeyspelare. Metod: Manliga juniorspelare i olika åldrar som går på ett certifierat elithockeygymnasium deltog i studien. Resultaten från ett CT och ett 30-15IIT samlades in. Testernas överensstämmelse studerades med hjälp av Spearmans korrelationskoefficient. Resultat: 22 manliga juniorishockeyspelare, medelålder 17,9 (SD ± 0,8) år, slutförde studien. Överensstämmelsen mellan CT och 30-15IIT gav en korrelationskoefficient (rs) på -0,39 (p = 0,073). Slutsats: CT räcker inte som uthållighetsprov för manliga juniorishockeyspelare, utan ett mer idrottsspecifikt intermittent uthållighetstest, t.ex. 30-15IIT, kan vara ett viktigt komplement för utvärdering av spelarnas fysiska profil.

  • 217.
    Kjällquist, Mattias
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Närvärmeanläggningar: Teknisk underlagsrapport och sammanställning av driftserfarenheter2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 218.
    Kling, Michaela
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    EFFEKTER AV STABILITETSTRÄNING I FOTLEDEN EFTER SKADA: EN LITTERATURSTUDIE2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 219.
    Koch, Kamilla
    et al.
    Department of Ecology, Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany.
    Wagner, Christine
    Department of Ecology, Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany.
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Farmland versus forest: comparing changes in Odonata species composition in western and eastern Sweden2014In: Insect Conservation and Diversity, ISSN 1752-458X, E-ISSN 1752-4598, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 22-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Despite the loss of natural ecosystems in the developed world during the past millennia, anthropogenic landscapes still sustain much biodiversity. Our question was, whether ten year changes in regional Odonata faunas are comparable between farmland and forested areas, or if the species pool of farmland areas respond in other ways than that of forest.

    2. We used data of dragonfly larvae collected from 16 lakes in a farmland area in south-western Sweden in the years 2002 and 2011/12, and compared these to data from 34 lakes in a forest area in south-eastern Sweden in the years 1996 and 2006.

    3. The species-richness in the agricultural region increased by 17% but decreased by 13% in the forested region. The changes in occurrence and regional distribution were similar in both areas, affecting 71% and 69% of the species pool. Average extinction rates were comparable between the agricultural and the forested region (38% and 43%) while colonisation rates differed greatly (64% and 114%).

    4. The species composition differed between the regions; the forest lakes harboured a 29% larger species pool. It is possible that in the forested region, the regional species pool in areas surrounding the study sites could stabilise the extinction and have a positive effect on changes in species composition. We assume that the different habitat structures of the waters in the agricultural and the forest regions and changes in temperature are the main driving forces behind the shifts. The mean seasonal air temperature has increased by circa 0.5°C in both regions, when comparing ten-year periods before each sampling year.

  • 220.
    Koro, Catalin
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Mätningar av kortisolkoncentrationen i saliv under två perioder där stressfaktorn upplevs variera.: Analys av kortisolkoncentrationen och intraindividuell stabilitet inom cortisol awakening response (CAR).2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Version:1.0 StartHTML:0000000178 EndHTML:0000005278 StartFragment:0000002640 EndFragment:0000005242 SourceURL:file://localhost/Volumes/NAMNLOS/Examensarbete%20kortisol.doc

    Föreliggande studie syftar till att försöka utläsa skillnader mellan två olika perioder då den personliga stressfaktorn upplevs vara olika intensiv. Undersökningen syftar även till att studera huruvida den mänskliga kortisolutsöndringens diurnala upp - och ned gångar följer en intraindividuell stabilitet av CAR (cortisol awakening responce). Detta skulle innebära ett upprepande mönster av kortisolkoncentrationens magnitud och mätvärde inom varje individ från dag till dag, vid uppvaknandet och 30 minuter efter.

    Undersökningen har genomförts som en pilotstudie där en försökspersons kortisolkoncentration i saliv har mätts genom enzymkopplad immunabsorberande analys (ELISA). För att jämföra mätserierna inom de olika perioderna med varandra har även en variationsanalys av typen Analysis of variance (ANOVA) utförts med hjälp av programvaran SPSS. Då provernas mätvärde har analyserats och jämförts med varandra har ett resultat kunnat fastställas.

    Eftersom utsöndringen av den individuella kortisolkoncentrationen lätt påverkas av omgivningsfaktorer användes endast en försöksperson, författaren, vilket underlättade en detaljerad analys där observation av påverkande faktorer lätt kunde tas med i beräkningen för att fastställa ett tillförlitligt resultat. Försökspersonen, kvinna 21 år, utförde 6 provtagningar under två perioder som upplevdes ha olika hög stressfaktor. Perioderna innehöll två arbetsdagar. Parallellt med provtagningen fördes noggranna dagboksanteckningar för att underlätta analyseringsarbetet.

    Resultatet uppvisar en intraindividuell stabilitet av CAR hos försökspersonen. Studien visar även en skillnad mellan de två perioderna genom en högre procentuell ökning av CAR under den period då stressfaktorn upplevdes som mer intensiv.

    Den tydliga skillnaden av kortisolkoncentrationens mätvärde mellan de olika dagarna indikerar även att livsstil, fysisk aktivitet och drömmar kan påverka utseendet av kortisolkoncentrationskurvans diurnala upp – och nedgångar.

  • 221.
    Kowalik, Raph
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    A review of surface Electromyography used to determine sincerity of effort in Functional Capacity Evaluations2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 222.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    et al.
    R&D Centre, Spenshult, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health promotion and disease prevention. R&D Centre, Spenshult, Oskarström, Sweden & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine. R&D Centre, Spenshult, Oskarström, Sweden & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    OP0094-HPR Person-Centred Care (PCC) May Improve Health Care Consumer Skills More than Regular Care - an RCT in Patients with CIA Undergoing Biological Therapy2015In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 74, no Suppl. 2, p. 104-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In person-centred care (PCC) a holistic approach, individualized care, empowerment and self-management are cornerstones. Patients are seen as persons with resources and are encouraged to take an active role in their own health care to become skilled or effective consumers of health care. Little is known of the impact of PCC vs. regular care on patients’ skills as health care consumers.

    Objectives: To study the impact on effective consumers’ skills over 12 months in patients undergoing biological therapy and randomly assigned to either a nurse-led rheumatology clinic (NLC) based on PCC or to a rheumatologist-led clinic (RLC) as measured by the Effective Consumer Scale (EC17).

    Methods: A 12 month RCT in 107 patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis.1 Inclusion criteria were ongoing biological therapy and a DAS28 ≤3.2. All patients met a rheumatologist at inclusion and after 12 months, while the 6 month follow-up was performed in the assigned group, either at a NLC (PCC) or at an RLC (regular care). Outcome measure was the EC17, developed and endorsed by the OMERACT to measure skills in decision-making, navigation and negotiation with health care professionals (0-100, worse to best). Minimally Important Difference (MID) of EC17 was calculated (≥ 0.5 SD of the mean baseline score)2 and patients categorized in three EC17 groups: improvement, no change or deterioration of consumer skills. Differences between intervention groups and EC17 groups were calculated with Chi2. Global health, pain and HAQ were measured for descriptive purposes.

    Results: A total of 101 patients completed the EC17 at baseline (mean 84 SD 10) and after 12 months. Twelve patients had baseline scores higher than 95 and a MID in improvement could not be measured why they were excluded, leaving 89 patients in the trial (mean age 53 SD 12 years, mean disease duration 16 SD 11 years, 54% women, RLC n=44, NLC n=45). At baseline mean (SD) DAS28 was 2.05 (0.68), global health 22 (17), pain 23 (18) and HAQ 0.55 (0.51). A larger proportion of patients improved according to EC17 in the NLC compared with the RLC (42% vs. 23%), and a smaller proportion deteriorated (16% vs. 23%; table). The differences were not statistically significant (p=0.14), probably due to a small sample size.

    Table. Proportion of patients who deteriorated (≥5 units), remained stable or improved (≥5 units) in EC17 over 12 months monitored at a NLC or an RLC, total n= 89.

    EC17 deterioration

    NLC 16%   (n=7)

    RLC 23%    (n=10)

    EC17 stable

    NLC 42%   (n=19)

    RCL 54%   (n=24)

    EC17 improvement

    NLC 42%   (n=19)

    RLC 23%   (n=10)

    Conclusions: A nurse-led rheumatology clinic based on person-centred care resulted in a greater proportion of patients who reported a long term improvement in skills as consumers of health services compared with patients monitored by a rheumatologist-led clinic. Larger studies are needed to confirm the result.

    References: 1. Larsson I, et al. Randomized controlled trial of a nurse-led rheumatology clinic for monitoring biological therapy. J Adv Nurs 2014;70(1):164-75.

    2. Strand V, et al. It's good to feel better but it's better to feel good and even better to feel good as soon as possible for as long as possible. Response criteria and the importance of change at OMERACT 10. J Rheumatol 2011;38(8):1720-7.

  • 223.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health promotion and disease prevention. FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden; Lund University, Lund, Sweden & The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine. FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Person-Centred Care Can Help Patients to Become More Effective Consumers in the Use of Health Information than Regular Care – an RCT in Patients with Arthritis Undergoing Biological Therapy2015In: Arthritis & Rheumatology, ISSN 2326-5191, E-ISSN 2326-5205, Vol. 67, no Suppl. S10, article id 1495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Purpose:

    Person-centred care (PCC) is a holistic approach with respectful and individualized care allowing negotiation of care where persons with health problems are empowered to be involved in health decisions. Patients’ illness narratives constitute a starting point for building a collaboration with health care professionals and to empower them to play an active role in their health care. Little is known of the impact of PCC vs. regular care on patients’ skills as health care consumers. The aim was to study the impact on effective consumers’ skills over 6 and 12 months as measured by the Effective Consumer Scale (EC17) in patients undergoing biological therapy and randomly assigned to either a nurse-led rheumatology clinic (NLC) based on PCC or to a rheumatologist-led clinic (RLC) based on regular care.

    Methods:

    A 12 month RCT in 107 patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis1. Inclusion criteria were ongoing biological therapy and a DAS28 ≤3.2. All patients met a rheumatologist at inclusion and after 12 months, while the 6 month follow-up was randomized to either at an NLC (PCC) or at an RLC (regular care). Outcome measure was the EC17, developed and endorsed by the OMERACT, including five subscales; 1. Use of health information, 2. Clarifying personal priorities, 3. Communicating with others, 4. Negotiating roles and 5. Deciding and taking action. EC17 total score ranges from 0-100, worse to best. Differences between and within NLC and RLC were analyzed with Friedmans’ test or Mann Whitney U-test.

    Results:

    After 12 months 97 patients completed the RCT (NLC n=47, RLC n=50), mean (SD) age 55.4 (12.7) years, disease duration 16.7 (11.5) years, DAS28 2.1 (0.7), HAQ 0.54 (0.38), global health 20.4 (17.1), pain 21.1 (18.0) and 56% were women. There were no statistically significant differences within or between the two intervention groups at baseline nor in EC17 total score mean (SD) at baseline (NLC 83.5 (9.4) vs. RLC 83.2 (10.8), 6 months (NLC 85.4 (10.4) vs. RLC 82.9 (10.9) and 12 months (NLC 85.3 (11.1) vs. RLC 82.3 (10.9)). However, in NLC there was a statistically significant improvement in EC17 subscale “1. Use of health information” at both 6 and 12 months (p=0.041 and p=0.004 respectively).

    Conclusion:

    Replacing just one of three visits over 12 months to an NLC based on PCC instead of an RLC based on regular care resulted in more effective consumers concerning the use of health information. Larger studies over longer time frames focusing on PCC are needed to better understand its full impact on effective consumer skills measured by EC17.

    References:

    1. Larsson I, et al. Randomized controlled trial of a nurse-led rheumatology clinic for monitoring biological therapy. J Adv Nurs 2014;70:164-75.

  • 224.
    Larsson, Matilda
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Inventering av Strandpadda (Bufo calamita) 2012 på Balgö och inom Varbergs kust2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 225.
    Larsson, Sebastian
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Bulleremissioner från vertikalaxlade vindkraftverk2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wind power in Sweden is expanding in response to the government's decision that 49% of Sweden's power should originate from renewable energy sources by the year 2020. Problems with noise and sound emissions related to wind turbines are a constant argument against the wind power expansion and this paper means to examine if vertical axis wind turbines might be a viable alternative to the conventional horizontal design for noise sensitive areas. In order to determine factors like difference in frequency, noise propagation and noise emission level, measurements of both horizontal and vertical axis wind turbines have been completed and the data analyzed with MATLAB. It is shown that there is a difference in how the noise from the two types of turbines propagates due to avariation in the frequency spectra of the emitted sound. It is also shown that vertical axis wind turbines generate a lower sound emission with less intensity inthe lower frequencies.

  • 226.
    Larsson, Sebastian
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Wind turbines - a study on the correlation between rotor size and noise characteristics2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wind power is a massively increasing energy source in the European Union, due to the 2020 goals that 20% of EU:s energy flow has to originate from renewable sources. Big wind turbines produce low frequency noise, which is a growing problem as the rapid technical development leads to larger and larger turbine.

    This master thesis aims to examine the frequency distribution of the noise emitted from wind turbines of different sizes with the ultimate goal to establish trends. Using sound recordings from Vestas V27, V42 and V90 turbines, the noise is divided into octave bands using MATLAB to study the amount of low frequency noise. Due to a lack of accessibility to turbine sites, some site observed in the study suffer from a large amount of nearby noise pollution. However, a change in sound level in the region of the 63 to 250 Hz one-third octave bands is shown when comparing the V90 turbine data to the smaller sizes, correlating well with previous research in the field, but more research and measurements are needed to explain the occurrence on a more detailed level.

  • 227.
    Larsson, Viktor
    et al.
    Halmstad University. Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET). Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Bertilsson, Ingrid
    Halmstad University. Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET). Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    GearUp: Ett utvecklingsprojekt för ökad framkomlighet2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a Bachelor thesis in Biomechanics. The students Ingrid Bertilsson and Viktor Larsson have performed a development project in cooperation with Hälsoteknikcentrum Halland (HCH). With a user-centered development process has a functional prototype of a geared wheelchair wheel with a regulatory solution been developed. The function prototype has been tested. This prototype was developed to reduce the problems for wheelchair users with inclines and arduous terrain. A workshop with users clarified these problems and the users requested a product reducing the strain in these environment. The project elaborate concepts and these were evaluated in collaboration with users, therapists and assistive technologies to create the best and complete solution as possible. During the development process the project has regarded user friendliness, medical regulations and requirements to enable CE marking of the products. The result was a wheelchair wheel with an integrated planetary gear hub, and an intuitive and userfriendly control device. The function and design of the control device will not be affected in this report due to confidentiality. The gear hubs construction repose on the bicycle hub SRAM i3-motion design, but was modified to suit the sector of application for wheelchair. The gear hubs wheels are set up on the wheelchair Panthera S2 and enabled testing in an incline of 8.5 %. The tests indicated that geared wheelchair wheel can reduce strain for a wheelchair user, when climbing hills. Proposals for final design of the hubs and control device have been developed. The product needs further development and further testing before it can be added in production.

  • 228.
    Lilja, Ida
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science.
    Kan samrötning av gödsel ge en större biogasproduktion?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To achieve a sustainable use of energy we must increase our use of renewable energysources, biogas if one such source. One of the greatest potentials for biogas are in theagricultural sector and the Energy Agency calculates that 25% of the available manurecan be used for biogas production. The purpose of this thesis is to contribute withknowledge of co-digestion of manure and how this affects the methane potential andhow co-digestion affects the contents of NH4 in the sludge.

    The report includes a literature study to understand the digestion process and its partsand allows interpretation of data. The report includes analysis of data from HalmstadUniversitys experiment of anaerobic digestion and an additional digestion. The resultsobtained in this study shows that the effect of co-digestion varies depending on manure.Horse and chicken manure and beef and pig manure gives a positive effect to the codigestion.

  • 229.
    Lindborg, Anton
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    The correlation between two unilateral jumps and change of direction in young soccer players2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A lot of previous research have studied the correlation between bilateral jumps with performance in change of direction (COD) even though COD occurs unilateral. Only a few researches have studied the relationship between COD and unilateral jumps but the results are conflicting. Neither of these have studied the correlation between COD, measured with the Zigzag agility test, and both unilateral horizontal jumps (UHJ) and unilateral lateral jumps (ULJ) among young soccer players.  Aim: The aim was to study the magnitude of the correlation between UHJ and the Zigzag agility test and between ULJ and the Zigzag agility test among young male soccer players.  Method: Thirty young male soccer players between 17-19 years were tested in a Zigzag agility test and two different jumps (UHJ and ULJ). The time of the Zigzag agility test was measured in seconds and the length of the two jumps in meters. Everything were tested during one test session. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to calculate the relationships between UHJ, ULJ and the Zigzag agility test. Following guidelines were used to determine the magnitude of the correlation: r below -0.29 for a small correlation, r= -0.30 to -0.49 for a medium correlation and r -0.50 to -1.0 for a strong correlation.    Results: Small correlation were found between UHJ and the Zigzag agility test (r= -0.028) and as well as between ULJ the Zigzag agility test (r= -0.27). The mean value (SD±) was 6.41s (0.18) for the Zigzag agility test, 1.87m (0.15) for UHJ and 1.65m (0.13) for ULJ.  Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that both UHJ and ULJ had small correlations with the Zigzag agility test as a measurement of COD performance, with a slightly higher correlation for the ULJ. This means that unilateral jumps and COD performance probably are two different skills and should be trained in different ways. Not much research has been done in this area and the results concerning the correlation between COD and unilateral jumps are still mixed. More research is needed to declare the relationship with unilateral jumps and COD performance. Interesting for the further research would also be to involve other factors such as running technique and straight sprinting to determine the importance of each factor. 

  • 230.
    Lindeberg, Jasmine
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science.
    Brandt, Victor
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science.
    An evaluation of the effects from livestock farming using water conditions and Odonata species:: Could Odonata act as indicators of eutrophication?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 231.
    Lindegren, Roger
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Energi Mat Träning: nutrition i ett helhetsperspektiv2011Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad och när skall jag äta för att göra min träning effektivast? Varför är det så svårt att gå ner i vikt? Vad händer när man lagar mat? Vad är egentligen energi? Kommer maten att räcka till alla på jorden?

    Dessa och en rad andra frågor vill denna bok ge dig den vetenskapliga bakgrunden till att själv kunna börja besvara. Inga förkunskaper krävs utan begreppen förklaras allt eftersom.

    Boken är lämplig som introduktion till näringslära samt som kursbok i grundläggande kurser i nutrition och idrottsnutrition. Den vänder sig även allmänt till dig som är intresserad av mat och hälsa. © Studentlitteratur

  • 232.
    Linderoth, Frida
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Foam rolling compared to dynamic stretch and 20 meter sprint time performance2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Foam rolling (FR) is, compared to dynamic stretch (DS), a relatively new method used in warm-up routines prior athletic performances in for example, sprinting and soccer. The research on the subject is limited and further investigation is needed to better understand about the possible effects of foam rolling on performance. By comparing FR to DS this study focused on how foam rolling may affect sprint time on 20 meter.

     

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare FR to DS included in warm-up routines prior 20 meter sprint performance. The study was done on young male soccer players.

     

    Method: Fifteen subjects participated in the study aged 16-17 years. A randomized cross over design was used over two test sessions with one week apart. Half group began with FR included in the warm-up routine and half began with DS included in the routine. The fastest sprint times in 20 meter were analyzed in a dependent t-test to investigate possible different effects between the two warm-up routines.

     

    Results: The result showed no statistical significant difference between the two warm-up routines on sprint time (p=0.54). Mean sprint time was 3.05 for FR and 3.05 for DS. Standard deviation (SD) was 0.14 for FR and 0.16 for DS.

     

    Conclusion: This study showed no difference on 20 meter sprinting performance when FR was compared to DS. That indicates that FR as well as DS can be included in warm-up routine prior short sprints without differences in performance. However, studies with larger sample size are needed to investigate the possible affects of foam rolling on physical impact and sprint performance.

  • 233.
    Lindstrand, Hilda
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Detektering av in- och utandning vid bilkörning med hjälp av Matlab2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Volvo Human Monitoring (VHM) är ett pågående projekt på Volvo Personvagnar där dem bland annat mäter in- och utandning genom en mätutrustning, kallad respiratorisk induktans pletysmograf (RIP), som mäter förändringar av tvärsnittsarean av bröstkorg och buk. När föraren är i rörelse till exempel när hon svänger ändras tvärsnittsarean och en ”störning” i RIP-signalen kan uppkomma.

    Dessa störningar medför att vid analys av RIP-signalen måste stora manuella justeringar utföras, vilket är mycket tidskrävande, och utrustningens validitet för mätning av in- och utandning ifrågasätts.

    Syftet med denna studie var att effektivisera analysen av en RIP-signal som registrerats vid bilkörning. Målsättningen var att skapa ett nytt databearbetningsverktyg i Matlab som på ett automatiskt sätt kan detektera in- och utandning från en RIP-signal med högre validitet än det existerande databearbetningsverktyget.

    I studien utfördes tester på nio förare under bilkörning på landsväg, grusväg, motorväg och i stadstrafik. In- och utandning mättes med en RIP, en pneumotakograf med en tätt sluten ansiktsmask och ett termoelement som var placerad mellan näsa och mun som referensutrustning.

    Resultatet blev ett databearbetningsverktyg som automatiskt detekterar in- och utandning med högre validitet än det tidigare internutvecklade databearbetningsverktyg. Verktyget markerar sekvenser där risken är stor att RIP mäter in- och utandning på ett felaktigt sätt eller tar bort in- och utandningar under dessa sekvenser beroende på användarens inställningar.

    Studien har även bidragit till ny kunskap om en alternativ mätutrustning, termoelementet, för att detektera in- och utandning med högre validitet än med RIP under bilkörning.

  • 234.
    Lindström, Sandra
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Bergander, Cecilia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Effekter av att kombinera kondition, styrka och rörlighet i ett och samma träningspass2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Regular physical activity has great benefits for health and well-being and can prevent injuries and diseases. Cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure, osteoporoses, type 2 diabetes and obesity are all examples of common diseases which physical activity can reduce the risk of. Endurance, strength and flexibility training have all different parts in health, well-being and sports performance capacity. It is important to develop a training program that includes all components. Far from everyone prioritize their health and training in todays stressed society.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of combining endurance, strength and flexibility training in one program. The authors wanted to design an all-round training program. Eight women in the ages 18-35 participated in the study that lasted for eight weeks. They performed the training sessions twice every week and the training program included endurance alternated with strength training. Flexibility training were placed first and last in every session. Endurance, strength and flexibility tests were performed before and after the training period to determine the effects. The results showed significance (p < 0,05) in the endurance and strength tests, which indicate that it can be effective to combine endurance and strength training in one training program. The flexibility tests did not show any significance (p > 0,05) and by that it can be assumed that flexibility training should have been done more, to get a greater effect.

  • 235.
    Lindström, Ulf
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS). Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS). Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden & Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Petersson, Ingemar F.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Lennart T. H.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Back pain and health status in patients with clinically diagnosed ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis and other spondyloarthritis: a cross-sectional population-based study2016In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In the broader spectrum of back pain, inflammatory back pain (IBP) is a symptom that may indicate axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of current IBP, as a hallmark sign of possible axial SpA, in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and other SpA and to compare self-reported health between the groups with current IBP.

    METHODS: Five-thousand seven hundred seventy one patients identified in the regional healthcare register of the most southern county of Sweden, diagnosed at least once by a physician (based on ICD-codes) with any type of SpA in 2003-2007, were sent a postal survey in 2009. Patients with current IBP were identified, based on self-reported back pain ≥3 months in the preceding year and fulfilling the Berlin criteria for IBP. The frequencies of IBP in AS, PsA and other SpA (including the remaining subgroups of SpA) were determined, and the groups were compared with regard to patient reported outcome measures (PROMs).

    RESULTS: The frequency and proportion of patients with current IBP in AS, PsA and other SpA were 319 (43 %), 409 (31 %) and 282 (39 %) respectively, within the responders to the survey (N = 2785). The proportion was statistically higher in AS, compared to PsA (p < 0.001), but not for AS compared to other SpA (p = 0.112). PsA and other SpA, with current IBP, had similar (BASFI, EQ-5D, patients global assessment, fatigue, spinal pain) or worse (BASDAI) PROMs, compared to AS with current IBP. PsA with current IBP received pharmacological, anti-rheumatic, treatment more frequently than AS with current IBP, while AS and other SpA received treatment to a similar degree.

    CONCLUSION: The proportion of patients with current IBP was substantial in all three groups and health reports in the non-AS groups were similar or worse compared to the AS group supporting the severity of IBP in these non-AS SpA groups. These findings may indicate a room for improvement concerning detection of axial disease within different subtypes of non-AS SpA, and possibly also for treatment.

  • 236.
    Lindén, Pernilla
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science.
    Utvärdering av användandet av Smiley-systemet: Miljökontor och livsmedelsverksamheter i två kommuner i Skåne2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A system for the publication of the control results on food businesses were introduced in

    Sweden but for various reasons it was never fully implemented. It was, however, a few

    municipalities in Sweden which became curious about this system and gradually began to use

    it. In this study, I have investigated what perceptions and views local authorities and

    associated food businesses that use the system have and if they think that it is a good system.

    2 municipalities were interviewed with related food industries and a simple questionnaire

    about their views on the system was sent to a few more establishments. The results showed

    that local authorities were satisfied with the system and considered that so far there were no

    disadvantages to the system. The food businesses felt that the Smiley system was mainly a

    positive system, and in their view above all for the customer. The non-premier a Smiley

    considered it a positive system so long as it was done in the right way. The majority of the

    interviewed businesses felt that there was a marketing value in having the Smiley sticker.

  • 237.
    Linke, Mats
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Saarela, Tobias
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    EFFEKTEN AV VIKTMANIPULERAD UTRUSTNING PÅ DRAGSKOTTSHASTIGHET OCH GREPPSTYRKA I INNEBANDY: EN SEX VECKORS STUDIE PÅ MANLIGA 17-ÅRIGA INNEBANDYSPELARE2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Floorball is a sport with increasing number of participants, which has not been studied extensively according to the literature. Previous studies on ice hockey and baseball have shown that training with weight manipulated equipment improved grip strength and swing speed. Other research has shown that the increased performance with dynamic resistance training rather occurs from the improvements in the neuromuscular facilitation than an increase in muscle mass. In floorball shooting velocity is considered to be an important factor of the performance. Since it has been shown in baseball that training with weight manipulated equipment can improve the bat velocity, it would be interesting to see if the same results can be found in floorball. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of grip strength and drag shot velocity in floorball training with a weight manipulated floorball stick. The study also investigated the relationship between grip strength and drag shot velocity. The test subjects’ subjective perception about the training method was also investigated. Thirteen 17-year-old male floorball players participated in the study. During a six weeks period the subjects used the weight manipulated equipment during 30 minutes, three times per week during their regular team practice. 40 grams lead tape was attached to the player's equipment to increase the resistance. The drag shots were filmed with a high speed camera (Casio Exilim EX-FH25) at 250 fps. The drag shot velocity was analyzed in Dartfish. To assess grip strength a hand dynamometer (Jamar - Baseline Hydraulic Hand Dynamometer)was used. The training resulted in a significant increase for the subjects’ grip strength in the lower hand on the stick (p <0,05). The study found no significant difference for the upper hand grip strength or drag shot velocity. No correlation between drag shot velocity and handgripstrength among the subjects were found. Conclusion: The results found in this study indicate that training with weight manipulated equipment can significantly improve the player’s lower hand grip strength. The results can eventually be explained by more effective fiber recruitment in the muscles. Studying floorball can contribute to increase the interest in research on floorball and increase the understanding for how dynamic resistance training can be incorporated in daily floorball practice.

  • 238.
    Linnér, Lukas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Parker, James
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Ekengren, Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Dual Career Balance in Student-Athletes University Transition2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Balancing studies, a personal life and sports, that is, having a dual career, is considered as a challenge associated with transitional demands in athletic and non-athletic (psychological, psychosocial, academic/vocational, financial) domains (Wylleman, Reints, & De Knop, 2013). The aim of this study was to investigate student-athletes’ university transition with a specific focus on how student-athletes balance different domains of their lives. Twenty-three Swedish university student-athletes (mean age= 21.52; 16 males and 7 females) representing six sports (equestrianism, golf, handball, ice hockey, soccer, table tennis) partook in the study. Participants completed the Dual Career Monitoring Survey (DCMS), weekly, over the first twelve weeks of their university education. The DCMS is developed by the authors and measures student-athletes perceptions of balance, time investments, demands, coping, satisfaction, resources and barriers in relation to sport, studies, private life, social life and financial situation. In exploring student-athletes’ perception of dual career balance throughout the twelve weeks, an intra-class correlation analysis revealed a between-person variance of 0.14 (14%). That is, with regards to balance in their dual careers 86% was due to within-person variance, suggesting that balance is idiosyncratic and that further analysis should investigate within-person change. Encouraged by these findings we continued with a person-centered analysis using the Dynamic P-technique for modeling patterns of data (Nelson, Aylward, & Rausch, 2011). The relationships between changes in balance (i.e., prioritizing sport, studies or other domains of life), demands, coping and satisfaction throughout the twelve weeks will be presented. Our findings contribute to the understanding of balance as a central tenet of athletes’ dual careers (Second author et al., 2015). From our findings we suggest practitioners to take into account the individual dynamics in dual career balance from a whole-person perspective.

  • 239.
    Lund, Henrik
    et al.
    Ålborgs universitet, Ålborg, Danmark.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Wiltshire, Robin
    Building Research Establishment, Watford, UK.
    Svendsen, Svend
    Danmarks Tekniska Universitet - DTU, Lyngby, Danmark.
    Thorsen, Jan Eric
    Danfoss, Nordborg, Danmark.
    Hvelplund, Frede
    Ålborgs Universitet, Ålborg, Danmark.
    Vad Mathiesen, Brian
    Ålborgs universitet, Köpenhamn, Danmark.
    4th Generation District Heating (4GDH): Integrating smart thermal grids into future sustainable energy systems2014In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 68, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper defines the concept of 4th Generation District Heating (4GDH) including the relations to District Cooling and the concepts of smart energy and smart thermal grids. The motive is to identify the future challenges of reaching a future renewable non-fossil heat supply as part of the implementation of overall sustainable energy systems. The basic assumption is that district heating and cooling has an important role to play in future sustainable energy systems – including 100 percent renewable energy systems – but the present generation of district heating and cooling technologies will have to be developed further into a new generation in order to play such a role. Unlike the first three generations, the development of 4GDH involves meeting the challenge of more energy efficient buildings as well as being an integrated part of the operation of smart energy systems, i.e. integrated smart electricity, gas and thermal grids. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 240.
    Lund, Rasmus
    et al.
    Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Mapping of potential heat sources for heat pumps for district heating in Denmark2016In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 110, p. 129-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ambitious policy in Denmark on having a 100% renewable energy supply in 2050 requires radical changes to the energy systems to avoid an extensive and unsustainable use of biomass resources. Currently, wind power is being expanded and the increasing supply of electricity is slowly pushing the CHP (combined heat and power) plants out of operation, reducing the energy efficiency of the DH (district heating) supply. Here, large heat pumps for district heating is a frequently mentioned solution as a flexible demand for electricity and an energy efficient heat producer. The idea is to make heat pump use a low temperature waste or ambient heat source, but it has so far been very unclear which heat sources are actually available for this purpose.

    In this study eight categories of heat sources are analysed for the case of Denmark and included in a detailed spatial analysis where the identified heat sources are put in relation to the district heating areas and the corresponding demands. The analysis shows that potential heat sources are present near almost all district heating areas and that sea water most likely will have to play a substantial role as a heat source in future energy systems in Denmark.

  • 241.
    Lundblad, Joel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Assessment of Soldiers’ Physical Fitness: A comparison between the Swedish Armed Forces MULTI-test and tests of five physical fitness factors2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 242.
    Lundgren, Lina
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    System analysis of kitesurfing: Understanding performance and injury risk for on-water board sports2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Board sports are examples of sports where the interaction of the task, environment and the athlete are essential. As for other sports, there are injuries and other issues associated with these sports, which affect performance and that can be avoided by proper preparation and well- designed equipment. By focusing on kitesurfing as a system structure the complex interactions between factors can help reveal which variables that are of interest to study to increase the level of performance and safety. Lack of research on the board sport kitesurfing makes this area interesting to study regarding performance and musculoskeletal problems. The purpose of this licentiate thesis was to further the understanding of on-water board sports, and specifically study kitesurfing by using a system analysis to structure factors that influence performance and injury risk for this board sport. The specific aims were:

    To reveal the most common self-reported injuries related to kitesurfing and their causes (Paper I).

    To evaluate in which body parts participants perceive musculoskeletal stress, pain and discomfort related to the performance of kitesurfing (Paper II).

    To identify usability problems related to the preparation of kitesurfing equipment (Paper III).

    To provide a system analysis to describe the relations between and identify characteristics that influence performance and injury risk of kitesurfing.

    Methods used for these studies were hierarchical task analysis, observations (n=8), web- questionnaires (n=206), interviews (n=17) and a focus group (n=7). The system analysis was executed in six steps and based on ideas adopted from general systems theory, dynamical systems and ecological task analysis. Tasks performed in freestyle kitesurfing consist of riding a board and performing jumps and tricks, whereof the latter have sub-tasks involving take-off, acrobatic air movements and landings. Within the system of kitesurfing, there are the sub-systems athlete, kite system, board system and harness/protection. There are also external factors acting upon the system. All sub- systems have characteristics that are less changeable during execution of the task and which effect on the athlete can be represented by identified output measures, i.e. harness line force, board reaction force, steering force, pressure distribution, movement patterns, body temperature, fatigue level, comfort and pain, choice of sub-task, mood, stress level, concentration, motivation, experience and usability. The results show that the most frequent locations for injury are in the lower extremities, i.e. knee and ankle, and that about 50% of the injuries reported were associated with jumps and tricks. Equipment and environmental factors also contribute to injuries, as well as to musculoskeletal stress, pain and discomfort. The abdominal muscles were most frequently reported as exposed to high musculoskeletal stress, but also thighs and lower back were perceived as highly stressed throughout the tasks. Knees and feet were areas described as sometimes painful, especially in combination with landings from tricks or strong winds.

    Furthermore, the lower back was reported painful when kitesurfing in strong winds. When hooking out from the harness for performing tricks, the shoulders were perceived as highly stressed. Before the execution of on-water kitesurfing starts, the preparation of the kite system must be accomplished. The results from Study III showed that there are usability problems related to this kitesurfing task, meaning risk for use error to arise. If use errors occur, serious consequences can follow later in the process. The results emphasize improvement of the products from a usability perspective. Some of the identified output measures were partly answered from the results of Papers I-III, where numbers of injuries, perceived musculoskeletal stress, pain and discomfort, and usability issues were evaluated for kitesurfing. The structure motives the need for further research within the area of on-water board sports and reveals variables that are affecting the system.

  • 243.
    Lundgren, Lina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Bligård, Lars-Ola
    Division of Design & Human Factors, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa
    Division of Design & Human Factors, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg.
    Implementation of usability analysis to detect problems in the management of kitesurfing equipment2011In: Procedia Engineering, ISSN 1877-7058, E-ISSN 1877-7058, Vol. 13, p. 525-530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Equipment used for high-risk sports, such as kitesurfing, needs to be efficient for the intended use and the user, and thus meet the mechanical demands and provide sufficient safety. Accidents related to kitesurfing occur, and the consequences are sometimes catastrophic. One important factor is the equipment design, which can influence the type and number of injuries due to insufficient safety systems. The aim of this study was to investigate how the design of kitesurfing equipment can affect safety issues from a usability perspective in relation to the task of preparation. A focus group of 6 subjects analyzed the task of preparing kitesurfing equipment for riding, using the evaluation methods Enhanced Cognitive Walkthrough (ECW) and Predictive Use Error Analysis (PUEA). From the evaluation, a list of plausible usability problems was identified together with proposed design guidelines. The results showed that usability problems occur during preparation. In total 35 usability problems were found, of which 11 (4 from ECW and 7 from PUEA) have a great impact on safety. These 11 problems were hard to detect for the user and could result in serious consequences for the kitesurfers during rideing. The analysis resulted in some general guidelines that are possible to implement on different types of kites. To conclude, education and improved design of the equipment are essential to increase the safety of the sport.

  • 244.
    Lundgren, Lina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Observational analysis of body position while kitesurfing2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 245.
    Lundgren, Lina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Hilliges, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS). Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sport performance and perceived musculoskeletal stress, pain and discomfort in kitesurfing2011In: International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, ISSN 1474-8185, E-ISSN 1474-8185, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 142-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to obtain an overview of the specific movement patterns in kitesurfing, and the participants' perceptions of musculoskeletal stress, pain and discomfort. Task analysis and survey studies were used to provide an overview of the sport, and to identify problematic issues associated with the performance of the tasks. Three different methods were complimentary used for data collection: observations (n=8), a web questionnaire (n=206) and interviews (n=17). Participants were contacted through kitesurfing events and online forums. Their ages ranged from 16-62 years. The results showed that participants experienced high musculoskeletal stress for short times during a session (jumps, tricks and strong winds), and lower, static musculoskeletal stress over a longer time (crossing). High stress was most frequently perceived in abdominal muscles. Knees and feet were the sites most frequently experienced as painful, followed by the shoulders and elbows. This study provides additional information on the performance of kitesurfing and perceived musculoskeletal stress, pain and discomfort. The results can be used as input data to develop training methods and equipment for safe and comfortable performance. © 2017, Routledge. All rights reserved.

  • 246.
    Lundgren, Lina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Comfort aspects important for the performance and safety of kitesurfing2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no Suppl. 1, p. 1221-1225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Equipment used in sports is of great importance, especially when the equipment is in direct contact with the athlete or is important for safety. In the sport kitesurfing environmental factors and the equipment design are crucial for the comfort and safety. The participants’ choice and opinion of equipment can show which factors are considered most important for the performance and to reduce risk for injury. This study has evaluated self-reported information from the participants about what equipment they use, comfort of the equipment and if the equipment has contributed to any injuries. The methods used were questionnaires (n=206) and interviews (n=17), which in combination allows to assess the problem both quantitatively and qualitatively. The results showed that supported leading edge kites are most frequently used, with a waist harness and foot straps to attach the feet. The choice of kite type was mainly based on the discipline of riding for the respondent. Some issues concerning comfort of riding and injury risk the respondents did relate to the design of harness and foot straps. The information from this study can be used for development strategies for industry manufacturers and for further studies in the area of equipment design and biomechanics. © 2012 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

  • 247.
    Lundgren, Lina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Injuries related to kitesurfing2011In: World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, ISSN 2010-3778, no 77, p. 1132-1136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Participation in sporting activities can lead to injury. Sport injuries have been widely studied in many sports including the more extreme categories of aquatic board sports. Kitesurfing is a relatively new water surface action sport, and has not yet been widely studied in terms of injuries and stress on the body. The aim of this study was to get information about which injuries that are most common among kitesurfing practitioners, where they occur, and their causes. Injuries were studied using an international open web questionnaire (n=206). The results showed that many respondents reported injuries, in total 251 injuries to knee (24%), ankle (17%), trunk (16%) and shoulders (10%), often sustained while doing jumps and tricks (40%). Among the reported injuries were joint injuries (n=101), muscle/tendon damages (n=47), wounds and cuts (n=36) and bone fractures (n=28). Also environmental factors and equipment can influence the risk of injury, or the extent of injury in a hazardous situation. Conclusively, the information from this retrospective study supports earlier studies in terms of prevalence and site of injuries. Suggestively, this information should be used for to build a foundation of knowledge about the sport for development of applications for physical training and product development.

  • 248.
    Lundgren, Lina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Olandersson, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), PRODEA: Centrum för produktframtagning inom hälsoteknik.
    Hilliges, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), PRODEA: Centrum för produktframtagning inom hälsoteknik.
    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa
    Department of Product- and Production Development, Division of Design Chalmers University of Technology.
    Biomechanics of extreme sports - a kite surfing scenario2007In: NES2007 Abstracts / [ed] Cecilia Berlin & Lars-Ola Bligård, Nordic Ergonomics Society , 2007, p. s.169-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do extreme sports contribute to higher biomechanical stress compared to other sports? Kite surfing is one of the upcoming popular extreme sports,where very few have studied the mechanical forces that act on the body. There are several factors that contribute to mechanical stress. For preventing injuries, it is of high interest to investigate how these forces affect the body and how the equipment can be further developed to prepare the athletes for making the sport as safe as possible. This project will study injury prevalence, motion analysis and mapping of forces and pressure during kite surfing. The outcome will be a better understanding of biomechanics of kite surfing and a construction for testing and training as well as ergonomic design ideas for the equipment.

  • 249.
    Lundgren, Lina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Zügner, Roland
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Tranberg, Roy
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Normalizing stance width2012In: Neuroplasticity, Motor control, Cutting-Edge Technology & Rehabilitation: Proceedings of the XIXth Congress of the International Society of Electrophysiology & Kinesiology / [ed] Kylie Tucker, Bianca Butler and Paul W Hodges, Brisbane: NHMRC Centre of Clinical Research Excellence in Spinal Pain, Injury and Health , 2012, p. 221-221Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: In previous studies, stance widths are most often determined as a percentage of shoulder width, where 70% of shoulder width is considered a narrow stance width and 140% of shoulder width is considered a wide stance width. A few studies have also normalized stance width to the width of the hips (distance between trochanters). However, there are also a possibility to normalize stance width in relation to the length of the lower extremities, since this variable might not change as much in dynamic situations and may correlate higher to the angle of the lower extremity in a frontal plane. AIM: This study aims to compare measurements of stance width when normalized to shoulder width, hip width and leg length for three different stance widths with feet attached to a board. METHOD: Motion capture (Qualisys, 16 Oqus-cameras) was used to measure 7 active male kitesurfers with their feet attached to a kiteboard (136 cm). They were 20-28 years old, in average 180 cm (SD=7 cm) and 78 kg (SD=7 kg). The subjects were standing with three different stance widths, using the same external rotation (20° bilaterally). Markers were attached to shoulders (acromion processes), knee joint lines, hips (trochanter major), heels (mid-posterior of calcaneus) and ankles (lateral and medial malleoli). Stance width was measured as the distance between the two medial ankle markers and normalized towards the distances between (1) the shoulder markers, (2) the hip markers and knee marker plus knee marker and lateral ankle marker and (3) the right and left hip marker. Furthermore, the angle of an extended lower extremity towards a vertical line in the frontal plane was measured. All measurements were done twice, and SPSS 20 was used for data analysis of correlation (Pearson’s r). RESULTS: The measured stance widths between ankles were 39.9 cm, 43.6 cm, and 48 cm (SD=1.2-1.4) for all subjects. The correlations (r) between the angle of the leg towards a vertical line and normalized stance width for the three normalization variables were: (1) 0.79, (2) 0.96 and (3) 0.93. All of the correlations were significant at a level of p>0.01. CONCLUSION: The results show that the variables hip or leg length would be preferred to use when normalizing stance width for young male athletes, standing in wide stance widths. Further studies using a greater number of subjects, more stance widths and a more heterogeneous group are suggested for the future.

  • 250.
    Lygnerud, Kristina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Risk of industrial heat recovery in district heating systems2016In: Proceedings of the 15th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling: September 4th - 7th, 2016, Seoul, South Korea / [ed] Rolf Ulseth & Kyung Min Kim, 2016, p. 144-147Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial heat recovery can be used in district heating systems. It is a possibility to make use of heat that is otherwise lost. Increased usage of industrial heat recovery reduces the need for fuel combustion lowering green-house gas (GHG) emissions, such as CO2. Industrial companies can, however, move or close down industrial activities. This is apprehended as a risk and lowers the interest of district heating companies to invest in industrial heat recovery.

    In Swedish district heating systems, industrial heat recoveries have been undertaken since 1974. Today, the heat recovery is active in about seventy systems. This leads to the question of how risky it is, for district heating companies, to engage in industrial heat recovery.

    Over forty years of operation statistics have been collected and analyzed in order to estimate the risk of industrial heat recovery to district heating companies. Key results show that the risk is not linked to different industrial branches. Recommendations include suggestions to management on how to consider risk and consequence when assessing potential industrial heat recovery investments.

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