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  • 201.
    Parker, James
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Construct validity and test-retest reliability of the force-velocity profile in a golf specific rotation movement2017In: Book of Abstracts of the 22nd Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science – 5th - 8th July 2017, MetropolisRuhr – Germany / [ed] Ferrauti, A., Platen, P., Grimminger-Seidensticker, E., Jitner, T., Bartmus, U., Becher, L., De MArées, M., Muhlbauer, T., Schauterte, A., Wiewelhove, T., Tsolakidis, E., Cologne: European College of Sport Science , 2017, p. 294-294Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Assessing the isoinertial force-velocity (F-V) and power relationships has previously been found valuable to assist the understanding of the underlying mechanisms responsible for maximal power output. Multiple studies have investigated the F-V profile in the lower body, however, few studies have investigated F-V profiling in rotational movements, in particular, the golf swing. There is a need for isoinertial strength assessment protocols which can relate to final swing performance. The specific objective of the study was to investigate if measurements of force, velocity, and power using five different loads in a golf specific rotational movement are valid and reliable. Methods: 12 elite golfers (handicap -1.5±1.2) 8 men and 4 women performed a golf relevant rotational movement using five different loads (2, 6, 10, 14, and18 kg) in a motorised cable machine (1080 Motion AB, Sweden), measuring exercise peak force (PF), peak velocity (PV), and peak power (PP). In addition, normal-swing driver clubhead speed (CHSnor), and maximum clubhead speed (CHSmax) was measured using radar (Trackman, Denmark). The best of three trials for CHSnor, CHSmax, and the golf rotation was used for further analysis. Test-retest occasions were separated by 7-14 days. Statistical analysis: Change in mean (CIM) individual inter-session coefficient of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to analyze test-retest reliability, a Spearman's correlation between the rotation output variables and the CHS was used to assess construct validity.For reliability, an ICC of >0.70 was considered acceptable and results for correlation was considered excellent (≥0.90), good (0.75–0.89), moderate (0.50–0.74), poor (<0.50).was considered to be acceptable. Results: PF, PV, and PP for all of the five loads, apart from PP with 2 kg (CIM=12.2%, CV=14.1%, &ICC= 0.29) and PP with 18kg (CIM=8.6%, CV=19.1%, & ICC= 0.93), showed good reliability (CIM= 0.05-3.6%, CV=1.4-8.5%, & ICC= 0.84-0.97). PF (r=0.780-0.89 & 0.75-0.88), PV (r=0.76-0.86 & 0.78-0.85), and PP (r=0.75-0.84 & 0.76-0.85) for all loads had statistically significant strong correlations with both CHSnor and CHSmax respectively, apart from PF at 2kg (r=0.33). The average day to day variation among all loads for PF, PV and PP were 17.9 ±13.7 N, 0.30 ± 0.23 m/s, and 135.9 ± 128.1 W respectively. Greatest PP was achieved with the 14 kg load, although PP at 6, 10, and 14kg only differed by 90 W (8%) between these loads. Discussion: Isoinertial force-velocity-power profiling in high-level golfers can be assessed after a familiarization session. The strongest correlation among the rotational tests and CHS was between PF at 10 kg and CHSnor (r=0.89) and in general, the PF, PV, and PP variables had a strong relationship with both CHSnor and CHSmax. Such profiling may provide valuable information insight into the neuromuscular capabilities of high-level golfers and may be used to monitor specific training adaptions.

  • 202.
    Parker, James
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Scandinavian College of Sport, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hellström, John
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science. Swedish Golf Federation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Olsson, Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    The Variability in Kinematics and Carry in a Longitudinal Intra-individual Study of Elite Golfers2016In: Abstracts: July 18-22, 2016, 2016, p. 47-48Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To hit further and with high accuracy is important for success in the long game in golf. Even for very accomplished golfers a certain degree of between shot variance is evident even when trying to consistently repeat a successful shot. The consistency is determined by the biomechanics of the golfer, which influences club head speed (CHS) and position, and initial ball launch conditions, which in combination with environmental factors determine shot outcome. Previous research has identified several biomechanical variables associated with variance in CHS, including thorax rotation speed  and lead arm speed (LAS). Pilot data from our laboratory have indicated moderate non-significant relationship between CHS and carry in elite male golfers when studied over time. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the relationship between peak speed of the pelvis, thorax, and lead upper arm and carry over time, investigating both within and between session variability in elite male golfers.

    Methods: Six elite male golfers (handicap range -3 to +0.5) (age range 21-23 years) were included in this study. The golfers were studied on four separate occasions over a year.  Each test occasion included a golf specific warm-up of the golfers’ choice, then subjects were instructed to hit five balls with their driver and use the swing that was as ‘normal ‘as possible. Data on swing kinematics was collected using a four sensor electromagnetic motion capture system at 120Hz (Polhemus Inc. USA). Nine landmarks were digitized to define segment lengths, orientations and joint axes. CHS and carry were collected using a launch monitor (Trackman3e, v.3.2, Trackman, Denmark). The swing events were determined from sensors on the club; top of backswing was determined when the club changes direction from backswing to downswing. Impact was determined when the clubhead reaches the horizontal position equivalent to where it was at address. Angular velocities and displacements of the pelvis, thorax, and lead arm were calculated using standard biomechanics principles in conjunction with advanced motion measurement software (AMM 3D, USA). No data smoothing techniques were used before data analysis. IBM SPSS v.22 was used to analyse the data through hierarchical multilevel modelling (MLM). First a baseline model without predictors was run, then MLM was repeated with predictors where the first level of the data contained carry and kinematic data from each shot (within session level). At the second level, the carry scores were nested within sessions and analysed between sessions. Lastly, at the third level, the sessions were nested within players (between players). Carry was used as outcome variable and kinematics as predictor variables with a probability level of 0.05.

    Results: Initially MLM baseline model for carry only, was tested) without predictors. The results showed a statistical significant intercept (Estimate = 226.24, p<.001). Intraclass correlations (ICC) suggested that 32.5% of the variance in carry were present within sessions (level 1), whilst 38.0% were attributed to differences in carry between sessions (level 2). Results from the second MLM generated an improved model fit (-2 LL & BIC) where peak speeds of the pelvis, thorax, and lead upper arm were included as fixed effect covariates on level 1. The result showed that peak LAS was a statistically significant predictor of carry (β=.17, p=.001) whereas peek speed of neither thorax (β=-.04, p=.364) nor pelvis (β=.02, p=.673) had any statistically significant relationship with carry.

    Discussion: The present study found that 32.5% of variation in shot consistency can be explained at the within session level (influenced by for example variance in centeredness of impact), and 38% of variation in shot consistency can be explained at the between session level (influenced by for example environmental factors). Furthermore, LAS was the only significant predictor of within session variance in carry. Our results indicated peak LAS speed as a predictor of within session variance in carry and this is partly supported by previous research who found golfers with higher arm speed had higher ball velocity than golfers with lower arm speed(Healy et al., 2011). However, results from our pilot study differ from previous research which reports a relationship between peak thorax speed and driver performance. The difference could be due to our results being based on longitudinal data at intra-individual level, whereas previous studies have used a cross-sectional study design, different analysis methods and reported at an inter-individual level. In conclusion, our preliminary data show that within session LAS is a predictor of carry distance when the objective is shot consistency. Practitioners may consider training strategies to optimize arm speed when improve driving consistency among elite golfers. 

    References

    Healy, A., Moran, K. A., Dickson, J., Hurley, C., Smeaton, A. F., O'Connor, N. E., . . . Chockalingam, N. (2011). Analysis of the 5 iron golf swing when hitting for maximum distance. Journal of sports sciences, 29(10), 1079-1088. 

  • 203.
    Parker, James
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Hellström, John
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Swedish Golf Federation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Relationships between golf swing kinematics and driver performance in elite golfersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swing kinematics and driver performance are considered important factors in golf performance. In golf research clubhead speed (CHS) is commonly used as the driver performance measure, whereas carry distance (CD) is less investigated and together with final ball position determine the success of a drive. The aim of this study was to investigate which kinematic factors of the pelvis, thorax, and lead arm explain CHS and/or CD. Swing kinematics data on 15 elite golfers were collected using an electromagnetic 3-D system and a doppler-radar launch monitor system. Variables that emerged as important for both CHS and CD were: reduced pelvis rotation top of backswing (TOB); reduced X-factor TOB; and more thorax lateral bend TOB, along with greater thorax peak speed during the downswing. Variables that were distinctive for the CHS model were mainly during the downswing: greater X-factor stretch; and higher pelvis peak speed. Finally, factors distinctive to the regression model for CD were: reduced thorax rotation; and greater thorax lateral bend. Implications from the results suggest whilst greater peak pelvis speed and x-factor stretch effect CHS they do not significantly influence CD. Likewise, the variables unique to CD do not significantly influence CHS but may be a technical attributes which allow for more optimal clubhead delivery leading to improved CD.

  • 204.
    Parker, James
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Is perceived autonomy support provided by a coach related to the frequency of injury preventative behavior among elite golfers?2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that perceived autonomy support can have an indirect effect on behaviors via autonomous motivation (Hagger & Chatzisarantis, 2015). This indirect effect has, for example, been found in relation to injury preventive behaviors within sport (Chan & Hagger, 2012). Overuse and acute injuries are a common problem among golfers (McHardy & Pollard, 2005) and exploring factors that might increase the frequency of preventive behaviors is warranted. The aim of the study was to investigate if perceived autonomy support from the coach has an indirect effect on the self-reported frequency of injury preventive behaviors via the level of autonomous motivation. A total of 59 elite golfers, (handicap M=-1.2, SD=4.9, age M=21, SD=5.5), completed a questionnaire with questions related to autonomy support from the coach, autonomous motivation for injury prevention, and the frequency of five injury preventive behaviors (e.g., how often do you ask for advice about injury preventive exercises, how often to you train to improve your physiological status). A mediation analysis, using Hayes (2012) process macro in SPSS 20.0, was performed. The results showed that perceived autonomy support and autonomous motivation could explain 45% of the variance in the frequency of preventive behaviors, F (1,56) = 22.71, p < .001. The result showed that perceived autonomy support had a statistically significant positive indirect effect on the frequency of preventive behaviors via autonomous motivation (ab = .16, 95% CI = 0.05-0.34, p<.05). Based on the results, coaches should consider giving feedback that supports autonomous motivation among golfers when aiming to encourage injury preventative behavior. Injury prevention programs should include strategies to improve the athlete’s autonomous motivation to carry out preventive activities. Future research should investigate the relationship between estimated and the objective frequency of injury prevention behavior. 

  • 205.
    Parker, James
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Scandinavian College of Sport, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lagerhem, Charlie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Hellström, John
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science. Swedish Golf Federation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olsson, Charlotte M.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Effects of nine weeks isokinetic training on power, golf kinematics, and driver performance in pre-elite golfers2017In: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation, ISSN 2052-1847, Vol. 9, article id 21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    It has previously been shown that isotonic strength training can improve driver performance among golfers, though few studies have investigated effects of strength training on swing kinematics together with driver performance. In this study we investigated whether isokinetic rotational training could improve driver performance and swing kinematic variables amongst elite golfers.

    Methods

    Twenty competitive pre-elite golfers (handicap better than −3.0), 13 men and 7 women, were split into two groups, one group received the isokinetic power training (IK) alongside their normal isotonic pre-season strength-training and the other group continued with their normal isotonic pre-season strength-training regime (IT). The IK group completed 12 sessions of isokinetic power training on a standing rotation exercise (10% body weight at 1 m/s) and barbell squat (25 kg plus 10% body weight at 0.5 m/s). The IT group continued with their normal isotonic pre-season strength-training regime. Participants were tested for rotational power, lower body power, golf swing kinematics, and driver performance before and after a nine-week training period.

    Results

    After the nine-week training period both the IK and the IT groups increased their dominant side rotational force and power (effect sizes between 0.50–0.96) and magnitude based inference indicated that IK had a likely (> 80%) more beneficial increase in dominant side rotational force and power. For swing kinematics, IK had a likely (> 80%) more beneficial improvement in lead arm speed and acceleration compared to the IT group. For driver performance, IK had a possible (65%) beneficial effect on ball speed and likely (78%) beneficial effect on carry distance when compared to IT, whereas neither of the groups improved club head speed.

    Conclusion

    In the present study on pre-elite golfers we found that 9 weeks of isokinetic training increased seated rotational force and power, peak arm speed and arm acceleration, ball speed, and carry distance more compared to isotonic training. Even though isokinetic training did not increase CHS, it did result in greater carry distance. © The Author(s). 2017

  • 206.
    Parker, James
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Lundgren, Lina
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Surfing the Waves of the CMJ: Are There between-Sport Differences in the Waveform Data?2018In: Sports, E-ISSN 2075-4663, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 1-12, article id 168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to analyse countermovement jump (CMJ) waveform data using statistical methods, like principal component analysis, can provide additional information regarding the different phases of the CMJ, compared to jump height or peak power alone. The aim of this study was to investigate the between-sport force-time curve differences in the CMJ. Eighteen high level golfers (male = 10, female = 8) and eighteen high level surfers (male = 10, female = 8) performed three separate countermovement jumps on a force platform. Time series of data from the force platform was normalized to body weight and each repetition was then normalized to 0–100 percent. Principal component analyses (PCA) were performed on force waveforms and the first six PCs explained 35% of the variance in force parameters. The main features of the movement cycles were characterized by magnitude (PC1 and PC5), waveform (PC2 and PC4), and phase shift features (PC3). Surf athletes differ in their CMJ technique and show a greater negative centre of mass displacement when compared to golfers (PC1), although these differences are not necessarily associated with greater jump height. Principal component 5 demonstrated the largest correlation with jump height (R2  = 0.52). Further studies are recommended in this area, to reveal which features of the CMJ thatrelate to jumping performance, and sport specific adaptations. © 2018 by the authors.

  • 207.
    Parker, James
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Olsson, Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    A One Year Study on Changes in Flexibility and Stability Characteristics in Elite Golfers2011Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The results from this study show that training strategies can lead to improved flexibility and stability in golfers during the off season, however maintaining these improvements, particularly flexibility, during the in-season is not as easy. Decreased flexibility on the left side leads to reduced ROM to manage deceleration of  forces produced in the golf swing that probably lead to an increased risk of injury. Significant improvements can be made after no more than 3 months of  training, including flexibility and stability training. Technique training may be more successful if it follows a period of concentrated physical training.  During the in-season, emphasis ought to be on maintaining ROM by effective implementation of stretching programs.

  • 208.
    Parker, James
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Olsson, Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Grip force and muscle activity are associated with kinematics in the golf swing2012In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 44, no Suppl. 2, p. 474-474Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 209.
    Parker, James
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Are There Stretch Shortening Cycle like Actions in the Shoulder and Torso in Upper Body Striking Actions2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 210.
    Pasturel, Solenn
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Assessing the efficacy of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Maximal Strength in Physical Education Students, Trained and Elite Athletes: A Review with a Systematic approach2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is increasingly being usedoutside the realms of physical therapy. Acknowledged as an efficient method to enhancestrength parameters, athletes are increasingly using NMES to facilitate training andstrength gains. A review was designed with a systematic approach with the mainobjective: to assess the effectiveness of transcutaneous NMES on maximal strength inphysical education students, trained and elite athletes in studies involving isometricNMES and Dynamic NMES. Method: A search for all types of trials was performed onPubmed, Sportdiscus, Web of Science Core Collection and The Cochrane ControlledTrials Register, and results were recorded according to the PRISMA recommendations.Twenty-one studies were included and judged for risk of bias and quality according tothe Cochrane guidelines and GRADE. Results: Studies were judged as having either anunclear or high risk of bias. All studies were judged as ‘very low level’ according toGRADE and were lacking bias-limiting methods, detailed information of interventionsand general standardised procedures. Conclusion: Strength gains in physical educationstudents, trained or elite athletes from a training intervention involving either isometricNMES combined with or without voluntary exercise or dynamic NMES are inconclusivedue to the very low level of the quality of the studies. Meta-analysis performed in thisarea should be interpreted with caution as the studies have been judged as eitherunclear or high risk of bias.Key words: isometric NMES (electrical stimulation applied to relaxed muscle), dynamicNMES (electrical stimulation superimposed onto voluntary contractions), strength.

  • 211.
    Pehrson, Sebastian
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Revisiting the Empirical Model ”Phases in the Junior-to-Senior Transition of Swedish Ice Hockey Players”: Based on expert players’ and coaches’ feedback2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study was a continuation of previous research by Stambulova et al., (manuscript submitted; Lundell-Olsson & Pehrson, 2014), with the purpose to validate and update the empirical model ”Phases in the Junior-to-Senior Transition in Swedish Ice Hockey Players”. The objectives of the study were to (1) to collect opinions and reflections of expert senior players and coaches about the empirical model as a whole and about content of each JST phase and (2) to update the empirical model based on the participants’ feedback. Fifteen Swedish professional ice hockey players and coaches were recruited for focus groups and interviews and data were collected regarding their opinions of the empirical model. The results supported (a) the sequence of phases, (b) the titles and duration of the model, and (c) the psychological content in terms of perceived demands, resources, barriers, coping strategies, and outcomes, was updated. Five themes’ names were changed and sixteen new themes were added. Based on the empirical models confirmation and suggested updates, the validated model ”Phases in the Junior-to-Senior Transition in Swedish Ice Hockey Players” was created. The results of the study are discussed in relation to theoretical frameworks, previous research, methodology, future research, and applications.

  • 212.
    Pensgaard, Anne Marte
    et al.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Nilstad, Agnethe
    Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center, Norwegian School of Sports Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Solstad, Bård
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Steffen, Kathrin
    Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center, Norwegian School of Sports Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Psychosocial stress factors, including the relationship with the coach, and their influence on acute and overuse injury risk in elite female football players2018In: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine, ISSN 2055-7647, Vol. 4, no 1, article id e000317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The relationship between specific types of stressors (eg, teammates, coach) and acute versus overuse injuries is not well understood.

    Objective: To examine the roles of different types of stressors as well as the effect of motivational climate on the occurrence of acute and overuse injuries.

    Methods: Players in the Norwegian elite female football league (n=193 players from 12 teams) participated in baseline screening tests prior to the 2009 competitive football season. As part of the screening, we included the Life Event Survey for Collegiate Athletes and the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire (Norwegian short version). Acute and overuse time-loss injuries and exposure to training and matches were recorded prospectively in the football season using weekly text messaging. Data were analysed with Bayesian logistic regression analyses.

    Results: Using Bayesian logistic regression analyses, we showed that perceived negative life event stress from teammates was associated with an increased risk of acute injuries (OR=1.23, 95% credibility interval (1.01 to 1.48)). There was a credible positive association between perceived negative life event stress from the coach and the risk of overuse injuries (OR=1.21, 95% credibility interval (1.01 to 1.45)).

    Conclusions: Players who report teammates as a source of stress have a greater risk of sustaining an acute injury, while players reporting the coach as a source of stress are at greater risk of sustaining an overuse injury. Motivational climate did not relate to increased injury occurrence. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved.

  • 213.
    Petersson, Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    UNILATERAL STRENGTH TRAINING WITH MAXIMAL INTENDED MOVEMENT VELOCITY DURING SIX WEEKS IMPROVES LOWER BODY POWER OUTCOME AND MOVEMENT VELOCITY2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In many sports development of power is considered to be one of the most important physiological qualities for success. Despite many studies in the area, research investigating unilateral power training methods for elite athletes is lacking. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of unilateral explosive strength training on lower body power output and movement velocity after six weeks of training. METHODS: 17 elite male handball players (means±SD, 22±4 years), experienced in resistance training, participated in a six week intervention study. The athletes were divided in to one training group (TR) n=11, which performed 15 supervised unilateral explosive strength training sessions during six weeks, and one control group (CTL) n=6, that trained their normal bilateral resistance training for developing power. The training program was performed with heavy loads (>80%1RM) and maximal intended movement velocity. Loaded bilateral vertical squat jump tests were made in a spectrum of loads (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100kg) pre- and post training period. A linear encoder was fixed to the barbell which measured  average power in the concentric phase (APc), average power in the eccentric phase (APe), peak velocity (pV) and time to peak velocity (tpV). Non parametric statistics were used to analyze differences within (Wilcoxon test) and between (Mann-Whitney test) the two groups. RESULTS: After six weeks training group (TR) showed significant improvements (p<0,05) in post-tests compared to pre-tests on all five different loads on; average concentric power (APc) 20kg (p=0,003), 40kg (p=0,004), 60kg (p=0,003) 80kg (p=0,003) and 100kg (p=0,003). Average eccentric power (APe) 20kg (p=0,026), 40kg (p=0,021), 60kg (p=0,004), 80kg (p=0,006) and 100kg (p=0, 041). Time to peak velocity (tpV) 20kg (p=0,005), 40kg (p=0,005), 60kg (p=0,007), 80 kg (p=0,005) and 100kg (p=0,005). Significant improvements occurred also for TR in peak velocity (pV) on the higher loads of 60kg (p=0,007), 80kg (p=0,015) and 100kg (p=0,006). No significant improvements were found within the control group (CTL) in any of the measured parameters. Significant differences (p<0,05) were seen between TR group and CTL group on every load (20-100kg) between TR and CTL  group on APc (p= 0,044, 0,003, 0,004, 0,001 and 0,001) and tpV (p= 0,002, 0,015, 0,004, 0,006 and 0,003). Significant differences were also seen between TR and CTL group in APe on 40kg (p= 0,021) 60kg (p= 0,012) and 80kg (p= 0,009) and in pV on 80kg (p= 0,018) and 100kg (p=0,035). CONCLUSION: The TR group showed improvements after only a short period of structured unilateral maximal velocity training which indicates that unilateral training principles could be effective for improving lower body power output in elite athletes involved in sports where unilateral movements predominate. More and longer studies are needed to evaluate further potential benefits of unilateral strength training.

  • 214.
    Petersson, Johan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Riggberger, Kenneth
    Stadionkontoret, Malmö Sports Academy, Malmö, Sweden.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Olsson, Charlotte M.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Unilateral Strength Training With Maximal Velocity Improves Lower Body Power Outcome And Movement Velocity2012In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 44, no Suppl. 2, p. 671-671Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 215.
    Pettersson, Josefin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Larsson, Kajsa
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    PASSION, SJÄLVBESTÄMMANDE MOTIVATION OCH HÄLSA: EN STUDIE GJORD PÅ AKADEMIFOTBOLLSSPELARE I SVERIGE2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med aktuell studie har varit att på svenska akademifotbollsspelare undersöka (1) självbestämmande motivations samt passions inverkan på upplevd hälsa och hur dessa variabler är relaterade till varandra, (2) samt skillnad i upplevd hälsa mellan högt harmoniskt passionerade spelare och spelare med hög tvångsmässig passion. I studien deltog 462 akademifotbollsspelare hemmahörande i Svenska fotbollsakademier. Deltagarnas ålder varierade mellan 12-16 år (M=14.38, Sd=1.06). I studien användes instrumenten Self-Determination Scale (SDS), The Passion Scale samt General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12). Korrelationstester i rådande studie visade på att självbestämmande motivation har ett positivt samband med både tvångsmässig och harmonisk passion, samt att tvångsmässig passion har ett negativt samband med hälsa. Medieringsanalys visade i föreliggande studie att harmonisk passion ej medierade sambandet mellan självbestämmande och hälsa på svenska akademifotbollsspelare. Resultatet uppvisade också att självbestämmande hade en negativ indirekt effekt på upplevd hälsa genom variabeln tvångsmässig passion. Ytterligare resultat visade på att individer med en hög harmonisk passion upplevde en bättre hälsa än personer med hög tvångsmässig passion. Rekommendationer ges till akademiklubbar att hjälpa spelarna att minska den tvångsmässiga passionen genom att fokusera på andra aspekter i livet. Resultaten är diskuterade utifrån tidigare forskning och teoretiska referensramar.

  • 216.
    Pohjolainen, Magnus
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Palmqvist, Mathias
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Upplevelsen av motivation hos svenska subelitidrottare: Sub-elitidrottares upplevelse av motivation under karriären och vid karriäravslutet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to examine the participants experienced motivation during subeliteathletes careers, as well at the end of their career. The purpose is also to disclosewhich factors that influenced their decision to end their career in sports. In order to investigatethe purpose, twelve qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted. The participants inthe study were twelve former sub-elite athletes who were active in their sports between theages of 15-20. The result of this study revealed that sub-elite athletes experienced bothinner motivation and external motivation through their career. The result showed that theparticipants experianced inner motivation through the satisfaction of the three psychologicalbasic needs in SDT. The result showed that the participants experienced moore externalmotivationat their career end, this because the participants didn’t satisfy the three basicpsychological needs as before. The result also showed that there are various factors thatinfluenced the participants’ decision on a career end, for example; increased demands fromcoaches.

  • 217. Porss, Mikael
    Flow och prestation inom idrott2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 218.
    Raask, Carl
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Björk, Oscar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Power output at different loads using accommodating resistance in the bench press exercise2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: To date, there are no definitive guidelines as for how to optimally train for power production. Previously conducted studies are lacking consensus and have reported conflicting suggestions regarding what loads to use and how to execute the movements. Finding an optimal method of training for power would be beneficial for power and strength athletes. Accommodating resistance has been suggested as an effective method for developing power in athletes. Aim: This study examined how using different amounts of accommodating resistance influence peak power output in the bench press exercise. Method: Fourteen subjects tested their 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in the bench press and after seven days performed a power test consisting of three repetitions with 30,40,50,60 and 70% of 1RM and peak power was recorded using the MuscleLab linear encoder. A second power test was done seven days later, where the load at which the highest power was demonstrated was used again and different amounts of that bar weight was replaced with band resistance. The proportions used were 20:80, 30:70, 40:60 and 50:50 band tension to bar weight. Three repetitions were performed at each of the band conditions and peak power was recorded. The highest value for each trial was used for analysis. Results: The average load at which the highest power (553,49±111,62W) was produced was 46,46kg (43,85±7,68% of 1RM). All of the band conditions except for the 20:80 demonstrated a significant difference in power output compared to bar weight only. The 50:50 proportions of band tension to bar weight resulted in the highest power (813,31±252,87W) of the band conditions. Conclusion: These findings indicate that the use of accommodating resistance results in higher power output than using bar weight only when the total load is constant. Higher proportions of band tension seem to result in higher power output compared to lower proportions. These results could offer guidelines for how to design optimal power training for athletes.

  • 219.
    Reuter, Emilia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Strömberg, Elin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Sambandet mellan fysisk aktivitet och arbetsminnet, exekutiva funktioner samt bearbetningshastighet2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka sambandet mellan fysisk aktivitet ochkognitiva förmågor hos studenter. Tidigare forskning visar främst att det är arbetsminnetoch exekutiva förmågor som förbättras genom fysisk aktivitet. Enligt Chang,Huang, Chen, Hung(2013)är en stor del av forskningen kring arbetsminnet gjort på äldre individer och visar förbättringargenom fysisk aktivitet. Vidare visar forskning ett samband hos barn mellan fysisk aktivitet och kognition då forskare sett att exekutiva förmågor förbättrats (Chaddock‐Heyman, Hillman, Cohen, & Kramer,2014). Författarnatill föreliggande studie använde sig av experiment då det är en vanlig metod som används inom liknande studier. 30 deltagare(19 kvinnor och 11 män) valde att genomföra experimentet som baserades på trekognitiva tester:Stroop, Digit span forward och Digitspan backward.IPAQ(International Physical Activity Questionnaire) användes för att undersöka deltagarnas aktivitetsvanor. Få signifikanta samband hittadesi resultatetoch kan till stor del i studien bero på en lågpower (få antal deltagare). Vissa värden(beroende på effekternas styrka) diskuteras vidare i diskussionen. Det hittades dock signifikanta samband mellan arbetsminnetochantal minuter måttligt ansträngande träning, mycket ansträngande träning, promenad samtstillasittande. Samband hittades även mellan korttidsminnet och antal minuter måttligt ansträngande träning ochpromenad samtantal dagar med konditionsträning.Avslutningsvis redovisas även förslag till framtida forskning, diskussion kring metod samt implikationer

  • 220.
    Reveny, Stephanie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Stafverfeldt, Elvira
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Career Challenges and Coping Strategies of Swedish Elite Show Jumpers: A mixed-methods study2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to examine perceived challenges and coping strategies of Swedish elite show jumpers from the holistic perspective. A mixed-methodology was used with a dominant qualitative design and a supportive quantitative design. Semi-structured interviews based on the holistic athletic career model and two surveys developed from the qualitative results were used to collect the data. The participants of the study were 5 Swedish elite show jumpers between the age of 24-29 (M=26.4, SD=2.06). The qualitative findings resulted in two category profiles of perceived challenges and use of coping strategies. The quantitative findings resulted in two individual profile for each participant. The findings identified five higher order themes of perceived challenges (psychological, financial, psycho-social, athletic and vocational) and three higher order themes of coping strategies (social support, problemfocused coping and emotion-focused coping). The individual profiles showed both similar patterns and individual nuances between the participants. Major challenges for the equestrians were financial, injuries and dealing with identity foreclosure. This study represents an effort to highlight the challenges met and coping strategies used by equestrians on elite level, to prevent ineffective coping and negative consequences such as a premature dropout.  

  • 221.
    Rogne, Gustav
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Ståhlberg, Kim
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Högskolestudenters förändringsbenägenhetutifrån fysisk aktivitet i relation till målsättningoch motivation: Ett självbestämmande perspektiv2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka samband mellan högskolestudentersförändringsbenägenhet utifrån fysisk aktivitet i relation till motivation, målsättning,behovstillfredsställelse och behovsfrustration. Vidare, var syftet med studien att undersökaeventuella könsskillnader. Som underlag för undersökningen användes mätinstrumentenBREQ-2, BMPN, GCEQ och Physical Activity State of Change, 2.1. Enkäterna besvarades av205 högskolestuderande, varav 103 kvinnor och 102 män. Medelåldern för högskolestudernavar 22.01 år(SD=1,90). Motivationsregleringarna; amotivation, yttre reglering och introjiceradreglering visade en negativ korrelation med stadium i transteoretiska modellen. Identifieradereglering och inre motivation visade en positiv korrelation med stadium i transteoretiskamodellen. Kompetens och autonomi inom behovstillfredsställelse visade en positivkorrelation med stadium i transteoretiska modellen. Inre målsättning och dess underkategorierutvecklingsförmåga samt social anknytning visade en positiv korrelation med stadium itransteoretiska modellen. Aktuell studie föreslår att framtida forskning utifrån individersstadier i den transteoretiska modellen undersöker åldersskillnader i målsättning för attmöjliggöra en eventuell modell hur målsättningsarbeten mot fysisk aktivitet kan struktureras iolika åldersgrupper.

  • 222.
    Ronkainen, Fanny
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Sport-specific interval training for upper-body can improve anaerobic endurance in wrestlers2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wrestling is an old sport that requires high anaerobic power and capacity to succeed during match. The purpose of this study was to investigate if anaerobic interval training for the upper-body would improve the anaerobic capacity in wrestlers and increase maximum blood lactate. Fifteen wrestlers (eleven male and four female) at high-level in Sweden wrestling participated in the study. The wrestlers where divided into a training and a control group. The training intervention consisted of a sport-specific interval training twice a week for four weeks for the training group and continuation of regular wrestling training for the control group. The participants performed a 30 second arm Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) to investigate the anaerobic power and capacity pre and post training intervention. Results showed a significant increase in peak power from 7,7±1,1 to 8,9±0,6 W/kg body mass(p=0,02) and mean power from 4,9±0,5 to 5,3±0,5 W/kg body mass (p=0,02), while the fatigue index had significantly decreased at the post-test from 32,6±6,4 to 28,0±6,3 % (p=0,03) in the training group post intervention, indicating improvement in anaerobic power and capacity. There was no significant difference in peak or mean power, or fatigue index in the control group during the same time. No significant difference in blood lactate concentration (LAmax) was observed at post-test in either of the groups. The research suggests that a wrestler could benefit from sport-specific interval training in-season to improve anaerobic power and capacity in upper-body, which can potentiate the capacity to work at higher intensity during longer duration.

  • 223.
    Russell, Aaron P.
    et al.
    Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, Australia.
    Lamon, Severine
    Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, Australia.
    Boon, Hanneke
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Integrative Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wada, Shogo
    Division of Regenerative Medical Engineering, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Güller, Isabelle
    Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, Australia.
    Brown, Erin L.
    Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, Australia.
    Chibalin, Alexander V.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Integrative Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zierath, Juleen R.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Integrative Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Snow, Rod J.
    Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, Australia.
    Stepto, Nigel
    School of Sports and Exercise Science, Victoria University, Footscray, Australia.
    Wadley, Glenn D.
    Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, Australia.
    Akimoto, Takayuki
    Division of Regenerative Medical Engineering, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Regulation of miRNAs in human skeletal muscle following acute endurance exercise and short-term endurance training2013In: Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0022-3751, E-ISSN 1469-7793, Vol. 591, no 18, p. 4637-4653Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The identification of microRNAs (miRNAs) has established new mechanisms that control skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise. The present study investigated the mRNA regulation of components of the miRNA biogenesis pathway (Drosha, Dicer and Exportin-5), muscle enriched miRNAs, (miR-1, -133a, -133b and -206), and several miRNAs dysregulated in muscle myopathies (miR-9, -23, -29, -31 and -181). Measurements were made in muscle biopsies from nine healthy untrained males at rest, 3 h following an acute bout of moderate-intensity endurance cycling and following 10 days of endurance training. Bioinformatics analysis was used to predict potential miRNA targets. In the 3 h period following the acute exercise bout, Drosha, Dicer and Exportin-5, as well as miR-1, -133a, -133-b and -181a were all increased. In contrast miR-9, -23a, -23b and -31 were decreased. Short-term training increased miR-1 and -29b, while miR-31 remained decreased. Negative correlations were observed between miR-9 and HDAC4 protein (r=-0.71; P= 0.04), miR-31 and HDAC4 protein (r =-0.87; P= 0.026) and miR-31 and NRF1 protein (r =-0.77; P= 0.01) 3 h following exercise. miR-31 binding to the HDAC4 and NRF1 3′ untranslated region (UTR) reduced luciferase reporter activity. Exercise rapidly and transiently regulates several miRNA species in muscle. Several of these miRNAs may be involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle regeneration, gene transcription and mitochondrial biogenesis. Identifying endurance exercise-mediated stress signals regulating skeletal muscle miRNAs, as well as validating their targets and regulatory pathways post exercise, will advance our understanding of their potential role/s in human health. © 2013 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2013 The Physiological Society.

  • 224.
    Ryba, Tatiana
    et al.
    University of British Columbia, Canada.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Center for Sport and Health Science (CIHF).
    Gucciardi, Daniel
    University of Western Australia, Australia.
    Gordon, Sandy
    University of Western Australia, Australia.
    Will we know mental toughness when we see it?2007In: 2007 Conference Proceedings, AASP , 2007, p. 3-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 225.
    Ryba, Tatiana
    et al.
    The University of Tennessee, USA.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Center for Sport and Health Science (CIHF).
    Wrisberg, Craig
    The University of Tennessee, USA.
    The Russian Origins of Sport Psychology: A Translation of an Early Work of A. C.Puni2005In: Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, ISSN 1041-3200, E-ISSN 1533-1571, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 157-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sport psychology today is a vibrant and thriving field with well-developed theory and increased opportunities for applied consulting. However, when the field is historicized, it is often done so with an emphasis on its North American roots (c.f., Williams & Straub, 2001). While the development of sport psychology in other parts of the world, particularly Eastern Europe, is acknowledged, less is known about the contributions of individuals in those countries. One such person, who was one of the earliest contributing figures to the field, is the Russian practitioner and scholar Avksenty Tcezarevich Puni (1898 – 1986). To date, English-speaking audiences have been unaware of the profound influence of Puni’s work because his papers were published in Russian. Though some of Puni’s work was translated into various languages of the European socialist countries, only glimpses of his work exist in English in the form of a few published abstracts of papers Puni presented at international conferences.  

                          In this paper, we offer the first of two essays designed to acquaint English-speaking readers with the work of this patriarch of Russian sport psychology. The second essay (Stambulova, Wrisberg, & Ryba, 2004) entitled “A Tale of Two Traditions in Applied Sport Psychology: The Heyday of Soviet Sport and a Wake-Up Call for North America,” is currently in preparation. Both papers represent our attempt to disrupt the established linear flow of the North American narrative by juxtaposing Russian and English historical texts, original Puni’s writings (including documents from his personal archives), and oral history.[i] This first essay begins with a short biographical sketch of Puni, followed by an English translation of one of his most influential early works. It concludes with a brief discussion of some of the parallel events transpiring in North American sport psychology during Puni’s era.

  • 226.
    Rydborn, James
    Halmstad University.
    A comparison of custom made compression tights against no recovery and an active cool down after an exhaustive training protocol.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Recovery is an important factor in relation to training, and the most commonly used is that of an active cool down. Recovery specific compression tights give athletes a more convenient alternative to massages or ice baths. Previous research has given different results in terms of the physiological and psychological benefits of wearing recovery specific compression tights. Aim: The aim of the study was to see if recovery specific compression tights improved the subjects’ broad jump distance, Pro-Agility test times and perceived soreness scores more compared to an active cool down and no recovery modalities. Method: Thirteen members of the men’s Swedish National Field Hockey team took park in the study. The intervention consisted of a yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (YYIRTL2) and a bout of plyometric strength training. Lactate values were taken at baseline, following the YYIRTL2 and the following morning. Broad jump distance and Pro-Agility test times were taken at baseline, following the intervention and the following morning. Perceived soreness scores were taken following the intervention and the following morning. The three recovery modalities used were; recovery specific compression tights, an active cool down and no recovery. Results: Broad jump distance decreased between post intervention and the following morning for the cool down (p=0.04) and no recovery (p=0.042) modalities. A decrease in Pro-Agility time was found between post intervention and morning Pro-Agility time for cool down modality (p=0.004). Perceived soreness for tights (p=0.002) and cool down modality (p=0.008) were lower in the morning than directly after the intervention. Perceived soreness was lower in the morning for tights (0.005) when compared to cool down (p=0.33) and no recovery (p=0.23). Conclusion: Study shows that recovery specific compression tights improve perceived soreness scores in the recovery from high intensity training the morning after. Broad jump distances improved, but the data interpretation is complicated by a low attendance. There was no benefit found to decrease Pro-agility sprint time. 

  • 227.
    Råsäter, Kristoffer
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Difference in estimated VO2max between the 30-15 intermittent fitness-test and 20-meter shuttle test in amateur floorball-players.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Floorball is a sport where not a lot of research have been done, it is a young sport and up until now it has only been played in Europe. The sport is in present days growing rapidly in popularity and is expanding worldwide. Because of the lack of research coaches have little knowledge regarding VO2max testing within the sport. Aim: The aim of the study was to compare results of both a 30-15 intermittent fitness test (IFT) and a 20-meter shuttle test (beep test) and see if there is a difference between estimated VO2max for athletes playing floorball. The hypothesis was that because the 30-15IFT mimics the movement pattern of floorball more than the beep test does, athletes playing this sports should score a higher result in the 30-15IFT. Methods: The study was done on fifteen sub-elite floorball players (8 male and 7 female) aged 20.6 years ± SD 3.5. The test persons performed two aerobic fitness tests, Beep test and 30-15IFT. The beep test consists of a number of 20 meter shuttle runs with increased speeds every minute and the 30-15IFT consists of 30 seconds of running followed by 15 seconds of rest with increased running speed every 45 seconds. A paired sample t-test was used to compare the estimated VO2max results of both tests. Results: Results show that 66% test persons scored a higher result in the 30-15IFT compared to the beep test. However, there was no statistical difference between the two tests.  The players scored a mean value of 48.3 ml/kg/min ± 3.8 during the 30-15IFT and 45.4 ml/kg/min during the beep test ± 5.9, p=0.06 Conclusion: The 30-15IFT is equally as good as the beep test at estimating VO2max in floorball players. A factor that might have affected the results was that the formula for calculating VO2max in the beep test does not take age and weight into consideration while the formula for the 30-15IFT does. In the future, work should be done at “constructing” a new formula for the beep test.

  • 228.
    Saltagic, Mirza
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Lindström, Jesper
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Tränarbeteenden, Självbestämmande och Psykiskhälsa/ohälsa inom elit ungdomsfotbollen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that players may perceive their coach in a different way thanwhat is desired by the trainer himself. The coach behaviors could have different affects onplayers self-determination and well-being. The purpose of this study was to investigate howSwedish elite football players perceived coach behaviors. It was of interest to seerelationships between players experiences of coach behaviors, self-determination and wellbeingwhen the club where in focus because it affects the players well-being and futuredevelopment. There were 102 participants from different Swedish elite football academies atthe age of 15-19 years old (M=16,03, SD=1,014). This study used Coaching Behavior Scalefor Sport, The Basic Needs Satisfaction in Sport Scale and General Health Questionnaire-12.This study data analysis was descriptive statistics, paired sample t-test and linear regressionanalysis. The descriptive statistics showed that personal contact was the highest ranked coachbehavior and player’s self-determination had high means. The paired sample t-test showedsignificant more perceived well-being than illness. Furthermore the linear regression analysisshowed that autonomy, relatedness and well-being were positive significant with coachbehaviors. Furthermore the results indicated that coach behaviors was not related tocompetence and illness. For further research, it is suggested to do a larger research with moreSwedish elite youth football clubs. It is of interest to do a similar study on girls and make aqualitative study where interviews take place with both coaches and players.

  • 229.
    Sandström, Elin
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    ORSAKER TILL NYBÖRJARTRÄNARES COACHING EFFICACY2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to create a deeper understanding of the sources to novice coaches coaching efficacy. The following questions where used: (1) Witch sources do novice coaches perceive contributed to their coaching efficacy witch made them take the trainer mission?; (2) Witch sources do novice coaches perceive raise and lower their coaching efficacy?; and What attribution pattern uses novice coaches in relation to the sources they perceive increase and decrease their coaching efficacy. Semi-structured interviews where conducted with five novice coaches. An inductive analysis where conducted. All respondents perceived knowledge to be a contribution source for starting as a coach. During the trainer mission support was the most cited source. The stability of the respondents attribution patterns seems to be mostly varying. The sources to coaching efficacy that where found are discussed based on earlier work and entailments are given.

  • 230.
    Secomb, Josh L
    et al.
    Queensland Academy of Sport, Nathan, Australia & Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Australia.
    Farley, Oliver R.
    Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Nimphius, Sophia
    Centre for Exercise and Sport Science Research, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Australia.
    Lundgren, Lina E.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Tran, Tai T.
    Canadian Sports Institute-Pacific, Victoria, Canada.
    Sheppard, Jeremy M.
    Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Australia & Canadian Sports Institute-Pacific, Victoria, Canada.
    The training-specific adaptations resulting from resistance training, gymnastics and plyometric training, and non-training in adolescent athletes2017In: International journal of sports science & coaching, ISSN 1747-9541, E-ISSN 2048-397X, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 762-773Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although previous research has investigated the training-specific adaptations to training in adults, there is a paucity of research aimed at investigating these adaptations in adolescent athletes. As such, adolescent athletes’ training-specific adaptations from three different training interventions were investigated in this study. Sixteen adolescent athletes participated in this study, whereby eight performed both training interventions and eight the non-training control. Pre- and post-testing was performed for each intervention with the testing battery: ultrasonography of the vastus lateralis and lateral gastrocnemius, countermovement jump, squat jump, and isometric mid-thigh pull. The resistance training group had large significant increases in isometric mid-thigh pull relative peak force (p < 0.01, g = 0.85 (−0.01, 1.71)) and vastus lateralis fascicle length (p = 0.04, g = 0.94 (0.07, 1.80)). The gymnastics and plyometric group demonstrated large significant changes in vastus lateralis pennation angle (p = 0.03, g = −0.94 (−1.81, −0.08)) and fascicle length (p = 0.03, g = 1.07 (0.19, 1.95)), and moderate significant increases in lateral gastrocnemius thickness (p = 0.01, g = 0.63 (−0.21, 1.47)) and eccentric leg stiffness (p = 0.03, g = 0.60 (−0.24, 1.44)). No significant changes were observed for any variables in the non-training group. The resistance training evoked increases in lower-body force producing capabilities, whereas the gymnastics and plyometric training evoked changes in muscle structure and inherent muscle qualities. © 2017, © The Author(s) 2017.

  • 231.
    Simonsson, Ebba
    Halmstad University.
    Stressresponsens påverkan på emotioner ,beteende, beslutsfattande och idrottsprestationen2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 232.
    Sjöholm, Therese
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Changes in Running Technique At Shod and Barefoot Running Condition: - An analysis of Muay Thai Fighters2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: everal studies mean that individuals accustomed to running barefoot and habitually barefoot individuals choose a fore foot or mid foot strike rather than a rear foot strike when running. This is partly to do with the proprioceptive feedback given from the soles of the feet. The common denominator of the barefoot runner and the Muay Thai fighter would be this proprioceptive feedback due to general bare foot training. A contributing factor to a non heal strike pattern could perhaps also be found in the sport specific movement pattern of Muay Thai where the athlete is trained to execute several actions from the fore foot. Aim: The first aim was to analyse differences in angles of the knee, ankle and foot at initial contact while running shod compared to barefoot in Muay Thai fighters accustomed to training barefoot. A second aim was to investigate if there was a difference in running technique regarding foot strike pattern when running shod compared to bare foot. The foot strike pattern is defined as heal strike, mid foot strike or forefoot strike. Method: Seventeen Muay Thai fighters (13 male 4 female) volunteered to participate in the test of the cross- sectional experimental study. The study took place at PT-Studion Halmstad. The participants performed 2x3minutes of running shod and barefoot respectively at a subjective speed equal to a 12 on the Borg scale. Both conditions were video recorded from a sagittal plane using an iPhone 6. The dominant leg defined as the non-weight bearing leg at the preferred boxing stance was analysed. Data was collected two-dimensionally of the angels of the knee, ankle and foot position to horizontal. Foot strike pattern was also determined. Landmarks were marked to ease the analysis. T-tests of paired samples were used to examine whether there were any differences between the angle of the knee, ankle and foot at barefoot and shod conditions. The significance level for this study was set to be statistically significant if p ≤ 0.05. Foot strike frequency distributions were compared between shod and barefoot runners using chi-square (X2) analysis. Result: A significant difference at the angle of the foot (p=0,034) at initial contact with the ground while running between shod (12 ± 9) and barefoot (17 ± 9) was found. No significant difference in the angle of the knee (p=0,076) or ankle (p=0,081) was found. Changes in foot strike pattern were observed. At shod condition 88% used a rear foot strike, 6% used a mid foot strike and 6% used a forefoot strike. At barefoot condition 41% used a rear foot strike, 0% used a mid foot strike and 59% a fore foot strike. Conclusion: This study shows that the there is a significant difference in foot strike pattern when running shod and barefoot which confirms previous studies. The test group have in common that they train Muay Thai although; their sport specific training doesn’t appear to in this case have any impact on the foot strike pattern.

  • 233.
    Sofie, Sivertsson
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Does one repetition maximun in clean correlate with 20 meter sprint and countermovement jump?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Crossfit is a high-volume training form and is popular among society and military communities because of its metabolic and physical challenging conditioning program. Crossfit includes both aerobic and anaerobic training and performers of Crossfit use all three different metabolic pathways, the phosphagen system, glycolysis and oxidative system. Similarities in movement pattern clean, countermovement jump (CMJ) and sprint running exist and also the use of stretch shortening cycle (SSC), which is a biomechanical function that is used in for example plyometric exercises. Recent research has reported correlation between weightlifting, countermovement jump (CMJ) and sprint, however, few of these studies have used female Crossfit performers. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine if there is a correlation between the performances of a clean and linear sprint time in 20 meter and if there is a correlation between the performance of clean and height in CMJ. Method: To participate, the women had to be a member of a Crossfit gym since five months back, and have five month of experience of practicing the clean exercise. The study had two different test sessions were the first session was for one repetition max in clean and session two was for 20 meter sprint and CMJ. Result: Fifteen females participated in the study and the correlation between clean and CMJ showed a strong correlation (r =0,74, r2=0,55) and when controlling clean and CMJ for body mass, the result showed a very strong correlation (r=0.88). The associations between clean and sprint showed a moderate to strong negative correlation (r =-0,52, r 2=0,27) and when controlling for body mass the result was (r =-0.54). The association between CMJ and sprint showed a strong correlation (r=-0.69, r2=0,48) and when controlling for body mass the correlation was (r =-0.71). Conclusion:Findings from this current study showed that there is a strong relationship between CMJ and clean among female Crossfit participants. This indicate that weightlifting exercise, in this case clean, can improve power exercises as jump height, but not to forget the importance of practicing jump movements as well. For further research it would be interesting if the participants were divided in groups depending on how long they had practiced in Crossfit. To see if there would be any different in clean, sprint and jump among these measurements, and maybe use both squat jump and CMJ as a test for jump to see the different in the result it might give.

  • 234.
    Solstad, Bård Erlend
    et al.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Larsen, Torill Marie Bogsnes
    University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Holsen, Ingrid
    University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Ronglan, Lars Tore
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Ommundsen, Yngvar
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Pre- to post-season differences in empowering and disempowering behaviours among youth football coaches: a sequential mixed-methods study2018In: Sport Coaching Review, ISSN 2164-0629, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 113-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences in self-reported behaviours among youth football (i.e. European soccer) coaches from pre- to post-season, and additionally, their evaluative reactions to participation in the Norwegian arm of the Empowering Coaching™Training Programme (ECTP). A total of 193 coaches (174 males; 19 females; M = 41.99; SD = 6.32) completed a questionnaire concerning their use of empowering and disempowering behaviours at the beginning and end of the sport season. Moreover, 12 of these coaches (10 males; 2 females; M = 41.67; SD = 5.68) were interviewed at the end of the sport season using semi-structured interviews. Whereas coaches’ empowering and disempowering behaviours did not differ from pre- to post-season, post-season interviews showed that participation in the ECTP led coaches to reflect on their coaching practises, facilitating an increased focus on enabling autonomy and involvement for the athletes and more attention paid to the athletes’ feelings of mastery. © 2017 informa UK Limited, trading as taylor & Francis group

  • 235.
    Sparf, Pontus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Aerobic endurance test for Table Tennis: A correlation study between Cooper’s test and Critical frequency test amongst Swedish-ranked players2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Table tennis is a complex sport, which uses both aerobic and anaerobic endurance. Whereby the aerobic endurance system is mostly used during the rest periods in order to maintain active and fully focused under the intense periods which occurs during ball rallies. The Swedish Olympic committee provides with a physiological profile where the aerobic endurance of the table tennis players is tested with Cooper’s test. The Cooper’s test is not sport specific and thereby a sport specific aerobic endurance test was developed, since player performance should be measured precise and sport specific. The sport specific aerobic endurance test is named Critical frequency test and is performed with a mechanical ball thrower.

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the strength of the correlation between Cooper’s test and Critical frequency test with subjects national ranking. A second aim was to compare the strength of the correlation between Cooper’s test and Critical frequency test with subjects national ranking.

    Method: 14 subjects participated in this correlation study. Their aerobic endurance was measured with a Cooper’s test performed on a treadmill where their time to complete 3000m in seconds was gathered and with two critical frequency tests performed at different intensities (48 respectively 56 balls/minute) where their time to exhaustion in seconds was gathered.

    Results: A strong correlation was found between Cooper’s test and subjects group ranking, based on their national ranking (r=0.600 and r2=0.360, p=0.023. A weak non-significant correlation was found between Critf test and subjects group ranking at 48 respectively 56 balls/minute (48: r=-0.341 and r2=0.116, p=0.233) and (58: r=0.022 and r2=0.0005, p=0.940).

    Conclusion: The results in this study showed a strong correlation between Cooper’s test and subjects group ranking. This means, that in table tennis players ranked from 20-2700 in Sweden, the Cooper’s test could be used, in order to evaluate player performance. However, the Critf test could be questioned since a weak non-significant correlation was found. Future research is needed to evaluate the Critf test in this area, on a more homogenous group concerning the ranking list in Sweden.

  • 236.
    Sparf, Pontus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Aerobic endurance test for Table Tennis: A correlation study between Cooper’s test and Critical frequency test amongst Swedish-ranked players2018In: The Science and Practice of Racket Sport for Improved Performance and Health: Special Focus on Table Tennis: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Urban Johnson, Lars Kristén, Miran Kondrič, Halmstad: Halmstad University , 2018, p. 60-61Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Table tennis is a complex sport, using different physical abilities where both aerobic and anaerobic endurance is important. Anaerobic endurance is vital during short-time intense periods, which occurs during ball rallies, while the aerobic endurance system is used in between helping the player to maintain active and fully focused throughout the whole match. The Swedish Olympic committee provides with a physiological profile where the aerobic endurance of the table tennis players is tested with Cooper’s test. The Cooper’s test is not sport specific and thereby a sport specific aerobic endurance test has been developed, since player performance should be measured precise and sport specific. The sport specific aerobic endurance test is named Critical frequency test and is performed with a mechanical ball thrower.

    Aim and theoretical framework: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the strength of the correlation between Cooper’s test and Critical frequency test with the player’s national ranking. A second aim was to compare the strength of the correlation between Cooper’s test and Critical frequency test with the player’s national ranking.

    Method: 14 subjects participated in this correlation study. Their aerobic endurance was measured with two different tests. The Cooper’s test was performed on a treadmill where their time to complete 300m in seconds was gathered. The Critical frequency tests were performed at two different intensities, 48 and 56 balls/minute respectively, where their time to exhaustion in seconds was gathered.

    Results: A strong correlation was found between Cooper’s test and subjects group ranking, based on their national ranking (r=0.600 and r2=0.360, p=0.023. A weak non-significant correlation was found between Critf test and subjects group ranking at 48 respectively 56 balls/minute (48: r=-0.341 and r2=0.116, p=0.233) and (58: r=0.022 and r2=0.0005, p=0.940). A r-value of <0.4 was considered a weak correlation, 0,4 – 0,6 as moderate and 0,6> as strong.

    Discussion and conclusions/expected outcome: The results in this study showed a strong correlation between Cooper’s test and subjects group ranking. This means that in table tennis players ranked from 20-2700 in Sweden, the Cooper’s test could be used, in order to evaluate player performance. However, the Critf test could be questioned since a weak non-significant correlation was found. Future research is needed to evaluate the Critf test in this area, on a more homogenous group concerning the ranking list in Sweden.

  • 237.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Center for Sport and Health Science (CIHF).
    Athletes' crisis-transitions: "Dead ends" or "Cross-roads"?2004In: 1er Congrès international de psychologie du sport = First International Congress of Sport Psychology: Theme : Introduire la psychologie du sport en Afrique : Marrakech : 2 - 5 Juin 2004 : Actes du congres = Theme : Introducing Sport Psychology to Africa : Marrakech : 2 - 5 June 2004 : Proceedings / [ed] A. Baria & E. H. Nabli, Moroccan Association of Sport Psychology , 2004, p. 221-224Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 238.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Center for Sport and Health Science (CIHF).
    Athletic career transitions in the historical and cultural context of Russian sport psychology2007In: Book of abstracts / [ed] Yannis Theodorakis, Marios Goudas & Athanasios Papaioannou, FEPSAC , 2007, p. 103-106Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 239.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Center for Sport and Health Science (CIHF).
    Career planning strategy bridging an athlete's past, present, and perceived future2007In: 2007 Conference Proceedings, AASP , 2007, p. 77-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 240.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Center for Sport and Health Science (CIHF).
    Career planning strategy: How to balance the past, the present and the future?2007In: Book of abstracts / [ed] Y. Theodorakis, M. Goudas, & A. Papaioannou, FEPSAC , 2007, p. 131-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 241.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Center for Sport and Health Science (CIHF).
    Reflections on implementation of the "Mobilization" model of counseling athletes in crisis-transitions2005In: Proceedings of the 11th World Congress of Sport Psychology, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 242.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    The St.-Petersburg State University of Physical Education and Sports, St.-Petersburg, Russia.
    Sociological: Sports career transitions1997In: Sport Science in a Changing World of Sports, Book of Abstracts I, Oral Prasentations / [ed] J. Bangsbo, B. Saltin, H. Bonde, Y. Hellsten, B. Ibsen, M. Kjær, G. Sjøgaard, ECSS , 1997, p. 88-89Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 243.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    St.-Petersburg State University of Physical Education and Sports, St.-Petersburg, Russia.
    Sports career psychological models and their applications1997In: Innovations in sport psychology: linking theory and practice : proceedings / [ed] Bar-Eli, Michael & Lidor, Ronnie, Netanya: Wingate Institute for Physical Education and Sport , 1997, p. 658-660Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 244.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    St.-Petersburg State University of Physical Education and Sports, St.-Petersburg, Russia.
    Sports career transitions of Russian athletes1995In: Proceedings of the 9th European Congress of Sport Psychology / [ed] R. Vanfraechem-Raway & Y. Vanden Auwelle, ATM , 1995, p. 867-872Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 245.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    St.-Petersburg State University of Physical Education and Sports, St.-Petersburg, Russia.
    The dynamics of motivation throughout the sports career1996In: The annual congress of the European college of sport science: Proceedings / [ed] P. Marconnet, J. Caulard, I. Margatis, & F. Tessier, 1996, p. 62-63Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 246.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    St.-Petersburg State University of Physical Education and Sports, St.-Petersburg, Russia.
    The sports career effects1998In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress of Sport Psychology / [ed] Y. Theodorakis, M. Goudas, & K. Bagiatis, The Greek Federation of Sport Psychology , 1998, p. 12-14Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 247.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Center for Sport and Health Science (CIHF).
    The transition from junior to senior sports: A summary of six Swedish studies2007In: Book of abstracts / [ed] Yannis Theodorakis, Marios Goudas & Athanasios Papaioannou, Volos: University of Thessaly , 2007, p. 126-127Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a summary of six studies on the transition from junior to senior sports conducted by Swedish master’s students under the author’s supervision. All the studies were qualitative and used the developmental model (Wylleman & Lavallee, 2004) and the athletic career transition model (Stambulova, 2003) as theoretical frameworks. Ekengren (2003) studied male handball players in the transition. Josefsson (2004) conducted an intervention case study of a female track-and-field athlete in the transition. Hornbrinck and Båge (2005) interviewed female football players who made successful transition to the senior national team. Mavroidis (2005) focused on the role of coaches in the transition of male football players. Vujic (2006) contrasted one successful and one crisis transitions in swimming. Stolze (in progress) follows the transition of four female football players longitudinally. To summarise, the studies demonstrate that the transition from junior to senior sports relates not only to a sport context. Besides new challenges in practice and competitions, the athletes experience new demands in psychological development (identity formation, striving for independence), in psychosocial (importance of socializing, having friends/love), and in academic/vocational development (higher education/professional choice demands). As a result, the athletes are under high life stress and need to find time/energy for everything. The successful transition lasts one-three years depending on the resources/barriers balance and coping strategies. Career planning, balancing lifestyle, stress/time/energy management, effective recovery are important issues helping athletes to develop internal resources to cope. Continuity in coaching and significant others’ psychological support are the most valued external resources for the transitional athletes.

  • 248.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    St.-Petersburg State University of Physical Education and Sports, St.-Petersburg, Russia.
    Transitional period of Russian athletes following sports career termination1997In: Innovations in sport psychology: linking theory and practice : proceedings / [ed] Bar-Eli, Michael & Lidor, Ronnie, Netanya: Wingate Institute for Physical Education and Sport , 1997, p. 655-657Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 249.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Center for Sport and Health Science (CIHF).
    Alfermann, Dorothee
    Leipzig University, Germany.
    Career transitions of athletes: research and applications2005In: Proceedings of the 11th World Congress of Sport Psychology, ISSP , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 250.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Center for Sport and Health Science (CIHF).
    Alfermann, Dorothee
    Leipzig University, Germany.
    Statler, Traci
    California State University at San Bernardino, USA.
    Cote, Jean
    Queen's University at Kingston, Canada.
    Career development and transitions of athletes2007In: Book of abstracts / [ed] Yannis Theodorakis Marios Goudas & Athanasios Papaioannou, FEPSAC , 2007, p. 153-Conference paper (Refereed)
23456 201 - 250 of 278
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