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  • 201.
    Khan, Zeshan Aslam
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology. International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Pignaton de Freitas, Edison
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Abbas, Haider
    King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    A Multi-agent Model for Fire Detection in Coal Mines using Wireless Sensor Networks2013In: 2013 12th IEEE International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications / [ed] Lisa O’Conner, Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society, 2013, p. 1754-1761, article id 6681047Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an application for monitoring and detection of fire in coal mines using wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The application uses BDI (Belief, Desire and Intention) based multi-agent model and its implementation on sensor networks. The language used for implementation is interpreted by Jason; an extension of AgentSpeak which is based on the BDI Architecture. The BDI agents are reactive planning systems; systems that are not meant to compute the value of a function and terminate but rather designed to be permanently running and reacting to some form of event. The distributed model of the environment is adopted to overcome the communication overhead, power consumption, network delay and reliability on a centralized base station. © 2013 IEEE.

  • 202.
    Khandelwal, Siddhartha
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Wickström, Nicholas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Novel methodology for estimating Initial Contact events from accelerometers positioned at different body locations2018In: Gait & Posture, ISSN 0966-6362, E-ISSN 1879-2219, Vol. 59, p. 278-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying Initial Contact events (ICE) is essential in gait analysis as they segment the walking pattern into gait cycles and facilitate the computation of other gait parameters. As such, numerous algorithms have been developed to identify ICE by placing the accelerometer at a specific body location. Simultaneously, many researchers have studied the effects of device positioning for participant or patient compliance, which is an important factor to consider especially for long-term studies in real-life settings. With the adoption of accelerometery for long-term gait analysis in daily living, current and future applications will require robust algorithms that can either autonomously adapt to changes in sensor positioning or can detect ICE from multiple sensors locations.

    This study presents a novel methodology that is capable of estimating ICE from accelerometers placed at different body locations. The proposed methodology, called DK-TiFA, is based on utilizing domain knowledge about the fundamental spectral relationships present between the movement of different body parts during gait to drive the time-frequency analysis of the acceleration signal. In order to assess the performance, DK-TiFA is benchmarked on four large publicly available gait databases, consisting of a total of 613 subjects and 7 unique body locations, namely, ankle, thigh, center waist, side waist, chest, upper arm and wrist. The DK-TiFA methodology is demonstrated to achieve high accuracy and robustness for estimating ICE from data consisting of different accelerometer specifications, varying gait speeds and different environments. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

  • 203.
    Kleyko, Denis
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Hostettler, Roland
    Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lyamin, Nikita
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Birk, Wolfgang
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Umea Univ, Dept Biomed Engn & Informat, Umea, Sweden..
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Vehicle Classification using Road Side Sensors and Feature-free Data Smashing Approach2016In: 2016 IEEE 19th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), Piscataway: IEEE , 2016, p. 1988-1993, article id 7795877Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main contribution of this paper is a study of the applicability of data smashing - a recently proposed data mining method - for vehicle classification according to the "Nordic system for intelligent classification of vehicles" standard, using measurements of road surface vibrations and magnetic field disturbances caused by passing vehicles. The main advantage of the studied classification approach is that it, in contrast to the most of traditional machine learning algorithms, does not require the extraction of features from raw signals. The proposed classification approach was evaluated on a large dataset consisting of signals from 3074 vehicles. Hence, a good estimate of the actual classification rate was obtained. The performance was compared to the previously reported results on the same problem for logistic regression. Our results show the potential trade-off between classification accuracy and classification method's development efforts could be achieved.

  • 204.
    Kleyko, Denis
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Lyamin, Nikita
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Modified Algorithm of Dynamic Frequency Hopping (DFH) in the IEEE 802.22 Standard2014In: Multiple Access Communications: 7th International Workshop on Multiple Access Communications, MACOM 2014: Halmstad, Sweden, August 27-28, 2014: Proceedings, Cham: Springer, 2014, Vol. 8715, p. 75-83Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IEEE 802.22 Cognitive Wireless Regional Area Networks is a first standard of wireless terrestrial system relying on cognitive radio concept and operating as an opportunistic system in the the vacant unoccupied frequency spaces of the licensed TV-frequency band. Concept of the proposed standard assumes special functionality to protect the operation of the primary licensed subscribers. Dynamic Frequency Hopping is the mechanism for providing connectionless operation of Wireless Regional Area Networks systems while ensuring protection of transmissions from the primary users. During its operation regular time gaps appear on the involved frequency channels. This paper introduces the concept of the efficient reuse of the vacant frequency resources appearing when using the Dynamic Frequency Hopping mode. The scheme for consecutive-parallel inclusion of the new Dynamic Frequency Hopping Communities-members in the Dynamic Frequency Hopping mode is presented. The proposed approach allows significantly decrease time of inclusion the new members into a new Dynamic Frequency Hopping Communities. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

  • 205.
    Konečný, Michal
    et al.
    Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
    Duracz, Jan
    Farjudian, Amin
    University of Nottingham Ningbo China, Ningbo, China.
    Taha, Walid
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Picard Method for Enclosing ODEs with Uncertain Initial Values2014In: 11th International Conference on Computability and Complexity in Analysis: July 21 - 24, 2014: Proceedings, 2014, p. 41-42Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 206.
    Konečný, Michal
    et al.
    Computer Science Group, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
    Taha, Walid
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Department of Computer Science, Rice University, Houston, Texas, USA.
    Bartha, Ferenc Ágoston
    Department of Computer Science, Rice University, Houston, Texas, USA.
    Duracz, Jan
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Duracz, Adam
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Ames, Aaron D.
    Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, School of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
    Enclosing the behavior of a hybrid automaton up to and beyond a Zeno point2016In: Nonlinear Analysis: Hybrid Systems, ISSN 1751-570X, E-ISSN 1878-7460, Vol. 20, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even simple hybrid automata like the classic bouncing ball can exhibit Zeno behavior. The existence of this type of behavior has so far forced a large class of simulators to either ignore some events or risk looping indefinitely. This in turn forces modelers to either insert ad-hoc restrictions to circumvent Zeno behavior or to abandon hybrid automata. To address this problem, we take a fresh look at event detection and localization. A key insight that emerges from this investigation is that an enclosure for a given time interval can be valid independent of the occurrence of a given event. Such an event can then even occur an unbounded number of times. This insight makes it possible to handle some types of Zeno behavior. If the post-Zeno state is defined explicitly in the given model of the hybrid automaton, the computed enclosure covers the corresponding trajectory that starts from the Zeno point through a restarted evolution. ©2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 207.
    Konečný, Michal
    et al.
    Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
    Taha, Walid
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Duracz, Jan
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Duracz, Adam
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Ames, Aaron
    Texas A&M University, College Station, USA.
    Enclosing the Behavior of a Hybrid System up to and Beyond a Zeno Point2013In: 2013 IEEE 1st International Conference on Cyber-Physical Systems, Networks, and Applications, CPSNA 2013, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2013, p. 120-125Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even simple hybrid systems like the classic bouncing ball can exhibit Zeno behaviors. The existence of this type ofbehavior has so far forced simulators to either ignore some events or risk looping indefinitely. This in turn forces modelers to either insert ad hoc restrictions to circumvent Zeno behavior or to abandon hybrid modeling. To address this problem, we take a fresh look at event detection and localization. A key insight that emerges from this investigation is that an enclosure for a given time interval can be valid independently of the occurrence of agiven event. Such an event can then even occur an unbounded number of times, thus making it possible to handle certain types of Zeno behavior. © 2013 IEEE.

  • 208.
    Kothawade, Prasad
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). DH-Anti-counterfeit .
    Bhowmick, Partha Sarathi
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). DH-Anti-counterfeit .
    Cloud Security: Penetration Testing of Application in Micro-service architecture and Vulnerability Assessment.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Software as a Service (SaaS) is a modern software product model that provides an awesome experience and dynamic platform for the expedition, communication and creating new features in a short amount of time. Cloud platforms provide an outstanding foundation for Software as a solution with their on user-demand infrastructure and application service. We can say that microservice architecture as the optional architecture for a cloud-hosted solution. Microservice architecture is not that much build-up, it just started getting attraction from various industries who want to market for their product in a short time by expanding productivity through increasing automation in the whole product lifecycle[1]. Microservice architecture approach come-up with lots of new complexity and it need a certain level of maturity development to confidently apply the architectural style. The challenge we are facing is how do we make sure the system stays safe and doesn't get hacked or leak data in this more complex and versatile cloud environment. Hence, we need to do penetration testing on the newly developed application in a microservice architecture.

  • 209.
    Kumar, Neeraj
    et al.
    Thapar University, Patiala, Punjab, India.
    Lee, Jong-Hyouk
    Sangmyung University, Cheonan, South Korea.
    Chilamkurti, Naveen
    La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Energy-Efficient Multimedia Data Dissemination in Vehicular Clouds: Stochastic-Reward-Nets-Based Coalition Game Approach2016In: IEEE Systems Journal, ISSN 1932-8184, E-ISSN 1937-9234, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 847-858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate an energy efficiency issue for multimedia applications in a vehicular cloud environment. The problem of energy efficiency is formulated as a stochastic reward nets (SRNs)-based coalition game, in which vehicles are assumed as the players that formulate the coalition among themselves using a predefined criteria based on the demand generated and the available resources at the nearest cloudlet. A demand- and supply-based payoff value function is formulated for each player in the game. The processes and actions of the players are represented as SRNs in which each player should have a finite number of tokens to fire its actions. To reduce the delay, each vehicle accesses resources such as memory, processing power, and storage from the nearest cloudlet that may be either at the road side units deployed near the road or on the vehicles. The actions of the players are associated with a cardinality that represents the number of rewards and actions they have taken in a unit interval of time after interacting with an environment that is stochastic in this paper. For each action performed by the players, they may get feedback in the form of a reward or a penalty, according to which each player updates its action probability vector that helps them take the next actions in the game. An energy-efficient algorithm for frame scheduling using the nearest cloudlet is also proposed. The performance of the proposed algorithm is found to be satisfactory with respect to various evaluation metrics. In particular, there is an increment of 10%–15% in profit generation, with 20%–25% reduction in the delay, and an increment of 20% in the packet delivery ratio. © 2015 IEEE

  • 210.
    Kumar, Neeraj
    et al.
    Thapar University, Patiala, Punjab, India.
    Zeadally, Sherali
    University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, United States.
    Chilamkurti, Naveen
    La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Performance Analysis of Bayesian Coalition Game-Based Energy-Aware Virtual Machine Migration in Vehicular Mobile Cloud2015In: IEEE Network, ISSN 0890-8044, E-ISSN 1558-156X, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 62-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To provide computing and communication services to mobile clients, vehicular mobile cloud computing has gained lot of attention in recent times. However, one of the biggest challenges for the smooth execution of these services in this environment is the intelligent usage of VMs which may be overloaded due to numerous requests from mobile clients such as vehicles and mobile devices to access these services. However, poor utilization of VMs in this environment causes a lot of energy to be wasted. To address this issue, we propose Bayesian coalition game as-aservice for intelligent context-switching of VMs to support the above defined services in order to reduce the energy consumption, so that clients can execute their services without a performance degradation. In the proposed scheme, we have used the concepts of learning automata (LA) and game theory in which LA are assumed as the players such that each player has an individual payoff based upon the energy consumption and load on the VM. Players interact with the stochastic environment for taking action such as the selection of appropriate VMs and based upon the feedback received from the environment, they update their action probability vector. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated by using various performance evaluation metrics such as context-switching delay, overhead generated, execution time, and energy consumption. The results obtained show that the proposed scheme performs well with respect to the aforementioned performance metrics. Specifically, using the proposed scheme there is a reduction of 10 percent in energy consumption, 12 percent in network delay, 5 percent in overhead generation, and 10 percent in execution time. © 1986-2012 IEEE.

  • 211.
    Kunert, Kristina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES). Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Bilstrup, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Deterministic real-time medium access for cognitive industrial radio networks2012In: 2012 9th IEEE International Workshop Factory Communication Systems: WFWC 2012, Proceedings / [ed] Thomas Nolte & Andreas Willig, Piscataway: IEEE Press, 2012, p. 91-94Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial communication often has to work in an environment where other networks or radiation create different levels of interference for the data traffic. Additionally, industrial applications often demand predictable real-time performance of the network. One way of trying to utilise the available frequencies in an effective manner is to include cognitive functionality in the network. We present a medium access control protocol for a cognitive radio network, providing deterministic medium access for heterogeneous traffic and dynamic spectrum allocation. Spectrum sensing abilities in the nodes open up for the possibility of increasing successful data transmissions, and a real-time analysis framework provides upper-bounded medium access delay in order to guarantee timely treatment of hard real-time traffic. © 2012 IEEE.

  • 212.
    Kunert, Kristina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Böhm, Annette
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Nordström, Tomas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Providing Efficient Support for Real-Time Guarantees in a Fibre-Optic AWG-Based Network for Embedded Systems2017In: Optical Switching and Networkning Journal, ISSN 1573-4277, E-ISSN 1872-9770, Vol. 24, p. 47-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-performance embedded systems running real-time applications demand communication solutions providing high data rates and low error probabilities, properties inherent to optical solutions. However, providing timing guarantees for deadline bound applications in this context is far from basic due to the parallelism inherent in multiwavelength networks and often bound to include a large amount of pessimism. Assuming deterministic medium access, an admission control algorithm using a schedulability analysis can ensure deadline guarantees for real-time communication. The traffic dependency analysis presented in this paper is specifically targeting a multichannel context, taking into consideration the possibility of concurrent transmissions in these types of networks. Combining our analysis with a feasibility analysis in admission control, the amount of guaranteed hard real-time traffic could be shown to increase by a factor 7 in a network designed for a radar signal processing case. Using this combination of analysis methods will render possible an increased amount of hard real-time traffic over a given multichannel network, leading to a more efficient bandwidth utilization by deadline dependent applications without having to redesign the network or the medium access method.

  • 213.
    Kunert, Kristina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Exploiting Time and Frequency Diversity in IEEE 802.15.4 Industrial Networks for Enhanced Reliability and Throughput2010In: 2010 IEEE CONFERENCE ON EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES AND FACTORY AUTOMATION (ETFA), Piscataway: IEEE , 2010, article id 5641347Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial networks based on IEEE 802.15.4 are spreading, even though the joint requirement on predictability and reliability from industrialapplications is hard to fulfil in wireless networks, and the data rate of IEEE 802.15.4 is rather low. With the goal of providing real-time guarantees, with increased reliability and throughput, we propose two multichannel network architectures based on IEEE 802.15.4 with predictable medium access, real-time analysis admission control and transport layer retransmissions. We evaluate the architectures in terms of reliability, utilization, delay, complexity, scalability and energy efficiency. The evaluations show that throughput and reliability can be enhanced through redundancy and concurrency in the frequency domain. ©2010 IEEE.

  • 214.
    Kunert, Kristina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Exploiting time and frequency diversity in IEEE 802.15.4 industrial networks for enhanced reliability and throughput2010In: 2010 IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA), Piscataway, NJ, 2010, p. 1-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial networks based on IEEE 802.15.4 are spreading, even though the joint requirement on predictability and reliability from industrial applications is hard to fulfil in wireless networks, and the data rate of IEEE 802.15.4 is rather low. With the goal of providing real-time guarantees, with increased reliability and throughput, we propose two multichannel network architectures based on IEEE 802.15.4 with predictable medium access, real-time analysis admission control and transport layer retransmissions. We evaluate the architectures in terms of reliability, utilization, delay, complexity, scalability and energy efficiency. The evaluations show that throughput and reliability can be enhanced through redundancy and concurrency in the frequency domain.

  • 215.
    Kunert, Kristina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Enhancing reliability in IEEE 802.11 based real-time networks through transport layer retransmissions2010In: 2010 International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems (SIES), New York: IEEE Press, 2010, p. 146-155Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the number of application areas for wireless technologies grows, the need for providing both predictable and reliable communication over wireless networks becomes apparent. Cooperative embedded systems for industrial automation are one example of systems with these needs. Previously, we developed a framework for reliable real-time communication in a single-hop wireless network with a logical star topology. The framework was placed on top of IEEE 802.15.4 and combines transport layer retransmissions with real-time analysis admission control. IEEE 802.15.4 was selected due to its advantageous energy saving techniques, making it an interesting choice for wireless sensor networks in industrial contexts. However, its achievable data rate is rather low, especially when voice or video for industrial surveillance and monitoring need to be transferred. Hence, we adapt our framework to fit the IEEE 802.11 standard and evaluate its performance using a data traffic model from industrial control and surveillance systems. The performance of the framework is evaluated in terms of network utilization, message error rate and delay distribution using theoretical analysis as well as computer simulations.

     

  • 216.
    Kunert, Kristina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Predictable real-time communications with improved reliability for IEEE 802.15.4 based industrial networks2010In: 2010 8th IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS), Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE , 2010, p. 13-22Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging industrial applications requiring reliable wireless real-time communications are numerous. Using existing standards such as IEEE 802.15.4 is essential for reasons of interoperability and cost efficiency. However, since 802.15.4 is unable to provide predictable channel access, real-time guarantees cannot be given. Further, the noisy wireless channel makes reliable communications particularly challenging. By adding a deterministic medium access method and a transport protocol with a truncated retransmission scheme to 802.15.4, we jointly enforce reliability and predictability. We evaluate our solution analytically by real-time schedulability analysis including retransmissions, and by computer simulations. We show that the message error rate can be improved by several orders of magnitude while keeping the utilization penalty at reasonable levels.

  • 217.
    Kunert, Kristina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Weckstén, Mattias
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Algorithm for the choice of topology in reconfigurable on-chip networks with real-time support2007In: Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on Nano-Networks, Bryssels: ICST (Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering) , 2007, p. 1-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many future embedded systems are likely to contain System-on-Chip solutions with on-chip networks and in order to achieve high aggregated throughputs in these networks, a switched topology can be used. For further performance improvements, the topology can be adapted to application demands, either when designing the chip or by run-time reconfiguration between different predefined application modes. In this paper, we present an algorithm for the choice of topology in, e.g., on-chip networks, considering realtime demands in terms of throughput and delay often put on such systems. To further address possible real-time demands, we include a feasibility analysis to check that the application, when mapped onto the system, will behave in line with its real-time demands. With input information about traffic characteristics, our algorithm creates a topology and generates routing information for all logical traffic channels. In a case study, we show that our algorithm results in a topology that can outperform the use of state of the art topologies for high-performance computer architectures.

  • 218.
    Kunze, Sebastian
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Symbolic Characterisation of Commonalities in Testing Software Product Lines2016In: 2016 9TH IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOFTWARE TESTING, VERIFICATION AND VALIDATION (ICST), Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE , 2016, p. 387-388Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Validation and verification of Software Product Lines is particularly challenging due to the complex structure and interaction of commonalities and variabilities among products. There are several approaches to specify the structure of such commonalities and variabilities, such as the delta-oriented approach. Building upon such a structure, we propose an approach to avoid redundant analysis in Software Product Lines by extending them to semantic behavioural changes. To this end, we propose to use Differential Symbolic Execution, an automated technique for proving functional behavioural equivalence based on satisfiability modulo theories. Our proposal aims at identifying the behavioural commonalities of one software product relative to another and exploits them in order to establish an efficient model-based testing trajectory.

  • 219.
    Kunze, Sebastian
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Mostowski, Wojciech
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Varshosaz, Mahsa
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Generation of Failure Models through Automata Learning2016In: Proceedings: 2016 Workshop on Automotive Systems/Software Architectures, Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society, 2016, p. 22-25, article id 7484118Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of the AUTO-CAAS project that deals with model-based testing techniques applied in the automotive domain, we present the preliminary ideas and results of building generalised failure models for non-conformant software components. These models are a necessary building block for our upcoming efforts to detect and analyse failure causes in automotive software built with AUTOSAR components. Concretely, we discuss how to build these generalised failure models using automata learning techniques applied to a guided model-based testing procedure of a failing component. We illustrate our preliminary findings and experiments on a simple integer queue implemented in the C programming language. © 2016 IEEE.

  • 220.
    Lampoltshammer, Thomas J.
    et al.
    School of Information Technology and Systems Management, Salzburg University of Applied Sciences, Puch/Salzburg, Austria.
    Pignaton de Freitas, Edison
    Department of Applied Computing, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Brazil.
    Nowotny, Thomas
    School of Information Technology and Systems Management, Salzburg University of Applied Sciences, Puch/Salzburg, Austria.
    Plank, Stefan
    School of Information Technology and Systems Management, Salzburg University of Applied Sciences, Puch/Salzburg, Austria.
    Carvalho Lustosa da Costa, João Paulo
    Laboratory of Array Signal Processing, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Brasilia, Campus Universitário Darcy Ribeiro, Brasília, Brazil.
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Heistracher, Thomas
    School of Information Technology and Systems Management, Salzburg University of Applied Sciences, Puch/Salzburg, Austria.
    Use of Local Intelligence to Reduce Energy Consumption of Wireless Sensor Nodes in Elderly Health Monitoring Systems2014In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 4932-4947Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The percentage of elderly people in European countries is increasing. Such conjuncture affects socio-economic structures and creates demands for resourceful solutions, such as Ambient Assisted Living (AAL), which is a possible methodology to foster health care for elderly people. In this context, sensor-based devices play a leading role in surveying, e.g., health conditions of elderly people, to alert care personnel in case of an incident. However, the adoption of such devices strongly depends on the comfort of wearing the devices. In most cases, the bottleneck is the battery lifetime, which impacts the effectiveness of the system. In this paper we propose an approach to reduce the energy consumption of sensors’ by use of local sensors’ intelligence. By increasing the intelligence of the sensor node, a substantial decrease in the necessary communication payload can be achieved. The results show a significant potential to preserve energy and decrease the actual size of the sensor device units. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  • 221.
    Larsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Qamcom Research and Technology AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Karlsson, Kristian
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Bergenhem, Carl
    Qamcom Research and Technology AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Curvature based Antenna Selection Method Evaluated Using the Data Age Metric and V2V Measurements2015In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Communication Workshop (ICCW), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2015, p. 2356-2362Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we compare a method for selecting transmission antenna based on road curvature to a method based on periodically alternating between left and right hand side transmission antennas. Both methods aim to improve the success rate for communication between participants in a platoon of vehicles. Moreover, we propose the data age metric for online use as input to the algorithm controlling the inter-vehicle distance in platooning, e.g. to decide appropriate gap between the vehicles depending on the V2V communication quality. The methods have been evaluated through V2V communication measurements performed using heavy duty vehicles on public highway. We show that, when using the curvature-based method, a 150 ms data age deadline is only missed approximately half as often compared to when periodically alternating between left and right hand side transmission antennas. The methods have also been compared for different antenna combinations. © 2015 IEEE

  • 222.
    Larsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS). Qamcom Research and Technology AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Warg, Fredrik
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Kristian
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    A Data Age Dependent Broadcast Forwarding Algorithm for Reliable Platooning Applications2016In: International Journal of Mobile Information Systems, ISSN 1574-017X, E-ISSN 1875-905X, Vol. 2016, article id 7489873Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a broadcast message forwarding algorithm for V2V communication in a platooning scenario for heavy duty trucks. The algorithm utilizes link information, which is piggybacked on the original data packet, to estimate which nodes are best suited to forward the packet. The aim is to reach all nodes in the platoon with as few forward messages as possible in order to avoid channel congestion. The algorithm is evaluated by simulation using real world V2V measurement data as input. We show that the algorithm performs almost as good as two ETSI standardized forwarding algorithms with respect to keeping the data age for the entire platoon at a low level. But when it comes to keeping the message intensity low, our algorithm outperforms the better of the ETSI algorithms by 35%.

  • 223.
    Larsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Qamcom Research and Technology AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Warg, Fredrik
    Electronics Department, SP – Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Kristian
    Electronics Department, SP – Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Evaluation of a Low-Overhead Forwarding Algorithm for Platooning2015In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Vehicular Electronics and Safety (ICVES), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2015, p. 48-55, article id 7396892Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a novel message forwarding algorithm, the reachability matrix algorithm, for V2V communication in a platooning scenario. The algorithm uses a communication quality estimate to determine appropriate forwarding candidates. We show that the algorithm achieve a higher reliability in the communication compared to only using broadcast but still keeping the message intensity at a low level. The reachability matrix algorithm can decrease the ratio of missing a data age limit of 0.2 seconds from 18% to 11%, a decrease of 40%, while increasing the message intensity by only 21% compared to only using broadcast. The evaluation has been performed through simulation using input from real-life V2V measurements on heavy duty trucks in a platooning scenario. © 2015 by IEEE

  • 224.
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Surveillance of mobile objects using coordinated wireless sensor nodes2007In: IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, 2007. ETFA, Piscataway, NJ.: IEEE Press, 2007, p. 900-903Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surveillance of mobile office assets is made by attaching wireless sensor nodes to assets and to their authorized users. The wireless sensor nodes are monitored via radio base access points connected to a distributed application framework for analysis and coordination of security events. By logic rules applied to the event information, temporarily stored and accessible in a distributed tuple space, security decisions, alarms and other actions are implemented.

  • 225.
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Telecommunication Exchange Evolution2017In: Wiley Encyclopedia of Electrical and Electronics Engineering / [ed] Webster, John G., New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2017, p. 1-16Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To telecommunicate means to communicate over distance. The information that is communicated can be of many different forms. Communication over distance has been performed in many different ways if we look back in history, e.g. via drums, fire, telegraph, telephone and more recently also via various computer terminals. This article focuses on the telecommunication exchange development and evolution that for long was driven by the voice communication via telephone sets but that now involves also many other kinds of information carrying medias and the related encoding of the media and thus information. To make the communications economically attractive network topologies have been built to efficiently allow the sharing of physical resources along the paths between communicating parties with access to the network. These resources for example including cables, switches, routers, media translators and radio stations needed to carry the communicated information. An exchange is an important node in the network where several such resources are aggregated in an integrated system node and that is used to connect and enable access to different parts of the whole network. The network and the exchanges are complex long term investments that have evolved and changed over the years in order to cope with new services and challenges in an economically efficient way.

  • 226.
    Larsson, Tony
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jansson, Jonas
    VTI - Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Grante, Christian
    Volvo AB, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Englund, Cristofer
    Viktoria Swedish ICT, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Cooperative partly automated and coordinated vehicles and transports2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automation of vehicles and transports is rapidly evolving from a vision to reality due to systems for local situation awareness relying on advanced on-board vehicle sensors and software implemented intelligence. This evolution will be further supported by the capability to communicate and cooperate between vehicles and with important infrastructure to coordinate the traffic for both safe and environmentally efficient transports. To become accepted among vehicle drivers and other citizens this will require understanding of the problems involved and suitable methods to cope with these problems. This paper identifies some of the problems seen and methods needed.

  • 227.
    Larsson, Tony
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Taveniku, Mikael
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Wigren, Christian
    X-Cube Communication Inc., United States.
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Free2move AB, Sweden.
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    T4 - Telematics for Totally Transparent Transports2005In: 2005 IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Conference (ITSC): Vienna, Austria, 13 - 16 September 2005 ; [8th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems], New York: IEEE Press, 2005, p. 467-472Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transports can be made safer, more secure and efficient by help of telemetry and tracking on-line in real time. T4 is a system architecture aimed to support the development of telematic services for transparent tracking and surveillance monitoring of goods transported by different means on a global scale. The main idea is to focus on the transported pallets or parcels instead of the vehicles moving them. To enable rapid response to new customer requirements and to support remote management of field equipment, software implemented services are designed, packaged, deployed and mediated using XML, Java and the OSGi software technology standards.

  • 228.
    Le, Anhtuan
    et al.
    School of Engineering and Information Sciences, Middlesex University, London, United Kingdom.
    Loo, Jonathan
    School of Engineering and Information Sciences, Middlesex University, London, United Kingdom.
    Lasebae, Aboubaker
    School of Engineering and Information Sciences, Middlesex University, London, United Kingdom.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Chen, Yue
    Department of Electronic Engineering, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom.
    Chai, Michael
    Department of Electronic Engineering, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom.
    The Impact of Rank Attack on Network Topology of Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks2013In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 13, no 10, p. 3685-3692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Routing protocol for low power and lossy networks (RPL) is the underlying routing protocol of 6LoWPAN, a core communication standard for the Internet of Things. RPL outperforms other wireless sensor and ad hoc routing protocols in quality of service (QoS), device management, and energy saving performance. The Rank concept in RPL serves multiple purposes, including route optimization, prevention of loops, and managing control overhead. In this paper, we analyze several different types of internal threats that are aimed at the Rank property and study their impact on the performance of the wireless sensor network. Our analysis raises the question of an RPL weakness, which is the lack of a monitoring parent in every node. In RPL, the child node only receives the parent information through control messages, but it cannot check the services that its parent provide hence it will follow a bad quality route if it has a malicious parent. Our results show that different types of the Rank attacks can be used to intentionally downgrade specific QoS parameters. This paper also reveals that attack in a high forwarding load area will have more impact on network performance than attack in other areas. The defenders can use the knowledge of such correlation between attack location and its impact to set higher security levels at particular positions by monitoring sensitive network parameters and detecting the anomalies © 2001-2012 IEEE.

  • 229.
    Lee, Ying Loong
    et al.
    Multimedia University, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Chuah, Teong Chee
    Multimedia University, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Loo, Jonathan
    Middlesex University, London, United Kingdom.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Recent Advances in Radio Resource Managementfor Heterogeneous LTE/LTE-A Networks2014In: IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, ISSN 1553-877X, E-ISSN 1553-877X, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 2142-2180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As heterogeneous networks (HetNets) emerge as one of the most promising developments toward realizing the target specifications of Long Term Evolution (LTE) and LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) networks, radio resource management (RRM) research for such networks has, in recent times, been intensively pursued. Clearly, recent research mainly concentrates on the aspect of interference mitigation. Other RRM aspects, such as radio resource utilization, fairness, complexity, and QoS, have not been given much attention. In this paper, we aim to provide an overview of the key challenges arising from HetNets and highlight their importance. Subsequently, we present a comprehensive survey of the RRM schemes that have been studied in recent years for LTE/LTE-A HetNets, with a particular focus on those for femtocells and relay nodes. Furthermore, we classify these RRM schemes according to their underlying approaches. In addition, these RRM schemes are qualitatively analyzed and compared to each other. We also identify a number of potential research directions for future RRM development. Finally, we discuss the lack of current RRM research and the importance of multi-objective RRM studies. ©2014 IEEE.

  • 230.
    Lerchbaumer, Peter
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Ochoa, Alejandro
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Test environment design for wireless vehicle communications2007In: The 66th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, 2007. VTC-2007 Fall, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2007, p. 2214-2218Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The integration of new wireless technologies with vehicle computing systems has opened the doors for new fields of applications such as intelligent transportation systems. Vehicular ad hoc networks emerge as the technical basis in solutions aiming to improve road safety and efficiency as well as driving comfort. This paper discusses different factors that influence the performance of wireless vehicle communication systems and proposes a general design for the construction of a test environment for these systems. A comprehensive list of different parameters that affect the system performance is compiled. Next, these parameters are analyzed and quantified to serve as guidelines when establishing and designing components of a suitable test environment. This test environment should provide a platform that enables researchers and engineers to identify possible bottlenecks in the network functionality as well as allowing test, assessment and verification of as many of the relevant parameters involved in the ad hoc communication as possible.

  • 231.
    Lidström, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    A Spatial QoS Requirements Specification for V2V Applications2010In: IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), 2010, Piscataway, NJ.: IEEE Press, 2010, p. 548-553Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle-to-vehicle wireless communication is a key component of tomorrow's cooperative safety applications. However, the wireless link is susceptible to effects such as shadowing which can cause communication failures. Such failures may in turn lead to hazardous traffic situations when safety applications cease to function. By monitoring communication QoS and adapting to changes, effects of link failure may be mitigated, however this requires a specification of the application QoS requirements. In this paper we combine the T-Window reliability QoS metric with a spatial component, allowing us to capture the dependencies between VANET QoS requirements and road geometry. The proposed representation can be used both at design-time, to characterize applications, and at run-time for QoS monitoring and adaptation purposes.

  • 232.
    Lidström, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Cooperative Communication Disturbance Detection in Vehicle Safety Systems2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proactive vehicle safety systems based on vehicle-to-vehicle and infrastructure-to-vehicle communication are promising new approaches to reducing the number of accidents on our roads. In-vehicle applications are envisaged to provide a variety of services to the driver including warning about potential collisions and other hazardous situations. For the safe operation of these applications it is important not only to efficiently model the environment but also to reason about, and predict, how reliable such a model is under various circumstances. In this paper we propose an approach to estimating the reliability and availability of the wireless medium at hazardous locations by cooperatively detecting communication disturbances in order to allow for more accurate decisions by in-vehicle applications.

  • 233.
    Lidström, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Model-based estimation of driver intentions using particle filtering2008In: 11th International IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 2008. ITSC 2008, Piscataway, NJ.: IEEE Press, 2008, p. 1177-1182Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proactive vehicle alert systems that warn the driver about dangerous situations must be able to reason about, and predict, likely future states of the traffic environment. Our prediction method is based on a combination of a fuzzy logic model for intersection turning behavior and Gipps model for car following behavior. The stochastic models are used together with a particle filter to recursively approximate the state probability distribution as measurements are received over time. Estimates of the unobservable part of the state are used to predict path choice and thus driver intentions. The approach is evaluated on trajectory data gathered from video footage of an intersection, however it is also relevant for trajectories acquired through vehicle-to-vehicle communication.

  • 234.
    Lidström, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Strandén, Lars
    SP. Technical research institute of Sweden, Borås.
    Safety Considerations for Cooperating Vehicles using Wireless Communication2007In: The 5th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, Piscataway, NJ.: IEEE , 2007, p. 995-1000Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though improvements in automotive safety have caused a significant decline in the number of traffic fatalities there is a strong need for further work. One important area is wireless communication from vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure which enables a host of new cooperative traffic applications ranging from collision avoidance to intelligent cruise control. However, using cooperation between vehicles as an enabler for safety-related functionality raises new issues on system dependability. In this paper we characterize the domain of cooperating vehicles and cooperative situation awareness and suggest a system architecture that promotes independent development and verification of safety functions.

  • 235.
    Lidström, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Viktoria Institute, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Katrin
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Holmberg, Ulf
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Andersson, Johan
    Volvo Car Corporation, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Bergh, Fredrik
    Cybercom Group, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bjäde, Mattias
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Mak, Spencer
    Innovation Team, Halmstad, Sweden.
    A modular CACC system integration and design2012In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 1050-1061Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the Halmstad University entry in the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge, which is a competition in vehicle platooning. Cooperative platooning has the potential to improve traffic flow by mitigating shock wave effects, which otherwise may occur in dense traffic. A longitudinal controller that uses information exchanged via wireless communication with other cooperative vehicles to achieve string-stable platooning is developed. The controller is integrated into a production vehicle, together with a positioning system, communication system, and human–machine interface (HMI). A highly modular system architecture enabled rapid development and testing of the various subsystems. In the competition, which took place in May 2011 on a closed-off highway in The Netherlands, the Halmstad University team finished second among nine competing teams.

  • 236.
    Lien, Shao-Yu
    et al.
    National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi, Taiwan.
    Kuo, Yen-Chih
    National Formosa University, Yulin, Taiwan.
    Deng, Der-Jiunn
    National Changhua University of Education, Changhua, Taiwan.
    Tsai, Hua-Lung
    Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Benslimane, Abderrahim
    University of Avignon, Avignon, France.
    Latency-Optimal mmWave Radio Access for V2X Supporting Next Generation Driving Use Cases2019In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, p. 6782-6795Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the facilitation of the fifth generation (5G) New Radio (NR), Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) applications have entered a brand new era to sustain the next generation driving use cases of advanced driving, vehicle platooning, extended sensors and remote driving. To deploy these driving use cases, the service requirements however include low latency, high reliability, and high data rates, which thus render utilizing millimeter wave (mmWave) carriers (spectrum above 6 GHz) as a remedy to empower the next generation driving use cases. However, suffering from severe signal attenuation, transmission range of mmWave carriers may be very limited, which is unfavorable in mobile network deployment to offer seamless services, and compel directional transmission/reception using beamforming mandatory. For this purpose, both a transmitter and a receiver should sweep their beams toward different directions over time, and a communication link can be established only if a transmitter and a receiver arrange their beam directions toward each other at the same time (known as beam alignment). Unfortunately, latency of performing beam sweeping to achieve beam alignment turns out the be a dominating challenge to exploit mmWave, especially for the next generation driving use cases. In this paper, we consequently derive essential principles and designs for beam sweeping at the transmitter side and receivers side, which not only guarantee the occurrence of beam alignment but also optimize the latency to achieve beam alignment. Based on the availabilities of a common geographic reference and the knowledge of beam sweeping scheme at the transmitter side, we derive corresponding performance bounds in terms of latency to achieve beam alignment, and device corresponding latency-optimal beam sweeping schemes. The provided engineering insights therefore pave inevitable foundations to practice the next generation driving use cases using mmWave carriers.

  • 237.
    Lierler, Yuliya
    et al.
    University of Nebraska, Omaha, USA.
    Taha, WalidHalmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Rice University, Houston, USA.
    Practical Aspects of Declarative Languages: 19th International Symposium, PADL 2017, Paris, France, January 16-17, 2017, Proceedings2017Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The proceedings contain 14 papers. The special focus in this conference is on Practical Aspects of Declarative Languages. The topics include: Eliminating irrelevant non determinism in functional logic programs; canonicalizing high-level constructs in picat; integrating answer set programming with object-oriented languages; extending answer set programs with interpreted functions as first-class citizens; lowering the learning curve for declarative programming; overlapping patterns for property-based testing; Boltzmann samplers for closed simply-typed lambda terms; selection equilibria of higher-order games; principles and prototype implementation; declarative programming of full-fledged musical applications; a domain-specific language for software-defined radio; a declarative DSL for customizing ASCII art and using iterative deepening for probabilistic logic inference. © Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved

  • 238.
    Lin, Chao
    et al.
    Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.
    He, Debiao
    Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.
    Kumar, Neeraj
    Thapar University, Patiala, India.
    Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond
    University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, USA.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Huang, Xinyi
    Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, China.
    Security and Privacy for the Internet of Drones: Challenges and Solutions2018In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 64-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A recent trend in both industry and research is the Internet of Drones, which has applications in both civilian and military settings. However, drones (also known as unmanned aerial vehicles) are generally not designed with security in mind, and there are fundamental security and privacy issues that need study. Hence, in this article, we study the architecture and its security and privacy requirements. We also outline potential solutions to address challenging issues such as privacy leakage, data confidentiality protection, and flexible accessibility, with the hope that this article will provide the basis for future research in this emerging area.

  • 239.
    Lisova, Elena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University.
    Towards secure wireless TTEthernet for industrial process automation applications2014In: Emerging Technology and Factory Automation (ETFA), 2014 IEEE / [ed] Antoni Grau & Herminio Martinez, Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, p. 1-4, article id 7005310Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    TTEthernet is a communication platform which builds on Ethernet, but extends it to include fault-tolerance and real-time mechanisms. The existing TTEthernet technology is developed for wired networks. A natural step for improving and extending the current application field is the introduction of a mixed wired and wireless network. However, this step requires research both about possible adaptation of existing systems as well as implementation of new technologies. A central research question is the security aspects of real-time sensor networks using wired and wireless technologies based on TTEthernet. In this paper, we identify and classify the most important aspects to consider in order to provide secure communications in such safety-critical industrial applications and propose a potential solution to address identified issues. © 2014 IEEE

  • 240.
    Liu, Dantong
    et al.
    Networks Group, School of Electronic Engineering and Computer Science, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom.
    Chen, Yue
    Networks Group, School of Electronic Engineering and Computer Science, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom.
    Zhang, Tiankui
    Next Generation Communication System Theory and Technology Lab, School of Information and Telecommunications Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, China.
    Chai, Kok Keong
    Networks Group, School of Electronic Engineering and Computer Science, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom.
    Loo, Jonathan
    Department of Computer Communications, School of Sciences and Technology, Middlesex University, London, United Kingdom.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Stackelberg Game Based Cooperative User Relay Assisted Load Balancing in Cellular Networks2013In: IEEE Communications Letters, ISSN 1089-7798, E-ISSN 1558-2558, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 424-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a Stackelberg game based cooperative user relay assisted load balancing (LB) scheme to tackle SNR degradation problem of shifted cell-edge users which commonly occurs in a conventional direct handover LB scheme. In the proposed scheme, users from a lightly loaded cell can be selected as cooperative user-relays and will be paid by the shifted cell-edge users. Stackelberg game theory is applied to optimize the strategies of both the user relays and shifted cell-edge users, in order to maximize both of their utilities in terms of SNR and payment. Theoretical analysis and simulation study are undertaken to show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. © 1997-2012 IEEE.

  • 241.
    Liu, ke
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Wrocław University of Technology.
    A Simulation Based Approach to EstimateEnergy Consumption for Embedded Processors2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded systems have entered a new era in which system designers have to consider more and more strict energy consumption constraints. This thesis reviewsprevious studies of the processor energy consumption estimation. Particularly, wefocus on instruction-level energy consumption for embedded processors and explorethe energy consumption model for manycore architecture in real traffic pattern.The purpose of this thesis project is to estimate energy consumption and constructan energy model using an instruction-set simulator for embedded processors. OpenVirtual Platforms (OVP) and Epiphany Single Core Simulator (ESCS) are used toobtain an instruction sequence for a given software. Then, the functionality of energyconsumption estimation is integrated into OVP.Our energy consumption estimation approach categorizes instructions in fourgroups and uses base energy cost of each category to calculate the total energyconsumption for an application that runs on Epiphany core and ARM Cortex M0.The energy consumption estimation for Epiphany core has been successfully testedby BEEBS benchmarks. Details of the derivation process, results and analysis ofenergy consumption estimation methods are provided.

  • 242.
    Liu, Yichen
    et al.
    Beijing International Center for Mathematical Research, Peking University, China.
    Emamizadeh, Behrouz
    School of Mathematical Sciences, The University of Nottingham-Ningbo, China.
    Farjudian, Amin
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Optimization problems with fixed volume constraints and stability results related to rearrangement classes2016In: Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, ISSN 0022-247X, E-ISSN 1096-0813, Vol. 443, no 2, p. 1293-1310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The material in this paper has been divided into two main parts. In the first part we describe two optimization problems—one maximization and one minimization—related to a sharp trace inequality that was recently obtained by G. Auchmuty. In both problems the admissible set is the one comprising characteristic functions whose supports have a fixed measure. We prove the maximization to be solvable, whilst the minimization will turn out not to be solvable in general. We will also discuss the case of radial domains. In the second part of the paper, we study approximation and stability results regarding rearrangement optimization problems. First, we show that if a sequence of the generators of rearrangement classes converges, then the corresponding sequence of the optimal solutions will also converge. Second, a stability result regarding the Hausdorff distance between the weak closures of two rearrangement classes is presented. © 2016 Elsevier 

  • 243.
    Luan, Tom H.
    et al.
    Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.
    Chen, Cailian
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China & IEEE Globecom, Washington DC, USA.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Cai, Lin
    IEEE Globecom, Washington DC, USA & University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada.
    Chen, Shanzhi
    Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, China.
    Guest Editorial: Emerging Technology for 5G Enabled Vehicular Networks2016In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359, Vol. 65, no 10, p. 7827-7830, article id 7590151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The papers in this special section focus on 5G mobile communication enabled vehicular networks. This section is designed to provide the academic and industrial communities an excellent venue to present the vision, research, and new solutions on the key technologies emerging for 5G enabled vehicular networks.

  • 244.
    Lyamin, Nikita
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Performance evaluation of C-ACC/platooning under ITS-G5 communications2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) are aiming to provide innovative services related to different modes of transport and traffic management, and enable various users to be better informed and make safer, more coordinated and smarter use of transport networks. Cooperative-ITS (C-ITS) support connectivity between vehicles, vehicles and roadside infrastructure, traffic signals as well as with other road users. In order to enable vehicular communications European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI) delivered ITS-G5 -- a of set of C-ITS standards. Considering the goals of C-ITS, inter-vehicle communications should be reliable and efficient.

    In this thesis we study the performance, efficiency, and dependability of ITS-G5 communications for Cooperative adaptive cruise control (C-ACC) and platooning C-ITS applications. We provide an overview of currently available and ongoing standardization targeting communications in C-ACC/platooning. We study the performance of ITS-G5 beaconing in a C-ACC/platooning scenario, where we show that its performance may deteriorate when implemented in cooperative driving applications due to the kinematic-dependent design of the message triggering mechanism. We explain in detail the cause of this phenomenon and test it for a wide range of parameters. Also, we study the influence of different available ITS-G5 legitimate setups on the C-ACC/platooning fuel efficiency and demonstrate that proper communication setup may enhance fuel savings. This thesis also proposes a jamming denial-of-service attack detection algorithm for platooning. The main advantage of our detector is its short learning phase that not exceed a second and low detection delay of a few hundreds of milliseconds. Under some assumptions, the proposed algorithm demonstrates the ability to detect certain types of attacks with average probability above 0.9.

  • 245.
    Lyamin, Nikita
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Performance evaluation of safety critical ITS-G5 V2V communications for cooperative driving applications2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) are aiming to provide innovative services related to different modes of transport and traffic management, and enable various users to be better informed and make safer, more coordinated and smarter use of transport networks. Cooperative-ITS (C-ITS) support connectivity between vehicles, vehicles and roadside infrastructure, traffic signals as well as with other road users. In order to enable vehicular communications European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI) delivered ITS-G5 -- a of set of C-ITS standards. Considering the goals of C-ITS, inter-vehicle communications should be reliable and efficient.

    The subject of this thesis is evaluation of the performance, efficiency, and dependability of ITS-G5 communications for cooperative driving applications support. This thesis includes eight scientific papers and extends the research area in three directions: evaluation of the performance of ITS-G5 beaconing protocols; studying the performance of ITS-G5 congestion control mechanisms; and studying the radio jamming Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks and their detection methods.

    First, an overview of currently available and ongoing standardization targeting communications in C-ACC/platooning cooperative driving applications is provided. Then, as part of the first research direction, we demonstrate via a number of studies, that the adaptive beaconing approach where message generation is coupled to the speed variation of the originating ITS-s may lead to a message synchronization effect in the time domain when vehicles follow mobility scenarios that involve cooperative speed variation. We explain in detail the cause of this phenomenon and test it for a wide range of parameters. In relation to the second problem, we, first, study the influence of different available ITS-G5 legitimate setups on the C-ACC/platooning fuel efficiency and demonstrate that proper communication setup may enhance fuel savings. Then we thoroughly study the standardization of the congestion control mechanism for ITS-G5, which will affect the operation of all cooperative driving C-ITS applications as a mandatory component. We study the influence of congestion control on application performance and give recommendations for improvement to make the congestion control to target at optimizing the applications performance metrics. In the scope of the last research direction, we propose two real-time jamming DoS detection methods. The main advantage of our detection techniques is their short learning phase that not exceed a few seconds and low detection delay of a few hundreds of milliseconds. Under some assumptions, the proposed algorithms demonstrates the ability to detect certain types of attacks with high detection probability.

  • 246.
    Lyamin, Nikita
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Deng, Qichen
    Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Study of the Platooning Fuel Efficiency under ETSI ITS-G5 Communications2016In: 2016 IEEE 19th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2016, p. 551-556Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we evaluate the performance of platoon enabled by contemporary ITS-G5 vehicular communications through a number of simulation experiments. We assess platooning fuel consumption performance under two communication setups and estimate the potential influence of the communication system on the efficiency of the platooning. We also make an attempt to transform our results on platoon fuel efficiency into potential cost reduction gain. Our study shows that platooning fuel-efficiency may vary depending on the communication setup.

  • 247.
    Lyamin, Nikita
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Kleyko, Denis
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Delooz, Quentin
    University of Liège, Liège, Belgium.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    AI-Based Malicious Network Traffic Detection in VANETs2018In: IEEE Network, ISSN 0890-8044, E-ISSN 1558-156X, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 15-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inherent unreliability of wireless communications may have crucial consequences when safety-critical C-ITS applications enabled by VANETs are concerned. Although natural sources of packet losses in VANETs such as network traffic congestion are handled by decentralized congestion control (DCC), losses caused by malicious interference need to be controlled too. For example, jamming DoS attacks on CAMs may endanger vehicular safety, and first and foremost are to be detected in real time. Our first goal is to discuss key literature on jamming modeling in VANETs and revisit some existing detection methods. Our second goal is to present and evaluate our own recent results on how to address the real-time jamming detection problem in V2X safety-critical scenarios with the use of AI. We conclude that our hybrid jamming detector, which combines statistical network traffic analysis with data mining methods, allows the achievement of acceptable performance even when random jitter accompanies the generation of CAMs, which complicates the analysis of the reasons for their losses in VANETs. The use case of the study is a challenging platooning C-ITS application, where V2X-enabled vehicles move together at highway speeds with short inter-vehicle gaps.

  • 248.
    Lyamin, Nikita
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Kleyko, Denis
    Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Delooz, Quentin
    Center of Automotive Research on Integrated Safety Systems and Measurement Area (CARISSMA), Ingolstadt, Germany.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Real-time jamming DoS detection in safety-critical V2V C-ITS using data mining2019In: IEEE Communications Letters, ISSN 1089-7798, E-ISSN 1558-2558, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 442-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A data mining-based method for real-time detection of radio jamming Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks in IEEE 802.11p vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications is proposed. The method aims at understanding the reasons for losses of periodic cooperative awareness messages (CAM) exchanged by vehicles in a platoon. Detection relies on a knowledge of IEEE 802.11p protocols rules as well as on historical observation of events in the V2V channel. In comparison to the state-of-the-art method, the proposed method allows operating under the realistic assumption of random jitter accompanying every CAM transmission. The method is evaluated for two jamming models: random and ON-OFF. 

  • 249.
    Lyamin, Nikita
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Bellalta, Boris
    Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Catalunya, Spain.
    Configuring the Decentralized Congestion Control for ETSI ITS-G5 C-ITS Applications2019In: IEEE Communications Letters, ISSN 1089-7798, E-ISSN 1558-2558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decentralized Congestion Control (DCC) is one the central components of inter-vehicular communications protocol stack enabling Cooperative Intelligent Transportation System (C-ITS). In this letter we first present an analytical framework that allows to tune parameters of the DCC algorithm specified by ETSI. Then we suggest two approaches to optimize the DCC configuration using our framework. Finally, we evaluate the performance of the proposed approaches using detailed simulation experiments. We demonstrate that proposed approaches are able to control channel busy ratio stably, while proposed analytical model precisely estimates application level metrics.

  • 250.
    Lyamin, Nikita
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Does ETSI beaconing frequency control provide cooperative awareness?2015In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Communication Workshop (ICCW), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2015, p. 2393-2398Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Platooning is an emergent vehicular application aiming at increasing road safety, efficiency and driving comfort. The cooperation between the vehicles in a platoon is achieved by the frequent exchange of periodic broadcast Cooperative Awareness Messages (CAMs) also known as beacons. CAM triggering conditions are drafted in the standard ETSI EN 302 637–2 and are based on the dynamics of an originating vehicle. These conditions are checked repeatedly with a certain sampling rate. We have discovered that the improper choice of the sampling rate value may increase the number of collisions between CAMs at the IEEE 802.11p medium access control layer and, therefore, diminish the efficiency of beaconing in a platoon. © 2015 IEEE

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