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  • 1801.
    Svensson, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER). Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway & Deakin University, Australia.
    Teleological strands of thought in supply chain activities: example and analogy – a quest for transformative chain management2011In: International Journal of Logistics Economics and Globalisation, ISSN 1741-5373, E-ISSN 1741-5381, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 42-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this article is to describe the outcome of supply chain activities in the context of different teleological approaches. It widens and complements the current views on supply chain management (SCM) in literature, and it should also be valuable from a managerial perspective. The topic addressed should be seen as a seed for further discussion.

    The author therefore raises a quest for inclusion of a strand of thought labelled ‘transformative chain management’ (TCM) in SCM. It should be strongly noted that the idea of TCM is not to propose a new acronym, nor replace SCM with another acronym, but to highlight that it could serve as a point of reference, and complement the dominant strands of thought that appear to govern the supply chain activities of some Scandinavian companies.

  • 1802.
    Svensson, Göran
    School of Management and Economics, Växjö University, Växjö, Sweden.
    The bullwhip effect in intra‐organisational echelons2003In: International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, ISSN 0960-0035, E-ISSN 1758-664X, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 103-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research applies the construct of bullwhip effect in a non-traditional context. It is explored in intra-organisational echelons. It is argued that the bullwhip effect in a company's inventory management of inbound and outbound logistics flows depends in part upon the gap between the degree of speculation and postponement of business activities. It is also argued that the bullwhip effect is caused by the value adding of business activities in supply chains. The study shows that there is a potential bullwhip effect between companies' inbound and outbound logistics flows, i.e. two internal stocking levels. A see-saw model of the bullwhip effect, and a typology of the bullwhip effect in intra-organisational echelons, are introduced. The term "reversed bullwhip effect" is also introduced. Finally, a model of the bullwhip effect-scenarios in a dynamic business environment positions these contributions in a wider theoretical and managerial context. © MCB UP Limited.

  • 1803.
    Svensson, Göran
    School of Management and Economics, Växjö University, Växjö, Sweden & School of Economics and Commercial Law, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    The direction of change in multi‐item measures of service quality2001In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 262-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Looks at the generality and reliability of multi‐item measures that are based upon the perception of one or more individuals. Proposes that at least an overall time aspect is missing, which would contribute to the measurement of the perceived direction of change in a specific empirical context. The issues raised in current marketing research literature on the use of multi‐item measures relate to the generality and reliability of the findings regarding time and space. Emphasises the limits of the issues of time. The characteristics of data collected using a particular multi‐item measurement scale determine the reliability of the findings. Determines, by a methodological procedure, the generality of the empirical outcome. The results may lack reliability and generality over time even if the same items of measurement are used in the same context. Therefore, introduces an overall trend dimension in multi‐item measures in order to incorporate the time aspect for each dimension in a construct. The trend dimension makes it possible to measure the perceived direction of change, and complements the facets, as well as the perceptual degree, of a phenomenon or object in a specific empirical context.

  • 1804.
    Svensson, Göran
    School of Management and Economics, Växjö University, Växjö, Sweden.
    The impact of outsourcing on inbound logistics flows2001In: International Journal of Logistics Management, ISSN 0957-4093, E-ISSN 1758-6550, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 21-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research explores the linkage between firms' outsourcing activities and the occurrence of supply chain disruptions. It is based upon a two-phase process utilizing methodological triangulation. Phase one applies qualitative methods that explore the overall environment of outsourcing and disruptions in supply chains in the automotive industry based upon a case study of a Swedish car manufacturer. Phase two applies quantitative methods to test the findings from phase one in a wider context in the automotive industry. The results indicate that there is a significant association between the outsourcing of internal activities and the occurrence of disruptions in firms' inbound logistics flows from subcontractors.

  • 1805.
    Svensson, Göran
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    The Industrial / Societal Bullwhip Effects and Supply Chain Performance2009In: Journal of Global Academy of Marketing Science, ISSN 1229-7119, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to describe the construct of bullwhip effect beyond supply chains, namely at industrial and societal levels. The author provides a conceptual discussion of the bullwhip effect – its derivation is extended, and the positioning of the construct is broadened. The bullwhip effect has been explored within intra-organisational and inter-organisational supply chains. A broader descriptive framework is introduced, one that positions the bullwhip effect construct at industrial and societal levels. A conceptual framework is provided that bridges the interface between the micro and macro environments of the bullwhip effect construct, but further conceptualization is required. The introduced derivation and positioning of the bullwhip effect construct reveal a number of research potentials. A principal one is that the exploration of the construct may consider the industrial and/or the societal environment when the bullwhip effect is studied in supply chains. The extended derivation and broadened positioning of the bullwhip effect in the overall environment is of interest to practitioners. It stresses the importance of contextual factors in operative, tactical and strategic supply chain performance. The principal contributions are: a) an interface between micro and macro levels in supply chain performance contributing to an extended derivation of the bullwhip effect; b) a typology of the bullwhip effect contributing to broadening the positioning of the same construct; c) the bullwhip effect being seen as two-way view construct at the micro level and d) a framework ofmanagerial implications. Most important of all is that the causes and effects of the bullwhip effect have been addressed in a wider context that so far has been underestimated in literature.

  • 1806.
    Svensson, Göran
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    The interactive interface of service quality: A conceptual framework2006In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 243-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    – The objective of this paper is to describe a conceptual framework that addresses the interactive interface of service quality in service encounters.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – A conceptual framework is described and discussed in relation to previous research efforts in the field.

    Findings

    – Service encounters have been largely researched as a non‐interactive phenomenon. This means that the complexity and dynamics of the construct have not been sufficiently explored. Researchers have described the construct of service quality in different empirical contexts and have developed different models and dimensions – all of which tend to be derived from the service receiver's perspective.

    Research limitations/implications

    – In making the description, the framework acknowledges that service encounters and service quality pertain not only to human interactions, but also involve interaction between individuals and self‐service technology. It may also to some extent serve as a fundamental to scholars in their quest for generic structures across contexts, and over time to explore the interactive interface of service quality in service encounters. In addition, the framework may be used to position previous, ongoing and forthcoming research efforts of service quality.

    Practical implications

    – The conceptual framework may contribute to describe and enhance operative service performances in service encounters.

    Originality/value

    – The framework may contribute to describe and conceptualize the interactive interface of service quality in service encounters. The idea has been to convert some of the theory‐oriented knowledge of service performance in literature into a framework applicable to both scholars and practitioners.

    © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 1807.
    Svensson, Göran
    School of Management and Economics, Växjö University, Växjö, Sweden & School of Economics and Commercial Law, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    The measurement and evaluation of mutual dependence in specific dyadic business relationships2002In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 56-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the research of dyadic business relationships is often dedicated to measuring and evaluating the dependence between actors as a unidirectional phenomenon, it is sometimes referred to as a bi‐directional issue of importance in the management of a firm’s business relationships. A unidirectional measurement and evaluation of the dependence in a specific dyadic business relationship is not always sufficient to understand the existing dependence between two actors and instead a bi‐directional approach may be required. Furthermore, there is a lack of a formalised and structured procedure in order to measure and evaluate the mutual dependence in such a relationship. Therefore, this article introduces a dependence application of the perceptual bi‐directionality‐method, i.e. the PBD‐method, in order to measure and evaluate the mutual dependence in dyadic business relationships.

  • 1808.
    Svensson, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    The multiple facets of the bullwhip effect: refined and re-defined2005In: International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, ISSN 0960-0035, E-ISSN 1758-664X, Vol. 35, no 10, p. 762-777Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper seeks to describe a conceptualisation of the multiple facets of the bullwhip effect between stocking levels within and between value chains and value systems. The paper provides a conceptual discussion of the bullwhip effect. It is refined and re-defined. The bullwhip effect has usually been explored between inter-organisational stocking levels. Recently, it has also been explored within intra-organisational stocking levels. A broader descriptive framework is introduced, one that positions the bullwhip effect construct in intra- and inter-organisational, as well as intra- and inter-channel, stocking levels in and between value chains and value systems. A research agenda is provided that goes beyond current definitional boundaries and state-of-the-art research of the bullwhip effect. The refined and re-defined bullwhip effect is of interest to practitioners. It considers inter-organisational and intra-organisational stocking levels. In addition, it considers intra-and inter-channel stocking levels. It is of great concern to achieve best practices in business. The principal contributions are - a dynamics model of the bullwhip effect construct; a principle of stocking level variability; a typology of stocking level variability; a framework that describes different levels of analysis of the bullwhip effect; and a re-definition of the bullwhip effect construct - within or between value chains and value systems.

  • 1809.
    Svensson, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    The principle of balance between companies' inventories and disturbances in logistics flows: empirical illustration and conceptualisation2003In: International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, ISSN 0960-0035, E-ISSN 1758-664X, Vol. 33, no 9, p. 765-784Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper stresses the crucial importance of the balance between companies' policies of inventory management and the occurrence of disturbances in logistics flows. The study is based upon a mail survey in the automotive industry. It is concluded that there is in part a significant association between companies' inventories and disturbances in inbound and outbound logistics flows. The financial benefits that might be achieved through leanness in inventory management might also negatively influence the financial costs due to increased disturbances. Therefore, it is a crucial managerial task in the automotive industry to achieve a suitable balance between the inventory and the occurrence of disturbance within inbound and outbound logistics flows. It is this balance that generates the best managerial outcome in a competitive business setting. A principle of balance, a process of balance, and a typology of companies' inventories and disturbances in inbound or outbound logistics flows are introduced.

  • 1810.
    Svensson, Göran
    School of Management and Economics, Växjö University, Växjö, Sweden.
    The quality of bi‐directional service quality in dyadic service encounters2001In: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, E-ISSN 0887-6045, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 357-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Argues that the unidirectional measurement and evaluation of service quality in any specific service encounter is not enough in itself to understand the existing service quality between two actors in a dyadic service encounter. Therefore, a method is introduced for the express purpose of analysing the perceptual bi‐directionality of service quality in order to measure and evaluate the dynamics of service quality in dyadic service encounters.

  • 1811.
    Svensson, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    The spherical marketing concept: a revitalization of the marketing concept2005In: European Journal of Marketing, ISSN 0309-0566, E-ISSN 1758-7123, Vol. 39, no 1-2, p. 5-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:

    In the marketing literature it is often argued that corporations should pay attention to the needs and wants not only of their own customers, but also to those of their customers' customers. This is often referred to as "the marketing concept". The objective is to revitalize the marketing concept beyond the traditional levels of manufacturers, suppliers, wholesalers, retailers, customers and consumers in marketing channels.

    Design/methodology/approach:

    Conceptual discussion and approach are undertaken.

    Findings:

    The term "spherical marketing concept" is coined. This term connects the distinct upstream and downstream levels of marketing channels, as well as reconnecting their indistinct subsequent and preceding levels.

    Research limitations/implications:

    The dilemma with the common use of the marketing concept in the literature is that it fails to acknowledge the simultaneous connection of the components and interfaces between the upstream and downstream distinct levels from the start to the end of the marketing channels with the reconnection of the components and interfaces from the subsequent and preceding indistinct levels of the marketing channels. Further research efforts should be dedicated to bridge the start and end of distinct levels of marketing channels by way of the indistinct preceding and subsequent ones. Economic, social and ecological factors should be included.

    Practical implications:

    It is not enough simply to match the supply and demand between the start and the end of marketing channels-a revitalization of the boundaries of the marketing concept towards a total circulation approach is necessary. Best practice tends to be more and more aware and skilful in this respect.

    Originality/value:

    The spherical marketing concept contributes to pin-point the importance of the seamlessness, sustainability and total circulation of components and interfaces in marketing channels. It also contributes to place current theories and practices in perspective for the future.

  • 1812.
    Svensson, Göran
    School of Management and Economics, Växjö University, Växjö, Sweden.
    The theoretical foundation of supply chain management: A functionalist theory of marketing2002In: International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, ISSN 0960-0035, E-ISSN 1758-664X, Vol. 32, no 9, p. 734-754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Supply chain management (SCM) emerged in the early 1980s as a result of the rapidly changing and challenging business environments in many industries. SCM is a consequence of the increased necessity for holistic considerations in, between and across companies' business activities and resources in and between marketing channels, in order to improve the overall performance towards the ultimate consumer in the marketplace. SCM's generic theoretical foundations are derived from time-, functional-, and relationship-dependencies in, between and across companies' business activities in marketing channels. There are major similarities and minor differences in the theoretical boundaries between SCM and Alderson's interpretation of a functionalist theory of marketing. The author argues that the theoretical origin of SCM is derived from, and underpinned by, a part of this functionalist theory of marketing. Furthermore, there is a need for a generic re-definition and expansion of the theoretical boundaries of SCM towards the incorporation of horizontal dependencies between marketing channels in the marketplace. © MCB UP Limited.

  • 1813.
    Svensson, Göran
    Oslo School of Management, Norway.
    'To Be or Not to Be’ – ‘Top’ or ‘Tenure Track’ Journals?2009In: ESIC Market, ISSN 0212-1867, Vol. 133, p. 227-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ‘top’ journals of the marketing discipline tend to be identified and ranked mainly based upon two foundations such as: citations and scholarly perceptions. The objective of this paper is to describe other aspects to be considered in the foundations of ‘top’ journal rankings. A conceptual discussion of journal rankings is provided. It is limited to a selection of so called ‘top’ journals belonging mostly to the field of mainstream marketing. The ‘top’ marketing journals in focus no longer appear to be the preferred forum or outlet for ground-breaking and challenging themes from leading marketing scholars worldwide. On the contrary, they appear to have become an arena for US-affiliated scholars on ‘tenure-tracks’. The possible ‘tenure-track’ arena in the ‘top’ marketing journals in focus may explain the frequent absence of reputable and widely recognized marketing scholars; these are often dedicated to cutting edge themes and scholarly efforts beyond contemporary knowledge and wisdom. The ‘top’ marketing journals may not be seen worldwide as the ‘top’ ones for non-US scholars. Scholars worldwide may consider them rather to be part of the domestic scholarly structure in the US, and of less relevance to their own research community. The question is raised whether some of the ‘top’ marketing journals have mainly become ‘tenure-track’ journals.

  • 1814.
    Svensson, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Triadic dependencies in business networks2004In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 473-493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The author argues that the unidirectional measurement and evaluation of the dependence in a specific relationship is not enough to understand the existing dependence between two actors in a dyadic relationship, but a bi-directional approach may be necessary. Furthermore, a bi-directional approach may not always be sufficient to understand the dependencies in a specific relationship. The incorporation of a third actor may improve the understanding of dependencies in dyadic business relationships. Therefore, a method is applied to analyze the dynamics of dependence in triadic business networks.

  • 1815.
    Svensson, Göran
    School of Management and Economics, Växjö University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Triadic trust in business networks: a conceptual model and empirical illustration2004In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 165-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Argues that the unidirectional measurement and evaluation of the trust in a specific business relationship is not enough to understand the trust between two actors in a dyadic business relationship. Furthermore, mutual trust may not always be sufficient to understand the trust in a specific dyadic business relationship. The incorporation of a third actor may improve the understanding of trust in dyadic business relationships. Therefore, a method is applied to analyze the dynamics of trust in triadic business networks.

  • 1816.
    Svensson, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Vulnerability in business relationships: the gap between dependence and trust2004In: Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, Vol. 19, no 7, p. 469-483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research focuses on the construct of perceived vulnerability, which is based on the gap between perceived trust and perceived dependence in business relationships with suppliers and customers. The outcome of this study is generated from the empirical findings of a survey in the Swedish vehicle industry. These empirical findings indicate that there is to a large extent a significant association between companies' perceived trust and dependence in business relationships towards their suppliers and customers, i.e. that trust is important in lean business relationships. The contributions of this research are a generic conceptualisation of the vulnerability construct, a see-saw model of perceived vulnerability and a typology of perceived vulnerability scenarios in business relationships.

  • 1817.
    Svensson, Göran
    Växjö University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Vulnerability Scenarios in Marketing Channels: A Research Note2002In: Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 322-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Originates from the time‐ and relationship‐dependencies between companies’ activities and resources in marketing channels which cause vulnerability. The construct of vulnerability is still fairly unexplored in marketing channel research. Therefore, the principal objective of this research is to conceptualise the construct of vulnerability. Bases the conceptualisation on generic time‐ and relationship‐dependencies between companies’ business activities in marketing channels. This research is based on a mail survey in three different industries in Sweden. Develops and describes a typology of vulnerability scenarios based on a set of generic dimensions of time‐ and relationship‐dependencies between companies’ business activities in these industries. Uses a minor selection of broad items that empirically underpin the introduced typology. Further research has to be carried through in order to explore the validity and reliability of the empirical findings of this research note. Nevertheless, the contribution of this research is a tentative typology of vulnerability scenarios based upon time‐ and relationship‐dependencies between companies’ business activities in marketing channels.

  • 1818.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER). Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Bååth, Hans
    Växjö University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Supply Chain Management Ethics: Conceptual Framework and Illustration2008In: Supply chain management, ISSN 1359-8546, E-ISSN 1758-6852, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 398-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe a conceptual framework of Supply Chain Management Ethics (SCM-ethics). Design/methodology/approach – The research is based upon a qualitative approach using a series of semi-structured interviews. Multiple perspectives and respondents have been applied in the data collection process. The study is limited to the Swedish vehicle industry. Findings – The empirical findings indicate that the corporate focus of SCM-ethics is in part narrow in the Swedish vehicle industry. The partial focus may endanger the corporate ethical performance in the long run, while the immediate one may not be affected. Research limitations/implications – The approach undertaken and thereof empirical limitations restrict the generality of findings. However, a structure of operationalisation of SCM-ethics is introduced. It is based upon four orientations and nine areas of questions, all of which serve as a fundament for further research. Practical implications – The article explores the common grounds, and provides initial insights into the complex and multifaceted field, of SCM-ethics. It may be used for teaching, training and analytical purposes. It may also be used for further managerial exploration and replication of SCM-ethics in business. Originality/value – The principal contributions are a conceptual framework based upon four distinctive orientations and a set of summarized interview series in the context of SCM-ethics, all of which may be of interest to both practitioners and scholars.

  • 1819.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Markedshøyskolen, Norge.
    Døving, RunarMarkedshøyskolen, Norge.
    Leksjoner i Markedsvitenskap2010Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 1820.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo school of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Helgesson, Thomas
    Triangles of Business Ethics: Models and Empirical Illustrations2006In: Revista de Negócios, ISSN 1980-4431, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 5-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective is to describe a conceptual framework consisting of business ethics triangles. Models are used to describe and analyse the background and recent incidents in Systembolaget and Skandia, two large corporate organisations in Sweden. One is owned by the state and the other is privately owned. On the other hand, the conceptual framework provides a frame of reference for further research in the field of business ethics focusing on the ethical values and principles in the marketplace and in the society. Suggestions that may improve the best practise and the theory development of ethical values and principles in business ethics are presented at the end of this paper.

  • 1821.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Helgesson, Thomas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Slåtten, Terje
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Tronvoll, Bård
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Scientific Identity of ‘Top’ Research Journals in the Broader Discipline of Marketing: Findings and Queries2008In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 384-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe the “scientific identity” of the “top” research journals in the broader discipline of marketing by examining the methodological approaches and the geographical affiliations of authors published in selected journals. Design/methodology/approach – A sample of “top” research journals in marketing is selected on the basis of expert opinion and journal ranking lists. The selection includes the Journal of Consumer Research (JCR), Journal of Marketing (JM), Journal of Marketing Research (JMR), Journal of Retailing (JR), Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science (JAMS); and Marketing Science (MS). Findings – The “scientific identities” of JCR, JM, JMR, JR, JAMS and MS are revealed as being built on quantitative research designs and the North American paradigm of research values. In fact, all journals are US-based. None was found to be based on a mix of empirical research designs. The selected research journals were found to be narrowly focused, and the lack of variety of “scientific identities” among the journals studied here is discomfiting for the ongoing scientific knowledge building and theory generation in marketing. Research limitations/implications – Further studies of the “scientific identity” of individual research journals are desirable in other sub-disciplines of marketing. A series of questions have been raised that the authors argue are worthy of further attention and debate in the world-wide research community. Practical implications – Researchers will benefit from insights into the “scientific identities” of the “top” research journals in the broader discipline of marketing. In particular, researchers can note the particular feature of dogmatic narrowness of research designs that are present in all of these journals.Originality/value – The study delivers insights into the publishing requirements of “top” research journals in the broader discipline of marketing. It provides some challenging and discomfiting findings.

  • 1822.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER). Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway & Deakin University, Australia.
    Lagrosen, Stefan
    Department of Economics and Informatics, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Future directions of marketing knowledge: proposing an enriching framework including self-actualisation marketing2009In: International Journal of Electronic Customer Relationship Management, ISSN 1750-0664, E-ISSN 1750-0672, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 327-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to review schools and frameworks of marketing knowledge in order to propose future directions of marketing knowledge. The authors also provide a brief retrospective view of the marketing discipline. Reflecting over the origin, evolution and current status, the authors have come to distinguish three cornerstones of marketing knowledge namely objective, process and subjective. On this basis, five potential steps in the development of marketing knowledge are identified. The paper draws attention to the areas: the entrance of marketers, the levels of marketing knowledge, the introduction of self-actualisation marketing, the effect of time and complexity on marketing knowledge, and the need for syntheses and generalisations of marketing knowledge. A framework for enriching the field of marketing with these five interrelated paths of development is proposed. Finally, it provides a model of proposition to future marketing knowledge. Copyright © 2009 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  • 1823.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Norway.
    Lagrosen, StefanUniversity West, Sweden.
    Marketing: Broadening the Horizons2006Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 1824.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo school of management,Oslo,Norway.
    Mysen, T
    Oslo school of management,Oslo,Norway.
    Payan, J
    University of Northern Colorado,Greeley,Colorado,USA.
    The Key Role of Opportunism in Business Relationships2011In: Marketing Intelligence & Planning, ISSN 0263-4503, E-ISSN 1758-8049, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 436-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This study seeks to examine the key role of opportunism in business relationships relative to environment uncertainty (i.e. competitive intensity and market turbulence), bonding structure (i.e. specific assets and dependence), and relationship quality (i.e. trust and commitment). Design/methodology/approach – Initially, informants were contacted by phone and a total of 581 surveys were mailed to small- and medium-sized manufacturers asking them to answer questions about their suppliers. In total, 212 surveys were returned generating a response rate of 36.5 percent. To test the measurement properties and hypothesized relationships between the constructs in focus, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling were used.

    Findings – The results supported all six hypotheses. The principal findings are competitive intensity leads to market turbulence and market turbulence, in turn, is positively associated with opportunism; specific assets leads to dependence and dependence is, in turn, positively associated with opportunism; and supplier opportunism is negatively associated with both trust and commitment.

    Research limitations/implications – The research model tests a sample of business relationships between small- and medium-sized manufacturers and their suppliers in Norway. Findings may not be generalized to larger companies in other countries. Practical implications – The results are of interest to manufacturing executives since they provide a framework of contextual variables and relational characteristics that need to be considered in corporate efforts to control supplier opportunism.

    Originality/value – This study is unique in testing key constructs of two important theories of business marketing – transaction cost analysis and social exchange theory (i.e. relationship quality) rarely, if ever, used in the same empirical study. 

  • 1825.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Mysen, Tore
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    A Construct of META-RELQUAL: Measurement Model and Theory Testing2011In: Baltic Journal of Management, ISSN 1746-5265, E-ISSN 1746-5273, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 227-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to test a measurement model of a META-RELQUAL construct. Design/methodology/approach: This study is based upon a survey and random sample of small- and medium-sized companies in Norway. Respondents were contacted by phone and a total of 581 surveys were mailed. In total, 212 surveys were returned generating a response rate of 36.5 percent. Findings: The goodness-of-fit measures of the tested measurement model of the META-RELQUAL construct were all found to be within the recommended guidelines. The recommended guidelines for convergent, discriminant and nomological validity, as well as construct reliability, were all met. It is concluded that the measurement properties of the META-RELQUAL construct applied in Norwegian manufacturer-supplier relationships indicate acceptable validity and reliability. Research limitations/implications: The tested META-RELQUAL construct appears to be accurate for those Norwegian business relationships studied, but only further testing in other companies will verify its universal application if it is to be seen as a valid and reliable measurement for other companies' business relationships too. Suggestions for further research are provided. Practical implications: This study is of managerial interest to executives since it provides a framework of constructs to be considered in corporate efforts in maintaining satisfactory levels of relationship quality in business relationships. Originality/value: The META-RELQUAL construct makes a contribution to theory since it outlines a higher order construct and measurement instrument for the benefit of other researchers and practitioners in the field. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 1826.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Mysen, Tore
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Payan, Janice
    University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, Colorado, USA.
    Balancing the sequential logic of quality constructs in manufacturing-supplier relationships — Causes and outcomes2010In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 63, no 11, p. 1209-1214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturers in business markets are experiencing a strong trend towards close versus distant relationships with suppliers. Three key relationship constructs in academic research are trust, commitment, and satisfaction. Although the relevant literature holds some evidence that trust and commitment are antecedent to satisfaction, the possibility that satisfaction plays a key mediation role between trust/commitment and other important outcomes (i.e., coordination, cooperation, and continuity) receives scant examination. This study tests this conceptual model by examining the relationships between manufacturers and suppliers. A random sample of small-to-medium-sized Norwegian manufacturers was contacted by phone in order to identify potential key informants. Shortly thereafter, a total of 581 surveys were mailed to the key informants. Two hundred and twelve surveys were returned, representing a response rate of 36.5%. Results support the conceptual model presented; trust and commitment relate positively to satisfaction; and satisfaction, in turn, relates positively to all three outcomes of coordination, cooperation, and continuity.

  • 1827.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Mysen, Tore
    Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Rindell, Anne
    Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Billström, Anders
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Validation of a META-RELQUAL construct through a Nordic comparative study2013In: Marketing Intelligence & Planning, ISSN 0263-4503, E-ISSN 1758-8049, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 72-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to test the validity and reliability of a META-RELQUAL construct in Finnish, Norwegian and Swedish business relationships.

    Design/methodology/approach: A total of 1,500 companies were involved. The Finnish, Norwegian, and Swedish sampling frames each consisted of the 500 largest companies based upon revenue across multiple industries. The response rate was 38 percent.

    Findings: The goodness-of-fit measures of the tested measurement model of the META-RELQUAL construct were all found to be satisfactory within the recommended guidelines. The recommended guidelines for convergent, discriminant and nomological validity, as well as for construct reliability, were all well met. It is concluded that the measurement properties of the META-RELQUAL construct applied in Finnish, Norwegian and Swedish business relationships indicate acceptable validity and reliability.

    Research limitations/implications: The tested META-RELQUAL construct appears accurate for those Finnish, Norwegian, and Swedish business relationships studied, but only further testing and comparisons will verify whether it can be seen as a valid, reliable measurement for other countries and their companies' business relationships. Suggestions for further research are provided.

    Practical implications: This international study is of managerial interest to executives since it provides a framework of constructs to be considered in corporate efforts to maintain satisfactory levels of relationship quality in Finnish, Norwegian, and Swedish business relationships. It may also be applicable in other business relationships and in other countries.

    Originality/value: This Nordic comparative study of a META-RELQUAL construct contributes to theory since it outlines a higher-order construct and measurement instrument benefitting other researchers and practitioners. It appears unique in making an international comparison of a tested measurement model of the META-RELQUAL construct. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 1828.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Padin, Carmen
    Vigo University, Vigo, Spain.
    Teleological Approaches from Complexity Sciences in Services: Framework, Illustration and Proposition2012In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 224-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe and apply teleological approaches from complexity sciences in services.

    Design/methodology/approach: The performance of service encounters and the outcome of service quality are dependent upon complex and dynamic interactions between service providers and service receivers. A set of teleological approaches from complexity sciences is incorporated and applied in the context of service settings.

    Findings: A teleological application from complexity sciences in relation to the interactive nature of the performance of service encounters and the outcome of service quality offers opportunities to apply innovative research designs and alternative methodological approaches to future research problems in services.

    Research limitations/implications: Future research could focus on where and how the insights from other research disciplines can be used that have encapsulated teleological approaches from complexity sciences more sophisticated, and how this knowledge could be incorporated and applied in services.

    Practical implications: The inclusion and consideration of teleological approaches from complexity sciences in the performance of service encounters and the outcome of service quality generates a series of managerial and research implications regarding the dynamics and complexity of the interactive nature in services.

    Originality/value: The research opportunities into service quality and service encounters by applying teleological approaches from complexity sciences are extensive. They might also stimulate innovative analytical techniques that may generate important empirical findings, in extension, with relevant and valuable implications for practice in services. A maintained focus on multi‐disciplinary aspects of research may enhance contemporary research and practice of services.

  • 1829.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Payan, Janice M.
    University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, Colorado, USA.
    Organizations that are international from inception: Terminology and research constellations – “academic protectionism” or “academic myopia”?2009In: Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, ISSN 1462-6004, E-ISSN 1758-7840, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 406-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review the terminology used by various constellations of researchers concerning the formation of organizations that are international from inception, present conceptual and definitional attributes of the phenomena of interest, and propose common terminology, and conceptual framework to use in the future.

    Design/methodology/approach – A literature review is undertaken that compares research terminology used by different streams of research and different constellations of researchers referring to a new organization that intends be international from the beginning of its creation.

    Findings – Two principal findings may be stressed: there are constellations of labels used to describe essentially the same phenomena of organizations that are international at their inception, and there are constellations of researchers that use their own unique labels in this field. Provocatively, the authors question whether these findings are due to “academic protectionism” between the constellations or “academic myopia” (i.e. inability to appreciate the literature's terminology between constellations). It is proposed that the terms used in this field of research should be collapsed into another recent concept introduced and defined in literature, namely “early internationalizing firms.”

    Research limitations/implications – A conceptual framework of “early internationalizing firms” is outlined. It suggests this concept is more beneficial and appropriate than the concepts using traditional terminology such as: “international new ventures” and “born globals.” It is argued that the “early internationalizing firms” concept is more descriptive of the actual phenomena and explicitly considers the crucial short timeframe involved in the process of internationalization of firms.

    Practical implications – The label “early internationalizing firms” may be easier to communicate in practice than some of the current labels used in literature. It emphasizes the practical imperatives of simultaneous localization and globalization, and planning at several levels (i.e. operative, tactical, and strategic levels) in a short timeframe.

    Originality/value – The paper suggests that “early internationalizing firms” is more descriptive of the phenomena of interest and should be used in the field. It contributes to the literature by presenting a broadened more useful framework in describing the phenomena of interest. In specific, it takes into account short timeframes and both the globalization and localization aspects of the phenomena. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 1830.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Slåtten, Terje
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Tronvoll, Bård
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    “Ethnocentricity” in top journals of services management: Authors, editorial review boards, editorial boards and editors2007In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 563-578Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    – The objective is to describe the “ethnocentricity” (i.e. geographical affiliation of editor(s), editorial board(s), editorial review board(s) and author(s)) of selected journals in services management.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – The sample is restricted to the examination and comparison of five top journals in services management during a six‐year period. In total, the content analysis consisted of 1,189 articles.

    Findings

    – The authors contend that there is in part a troublesome and challenging “ethnocentricity” in some of the examined journals.

    Research limitations/implications

    – The impact of “ethnocentricity” is underestimated in the examinations of academic journals in the field of services management. It is an important issue that needs to be raised and discussed in literature, due to the paradigmatic influences that it may have on the journal and its characteristics – in extension, the journal ranking and the journal quality.

    Practical implications

    – The authors provide some suggestions, all of which are troublesome to implement. If done, it has to be done progressively and it will take time to not lose the current editorial scope and success of the journal.

    Originality/value

    – This paper fills a knowledge gap in the literature by examining specific aspects of the “ethnocentricity” of “top” journals in the particular area of services management.

  • 1831.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Norway.
    Slåtten, Terje
    Lillehammer University College, Norway.
    Tronvoll, Bård
    Oslo School of Management, Norway.
    'Scientific identity' and 'ethnocentricity' in top journals of logistics management2008In: International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, ISSN 0960-0035, E-ISSN 1758-664X, Vol. 38, no 8, p. 588-600Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe the “scientific identity” and “ethnocentricity” in the “top” journals of logistics management by studying the categories of papers published and the geographical affiliations of authors, editorial review boards, and editors in selected journals.

    Design/methodology/approach – A sample of “top” scholarly journals in logistics management is selected on the basis of previous research, expert opinion, and journal ranking lists. The selection includes the International Journal of Logistics Management (IJLM), the International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management (IJPDLM), and the Journal of Business Logistics (JBL). The study considers all available papers (a total of 657) published in these journals over an eight-year period from 2000 to 2007. The compiled results are analyzed for patterns that reveal the “scientific identity” and “ethnocentricity” of each of the selected journals.

    Findings – There is a range of different categories of papers in the selected journals and there a fairly broad range of geographical affiliations of authors, editorial review boards, and editors. The overall variety of “scientific identities” and “ethnocentricity” among the journals studied here support in part the ongoing scientific exploration of logistics management, though it may be improved in the future.

    Research limitations/implications – Further research of the “scientific identity” and “ethnocentricity” of individual research journals is required in other sub-disciplines of logistics.

    Practical implications – Scholars will benefit from insights into the “scientific identities” and “ethnocentricity” of the “top” journals in logistics management. In particular, scholars can note the particular features of individual journals while acknowledging the paradigmatic flexibility and richness of research designs that are present in most of these journals.

    Originality/value – This paper updates and extends previous research on methodological approaches in logistics management journals, but it appears to be the first study of the “scientific identity” of “top” logistics management journals in terms of categories of papers published and geographical affiliation of authors, editorial review boards, and editors. This paper provides valuable insights into the nature of academic publishing in the flourishing research field of logistics management.

  • 1832.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Slåtten, Terje
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Tronvoll, Bård
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Scientific Identity in Top Journals of Services Marketing: Review and Evaluation2007In: International Journal of Service Industry Management, ISSN 0956-4233, E-ISSN 1758-6704, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 134-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The objective of the paper is to describe the “scientific identity” of the “top” journals in services marketing by reviewing and evaluating the methodological approaches and the geographical affiliations of authors published in selected journals.

    Design/methodology/approach – A sample of “top” journals in services marketing is selected on the basis of expert opinion. The selection includes the International Journal of Service Industry Management (IJSIM), the Journal of Services Marketing (JSM), the Journal of Service Research (JSR), Managing Service Quality (MSQ), and the Service Industries Journal (SIJ). The review and evaluation considers all papers (a total of 1,107) published in these journals over a six-year period from 2000 to 2005. The papers are categorized and the geographical affiliations of the authors are noted. The compiled results are analyzed for patterns that reveal the “scientific identity” of each of the selected journals.

    Findings – The “scientific identities” of JSM and JSR are revealed as being built upon quantitative research designs and the North American paradigm of research values. MSQ and SIJ are found to be largely based upon a mix of empirical research designs and the European paradigm of research values. IJSIM is found to be based on a mix of empirical research designs and a mix of European and North American research values. However, no journal is found to be narrowly focused, and the variety of “scientific identities” among the journals studied here bodes well for ongoing scientific enquiry in services marketing.

    Research limitations/implications – Further studies of the “scientific identity” of individual research journals are required in other sub-disciplines of marketing.

    Practical implications – Scholars will benefit from insights into the “scientific identities” of the “top” journals in services marketing. In particular, scholars can note the particular features of individual journals while acknowledging the paradigmatic flexibility and richness of research designs that are present in all of these journals.

    Originality/value – This is the first review and evaluation of the “scientific identity” of “top” service-marketing journals in terms of categories of papers published and geographical affiliation of published authors. The study provides valuable insights into the nature of academic publishing in the burgeoning area of services marketing.

  • 1833.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Norway.
    Svaeri, Sander
    Oslo School of Management, Norway.
    Einarsen, Kari
    Oslo School of Management, Norway.
    'Empirical characteristics’ of scholarly journals in hospitality and tourism research: An assessment2009In: International Journal of Hospitality Management, ISSN 0278-4319, E-ISSN 1873-4693, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 479-483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to describe the ‘empirical characteristics’ of scholarly journals in hospitality and tourism research by assessing selected journals. A sample of scholarly journals was selected on the basis of journal ranking lists. The ‘empirical characteristics’ assessed in this study were found to be variable across the studied journals.

  • 1834.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Sværi, Sander
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Einarsen, Kari
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    'Scientific identity' of scholarly journals in hospitality and tourism research: Review and evaluation2009In: International Journal of Hospitality Management, ISSN 0278-4319, E-ISSN 1873-4693, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 631-634Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to describe the 'scientific identity' of scholarly journals in hospitality and tourism research by reviewing and evaluating the approaches and the geographical affiliations of authors published in selected journals. The compiled results are analysed for patterns that appear to reveal the 'scientific identity' of each of the selected journals. In particular, scholars can note the particular features of individual journals while acknowledging the width and variety of research designs that are published in these scholarly journals. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 1835.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Tronvoll, Bård
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Helgesson, Thomas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Slåtten, Terje
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    The 'geographical affiliations' in 'top' research journals of general marketing2009In: Australasian Marketing Journal, ISSN 1441-3582, E-ISSN 1839-3349, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 154-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective is to explore the geographical affiliation of author(s), ad hoc reviewer(s), editorial board(s) and editor(s) of selected journals in marketing. The sample used in our study was restricted to papers published in six research-oriented journals in general marketing, which were selected to represent the 'top' publications in this field. The 'geographical affiliations' of authors, ad hoc reviewers, editorial boards and editors, reveals a predominance of the North American affiliations in all the selected 'top' research journals of general marketing. The 'geographical affiliations' of author(s), ad hoc reviewer(s), editorial board(s) and editor(s) is a subject so far unexplored across top marketing journals. It is however an important issue that needs to be raised in literature, due to the influences that they may have on the journal and its content, and the characteristics of published papers. The study provides insights into the 'top' research journals in general marketing. We intend to complement the current knowledge and insights in literature by studying four components of the 'geographical affiliations' of 'top' journals in general marketing. © 2009 Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy.

  • 1836.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Norway.
    Tronvoll, Bård
    Oslo School of Management, Norway.
    Slåtten, Terje
    Oslo School of Management, Norway.
    An assessment of the empirical characteristics of top journals in services marketing2008In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 289-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe the “empirical characteristics” of the “top” journals in services marketing by assessing selected journals with respect to: the proportion of “empirical” versus “non-empirical” contributions; the proportion of national versus international research data; the geographical origin of research data; and the geographical affiliations of the authors whose articles are published. Design/methodology/approach – A sample of “top” journals in services marketing is selected on the basis of expert opinion. The selection includes the International Journal of Service Industry Management (IJSIM), the Journal of Services Marketing (JSM), the Journal of Service Research (JSR), Managing Service Quality (MSQ), and the Service Industries Journal (SIJ). The study considers all contributions (a total of 1,189) published in these journals over a six-year period from 2000 to 2005, with particular emphasis on the “empirical” studies (a subtotal of 870). Findings – The authors contend that there is in part a troublesome and challenging “ethnocentricity” in some of the examined journals. Research limitations/implications – This is the first assessment of the “empirical characteristics” of “top” journals in services marketing. Practical implications – The study provides valuable insights into the nature of academic publishing in the area of services marketing. Originality/value – Scholars will benefit from insights into the “empirical characteristics” of the “top” journals in services marketing. In particular, scholars can note the particular features of individual journals. Further studies of the “empirical characteristics” of individual research journals are required in other sub-disciplines of marketing.

  • 1837.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Norway.
    Tronvoll, Bård
    Oslo School of Management, Norway.
    Slåtten, Terje
    Lillehammer University College, Norway.
    “Empirical characteristics” and “geocentricity” in “top” journals of logistics management2008In: International Journal of Logistics Management, ISSN 0957-4093, E-ISSN 1758-6550, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 436-450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe selected journals in logistics management in terms of: the proportion of different “empirical” contributions; the proportion of national versus international research data; the geographical origin of research data; and the authors' geographical affiliations. Design/methodology/approach – A sample of “top” scholarly journals in logistics management is selected on the basis of previous research, expert opinion and journal ranking lists. The selection includes the International Journal of Logistics Management (IJLM), the International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management (IJPDLM), and the Journal of Business Logistics (JBL). The research considers all available papers (a total of 657) published in these journals over an eight-year period from 2000 to 2007. Findings – The “empirical characteristics” and “geocentricity” were found to be variable across the studied journals in logistics management. Research limitations/implications – The present research is limited to the “empirical characteristics” and “geocentricity” of “top” journals in logistics management. It provides opportunity for further research. Practical implications – The present research provides valuable insights into the nature of academic publishing in the area of top journals of logistics management. The findings presented may be used by authors to direct their submissions to the proper journal. Originality/value – Scholars will benefit from insights into the “empirical characteristics” and “geocentricity” of the “top” journals in logistics management. Specifically, scholars can note the particular features of individual journals. Further studies of the “empirical characteristics” and “geocentricity” of individual research journals are required in other related journals to the field of logistics management.

  • 1838.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER). Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wagner, Beverly
    Strathclyde Graduate Business School, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
    A Process Directed towards Sustainable Business Operations and a Model for Improving the GWP-Footprint (CO2e) on Earth2011In: Management of environmental quality, ISSN 1477-7835, E-ISSN 1758-6119, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 451-462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe: a process to achieve sustainable business operations; and a sustainable business model of Global Warming Potential (GWP) footprint on Earth, GWP being the measure of how much a given amount of greenhouse gas is estimated to contribute to global warming. It is a relative scale which compares the effect of a given gas (e.g. methane or nitrous oxide) with that of the same amount of carbon dioxide.

    Design/methodology/approach – A Swedish fast food chain selling hamburger meals is examined in a case study. Data were collected from available corporate internal and external documentation, by site observations as well as from non‐structured interviews with top managers and company employees.

    Findings – The company's efforts to accomplish its target of “zero mission” GWP‐footprint (CO2e) on Earth consist of both an iterative and continuous process and business model. Both underpin the corporate notion and desire to reduce fossil fuel dependency and greenhouse gas emissions.

    Research limitations/implications – The findings stress the importance of addressing corporate GWP‐footprints (CO2e) from a business perspective, rather than relying on political or governmental legislation and regulation. It also opens opportunities for further research.

    Practical implications – The case shows the possibility of implementing successful sustainable operations and sustainable business models in national “for‐profit” organisations without governmental subsidies in a highly competitive market, dominated by powerful multinational fast food chains.

    Social implications – Changing consumer behaviour and purchasing patterns, as well as governmental intervention imposed at top political levels worldwide, will most likely increase the necessity for companies to create sustainable business models linked to GWP‐footprint (CO2e).

    Originality/value – The principal contribution based on the presented case study is an illustration of how one can achieve sustainable business operations and create a sustainable business model in an industry that often has been heavily criticised in the past for harming the natural environment. It also shows how to create awareness of the GWP‐footprint (CO2e) of a company's products so that in turn customers may be able to make conscious and deliberate product choices.

  • 1839.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wagner, Beverly
    University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
    Business Sustainability and E-footprints on Earth’s Life and Ecosystems: Generic Models2012In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 543-552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Companies and their business networks impact on Earth's life and ecosystems must be seriously addressed and minimized. The purpose of this paper therefore proposes and describes a generic model as well as a network model of business sustainability.

    Design/methodology/approach: "Business sustainability" is defined as a company's or an organization's efforts to manage its impact on Earth's life- and eco-systems and its whole business network. The work concentrates on one research question, namely: how can business sustainability and E-footprints be conceptualised?

    Findings: The model introduced emphasises not only the importance of business networks adopting an E-footprint and an Earth-to-Earth (EE) cradle-to-cradle approach, but also a transformative Earth (E) footprint-model derived and inspired from a causal framework in complexity sciences. Research limitations/implications: Research is rare that simultaneously focuses on EE-approaches, E-footprint stakeholders and zero-sum cycles. The authors have striven to address this gap by introducing a business sustainability model in an EE-approach and with an interconnecting transformative E-footprint-model.

    Practical implications: It is crucial to embed appropriate routines and processes within the company in the first instance with the aim of business sustainability. This may cause a ripple effect in the company's business network as raw material producers, value-adding suppliers and customers become drawn into make appropriate strategic, tactical and operative adaptations in their own business dealings. This stresses the importance of E-footprint stakeholders fostering networks of both interdependent and collaborative corporate efforts aimed at business sustainability.

    Originality/value: The main contribution should be a business sustainability model of life and ecosystems from an EE-approach with a transformative E-footprint.model. Each company within a business network must endeavour to minimise its E-footprint through its zero-sum cycles. These should be seen as interdependent and interconnected thereby contributing to the total E-footprint of the business network. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 1840.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wagner, Beverly
    Department of Marketing, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
    Implementation of a Sustainable Business Cycle: The Case of a Swedish Dairy Producer2012In: Supply chain management, ISSN 1359-8546, E-ISSN 1758-6852, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 93-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The objective of this paper is to describe a corporate implementation and application of a "sustainable business cycle". Design/methodology/approach: The study is based on a single case study of a regional producer of dairy products in Sweden. The data were collected from non-structured interviews with managers and available corporate documentation. Findings: The company's "sustainable business cycle" may be divided into nine stages beginning with the arable land through to the dairy and transportation of products to market, where the final two stages involve external retailers and consumers, all of which is important to fulfilment of the earlier seven internal stages. Research limitations/implications: The findings stress the importance of connecting and reconnecting not just to immediate environmental concerns of business, but also to planet Earth, which is under non-sustainable pressure and evidently faces an unpleasant destiny. Practical implications: The case highlights advantages and challenges facing a small to medium-sized enterprise (SME) tasked with implementing a sustainable business cycle for a commodity product in a highly competitive market, dominated by powerful retailers. Social implications: Changing consumer behaviours and purchasing patterns, as well as state interventions imposed at top political levels worldwide, will gradually increase the necessity to create sustainable business cycles. Originality/value: The main contribution of this article is to present a rare detailed case study of a sustainable, organic milk supply chain. It highlights the areas where sustainability is effective. It also illustrates the challenge for an SME trying to extend the reach and to create awareness of added value to the consumer. Hopefully some lessons will be learned and emphasized in this case study. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 1841.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Norway.
    Wagner, Beverly
    University of Strathclyde, Scotland, UK.
    Sustainable supply chain practices: research propositions for the future2010In: International Journal of Logistics Economics and Globalisation, ISSN 1741-5373, E-ISSN 1741-5381, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 176-186Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1842.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wagner, Beverly
    University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
    Transformative Business Sustainability: Multi-Layer Model and Network of E-Footprint Sources2011In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 334-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the concept of "transformative business sustainability". "Business sustainability" refers the total effort of a company - including its demand and supply chain network - to reduce the impact on the Earth's life- and eco-systems -, i.e. the total e-footprint. "Transformative" highlights the need for an open minded, dynamic and flexible approach to "business sustainability" not governed by blinkers.

    Design/methodology/approach: This paper discusses a conceptual development of transformative business sustainability, derived from a frame of reference. The essence is the introduction of a multi-layer model of units (i.e. different businesses or other stakeholders), a network of e-footprint sources and a "recovery pool and redistribution buffer" at the interface.

    Findings: Transformative business sustainability is both a theoretical and managerial concept. It could also be seen as a roadmap to plan, implement and evaluate business sustainability.

    Research limitations/implications: Transformative business sustainability provides opportunities for development. Suggestions for further research are presented.

    Practical implications: E-footprint sources in business, applying an Earth-to-Earth approach, are described. The concept of transformative business sustainability contributes by achieving genuine and continuous business sustainability and awareness at strategic, tactical and operative levels of business, avoiding use of buzzwords and window dressing.

    Originality/value: Well-being of the planet Earth has to be at the core of business sustainability. The authors contend that the "recovery pool and redistribution buffer" is crucial in the planning, implementation and evaluation of transformative business sustainability.

    © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 1843.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Wood, G
    Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia .
    Codes of Ethics Best Practice in the Swedish Public Sector: a PUBSEC-Scale2004In: International Journal of Public Sector Management, ISSN 0951-3558, E-ISSN 1758-6666, Vol. 17, no 2-3, p. 178-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the results of a study conducted of the top 100 public sector units in Sweden. The aim of the study was to examine and describe the codes of ethics in these Swedish public sector units. Reports on the responses of 27 public sector units that possessed a code of ethics. The content analyses of these codes indicate that they have only recently become an interest in public Sweden. Many public sector units are in the early stages of development and assimilation of codes of ethics artefacts into overall ethics policies in the organization. A customized PUBSEC-scale was used to measure and evaluate the content of the codes. The code of ethics best practice in the Swedish public sector has been used to develop a public sector scale consisting of seven dimensions and 41 items. The PUBSEC-scale differs from the current private sector scales in literature, owing to the specific characteristics of the public sector. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 1844.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wood, Greg
    Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    A Conceptual Framework of Corporate and Business Ethics across Orgainzations: Structures, Processes and Performance2011In: Learning Organization, ISSN 0969-6474, E-ISSN 1758-7905, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 21-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The objective of this paper is to introduce and describe a conceptual framework of corporate and business ethics across organizations in terms of ethical structures, ethical processes and ethical performance. Design/methodology/approach: A framework is outlined and positioned incorporating an ethical frame of reference in the field of organizational chain management.

    Findings: A number of areas and sub-areas of corporate and business ethics are framed in the context across organizations. Research limitations/implications: The introduced framework should be seen as a seed for further development and refinement. It provides opportunities for further research of ethical concerns across organizations.

    Practical implications: Organizations may benefit from the findings and insights presented and they may be used to enhance their ability to manage, monitor and evaluate ethical business practices across organizations.

    Social implications: Changing societal and market patterns may enforce organizations to address ethical concerns across organizations. A myopic approach restricted to the judicial system may become insufficient and unsatisfactory from the perspective of other stakeholders of the organization.

    Originality/value: The framework makes a contribution bringing in ethical concerns across organizations, providing a basis for their ethical values and culture, as well as asymmetric relationships in terms of power and dependence. The authors believe that a true learning organization needs to realise the importance of an extended view of its endeavors of corporate and business ethics in terms of ethical structures, ethical processes and ethical performance across organizations.

    © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 1845.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo school of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wood, Greg
    Deakin University, Australia.
    A Cross-Continental Examination and Comparison of Descriptive Criteria in Marketing Journals – AMJ, EJM and JM2007In: Revista de Negócios, ISSN 1980-4431, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 74-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective is to perform a cross-continental examination and comparison of non-traditional descriptive criteria in a selection of leading academic journals in marketing. The sample of journals is restricted to the examination and comparison of three academic journals in marketing. The journal sample consists of the Australasian Marketing Journal (AMJ), the European Journal of Marketing (EJM) and the Journal of Marketing (JM). Empirical research manuscripts dominate in the selected marketing journals. In addition, in the selected journals regular issues dominate in favour of special issues. The descriptive criteria examined and compared in AMJ, EJM and JM are based upon the content analysis of 811 manuscripts published during a six-year period, namely 2000-2005. Manuscripts of types other than empirical research, such as general reviews, literature reviews, conceptual papers, commentaries and book reviews are less likely to get published. Special issues or special sections are less frequent in these journals. This may lead to the situation that specialized journals in sub-areas of marketing may provide better and more comprehensive leading edge coverage and knowledge. The insights provided are in particular valuable for those scholars that do not usually get involved in academic publishing and consequently have a limited understanding and experience of the publication arena of manuscripts in leading academic journals. These insights also will be informative for more experienced academic publishers as they highlight certain characteristics of these journals that enlighten one as to the journals that one should target for publication and the difficulty, just on a numbers basis alone, of getting published in one of these three journals. The principal contribution of this research is the examination and comparison of descriptive criteria in AMJ, EJM and JM – a cross-continental sample of journals and criteria that have not been explored or reported previously in literature.

  • 1846.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wood, Greg
    Bowater School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    A Model of Business Ethics2008In: Journal of Business Ethics, ISSN 0167-4544, E-ISSN 1573-0697, Vol. 77, no 3, p. 303-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It appears that in the 30 years that business ethics has been a discipline in its own right a model of business ethics has not been proffered. No one appears to have tried to explain the phenomenon known as 'business ethics' and the ways that we as a society interact with the concept, therefore, the authors have addressed this gap in the literature by proposing a model of business ethics that the authors hope will stimulate debate. The business ethics model consists of three principal components (i.e. expectations, perceptions and evaluations) that are interconnected by five sub-components (i.e. society expects; organizational values, norms and beliefs; outcomes; society evaluates; and reconnection). The introduced model makes a contribution to the creation of a conceptual framework for business ethics. A few tentative conclusions may be drawn from the introduced model of business ethics. The model aspires to be highly dynamic. The ultimate outcome is dependent upon the evolution of time and contexts. It is also dependent upon and provides reference to the behaviours and perceptions of people. The model proposes business ethics to be a continuous and an iterative process. There is no actual end of the process, but a constant reconnection to the initiation of successive process iterations of the business ethics model. The principals and sub-components of the model construct the dynamics of this continuous process. They provide guidance on what and how to explore our common efforts to understand the phenomenon known as business ethics. The model provides opportunities for further research in the field of business ethics.

  • 1847.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wood, Greg
    Bowater School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    A Model of Cause Related Marketing for ‘Profit-Driven’ and ‘Non-Profit’ Organizations2011In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 203-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe a model of cause-related marketing (CRM) for both profit-driven (PD) and non-profit (NP) organizations. Design/methodology/approach:The model consists of two parallel internal and external organizational processes - one representing the process of a NP organization and the other a PD organization. They are interlinked as the outcome of a CRM-partnership is dependent upon their mutual efforts.

    Findings: The authors argue that it is essential to remember that a CRM-partnership is a challenge and risk for both the PD and NP organizations that may harm their reputation and position in the marketplace and/or society. CRM has benefits as well as downsides that should not be underestimated nor neglected.

    Research limitations/implications: Will the involvement of the PD or NP organizations in the resultant partnership be perceived as commercialism, altruism or a combination of both, in the marketplace and society? A focus on both processes opens up opportunities for further research.

    Practical implications: A contribution is that the CRM-model may be used as a guide for both PD and NP organizations in order to reveal whether a CRM-partnership is appropriate for them with a potential partner or not. It may also indicate whether the motives are based upon commercial reasons or altruistic reasons or a combination of both.

    Originality/value: The model enables these organizations to think through the process prior to engaging in CRM. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 1848.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo school of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wood, Greg
    Bowater School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    Are university students really customers? When illusion may lead to delusion for all!2007In: International Journal of Educational Management, ISSN 0951-354X, E-ISSN 1758-6518, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 17-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The marketing concept is an idea that has been adopted in non-marketing contexts, such as the relationships between universities and their students. This paper aims to posit that marketing metaphors are inappropriate to describe the student-university relationship.

    Design/methodology/approach - The authors provide a conceptual discussion of the topic.

    Findings - The use of marketing metaphors appears sometimes to be indiscriminate and the appropriateness to use them in student-university relationships is questioned in this article. Research limitations/implications - This notion of students as customers has caused a misinterpretation of the relationship between universities and students.

    Practical implications - Students should not be viewed as customers of the university, but as citizens of the university community. The contention contained within this paper is that the customer metaphor is inappropriate to describe students' relationships to universities.

    Originality/value - The use of marketing buzzwords does not contribute to a correct description or an accurate understanding of the student-university relationship. On the contrary, misconceptions and misunderstandings flourish due to misleading terminology and contradictory vocabulary. These frameworks tend to be illusionary if used in non-marketing contexts, such as universities.

    © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 1849.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Norway.
    Wood, GregDeakin University, Australia.
    Business Ethics – Through Time and Across Contexts 2009Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 1850.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Wood, Greg
    Bowater School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, Warrnambool, Victoria, Australia.
    Business ethics in TQM: the qualities and spectrum zones of a case illustration2005In: TQM Magazine, ISSN 0954-478X, E-ISSN 1758-6887, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 19-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The conceptual framework of business ethics in total quality management is described based on a case study in the Swedish retail industry. The study shows that business ethics is significantly important as in the long run, TQM will not succeed in business operations unless business ethics is considered in the core values to support the techniques and tools applied for TQM. TQM insists that business operations must be performed without delay, minimizing the damage and with the agreed quality. The business organizations must maintain proactive values in their business processes to ensure maximum customer satisfaction.

34353637383940 1801 - 1850 of 2095
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