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  • 1651.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    A Born Global Company’s Way to Growth2011Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a Born Global company is studied, with the aim of investigating how it has developed from 1990 to 2007. Which growth stages can we identify over time? Which factors influence these stages? The method used is the case study and the information was gathered through interviews and secondary data. For the theoretical approach, I have used the indicative ‘stages’ of the growth/life-cycle modelsby Churchill and Lewis (1987) and Smallbone and Wyer (2006), a framework focusing oninternational growth, international market strategy, international entrepreneurship and cultureand international organisation. The Rubber Company was studied from 1990 to 2007, which suggests that three CEOs have been in charge of the company; the founder, external CEO I and CEO II. The company’s development and expansion over the study period were followed and related to the stages of growth/life-cycle model and theoretical framework. The stages analysed are the Entrepreneurial stage (1990–1999), the Expansion stage (2000–2004) and the Industrial stage (2005– ). The three CEOs took part in different stages, which affect firm development. The Rubber Company is still growing and very entrepreneurial, over time lifting its development curve to newlevels. Market strategy has changed from distributors to subsidiaries. Unknown global segmentshave been developed. Critical incidents over time have been the founder’s way of acting during the second stage in relation to CEO I, who came from a much larger company with a strong support staff. In combination with the fact that the founder was still the owner and had the power, this did not make it easy to change the company to a new stage of development. He also did not have the experience of working in a smaller company. CEO II already had a close relationwith the founder and thus he was more quickly accepted. During the Industrial stage, the new investor supported the firm’s strong development.The ongoing Entrepreneurial stage on the business development curve indicates even faster growth for the Rubber Company. For that situation, entrepreneurship strategies must be more open, decentralised and teamwork-oriented. Another management style is later required to leadand expand the company. Since 2005, the company has been in the Industrial stage; i.e.expanding even faster in the global market. A value-added pricing concept has been developed. The company’s external focus on customers and relations is very important. CEO II suggests that traditional multinationals have too much of an internal focus. The learning process in the Rubber Company has been present from inception, but the firm hashow become more professionalised through international workshops. For the culture and vision,it is important to agree on the internal values of the company all over the world – the “CompanyWay” of doing business. Entrepreneurship strategies have changed from an entrepreneur deciding in most cases to a more coaching style of leadership. New owners have now invested inthe company and capital for expansion is available.The most interesting question is how the Rubber Company grows over time and how management continuously manages to shift the life-cycle curve to new levels. A Born Global company grows and develops in its special way according to the prevailing theory. However,when it is growing, it is more and more like a traditional company but still with an extreme entrepreneurial focus, in some cases because of the founder.

  • 1652.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Born Globals, Networks and Management2013Inngår i: The 16th Annual McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference: Researching New Frontiers: The Conference Program and Collection of Short Summaries, 2013, s. 103-103Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies have been focusing the entrepreneur and the international market situation for the Born Global Company as parts of developing the company and its growth. Networks have also been studied over time but not so much value creating networks from an internal perspective in relation to the company’s management. Networks are important and can be used to “involve help in overcoming perceived barriers on cultural and regulatory issues, those associated with locating partners, plus other matters deemed important to specific management teams” (Crick, 2009, p. 466). Cooney (2009) found evidence of a positive relationship between entrepreneurial teams and high-growth firms.

    This study will take its starting point in the conceptual framework of Andersson and Wictor (2003): The Entrepreneurs, Networks, Globalisation and Industry. The study will deepen especially the knowledge about networks and how the management works developing the company and making it profitable. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how value creating networks are used in Born Global companies and how management acts.

    In this quality study data has been collected through a case study. For this a conceptual framework has been developed. How does the management work in Born Global Companies?

    Results which were found, was that different networks were handled differently. Building a strong and profitable company is due to how you work with your core manufacturing, outsourcing and your strategic situations in the company, how you handle your suppliers and who is responsible in your management team. In this case they have built up strong and close relationships to the suppliers and have for strategic reasons taken over strategic equipment suppliers. The management has to be aware of and define what is core manufacturing and not. It may be the easiest way to outsource but is it the best in the long run? To compete you should build a strong local network and if possible automatize your core manufacturing. The CEO has to take his or her responsibility for strategic operative situations. To decide the different roles are important in the management team. The entrepreneur’s charismatic leadership is important for empowering the organisation and its acting and for creating interesting ‘value creating networks’. Theoretical implications may be to deepen this study even more in many more companies. To study the relation from the suppliers and the customers perspective would very interesting. Practical implications are for the management to be aware of how important the strategic questions are for the management to handle in an efficient way. The board members have to be aware of what they delegate of the core business so the CEO can work with distinct roles and to secure that networks are built for supporting a profitable development. This will be even more important in the future through the Chinese competition.

    This is an on-going study and will be presented in a final paper.

  • 1653.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Born Globals: Rapid International Growth in New Ventures2012Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The traditional theories developed by Johanson and Vahlne (1977, 1990) and other researchers ofinternationalisation have long been questioned because of the fast-changing environment and deregulations. In particular, for Born Global firms, namely a company that has achieved a foreign sales volume of at least 25% within three years of its inception and that seeks to derive significant competitive advantage from the use of resources and the sales of outputs in multiple countries (Andersson and Wictor, 2003, p. 254), itis a question of surviving by establishing in many markets in a short period of time.This thesis summarises five papers. Paper 1 showed that the CEO´s perception and the fast changing environment push small firms to internationalise and that younger CEOs have an important role in expanding the firm. This is often because of their experiences accumulated inthe organisation over time or because the entrepreneur has been exposed to the international arena and information technologies, which can explain why some small firms continue to expandtheir international activities.The conceptual framework in paper 2 comprises four factors that influence Born Global firms:entrepreneurs, networks, industry and globalisation. To succeed in establishing a global firm it isimportant to have certain resources, such as an entrepreneur with international experience and strong networks. A Born Global entrepreneur is distinguished by his interest and motivation todo business abroad and his vision for the future.Paper 3 focuses on the importance of Born Globals’ foreign market channel strategies. The decision to establish a new market is of great importance for the long-term survival of the company. In this comparative case study, four companies that display different foreign entrymodes are compared. We found that these companies had very different market channel strategies even though they internationalised rapidly.Paper 4 is a study of four companies that indicates that their CEOs are active and involved in making strategic decisions in all parts of a Born Global firm’s value chain activities. Decisions on localisation and outsourcing are influenced by the entrepreneur’s definition of his firm’s core competencies. However, factors outside the firm are also an influence: potential suppliers,outsourcing of manufacturing and potential partners in distribution, especially relating to the riseof new emerging markets (e.g. China). The importance of coordinating value chain activities also influences the localisation of different activities. Entrepreneurs aim to arrange value-creating networks to secure their core manufacturing processes and close relations with local suppliers when they outsource products. In such a case, the entrepreneur can be seen as an orchestrator ina virtual organisation. The ‘global factory’ concept can be adjusted to fit locally for a Born Global company and its environment. Paper 5 focuses on a Born Global company’s way to grow and is a longitudinal study of acompany over 17 years (1990–2007) and its development in the different stages in the growth/life-cycle curve. From inception, the vision is already strong to go global. During thea bove period, the founder, external CEO I and CEO II were interviewed to assess whatcharacterises the different stages of growth over time compared with the growth/life-cycle model of Smallbone and Wyer (2006). The company is still growing and very entrepreneurial. The leadership has changed from a deciding style to a more coaching way of leading. Themanagement and organisation have changed to be more professionalised and team-oriented over8time. Entrepreneurial teams have also become more and more important for transferring knowledge to individuals in the organisation.The traditional models of Johanson and Vahlne (1977, 1990) point out that learning at an organisational level is a main factor in international development over time. However, a way to speed up the development of Born Global firms is entrepreneurial background with long experience and different knowledge serving his vision for the company. Nevertheless, theknowledge transfer from the entrepreneur and his team to the organisation is important. Knight and Cavusgil (2004, p. 137) find that “Born Globals pose an important new challenge to traditional views on the internationalization of the firm”.Johanson and Vahlne (2003) study what happens in companies because of rapid changes in the environment. They suggest that the Uppsala model is still valid, but that the early stage of a firm’sinternationalisation is important to study. Organisational learning is carried out at an individual and an entrepreneurial level. Johanson and Vahlne (1977) focus on the importance of the people working in a market and their learning. In their latest published article by Schweizer et al. (2010,pp. 368–369), they argue that “it is the liability of outsidership rather than the liability offoreignness that gives rise to internationalization difficulties. Outsidership implies that the firm isnot a member of relevant networks. Internationalization can be seen then as taking steps tobecome an insider in relevant networks in focal foreign markets … In their last study it emphasizes the entrepreneurial facets of a firm’s internationalization process”. The above defined background of the entrepreneur, his entrepreneurial way of working and his experience from former jobs also means that he already has the networks necessary for international expansion.The entrepreneur and his team in a Born Global company must from the beginning have the capability and knowledge of the environment and market in a country to establish in the new market as well as the understanding of how to manage the company and organisation. If they do not have this knowledge, they must have a network from which to extract this information. The entrepreneur has to be strongly involved in building and sustaining relationships with both customers and suppliers. In the organisation, he also has to build a powerful culture with decentralisation and empowered employees. The leadership in these companies is charismatic,employees are empowered in their jobs and the teams are entrepreneurial. Employees are therefore also allowed to make their own decisions within certain limits. Networks are important to overcome “perceived barriers on cultural and regulatory issues, those associated with locating partners, plus other matters deemed important to specific management teams” (Crick, 2009, p. 466). Coviello and Cox (2006) find that a company’s network is aresource when it is working with acquisitions and important recruitments. For companies growing over many years such as the Rubber Company studied herein, networks change and the chairman’s networks can be of great importance when core individuals should be recruited as an important part of the company’s strategies.

  • 1654.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The importance of value chain in born globals2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1655.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The Management of Value Chain Activities in Born Global Companies2011Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how Born Global companies’ value chain activities are managed and organised.

    Methodology

    This study explores how Born Global firms’ activities are managed and organised through qualitative research using secondary data and interviews with the entrepreneurs and CEOs offour Swedish Born Global firms.

    Findings

    This study indicates that CEOs are active in making strategic decisions in all parts of a Born Global firm’s value chain activities. Decisions on localisation and outsourcing are influenced by the entrepreneur’s definition of his firm’s core competencies. However, factors outside the firmare also an influence: potential suppliers, outsourcing of manufacturing and potential partners indistribution, especially relating to the rise of new emerging markets (e.g. China). The importanceof coordinating value chain activities also influences the localisation of different activities. The use of value-creating networks is important for Born Global companies. These networks,especially local ones, can also be seen in connection with the ‘global factory’ concept but adjusted to the Born Global Company and its international environment.

    Research limitations/implications

    This study provides a deeper understanding of how entrepreneurs in Born Global firms are involved in decisions regarding all parts of the value chain. A limitation is that it has focused onthe value activities within these firms. Future studies should also investigate how the relationship with other actors in the value chain (e.g. suppliers and distributors) influences the development of Born Global firms.

    Practical implications

    It is important to focus on strategic decisions in all parts of the value chain in global settings. The management team needs to create an organisation that can deal with operative matters and work without the direct supervision of top-level management.

    Originality/value

    This paper takes a holistic view of all parts of Born Global firms’ value chain activities and the role of the entrepreneur and management in the value chain, which few previous studies have investigated.

  • 1656.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Andersson, Svante
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Charismatic leadership and empowerment in born globals2010Inngår i: McGill International Entreprenurship Conferences Series / [ed] Hamid Etemad, 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1657.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Andersson, Svante
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The Importance of Leadership and Vision in Born Globals2012Inngår i: Business and Management Research, ISSN 1927-6001, E-ISSN 1927-601X, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 13-25Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the beginning of the 1990s studies of Born Global companies has become a major topic in internationalizationliterature. Earlier research has pointed out the importance of the entrepreneur in the born global firm’s internationaldevelopment. Even if many studies have been done which identify the impact of entrepreneurs and management onfirms’ internationalisation and behaviour few studies have focused on leadership in Born Global Companies. Followingearlier research, the aim of this paper is to investigate how the entrepreneur uses his/her vision in Born Globalcompanies. The main findings and conclusions are that the entrepreneur and his/ her vision have an important role inthese companies. The vision is like an umbrella and affects many important parts of the company, such as organisation,communication, recruitment, knowledge transfer and other parts that will form the company’s culture. The born globalentrepreneurs create the company values and motivate the employees in the organisation. The Born Global leaders sharethe power with subordinates. It is crucial to delegate operational decisions to subordinates so the entrepreneur can workwith strategic issues fostering the firms’ international expansion. Communication is open and straight with an openatmosphere in the culture. Good communication is important when building goals, values and conveying the leader’svision. Even if the entrepreneurs motivate their employees in a positive way the entrepreneurs still have a tight control ofthe company. The main implications from this study are that the entrepreneurs in The Born Global firms have been ableto create an innovative culture in the firm that creates international growth.

  • 1658.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Andersson, Svante
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The Importance of vision in born global companies2011Inngår i: Research on Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management 2009‐2011: Introducing the Research Area of Innovation Science / [ed] Sven-Åke Hörte, Halmstad: Högskolan i Halmstad , 2011, s. 37-53Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the entrepreneur uses his vision in Born Global companies. Design/methodology/approach – In this qualitative study, data has been collected by carrying out case studies of three companies. The main approach has been to study the role ofvision, leadership and communication in these companies. Findings – The entrepreneur and his vision is very important in a Born Global company. The vision is like an umbrella and affects many important parts of the company, such as communication,r ecruitment, knowledge transfer and other parts that will form the company’s culture. After a few years these items will help to create the company’s handbook, which will form the guidelines for how employees in the company work and act. Even if the entrepreneurs motivate their employees in a positive way, so that they can develop and do a good job, the entrepreneurs still must control the company. Research implications – This is an area where much more research needs to be done. In this study the entrepreneurs have been interviewed. To get more information the employees need to be interviewed. Practical implications – Implications for traditional small to medium‐sized enterprise (SME) companies could help to understand what happens in Born Global companies. Originality/value – This paper uses a view of the visionary perspective to study the three companies. This could be used by more traditional companies to discover new areas of potential.

  • 1659.
    Widercrantz, Sofia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Carlsson, Josefin
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Värdeminskning av Goodwill: En komparativ studie mellan regelverken K3 och IFRS2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Förvärvad goodwill är en immateriell tillgång som uppstår vid ett rörelseförvärv, i redovisningen hos det förvärvande företaget. Detta om köpeskillingen överstiger det förvärvade företagets nettotillgångar. Denna tillgång får redovisas i balansräkningen, enligt både K3 och IFRS. Historiskt sett har det varit en stor variation mellan länder angående redovisningen, och även kring hur goodwill hanteras. Det återstår fortfarande skillnader mellan nationella och internationella regelverk, angående goodwillpostens värdeminskning. Större svenska onoterade företag kan välja att redovisa enligt antingen K3 eller IFRS, och dessa regelverk har olika värdeminskningsmetoder för tillgången; avskrivning kontra nedskrivning. I detta arbete undersöks hur dessa metoder skiljer sig åt. Värdeminskningens påverkan på företagets rapporter undersöks också. Dessa rapporter, i sin tur, utgör en del av investerarnas beslutsunderlag. Arbetet undersöker även de eventuella signaler som företaget sänder ut i samband med redovisningen kring goodwillposten.

    Egenkonstruerade typfall har skapats för att påvisa regelverkens skillnader. Dessa typfall har applicerats på ett fiktivt företag, vars omsättning och kostnader hålls konstanta, för att tydliggöra värdeminskningsmetodernas påverkan. Det fiktiva företaget, och konsekvenserna av metoderna, har observerats under fem år. Utifrån företagets finansiella rapporter kan aktuella nyckeltal beräknas. Med hjälp av signalteori, de båda regelverken, de konstruerade typfallen samt framräknade nyckeltal kan en analys genomföras för att bedöma vilka signaler hanteringen av goodwill sänder ut till investerarna.

    Resultatet av denna studie visar att regelverkens olika metoder, för hanteringen av goodwillpostens värdeminskning, skiljer sig kraftigt åt. K3:s metod kan uppfattas som en enklare strategi, medan IFRS:s metod är betydligt mer komplicerad och kräver mer från företaget i form av tid, kapital och resurser. Vidare illustrerar studien påverkningarna som värdeminskningsmetoderna medför, både på de finansiella rapporterna och på företagets nyckeltal. Det här, i sin tur, leder till att investerarna, givet det regelverk som företaget följer, får tillgång till skiftande mängd information som även kan vara av varierande kvalitet.

  • 1660.
    Wigren-Kristoferson, Caroline
    et al.
    CIRCLE, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Gabrielsson, Jonas
    CIRCLE, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Fumi, Kitagawa
    Manchester Business School, University of Manchester, Manchester, Sweden.
    Mind the gap and bridge the gap: research excellence and diffusion of academic knowledge in Sweden2011Inngår i: Science and Public Policy, ISSN 0302-3427, E-ISSN 1471-5430, Vol. 38, nr 6, s. 481-492Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to highlight the changing and diversifying nature of academic work related to various forms of knowledge production and diffusion. Focusing on the changing research policy landscape in Sweden, three interrelated questions are investigated: what academics do in terms of commercialisation and public dissemination; how they perform these activities; and why they engage in these activities. Based on data from a recent survey with over 10,000 academics in Sweden, we identify and analyse ‘high-performing’ researchers, in the context of the commercialisation and public dissemination of their academic work. The quantitative analysis is supplemented by qualitative interviews with scientists at strong research environments in Sweden. We argue that there is a virtuous cycle connecting different academic activities in strong research environments — research excellence and excellence in knowledge production on one hand, and knowledge diffusion activities, such as commercialisation and public dissemination, on the other hand. © Beech Tree Publishing 2011.

  • 1661.
    Wikfeldt, Emma
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Chammas, Michella
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Revisorns dilemma: En studie om riskproblematik i perspektiv av skadeståndsansvar2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Revisorer har i uppdrag att granska företagens finansiella räkenskaper för att säkerställa attsiffrorna är rättvisande, trots att det inte är en fullständig garanti. Revisorn har ettskadeståndsansvar i de fall han eller hon vållar skada i det granskade företaget. Dennahermeneutiska studie har genomförts till följd av ett gap i forskningen gällande denriskproblematik i granskningen som kan föranleda skadestånd. Syftet med studien är attbeskriva riskproblematiken i granskningen kopplat till skadeståndsansvaret och hurproblematiken påverkar revisorns arbete, samt utveckla begreppet revisorns dilemma.Forskningsfrågan: Vilken riskproblematik i perspektiv av skadeståndsansvar finns och hurpåverkar den revisorns granskning? har med hjälp av en kvalitativ metod besvarats. Empirinär uppbyggd av tio personliga intervjuer med auktoriserade revisorer från små och storarevisionsbyråer verksamma i Västsverige. Resultatet visar att skadeståndsrisken och revisornsriskmedvetenhet har ökat de senaste åren. Risken för skadestånd är högre för större byråer,eftersom deras klientstock består av större klienter, till skillnad från mindre byråer. Revisornförhåller sig till skadeståndsansvaret, men påverkas dock inte av det i sitt dagliga arbete.Dessutom anses sanktioner från Revisorsinspektionen vara en mer betydande risk än ettskadeståndsanspråk. Många svårigheter i granskningen grundas i att de kräver en bedömningav framtida prospekter, som ibland stöds av få konkreta revisionsbevis. I granskningenbedömer revisorn poster utifrån revisionsrisken. I det fall klientens företagsledning undanhållereller förfalskar information ökar risken för att revisorn gör en felaktig bedömning. Därmedökar risken för att förskingring och annat mygel inte upptäcks. Denna farhåga stiger också dåföretagsledningen visar på hög riskbenägenhet. Slutligen kan skadestånd föranledas då revisornupplyser för mycket eller för lite i revisionsberättelsen. Både typ I- och typ II-fel utförda avrevisorn kan skada klienten och ligga till grund för ett monetärt anspråk.

  • 1662.
    Wiking, Viktor
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Noring, Adam
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    En uppsats om finansiella aktörers agerande inför implementeringen av PSD2 direktivet.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Författare: Adam Noring & Viktor Wiking

    Handledare: Urban Österlund

    Bakgrund: PSD2 är ett nytt EU direktiv som implementeras i svensk lagstiftningden 1 Maj 2018. PSD2 är ett utvecklat och förnyat direktiv av det gamla direktivetPSD1. Målet med det nya direktivet är att göra det enklare för tredjepartsaktörer attta sig in på betaltjänstmarknaden och komma åt bankernas kunddata, med kundensgodkännande samt att direktivet ska bidra till ökad konkurrens och valmöjligheter förkunder.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien har varit att studera finansiella aktörers strategier, hurdem jobbar med säkerhet samt vilka eventuella möjligheter och utmaningar de stårinför.

    Metod: En kvalitativ fallstudie har gjorts med semistrukturerade intervjuer därskribenterna har intervjuat tre storbanker, två fintechbolag samt en grundläggandeintervju med finansinspektionen.

    Resultat: Resultatet visar att strategierna hos storbankerna och fintechbolagen inteändrats något drastiskt i samband med PSD2 men att möjligheterna är många ochsamarbeten är något som aktörerna är positiva till. Säkerheten är en viktig detalj däralla aktörer måste kunna visa upp en giltig licens.

  • 1663.
    Winborg, Joakim
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Why do they use financial bootstrapping?: a quantitative study of new business managers2008Inngår i: Entrepreneurship, Sustainable Growth and Performance: Frontiers in European Entrepreneurship Research / [ed] Hans Landström, Hans Crijns, Eddy Laveren & David Smallbone, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2008, s. 77-90Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1664.
    Winborg, Joakim
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Landström, Hans
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Financial bootstrapping in small businesses: Examining small business managers' resource acquisition behaviors2001Inngår i: Journal of Business Venturing, ISSN 0883-9026, E-ISSN 1873-2003, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 235-254Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, small businesses have received much attention from policy makers and researchers, in that these businesses are considered important for economic growth and job creation. At the same time small businesses are assumed to face major problems in securing long-term external finance, which is regarded as restraining their development and growth. Small business managers are assumed to use institutional finance as a means of meeting the need for resources, and as a consequence the major part of the research on small business finance has focused on constraints in the supply of institutional (market) finance. As we see it, most small business managers handle the need for resources using means other than external finance by applying different kinds of financial bootstrapping methods. Financial bootstrapping refers to the use of methods for meeting the need for resources without relying on long-term external finance from debt holders and/or new owners. However, these other means of resource acquisition have, with few exceptions, not been focused on within earlier research on small business finance. Against this background, the purpose of this study is to describe small business managers' use of different financial bootstrapping methods, and, more importantly, to develop concepts that can help Its better understand small business managers' financial bootstrapping behaviors. The research process was initiated with a number of unstructured interviews conducted with small business managers, accountants, consultants, bank officials, and researchers, in order to identify different financial bootstrapping possibilities. On the basis of the interviews and an earlier study on financial bootstrapping, resulting in the identification of 32 bootstrapping methods, a questionnaire was constructed and sent to 900 small business managers in Sweden. Given the limited knowledge within the area of financial bootstrapping, the study is based on explorative factor analysis and cluster analysis. From the cluster analysis six clusters of bootstrappers were identified differing from each other with respect to the bootstrapping methods used and the characteristics of the business. On the basis of this information the different clusters were labeled: (I) delaying bootstrappers; (2) relationship-oriented bootstrappers; (3) subsidy-oriented bootstrappers; (4) minimizing bootstrappers; (5) non-bootstrappers; and (6) private owner-financed bootstrappers. The groups of financial bootstrappers show differences in their orientation toward resource acquisition, representing different aspects of art internal mode of resource acquisition a social mode of resource acquisition, and a quasi-market mode of resource acquisition. We find that the delaying bootstrappers, private owner-financed bootstrappers, and minimizing bootstrappers all represent an internal mode of resource acquisition. The relationship-oriented bootstrappers follow a socially oriented mode of resource acquisition, whereas the subsidy-oriented bootstrappers apply quasi-market oriented resource acquisition. This study contributes to our empirical understanding by providing knowledge about the financial bootstrapping methods used in small businesses Furthermore, by developing concepts this study contributes to the conceptual development of our knowledge about financial bootstrapping. The implication of this study is that financial bootstrapping is a phenomenon which deserves more attention in future research on small business finance. At the same time, financial bootstrapping behavior is probably a more general phenomenon appearing in different contexts, such as R&D activities in large businesses, financing startups, etc. Finally, the study points out implications for small business managers, consultants, teachers, etc. Practitioners often tend to focus on market solutions to resource needs. This study shows, however, that this strong focus cart be questioned. Resources needed in small businesses can in many situations be secured using financial bootstrapping methods, referring to internally oriented and socially oriented resource acquisition strategies.

  • 1665.
    Winborg, Joakim
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Politis, Diamanto
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Can bootstrapping be learnt from experience?: the role of human capital for explaining bootstrapping orientation in new businesses2009Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 1666.
    Wincent, Johan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Wennerström, Christian
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Varför sker det miljöinvesteringar i Sveriges fastighetsbransch?: Ett arbete om vilka faktorer som kan påverka om en miljöinvestering genomförs2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 1667.
    Winge, Oscar
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Kriborg, Frida
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Att tiga är silver, att tala är guld: Framtagningsprocessen av ekonomisk information i tre svenska företag.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I litteraturen beskrivs controllern väldigt olika från författare till författare, vilket kan förklaras med att controllerrollen varierar från företag till företag, därav är controllerns roll väldigt omdiskuterad angående titel, placering i företaget, dess funktion och arbetsuppgifter. Forskare påpekar att detta är ett område som bör studeras mer. I vår uppsats försöker vi återberätta hur controllerfunktionen beskrivs i tre svenska företag: Duni AB, Höganäs AB och Gekås. Tidigare studier angående controllerns relation gentemot sina ovanställda chefer har visat att den ekonomiska information, produkt, controllern arbetar fram inte är tillfredsställande och i värsta fall irrelevant för beslutsfattandet inom verksamheten. Denna uppsats ämnar beskriva framtagningsprocessen av controllerns produkter, mottagarens uppfattning av slutprodukten samt situationen mellan controllern som producent och ekonomichefen som mottagare i de tre undersökta företagen. Med hjälp av intervjuer med controllern och ekonomichefen på de tre företagen ska vi tolka deras återgivelser och sedan analysera detta mot vår teoretiska referensram med avsikt att finna en förklaring på varför situationer stämmer överrens eller ter sig annorlunda gentemot teorin.

    Uppsatsens resultat visar att ekonomichefen är tillfredsställd gällande controllerns slutprodukt samt att ekonomichefen och controllern för en nära dialog med varandra kring vilken information som ska tas fram, där även ekonomichefen varit involverad i framtagningsprocessen. Vi har kommit fram till att den informella kommunikationen mellan controller och ekonomichef samt ekonomichefens involvering är den gemensamma faktorn hos företagen som bidragit till att den produkt som tas fram är relevant.

  • 1668.
    Winroth, Jenny
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Thuresson, Daniel
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Varberg Energi AB:s overheadkostnader och fördelning av dem2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Varberg Energi anser att de på ett mer tydligt sätt skulle kunna fördela sina overheadkostnader. Fördelningen av overheadkostnaderna sker på företagets rörelsegrenar som är elnät, gasnät, fjärrvärme och kabel-TV/IT. Genom fördelningen av sina overheadkostnader vill Varberg Energi få rättvisande resultat som de kan fatta beslut på. Fördelningen av overheadkostnaderna sker i Varberg Energis budget för de olika rörelsegrenarna och i den interna redovisningen. Budgeten används bland annat för planering av ekonomin. Den interna redovisningen används för att följa upp de olika rörelsegrenarna. Idag sker fördelningen till viss del utifrån bärkraft med vissa procentsatser som förslag. Den nuvarande metoden har använts i mer än 40 år. Vi har genom denna uppsats försökt besvara frågan hur Varberg Energis fördelning av overheadkostnader kan bli mer rättvisande jämfört med nuvarande metoden som företaget använder. Då det var svårt att få en uppfattning om hur rättvisande deras nuvarande fördelning är var det också något krångligt att veta om en ny fördelning skulle vara mer rättvisande. Uppsatsens slutsats är att för att Varberg Energi ska kunna fördela sina overheadkostnader på ett mer rättvisande sätt borde företaget tydligare fördela sin personal på sina rörelsegrenar, de bör lägga ner mer tid på fördelningen av kostnaderna och de bör vara öppna för nya metoder att fördela overheadkostnaderna på.

  • 1669.
    Winroth, Mats
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Danilovic, Mike
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Boix Miralles, Rafa
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain.
    Manufacturing Networks: Critical factors to successful collaboration2004Inngår i: CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Systems, ISSN 1581-5048, Vol. 33, nr 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The competitive situation for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises, SME’s, has become intensified during the last few years. Large customers, such as within the automotive industry, have increased the outsourcing of their manufacturing capacity and reduced the number of suppliers. At the same time the large systems integrators place demands on their suppliers to actively participate in the product development and to take full responsibility for manufacturing as well as to deliver complete systems or subsystems. Due to the limited capacity of the suppliers, in terms of the scarcity of resources and limited knowledge base, suppliers need to collaborate in networks. The purpose of this study is to identify critical factors to successful network collaborative settings. In this paper we also introduce a four dimensional tentative framework, in terms of surface of integration, the scope of integration, the time horizon of integration, and the intensity of integration. This framework can be used to analyze how well collaborative networks are developed from three aspects of corporate integration, in terms of structural design of the network, the design of the work flow in collaborative settings, and aspect of handling the psychological and social boundaries among people, that management has to handle in order to increase the degrees of network collaboration. This tentative framework is suggested as an analytical tool that can be used in order to understand how different collaborative networks are developed in terms of the network constellation, output of the collaborative process, as well as duration and robustness of the network.

  • 1670.
    Winroth, Mats
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Danilovic, Mike
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Fernández Aguilar, Alfonso
    School of Industrial Engineering of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Flaquer Borràs, Oriol
    School of Industrial Engineering of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Dynamics of sourcing – strategic implications of outsourcing2007Inngår i: 14th International annual EurOMA conference: Managing operations in expanding Europe / [ed] Nuran Acur, Nessim K. Erkip & Evrim Didem Günes, Ankara: Bilkent University, 2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    From a strategic manufacturing perspective companies are facing challenges in finding a balance in what they do on their own and what their suppliers do. This balance requires some times that companies are outsourcing and sometimes in sourcing activities. One conclusion is that outsourcing should be considered as a strategic decision that is not easily made by a purchasing or operations department. Many companies tend to outsource more and more of their manufacturing to specialists, but this does not mean that companies can afford to loose their competence in manufacturing. It is still essential that the companies, even though another company performs parts of the actual manufacturing, understand the special conditions for manufacturing. Otherwise they are not in a position where they can discuss product development, specification of the different tasks that they want the contractors to do, and they can certainly not make the right decisions when buying components and parts from suppliers. The outsourcing decisions also need to be strategically justifiable and outsourcing only for cost reasons is rarely successful. Outsourcing should provide other advantages in terms of improvement of competitive priorities. For different reasons, it may also end up in a situation where the company needs to insource previously outsourced activities.

  • 1671.
    Winter Söderberg, Cristoffer
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Göransson, Stephanie
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    THE BANK CRISIS FINANCIAL RATIOS: A comparative research of the UK and Sweden during 2006-20102011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The credit crunch that started the 9th of August 2007 is generally viewed as the most significant crisis to affect the financial markets and the global economy since the 1930s.The UK financial sector was heavily hit by the crisis which resulted in a dry up in lending and left a black hole in the British banks‟ finances. During the last quarter of 2010 the GDP shank unexpectedly with 0.5 percent from the third quarter which created concerns about going back into the recession. Contrarily, for Swedish economy 2010 was an impressing year with an unexpected GDP growth of 7, 3 percent in the last quarter.The purpose of this study is to analyse how the finance crisis has affected the leading banks‟ performance within the two countries and see whether the differences in values can explain the difference in GDP growth during the last quarter of 2010. The analyse is performed through a financial ratio analysis of the different banks.The final results of the research indicates to that the Swedish banks have been more profitable, have had a more secure and higher quality of lending and more capacity to lower cost related to income than the British banks. The more distinctive negative influence is mostly based on the larger amount of credit losses the British banks had to experience which contributed to their significant decrease in earnings per share which created scepticism on the credit market followed by a severe slowdown in consumption and in GDP growth. Since the credit losses never got to same levels in Sweden as in the UK the scepticism of the Swedish banking system did not affect the reduction in credit use and house prises to the same extent and GDP growth could recover back to normal levels sooner than in the UK.

  • 1672.
    Wislander, Emmy
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Lundqvist, Tom
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Styrelse och Ledningsgrupp - Hur går det till?: En studie över hur styrelse och ledningsgrupp interagerar vid strategi2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 1673.
    Wolfsteller, Corinna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Jingyu, Yu
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    HR Practices - Lessons of successful, innovative companies2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Motivation: Through the increasing demand in new products, companies within international business context have to implement innovation efforts and so, they are searching for talents in an increasing amount of available employees.

    Problem statement: The problem of those firms is to employ the right people (talents) on one side and to ensure the innovative performance of the company on the other side.

    Research approach: For solving this issue, a qualitative research was chosen, while conducting a Swedish and a German case study of suitable companies and interviewing them about their practices of attracting, selecting, and integrating talents.

    Results: There is support found for the connection between the recruitment of talents and the innovative performance.

    Conclusions: The results contribute to talent management and provide lessons from successful cases as a guideline for other companies. For the reason that the case studies do not belong to a specific industry, the results are potentially generalizable.

  • 1674.
    Wolfsteller, Corinna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wang, Yichen
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The interactive process of mass customization2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Expressing the individual personality with the help of the products, people use, and the mass customization are getting closer to our daily life. As a result, more and more companies have begun to implement mass customization in different industries. Also, flexible production becomes a key factor to win the market after more online customization appear and connect different demanders across the borders. Between companies and customers, there exists an important connection which is the interactive process influencing mass customization. An interactive process consists of three parts which are named: information about customers, trans-formation of data and use of information to produce more products. However, there are a lot of factors that will affect the interactive process and finally set thereby requirements for mass customization. During this research, the authors use a qualitative case study and deductive ap-proach to obtain a theoretical model. Through interviewees with two managers of Dooria AB and a visit of the factory in Kungsätter, the authors identified high quality approach, experienced employees, high loyalty of employees, flexibility of human capital, flexibility of production, feedback of customers, education information flow and interaction as important factors which influence the interactive process. Hence, this investigation provides insights about the interrelations between these factors. So, manager in similar industries can identify the situation of their own company and improve the efficiency mass customization.

  • 1675.
    Wood, Greg
    et al.
    Bowater School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    Svensson, Göran
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Singh, Jang
    Odette School of Business, University of Windsor, Canada.
    Carasco, Emily
    University of Windsor, Canada.
    Callaghan, Michael
    Bowater School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    Implementing the Ethos of Corporate Codes of Ethics: Australia, Canada and Sweden2004Inngår i: Business Ethics. A European Review, ISSN 0962-8770, E-ISSN 1467-8608, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 389-403Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1676.
    Xu, Chenke
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Hu, Hao
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Factors influencing SMEs' export performance: A case study of Chinese SMEs2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Small and medium-sized enterprises play much more important roles in both domestic and international markets nowadays. The issue that factors influence their export performance (mainly the export sales and profits) also becomes much more attractive these years. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the factors which influence the SMEs’ export performance and how each factor influences the SMEs’ export performance. This study is built on a modified model of the factors influencing the SMEs’ export performance. The authors use case study to conduct this research, and one company’s (Company B’s) data is collected through the semi-structured interview. Some findings are obtained: the important factors which influence Company B’s export performance contain the trade shows, the expenses on getting the authentication, capital sources, export rebate, firm network, firm previous experience, firm competencies, personal network, international orientation and personal previous experience. In addition, the authors also find the effect of firm size is indirect. However, customs duty, transportation, as well as building up the brand do not play important impacts on export performance. Take the trade shows as an example, personal cards and product samples are sent to the customers, then the customers who are interested in the products will contact Company B. In this way, the customers are accumulated and the export sales increase. Thus, the export performance is enhanced.

  • 1677.
    XU, XIAOCHEN
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    JIN, YOUQI
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Chinese Buying Process and the Influence of Different Marketing Promotional Tools: Marketing Promotional Tools in an Evolving Context2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 poäng / 120 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A company might offer the best product with best price on the market, but the marketing 

    plan would not be reached unless you have a great marketing communication strategy 

    with your target consumers and other important audience. Promotion as the key of marketing 

    mix plays a core role in consumers’ decision as well as the success of the market. In order to 

    use marketing promotional tools strategically, companies should learn about the consumers 

    purchase behavior as well as the process of consumers to have a purchase decision. The 

    purpose of this thesis is to give some implication from the perspective of how to mix the 

    marketing promotional tools in an appropriate way for those who want to entry Chinese 

    clothing market. This study is built on a modified model by Charles's (2012) "The goals 

    of promotional mix in AIDA".

    We use the method of case study to conduct this investigation, and the data of two companies 

    which in clothing industry (Company M and Company Y) are collected through the semi-structured 

    interview. The data of consumer behavior is collected by the questionnaire sent to our friends to fill. 

    Some findings are obtained: Chinese company use different promotional tools mix to meet Chinese 

    consumers' buying behavior over time. The influence of promotional tools on Chinese buying process 

    may have some difference to western people.

  • 1678.
    XU, ZAOXUAN
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    The Challenges of brand innovation in different brand portfolio strategies2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 poäng / 120 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s knowledge-based economies, the global competition has become fiercer. In order to respond to competition and gain a competitive advantage or, in some cases, survive, company takes a variety of means to improve its competitiveness. Companies that do not acknowledge the effective ways to innovate its brands fail to gain more market share and there is also a risk of losing their occupied market share. It is important for companies to innovate its brand effectively.

     

    The purpose of this thesis is to identify the challenges related to brand innovation in the context of two different types of brand portfolios (i.e. “the house of brands”, and “the branded house”).

     

    In this thesis, I use a case study to analyze three cases in one company so as to realize the importance of brand innovation and its challenges. In order to gather the important information, I interview respondents of Haier which is a big home appliance company in China.

     

    This study demonstrates that the companies need to know the challenges of brand innovation a company face depending on its brand portfolio strategy. In addition, it is better for companies to make the right strategies when they innovate their brands, and to learn how to overcome the challenges of brand innovation. 

  • 1679.
    XU, ZAOXUAN
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    WU, HOUQIANG
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Analyzing how companies respond to competition in an Industry: A Case Study of two B2C e-commerce companies in China2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 60 poäng / 90 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays global competition has become more and more rigorous when entrepreneur operates a company in e-commerce industry. Companies, which don’t acknowledge the effective ways to respond to global competition, fail to gain more market share and there is also a risk of losing their occupied market share. It is important for companies to respond to competition effectively. By using Porter’s five forces model, we can analyze how companies respond to competition more comprehensive.  

     

    The purpose of this thesis is to demonstrate some of competition that companies face and analyze how companies respond to competition when operating in e-commerce industry.

     

    In this thesis, we use a case study to analyze two companies’ competition strategies so as to develop an understanding of the e-commerce competitive environment and realize the importance of responding to various competitions in e-commerce market. In order to gather the important information, we interview respondents of two Chinese B2C companies. Two B2C companies are: JD Company and Amazon China. JD Company is a domestic company and Amazon China is a multinational company.

     

    This study demonstrates that the companies need to improve their competitiveness to respond to competition such as improving the quality of product, the logistic system, and the after-sale service. In addition, it is better for companies to make the strategies such as low-price strategy and differentiation strategy to respond to competition. 

  • 1680.
    Yang, Ming
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Chen, XinJing
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Transformation of Chinese OEM-----Case study2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the globalization trend, the transformation of Chinese OEM has become a hot topic in the last decades. Although the previous literature suggested that there were many different determinants influencing firms to be successful companies, there is a lack of combination in the context of Chinese OEM. Thus, the purpose of this research study is to find out the approach of Chinese OEMs to successfully launch their own products based on three perspectives - organizational structure, processes and culture.Applying a qualitative approach, the data was gathered through semi-structured telephone interviews with the senior personnel of one Chinese OEM company (Damekiss), complemented with secondary data collected from the company’s and public websites.The results of analysis showed different views of how organizational structure, process and culture influencing on the transformation of Chinese OEM. We found that four functions (i.e. manufacturing, distribution, new product development and human resource management) influenced the transformation of Chinese OEM in organizational structure perspective. Among these functions, human resource management and distribution are extremely weak in the organizational structure of Chinese OEM. Regarding to the process of formulating these functions, the deep understanding of the customers’ preferences and collaboration partners that influenced building distribution were figured out. In the case company, it showed a relative poor ability on distribution which would be the barriers for further developing. Building HRM process was raised as another issue of the transformation of Chinese OEMs. According to the case company, HRM was poorly organized. The recruitment did not get enough attention; the training programs stayed at a lower level. The last not least, the corporate culture was also proven to be playing an important role in the transformation of Chinese OEMs. Awareness of corporate culture as one of significant aspects influencing the entire company was found in the case company. Slogan, company heroes and rituals as an internal culture were properly used to motivate employees.

  • 1681.
    Yar Hamidi, Daniel
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL). University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Chairperson leadership and entrepreneurial strategic posture in SMEs: a conceptual framework and research model2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper outlines a conceptual framework with a research model for understanding innovation-promoting board leadership in entrepreneurial small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The framework and research model depict the behavioural aspects of board leadership and how these are related to strategy development and the entrepreneurial strategic posture of entrepreneurial SMEs. Engaging in innovation is identified as a fundamental strategic posture in entrepreneurial SMEs. The advantages of a team production perspective on board leadership embedded in behavioural theories are discussed, as are the theoretical and managerial implications of the proposed framework and research model.

  • 1682.
    Yar Hamidi, Daniel
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL). University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Governance for Innovation – Board Leadership and Value Creation in Entrepreneurial Firms2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation has identified, developed and empirically tested concepts associated with the capacity of chairpersonship to promote innovation in entrepreneurial small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). A multi-methodological approach is applied in five studies, comprising a systematic literature review, three empirical studies and a concluding conceptual paper.

    The dissertation focuses on how the chairperson of the board of directors influences value creation in entrepreneurial SMEs. Value creation in this context is about the performance of strategic leaders at entrepreneurial firms’ upper echelons in acting and making strategic choices aimed at increasing firms’ capability to engage in innovation. Innovation is defined as the generation and/or adoption of an idea or behaviour, relating to a product, service, device, system, policy or program, which is new to the adopting organization.

    Innovation has been widely recognized as a concept central to economic growth and societal development. Governance is widely recognized as essential for the support and development of innovations in firms. However, the academic literature is scarce regarding how the chairperson of the board can contribute to and promote innovation in SMEs.

    This dissertation offers theoretical and empirical insights into how the chairperson of the board of directors influences value creation in entrepreneurial SMEs. In this respect, the dissertation offers a conceptual framework and a research model for understanding board leadership in promoting innovation in entrepreneurial SMEs. The framework and research model emphasize the behavioural aspects of board leadership and show how these are related to the development of entrepreneurial SMEs.

    Furthermore, the findings in this dissertation provide actionable knowledge for practitioners and policymakers. In this respect, the dissertation contributes theoretical and empirical understandings of the benefits of employing external chairpersons with relevant knowledge and experience in SMEs. These insights also provide practitioners with advice on the qualifications and processes that can help them to develop innovation-promoting boards.

  • 1683.
    Yar Hamidi, Daniel
    University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    What do non-executive chairpersons do in owner-managed firms? – evidence from Sweden2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The board of directors is often emphasized as an untapped resource in small and medium enterprises (SMEs). However, literature and research addressing issues of boards and governance has by tradition focused on large publicly held corporations while leaving the SME context largely unexplored. In this study, the aim is to examine how board leadership and the external chairperson may contribute to value creation in owner managed SMEs. More specifically, this study adopts a process perspective by looking at the role of the external board chairperson in owner-managed SMEs and how this role is carried out by the chairperson by engaging in different tasks and interpreted by the owner-managers. The study is based on a case study and interviews with chairpersons, board members and owners of two owner-managed SMEs. The tasks and processes of the board of directors in SMEs are thus discussed. The leadership responsibility of the board is in the center of attention and an eclectic theoretical perspective is applied to the discussion. Findings provide theoretical and practical insights into chairperson’s task involvement in owner managed SMEs. Suggestions about implications and further research are presented.

  • 1684.
    Yar Hamidi, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Gabrielsson, Jonas
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Board chairmanship and innovation in growth oriented firms: Opening up the black box of leadership in the boardroom2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a framework of how board chairperson practices may promote innovation in small entrepreneurial firms. A case study approach is employed involving interviews with experienced board members. In our analysis we identify a set of chairperson practices related to issues such as structure, processes and culture, which serves as prerequisites for effective board work. In addition, we distinguish another set of innovation-driving chairperson practices related to the cognitive aspects of the board’s work. Overall, our findings provide a conceptual foundation for the value creating potential of board leadership embedded within the boundaries of the entrepreneurial firm and its operations. 

  • 1685.
    Yar Hamidi, Daniel
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Gabrielsson, Jonas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Chairpersonship and board strategy involvement in small and medium-sized enterprises2018Inngår i: Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics, ISSN 1913-8059, Vol. 15, nr 2, s. 86-97Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A critical issue when setting up a board of directors in small and medium-sized enterprises relates to the chairperson position. This study examines whether and how chairperson’s experience and leadership influence the extent to which the board of directors is involved in strategy. We rely on survey data from multiple respondents in 326 firms and use regression analysis to test our hypotheses. We find that chairpersons’ board experience and leadership efficacy have a positive and significant effect on boards’ involvement in strategy. Our findings provide ample support for the significance of chairperson behaviours in explaining board outcomes in firms.   

  • 1686.
    Yar Hamidi, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Gabrielsson, Jonas
    Corporate governance and innovation in small entrepreneurial firms: The board chairperson’s role2016Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 1687.
    Yar Hamidi, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Gabrielsson, Jonas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Corporate governance and innovation in small entrepreneurial firms: The board chairperson's role2017Inngår i: Handbook of Research on Corporate Governance and Entrepreneurship / [ed] Jonas Gabrielsson, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2017, s. 248-267Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 1688.
    Yar Hamidi, Daniel
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL). University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Gabrielsson, Jonas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL). Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Developments and Trends in Research on Board Leadership: A Systematic Literature Review2014Inngår i: International Journal of Business Governance and Ethics, ISSN 1477-9048, E-ISSN 1741-802X, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 243-268Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a systematic literature review of 139 articles on board leadership that were published in business and management journals since 1980s. Journal names, author country affiliations, topics and focus levels, theories, empirical contexts, and methodologies are presented and analysed. We also assemble and analyse this data thematically in order to identify and frame developments and trends in researchers ideas on board leadership. This analysis provides guidance for researchers by identifying different research streams on board leadership. The analysis may also serve as basis for theory development in board leadership research that can inform policymaking and best practice recommendations. Copyright © 2014 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  • 1689.
    Yar Hamidi, Daniel
    et al.
    Borås University, Borås, Sweden.
    Gabrielsson, Jonas
    The chairperson and board strategy involvement in SMEs2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For decades boards of directors have been strongly encouraged to take on an active strategy role. However, while such behaviour is generally seen as an indicator of board effectiveness much is still unknown about drivers of board strategic involvement. This is particularly true for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) that make up around 95 percent of all business enterprises. A critical issue when setting up a board of directors in SMEs relate to the chairperson position. In this study we seek to contribute to scholarly research and literature on actual board behaviour in SMEs by examining whether and how the experience and leadership efficacy of the chairperson influence the extent to which the board of directors are involved in setting the strategic direction of the firm. We rely on questionnaire data collected from multiple respondents in 324 Norwegian SMEs. The variables used are based on validated scales related to behavioral aspects of actual board work developed by corporate governance scholars. We use multiple regression analysis to test our hypotheses. Overall, we find that the board experience and leadership efficacy of the chairperson has a positive and significant effect on the extent to which the board of directors are involved in strategy in SMEs. To this end, our findings suggest that chairperson behaviours have a greater impact compared to structural leadership conditions in explaining board outcomes in SMEs.

  • 1690.
    Yera, Daniel
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Pichou, Alexandra
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Sports Marketing in European Clubs2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Sports marketing have been growing constantly over the last years and have become a key for the success of the football clubs. The methods used have become more sophisticated and an increasing number of clubs are realizing the importance of the marketing and specially the promotion strategies. The purpose of this study is to have a better understanding on how the communication strategies are being used in the European football teams (French, Spanish and German) to attract fans to their stadiums. In order to reach this purpose, research question is focused on how the European teams use this promotion strategies to attract people to the stadium. Based on this research question, a review of relevant literature was conducted, resulting in a frame of references, which was used to guide this study's data collection. A qualitative, multiple case study approach was used to find the data. The findings indicate that although his individual objectives of the tools can be different they can still be used overall to lead to the same overall goal.

  • 1691.
    Yu, Cui
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Zhang, Ting
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    American Fast Food in Chinese Market: A Cross-Culture Perspective: The Case of KFC and McDonald's2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Culture differences play a significant role in the international marketing, which has drawn many researchers‟ attention. This dissertation will focus on how the cross-cultural environments influence the choice of marketing strategies.

    The theoretical framework of this study mainly contains cross-culture theories and 4P marketing strategy. These theories are put together in an analytical model where a connection between the two theories is explained that will be used as a foundation in gathering and analyzing the empirical findings.

    The qualitative research strategy is employed in this dissertation. Utilizing the multiple case studies, we choose two sample companies both from USA. The empirical data was gathered through semi-structured interviews on the telephone. Data was also supplemented with secondary data such as company web pages and scientific articles.

    The conclusion can be drawn from this study is that culture differences influence the 4P marketing strategies in both of the companies in different ways. Language, value and customer behaviors of a national culture are main factors to affect the implementation of marketing strategy in the international markets.

  • 1692.
    yu, cui
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    zhang, ting
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Internal factors affecting the organizational internationalization process: Evidence from Huawei case study2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The relevance of global economy are being enhanced day by day, organizational internationalization is becoming more and more important nowadays. Many companies have stated their internationalization process, but not all of them are successful. Thus, the main purpose and aim of this study is to research the relationship between the internal management of organization and firm internationalization process, and find out the most important internal factors (entrepreneur, corporate culture, organizational human resource management) which could push organization to identify the internationalization opportunity and to operate the internationalization process. In this paper, authors construct an original theoretical framework, and chooses Huawei Company as a real example to examine the theoretical results which are concluded from the existing studies.

  • 1693.
    Yu, Hyungmin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Wei, Yuxiang
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    An Exploratory Study: The Main Challenge of Chinese Expatriate Managers Working in Western Companies2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 1694.
    Yu, Lijing
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Fu, Yun
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Successful Entry Strategies on the Chinese Market: -A Case Study of a Swedish Industrial Company: SKF2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 poäng / 60 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, the Chinese market is attracting more and more attention from foreign countries, which consider China as a potential partner. Making feasible decisions is the foundation of accessing success in the Chinese markets. Thus, it is important to take the first step as choosing the entry strategies, and then analyzing the variety of social environment and economic circumstance. According to different situations, companies are required to prepare alternative strategies for the changeable markets.

    This is a case study of a Swedish industrial company- SKF, which entered into the Chinese market successfully. The purpose of this study is to analyze the strategies that SKF used during the process of entering the Chinese market, and find out the successful factors as well as the cause of failure. Our case study is aimed to provide an answer to the research questions and generate imitable entry strategies for western industrial companies who want to explore in the Chinese market.

    Our research questions are: Q1: What strategies have adopted by SKF and how these strategies worked out to enter into the Chinese market? Q2: What are the successful factors of industrial companies to enter the Chinese market?

    Two experienced product managers are invited to be the interviewee of our thesis. The collected data provided both Swedish and Chinese perspectives, which reflect the eastern western culture differences and concept differences.

    The results show that SKF made the acquaintance with big customers through distributors, which built up the customers’ network and company’s foundation at the early age of the expansion. However, failing experience of joint venture gave a lesson to SKF and encouraged SKF to work with independent consultant firms, which occurred to be an alternative solution to replace the position of joint venture. Although there are different perspectives from Swedish side and Chinese side, the successful factors have been concluded as unique products, marketing demands, communication and customers.

    The implication of this case study is to provide the strategies that contribute SKF to be the leaders in bearing industry, which is worth to be learned and imitated by other similar industrial companies. 

  • 1695.
    Yue Wen, Zhao
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Key Success Factors behind Mobile Games: A Business Model for the Chinese mobile game market2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 poäng / 60 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The research question is formulated as “what are the key success factors making a mobile game become a big success in China? ” to view the key success factors behind new launched mobile games and how company’s business model and marketing strategy that bring them into and help them succeed in the China market.

     

    A qualitative method with the deductive approach has been using in this paper to be able to answer and interpret the studied questions. Four in-depth interviews were conducted to collect the primary data, which have been following as the purpose is to do a cross-case analysis to identify the similarities and difference of each company behave their business model and marketing strategy, to contribute game success in China market.

     

    The main factors contributing to the success of mobile game in China market including internally strategic factors and externally tactic factors. Technical skill and resource, R&D ability and market knowledge and experience as the internal key success factors behind mobile game success in China. The mobile game companies use localization, wide distribution channel collaboration and social integration to suit the market needs and requirements.

     

    From the results of the study have been identified to as to how is the business model for the China mobile game market. Through collaborating with abroad local distribution channel can increase their knowledge capacity of the local market to create a better value proposition. In China mobile game market, social integration and cross promotion can be seen as very important and through collaborating firms can work around these factors and create, capture and deliver better value to the customers.

  • 1696.
    Zadayannaya, Liudmila
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    ORGANIZATIONAL MEMORY SYSTEMS AS A SOURCE OF LEARNING FOR NEW EMPLOYEES IN AN INNOVATIVE CONTEXT2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational memory is said to be one of the essential factors of organizational learning, particularly in a part that is concerned with knowledge flowing from an organization to its employees. Often viewed as a system of knowledge repositories, organizational memory is argued to be important in various contexts. The purpose of this study is to explore an impact of the organizational memory in two such contexts, namely in a situation of presence of new employees and organization involved in innovation activity. The importance of organizational memory for the new employees can be explained by the fact that it is through facing it they socialize in the organization. Organizational memory also influences innovative behaviour of employees.

    This researched is performed in a form of a case study; where the object of study finds itself in a combined context – new employees of R&D department learn from different organizational memory systems. The data for this case study were collected through qualitative interviewing of both the newcomers and their supervisor.

    The results show that new employees face a range of memory systems, and this range does not depend on the innovativeness of the work they are involved in. It was found possible to look separately into the systems and methods the newcomers accessed them. The most important access methods in this case turned out to be personal communication and IT-enabled means, however a number of other methods were also found relevant for the case.

    Focusing on how this knowledge can support innovative behaviour of the new employees, this study has found several ways in which both incremental and radical innovations can be enhanced. The memory systems have been found to affect innovative behaviour of the newcomers by demonstrating expectance of this behaviour, by providing “old” knowledge, as well as hints where one can possibly find “old” and “new” knowledge.

    In general, the findings suggest that looking into memory systems separately from the ways to access them might give valuable insights for rethinking how properties of the memory systems have been defined so far.

  • 1697.
    Zattoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    LUISS University and Business School, Rome, Italy.
    Witt, Michael A.
    INSEAD, Singapore, Singapore.
    Judge, William Q.
    Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, USA.
    Talaulicar, Till
    University of Erfurt, Erfurt, Germany.
    Chen, Jean Jinghan
    Xian Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou, China & Nankai University, Tianjin, China.
    Lewellyn, Krista
    University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, USA.
    Hu, Helen Wei
    University of Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Gabrielsson, Jonas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Luis Rivas, José
    ITAM School of Business, Mexico DF, Mexico.
    Puffer, Sheila
    D’Amore-McKim School of Business, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA.
    Shukla, Dhirendra
    University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, Canada.
    Lopez, Felix
    University of Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain.
    Adegbite, Emmanuel
    Leicester Business School, De Montfort University, Leicester, United Kingdom.
    Fassin, Yves
    Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Yamak, Sibel
    University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, United Kingdom.
    Fainshmidt, Stav
    Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA.
    van Ees, Hans
    University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Does board independence influence financial performance in IPO firms?: The moderating role of the national business system2017Inngår i: Journal of world business (Print), ISSN 1090-9516, E-ISSN 1878-5573, Vol. 52, nr 5, s. 628-639Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior evidence suggests that board independence may enhance financial performance, but this relationship has been tested almost exclusively for Anglo-American countries. To explore the boundary conditions of this prominent governance mechanism, we examine the impact of the formal and information institutions of 18 national business systems on the board independence-financial performance relationship. Our results show that while the direct effect of independence is weak, national-level institutions significantly moderate the independence-performance relationship. Our findings suggest that the efficacy of board structures is likely to be contingent on the specific national context, but the type of legal system is insignificant. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.

  • 1698.
    ZENG, LE
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    CHEN, SIYUAN
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Green marketing strategies for international firms in China: A case study of Emerson Electric Co., Ltd2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
  • 1699.
    Zhang, Pingying
    et al.
    Department of Management, Coggin College of Business, University of North Florida, FL, USA.
    Voordeckers, Wim
    KIZOK Research Center, Hasselt University, Belgium.
    Gabrielsson, Jonas
    CIRCLE, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Huse, Morten
    eDepartment of Innovation and Economic Organisation, Norwegian School of Management BI, Norway.
    From boards as value assemblers to value creators: Integrating static and dynamic perspectives on board information2009Inngår i: Contemporary Issues in International Corporate Governance / [ed] Suzanne Young, Prahran, Vic.: Tilde University Press , 2009, s. 43-57Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1700.
    Zhu, Yuqi
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Zhang, Yunbu
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    A Comparative Case Study on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) between SMEs and MNCs2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 poäng / 60 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to describe the behaviors that multinational corporations(MNCs) and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are taking for carrying outcorporate social responsibility (CSR) under the context of sustainable development.Besides, the factors which drive and influence the performance are further exploredand discussed.The thesis is to be analyzed by means of a literature review, qualitative case study,semi-structured interviews, within case study and cross case study.By adopting these methods, the thesis shows that both MNCs and SMEs are aware ofand actively shouldering CSR in spite of different contents and approaches. MNCs areable to integrate economic, environment and social values into CSR strategy whileSMEs focus more on economic values. Competitive pressures, social expectations andinternal governance system are the main drivers of MNCs. By contrast, owners’ desiregives rise to the performance of carrying out CSR strategy by SMEs.It is suggested that a new domain of CSR namely, political social responsibility isfound through the study. It demonstrates that MNCs with the state-owned nature haveparticular missions and responsibilities to serve the country and society, which is notcommon but exists in the world.

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