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  • 151.
    Lundgren, Jonatan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Sibe, Richard
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Våningspåbyggnad: En fallstudie2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte är att undersöka vilka bekymmer som kan uppstå under delar av byggprocessennär våningspåbyggnader ska genomföras.

    Studien tar sin början i en teoretisk referensram. Denna beskriver hur flerbostadshusenhistoriskt är uppbyggda, detaljplaneprocessen, tillgänglighetsproblematik, brandhänsyn,upphandlingsalternativ, projekteringsprocessen, konstruktion, skador och reparationer avbetong, förstärkning, planering och logistik. Våningspåbyggnad är således en kompliceradprocess där flera olika aspekter måste beaktas. Fallstudier genomfördes för att få en stor breddoch förståelse för olika problem och möjligheter som kan uppstå under byggprocessen.

    Fyra stycken fall valdes ut. I varje fall intervjuades en representant från byggherre–,konstruktör– och entreprenörssidan. I fallstudierna undersöktes frågor kopplade tillbyggnadernas konstruktion, genomförandet av projektet samt övriga frågor kopplade till bl.a.regelverk och motivet till att genomföra projektet.

    Resultatet visar olika svårigheter och möjligheter som uppstått i de olika projekten. Problemsom uppstått löstes ofta på olika sätt. Arbetsprocessen såg olika ut i projekten.

    Avslutningsvis diskuteras resultatet, vissa kopplingar görs till relevant litteratur. Studiensslutsats är att våningspåbyggnader skiljer sig från nybyggnationer samt ställer högre krav påsamarbete och planering.

  • 152.
    Lundvall, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Karlsson, Daniel
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Produktionschefens arbetssituation: Hur deras arbete kan förändras och utvecklas2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is written in cooperation with Skanska Sverige Hus Väst and it is discussing the role of site managers within the company. The report will bring up the demands that is put upon site managers and will also discuss stress related problems and how to change and develop the role as a site manager.

    We came up with three conclusions in this report. We believe that Skanska could develop VSAA to make it easier to use for site managers. We also believe that a further development of the project engineer is of great value, to give him or her greater responsibilities. The last conclusion is to change the responsibilities between the site manager and the production manager, to give the production manager a greater responsibility in the production.

  • 153.
    Magnusson, Emelie
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Användning av digitala verktyg i byggentreprenadbranschen: -En studie om hur ett totalentreprenadföretag kan digitalisera sig2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Purpose: The purpose of the thesis work is to investigate how to use digital tools more in building design and why it is not more used today. The purpose is also to investigate the knowledge and experience of using digital tools from an overall perspective from a full-time contractor.

    Method: This report has been done both on the basis of a quantitative and qualitative study. The quantitative study provides answers to research questions and provides a hypothesis of an expected result. The qualitative study poses questions about experiences and experiences that create a personal result.

    Result: The thesis clearly shows that it could have been a great advantage of increasing the use of digitization and digital tools in the design process of a construction company. The motivation exists with most officials, which is a major contributing factor in achieving their goals.

    Restrictions: The thesis is limited to viewing digitalization and digital tools from an overall perspective during the design process, and then only the design process and not the production. the company BetonmastHaehre Göteborg AB will also be in focus when the work has been done in cooperation with them.

    Consequences: The assessment is that there is a good chance of increasing the use of digital tools in the construction industry if companies are actively working on the issues that the employees have. At the time, the construction company can become more attractive to the market, both for new employees, new clients and those already established in the company.

  • 154.
    Manley, Karen
    et al.
    School of Civil Engineering and Built Environment, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.
    Widén, Kristian
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Prefabricated housing firms in Japan and Sweden: Learning from leading countries2019Ingår i: Offsite Production and Manufacturing for Innovative Construction: People, Process and Technology / [ed] Jack S. Goulding & Farzad Pour Rahimian, Abingdon: Routledge, 2019, 1, s. 399-418Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 155.
    Marco Aguilar, Ines
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
     Six Houses, Paired 2-22010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett byggnadsprojekt med planering, kostnadsberäkning och projektering av ”Six Houses, Paired 2-2” på en fastighet i Halmstad.

  • 156.
    Markström, Jörgen
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Hesselroth, Jonas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    APD- och logistikplaner i samband med väderskyddat byggande2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Avsikten med projektet har varit att hitta skillnader i APD- och logistikplaner i samband med väderskyddat byggande gentemot traditionellt byggande där väderskydd inte används. Spelar APD-planen en viktig roll när det gäller väderskydd? Kan man effektivisera byggandet med en smart APD- och logistikplan? Med hjälp av litteratur och fallstudier är detta frågor som vi ska försöka besvara. Använd litteratur består av forskarrapporter och tidigare examensarbeten. Projektet består av fallstudier där tre platschefer intervjuats. Efter intervjuerna sammanställdes platschefernas svar där likheter och skillnader tas upp.

    Resultatet från undersökta projekt visar att det är beroende på väderskyddets utseende om det är någon skillnad på utformning av logistikplaner. APD-planerna på de tre fallstudierna skiljer sig inte mot traditionellt byggande, det är samma tankegång.

    Samtliga platschefer säger att det ofta är problem med logistiken till byggarbetsplatsen. Vi tror inte enbart det beror på de leverantörer som levererar material utan att det är hela kedjan från råmaterial till färdig produkt. Det blir en dominoeffekt där den sista aktören i kedjan är den som blir mest drabbad. Om logistikkedjan från råmaterial till färdig produkt kan optimeras borde förseningar av leveranser till byggarbetsplasten kunna minskas. Vilket leder fram till att det finns pengar att spara för byggföretagen.

  • 157.
    Meri, Halit
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Johansson, Emma
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Nyckeltal som kvalitétssäkring av anbud för industriellt byggande2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to ensure the tender phase in its total price in a construction project. Today many construction projects is unmanageable and rejected mainly because of the price. By developing controlling key figures the companies can be more secure of the future costs during the project and therefore set a fair price. 

    This study is committed in corporation with an industrialized construction company. The company has a building system that is predefined which includes the heavy part in the total costs of the project. 

    The key figures are developed based on the actual price data from previous project that is divided in different cost items. Every cost item will have a control key figure. For the development of the figures a statistical method is used called regression analysis. The method requires a parameter that has a correlation to the cost items. The method will then generate a fitted function that can predict the costs of each item due to the parameter or parameters. And from the function a key indicator will be produced to function as an indicator to each cost item.

  • 158.
    Mikael, Axelsson
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Carlsson, Roger
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Möjligheterna för Casabona-systemet2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract New methods, techniques and tools for the building industry are constantly being developed and improved and launched on the market. The problem in the building industry development is not that the products are not good enough. The problem is instead that the existing construction companies do not choose to use these innovations, instead they continue to employ the technologies they already possess and master. This leads to the fact that the construction industry is, in the public eye, beeing seen as a conservative industry. AquaVilla is a company that basically produces houseboats. In order to be able to expand they now want to launch their frame system, Casabona. Casabona consists of a lightweight steel frame integrated with the EPS-insulation, making it ideal for houses on the water. To allow the company to grow they now wants to introduce the frame system in houses on land. The purpose of this report is to find the problems or difficulties which may arise during the launch of a new product in an industry perceived as beeing conservative. In addition, we make a comparison between different framing systems where the advantages and disadvantages of respective framing systems is presented. All this is done in order to find out what chances a new framing system like Casabona has to establish itself on the market. The goal of this report is to get a greater understanding of how the construction industry looks on new products. In order to arrive at the analyses and the results we achieved, we first made a field study at Aquavillas production plant in Västervik. During our visit we gained a deeper understanding of how the Casabonas system is built up. We then began to study the litterature about steel structures in General. After that we read about two big companies on the Swedish market, Lindab and Gyproc who seperatly manufacture framing systems similar to Casabona. When we had gained a broader understanding of steel, we began to interview the companies operating in the construction industry in Halmstad. The interviews gave us a greater insight about what designers, installers and architects thought about steel constructions. The conclusion that we can draw from our results and our analyses is that Casabona has a good chance to enter the Swedish market. With a successful product Aquavilla will also acquire a strong brand and reach out to customers even easier. The report will cover 3 different framing system that we have reviewed and compared. We have listed the different system's pros and cons, and we have put these together in a comparison table.

  • 159.
    Mokhlesian, Shahin
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Holmén, Magnus
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Business model changes and green construction processes2012Ingår i: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 30, nr 9, s. 761-775Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Green construction or sustainable construction differs from traditional construction in terms of the materials and processes used. To profit from green construction, firms may need to change their business models, including their offers, activities, networks and revenue models. However there is no explicit study on what changes are required or common in construction companies' business models when they are involved in green construction projects. To systematize prior research a literature review identified changes in business model elements. The results showed that (1) most business model elements can change in a non-trivial manner as a consequence of green construction; (2) value configuration, cost structure, partner networks and capability are the elements emphasized in literature and are expected to be the most difficult and important to change; and (3) to be successful, firms may need to simultaneously change the business model elements of capability, value configuration and partner network on the one hand, and value proposition, cost structure and capability on the other hand. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  • 160.
    Mårtensson, Johan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Bengtsson, Jonatan
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Från BIM-modell till beräkningsprogram: Kompatibilitet mellan Tekla Structures 21 och FEM-Design 15 3D Structures2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Building designing can be made by a powerful tool, BIM-programs. With these programs, you quickly get a view of future design. Elements of the model are intelligent, which means that they are more than just some dashes. These intelligent elements can be analytically studied with programs that make calculations according to finite element methods. This report describes the export of BIM-elements into a calculation program that calculates static using the finite element method. Applications for the method and appropriate project size and complexity is described in the report. The software used in the case studies in the report is the BIM modelling software Tekla Structures 21 and the calculation program FEM-Design 15. To determine if the connection between the chosen applications are possible, two case studies has been made. The case studies have shown that a one-way transfer from Tekla to the FEM-Design is possible and useful. But because the reversal is not possible when the calculations and analysis are completed, the method can't be implemented in an automatized BIM- design.

  • 161.
    Möller Voss, Peter
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Vertical Farming: An agricultural revolution on the rise2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Vertical farming in urban environments has sprung out of a need to find alternatives to common practice in industrial agriculture. The way in which industrial agriculture is being conducted today has a wide spread negative impact on the environment as well as being economically inefficient in a number of ways. This essay serves to investigate the concept of vertical farming, how it might potentially alleviate some of the problems brought on by current agricultural methods and whether it might serve as a viable alternative in future industrial farming. Vertical Farming is a promising concept that combines environmental considerations with sound economics. It puts the spotlight on the negative aspects of current agriculture and provides a solution in accord with future global societal structures. However, as with any novelty, improvements can be made, a lot of which comes with technological improvements of a concept in development.

  • 162.
    najafi, amin
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Ombyggnad av flerbostadshus: Hur påverkas hyresgästerna av  en ombyggnad 2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    During the years 1950-75 was the construction of building apartments in high speed. A rapidly growing reconstruction requirement is the consequence of the rapid construction speed in these years. The technical lifetime of the different parts of the buildings is about to end and the needs for reconstruction is huge. One of Sweden's national environmental objectives is to reduce the urge of energy in buildings. This calls for radical measures to implement energy efficiency of existing assistance particularly in the assistance that is now facing reconstruction. Most of the apartments that are in need of reconstruction is leased and residents. No matter what kind of measures as deems most appropriate in a reconstruction project, it brings the different types of disturbances that affect the residents. The major disturbances that are perceived as most disturbing of the tenants are dust, noise and difficult accessibility. Temporary electricity, water and ventilation failure are other types of disturbances that often occur at a reconstruction project. In this thesis, most of the disturbances are identified and also some approaches to achieve the best possible way to reduce them. A reconstruction project in Karlskrona was visited, where participants as the property owner, contractor, professional men and tenants were interviewed. It is important to both the property owner and the contractor to ensure the reduction of disturbances as much as possible. It is obviously not easy to eliminate some of the disturbances but through good planning, sufficient information and to set requirements to the contractor in the form of legal framework for procurement and restrictions which should be register in the AF part (General Regulations), the effect of disturbances will successfully being reduced. The key to a successful reconstruction project with minimal disturbances to residents is primarily depended on the property owner's ambition, empathy and commitment to their tenants.

     

  • 163.
    Nilsson, Signe
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Housing innovations in rural Ethiopia: A case study of how to make innovations accepted and sustainable2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    A good product does not guarantee its successful adoption. This can be seen in a project in rural Ethiopia, in which a new type of house provides great advantages over current housing alternatives. This thesis, which focuses on the Sustainable Rural Dwelling Unit project in Ethiopia, aims to contribute knowledge about how to implement rural-housing innovations successfully. Interviews with the project’s stakeholders show that although a construction concept is a genuine breakthrough, its diffusion process may stumble. Successful diffusion of a housing innovation appears to depend on wider factors. Two success factors identified here are: (1) to analyse the innovation’s attributes, and (2) to analyse the interests of stakeholders. Furthermore, these successful practices are possible with analysis tools that are exemplified in the thesis. The needs for clear communication among stakeholders, and for identifying contradictory implementation strategies, were identified to be important elements for successful innovation diffusion. Another conclusion of this thesis is that the studied project both has great potential for future rural housing in Ethiopia and is relevant for other developing countries where there is a need for durable, higher-standard, low-cost housing.

  • 164.
    Nilsson, Simon
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Framtagning av handbok till Revit Structure2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Revit Structure är ett nytt 3D-modellerings program i Autodesks serie med ritprogram, speciellt utvecklad för byggnadsinformationsmodellering (BIM). Revit bygger på att användaren själv laddar in och placerar ut standardprofiler som till exempel pelare, balkar och väggar. När standardprofilerna är placerade i 3D-modellen kan de enkelt redigeras och förändras för att uppfylla de specifika kraven för just det byggnadsprojektet.    

     

    Den här rapporten är särskilt framtagen för att underlätta en övergång mellan programmen AutoCad och Revit Structure. Med rapporten följer en handbok som ska fungera som en introduktionskurs av programmet för studenter och konstruktörer.

     

    Handboken börjar med att gå igenom programmets upplägg och layout.  Där efter följer handboken ett byggnadsprojekt från start till mål. Varefter successivt byggnaden växer fram får användaren kunskaper om de vanliga verktygen då fler element tillförs och sammanfogas. I och med detta låter handbokens övningar användaren träna på de viktigaste verktygen på flera olika sätt och tillsammans med flera olika byggnadselement. Användaren får på det här sättet grundläggande kunskaper om programmet för att enkelt kunna fortsätta med fördjupande kurser eller mer avancerad litteratur.

  • 165.
    Nilsson, Tim
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Tätskikt i klimatskal: En studie av byggentreprenörers arbetssätt2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 180 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    As energy prices skyrocket and the environmental issues become more frequently debated, interest in energy-efficient buildings has increased sharply in the past decade. Because of this, the interest to achieve high air tightness in building envelopes have once again awakened, due to a good air tightness contributes to lower energy consumption in several ways and to a healthier indoor environment.

    As the regulations for energy consumption and controls of achieved air tightness has tightened considerably in recent years, the work regarding sheets for air tightness changed significantly for construction contractors. This thesis includes a study that aims to detect what kind of manuals, recommendations or instructions contractors working according, and how a number of randomly selected construction companies in Halland, Sweden, are dealing with the matter of high air tightness of the building envelopes. The study also includes a knowledge inventory of supervisors, site managers and skilled workers, and what their opinions and attitudes are like towards work regarding the sheets of air tightness. The results have been compared with a similar survey dated to 2004, conducted by the SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden in collaboration with Chalmers University of Technology. The thesis provides a picture of the industry situation, but shouldn’t be seen as a statistical result due to its limited extent.

  • 166.
    Nilsson, Veronica
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Karlsson, Therese
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Projektplanering med visuell metodik i byggbranschen2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetet utfördes på NCC Halmstad under våren 2010. Syftet med examensarbetet var att klargöra vad visuell metodik kan tillföra byggbranschen och hur det upplevs av personer som utför byggprojekt

    Arbetet innefattar en kvalitativ och en litteraturstudie. Den kvalitativa studien genomfördes med hjälp av sju intervjuer inom Region Syd med personer som arbetat med den visuella metoden NCC Projektplanering. Intervjuerna har ägt rum för att ta reda på hur den visuella metodiken fungerar i praktiken.

    Litteraturstudien innefattar en utredning av begreppen Lean, Lean Production, Lean Construction, Last Planner och NCC Projektplanering. Den röda tråden från Lean till NCC Projektplanering är att genom ständigt förbättringsarbete skapa engagemang och ökad delaktighet.

    Den generella uppfattningen av NCC Projektplanering är positiv, dock varierar uppfattningen av metoden efter aktörernas inställning. Examensarbetet klargör vad visuell metodik kan tillföra byggbranschen.

  • 167.
    Nord, Niklas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Iranmanesh, Reza
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Klimatförändringar i byggbranschen: Är branschen redo för extremt väder?2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    It has over the last 20 years occurred a series of extreme weather events around the worldthat caused damage to people and buildings. Many published reports have studied thedeveloping countries and less studies has been conducted on the construction industry andthe economically powerful countries.Sweden has been spared from the most extreme events but still suffered some events whichcan be considered extreme for the country. Therefore, the aim of this report is to study howthe construction industry in Sweden works with risk management, as a preventive measureagainst extreme weather events. The intention has been to find out how aware the industryis of climate change.Studies of this kind have not been carried out previously in Sweden and therefore this studyuses a qualitative approach to conduct the study. Thorough studies on risks, riskmanagement and all its processes have been performed. The focus has been on the generalrisks and the risks associated with extreme weather conditions. This is to analyze how theconstruction industry works with risks of this kind. Interviews have been conducted withproject managers and production managers at a major Swedish construction company to becompared with the written theory.The study and 10 interviews have been conducted at Skanska Hus in Stockholm to get apicture of how different projects in the same region are working with risk managementlinked to extreme weather events as they have the same weather conditions.The study concluded that the studied company was very good at working with riskmanagement but they were less prepared for extreme weather than had been expected. Thisgave the impression that the industry as a whole are in need to be informed about what kindof impacts climate change has on production and the working environment for the future.The investigation showed that it still needs improvements and more knowledge in this areasince climate change is a fact.

  • 168.
    Nordsjö, Olle
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Johansson, Marcus
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Toleransproblem vid produktion och montering av prefabricerade betongelement2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea with constructions made out of prefabricated elements is that it should be quick and easy to build as the demands for lower production costs, increased profitability and shorter production times are constantly increasing. High accuracy in measurements and well-balanced tolerances is required to achieve this. The fact that the concrete-elements doesn’t fit and that damage occurs during assembly is a highly topical issue even though we now have methods and systems that make this high-intensity construction possible. Through this report we want to highlight the problems that cause the dimensional and tolerance problems and give suggestions on how to come to terms with these. The aim is that the conclusions in this report in the long run hopefully will lead to time and cost efficiency.

    The fact that dimension and tolerance errors occur isn’t news for the industry. Nor that the cost to fix them greatly increases the farther forward in the product chain one goes. Where in the production- chain do they occur and what causes them? Where in the production-chain are they corrected? How’s the knowledge regarding dimensions and tolerances of those that are working in production at the factory and at the construction site? When an error is detected, is a deviation report always written? What’s the opinion regarding the deviation management system?

    The work will begin with a literature study that will keep on going throughout the whole time of the report. The literature study will in detail explain what the terms dimension and tolerance mean, how they are used, the different types of combinations that exist and how to calculate them. Furthermore, the literature study will also examine the results of studies and surveys made by others. Two field trips will be carried out, one at a concrete-element factory and the other one at a construction site. The purpose is to gain a greater understanding of the preconditions for the writing of this report. Three semi-structured interviews will be conducted according to a stratified selection. The plant manager, assembly manager and the assembly foreman will be interviewed. The questionnaire study is a group survey with cluster selection. The survey will be conducted by the workers on a construction site. The assembly difficulties of prefab elements that occur derives partly from drawing errors, manufacturing defects and that installation and construction site tolerances are set too stint.

    The fact that installation and construction site tolerances are set too stint is probably due to customer requests. Drawing errors and carelessness in production stood out as the most likely causes to why dimension and tolerance errors occur. This is something that we think could be reduced by making more distinct drawings. We believe that drawing sheet should be easy to understand and that it sometimes might be a good idea to make more drawings with fewer measurements on each. More technical equipment was requested at the construction site. This was requested to gain access to more drawings at the assembly location and for the ability to enlarge in order to enhance clarity.

    The majority of errors that were detected in the plant were also corrected there. But if there’s a rush to send an element and the defect is small they notify the assembly crew, and then they have to correct the defect at the construction site. The plant manager thinks that awareness of existing dimensions and tolerances among the factory employees are good. At the

    construction site 91% of the employees thought that it would be good with an educational course about existing dimensions and. The deviation management system is something that all the interviewees basically thought was good but that the possibility of feedback and improvement could be developed. Many minor errors aren’t reported because in many cases it takes more time to write the report than to correct the error. We think it would be good if all the errors were reported so they could estimate the cost to correct them. In order to correct some recurring production errors, investments in the factory would be necessary. There’s a constant discussion about whether the cost of the investment is profitable compared to the costs of correcting the errors at the construction site. 

  • 169.
    Obuchowska, Katarzyna
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    The application of Wassara Hammer and Mudmotor steering drilling methods2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Hallandsås Project, carried out by Skanska-Vinci, concerns the construction of two 8.7 km long railway tunnels in Southern Sweden. These tunnels have been excavated with the use of Tunnel Borring Machine(TBM). The excavation of the East Tunnel brought some significant delays due to high discharge water quantities within a Lya Zone. Therefore, prior to the excavation through the Lya Zone within the West Tunnel, special pre-treatment was designed to avoid time and cost consuming grouting works from the TBM. This pre-treatment concerned long-hole grouting, performed from Cross Tunnels no. 5 and 6, sealing the rock masses within specified pattern. This dissertation aims evaluation of two drilling methods used during the pre-treatment works in Lya Zone: Mudmotor and Wassara Hammer.

    The practical experience was gained during training period in the Hallandsås Project from September 2012 until February 2013. This knowledge was completed with studies about theoretical applying of the rock drilling methods.

    Two parameters were used in order to compare these two rock drilling methods: drilling time and deviation of the boreholes. Drilling time was presented from two perspectives. Firstly, the evaluation of the rate of penetration assigned to the specified sections pointed that Wassara Hammer provides much higher rate than Mudmotor. Moreover comparison of drilling time within each borehole show significant increase of drilling speed during Wassara Hammer application. The rate of performance was calculated to be almost 4 time higher for Wassara.

    Deviation was introduced in two different approaches as well. On the one hand, deviated boreholes were shown within particular sections, significant tendency in horizontal deviation towards left was shown. Deviation average values have been decreasing while advancing the steering proccess, however, some significant correction was observed only in case of horizontal deviation. On another hand, evaluation of the deviation within borehole GH11 brought the assumption that the borehole’s steering did not performed exactly during Mudmotor application. Mudmotor gave a direction for further drilling, and due to this, correction of the borehole was observed during Wassara drilling.

    It was originally assumed that the use of these two rock drilling methods together may result in effective performance. This research attempted to evaluate Mudmotor and Wassara Hammer technologies and show the efficiency of such combination. Wassara Hammer provided fast drilling proccess while minimal deviation was possible due to the use of Mudmotor.

  • 170.
    Olander, Martin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Kung, Ingvill
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Att effektivisera armeringsarbete: Från idé till genomförande2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of today’s concrete structures that are built on site are mainly constructed in a traditional fashion with a lot of artisanal operations. One step towards industrializing the in-situ construction of concrete is to use prefabricated reinforcement. Through this method there can be a lot of savings when each bar doesn’t have to be placed and fixed separately on site. The option is to use reinforcement baskets or carpet (roll) reinforcement to decrease the construction time and increase the profitability, while still maintaining or improving the quality and make a significant improvement on the work environment.

     

    This report discusses and describes various alternative methods concerning reinforcement, for example prefabricated reinforcement cages and carpet (roll) reinforcement.

     

    That the construction industry is in need of a higher degree of industrialization than today is a generally accepted view. This is confirmed by a number of industrializing attempts like opening factories for building-elements, using weather protection and prefabricated construction parts. Industrialized construction has a different meaning today than it had in the 60s and 70s when the most important factors were quantity, economy and time. These factors are also important today but there are other important factors like quality, customer satisfaction and work environment.

     

    Through interviewing some key persons inside Skanska, it was possible to identify some important factors and areas where problems and difficulties can occur when introducing more prefabricated reinforcement to Skanska civil construction department. Surveys based on these answers were sent to persons inside Skanska Sweden that have leading positions within the production. From the result of the interviews and the surveys problem areas, key figures and benefits have been identified. When the case study was performed it was possible to recognize the result from the interviews and the surveys were in fact the main issues discussed; total cost, time, work environment, simplicity in the construction, repetition, cooperation in an early stage, communication et cetera.

     

     

    There has been a case study of a bridge where the planning of an already built bridge has been changed and adapted to the idea of rationalizing the reinforcement work through using as much prefabricated reinforcement as possible. The result is a theoretical bridge with a new way of building that promotes the idea of using as much prefabricated reinforcement as possible. Other keywords in this case study are standardization, simplicity and industrialization. The case study shows that through cooperation and above all a good communication between the involved parties during the planning, it was possible to shorten the construction time with approximately 25%. The cost savings were lower and not as striking as the time savings. The total cost for building the bridge was reduced with approximately 3.5%. The work environment would also be very much improved because a lot of the operations, that are dangerous and demands bad working postures, are eliminated. The concept that was developed through this bridge is a standardization that Skanska hopes to introduce on similar projects in the future.

  • 171.
    Olander, Stefan
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sverige.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sverige.
    Differences in implementation and effects of the public procurement act in the EU construction sector2008Ingår i: CME 25 Conference Construction Management and Economics: ‘Past, Present and Future’, Volume 1 / [ed] Will Hughes, 2008, Vol. 1, s. 267-276Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    All member countries in the EU must follow the given directive for public procurement that has been decided upon. The purpose of the directive is to ensure a sufficient public procurement and a sound use of public resources. However, knowledge about the implementation and effects of the directive is limited. One clear indication is that the effects vary between different countries in the EU. A preliminary study of the implementation of the public procurement act in Sweden and Denmark for the construction sector has been conducted, with the aim of obtaining knowledge of how and why implementation and effects vary. One distinction is that the number of appeals concerning public procurement is higher in Sweden than in Denmark that might depend on a different implementation of the directive, mainly because Sweden has added amendment to the directive while Denmark has not. The variation of implementing the directive between member countries may have negative impact upon the opportunities of obtaining the best possible service and technical solution in the public procurement process.

  • 172.
    Olander, Stefan
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Measuring Change in a Sector: CREDIT Case SE062010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This case describes an ongoing initiative in Sweden with the aim of measuring the development of the Swedish infrastructure sector. The reason this case was chose is that it is one, of only a very few, national initiatives with a clear aim of taking an holistic approach to assess the development of one large share of the Swedish construction sector. The purpose of this case is to investigate:– What measures are used– The underlying assumptions for the choice of measureThe case study mainly contributes to WP6 (report 4)National benchmarking (WP6) summaryIn Sweden, apart from the larger Utmärkt Samhällsbyggande a more focused program aimed at improving the competitiveness of the civil engineering part of construction, FIA (Renewal within the civil engineering sector), was launched in December 2003. FIA saw a need to monitor how the civil engineering sector develops, in order to effectively plan and implement development projects.

    This survey will not directly measure the effect that FIA has on the civil engineering sector. What is measured is the direction of change for the Swedish civil engineering sector during the years that FIA is active. This knowledge could indirectly be used by FIA to initiate additional studies concerning specific subjects that could guide the civil engineering sector in a desired direction.

    Two main issues are of importance in regard to the CREDIT objectives.

    1. The difficulty of getting in the data – although this assessment has been initiated, approved and sponsored by the very top management of the two largest infrastructure clients and even though it is written in the procurement guidelines for both of these organisations that the survey hould be carried out jointly, between the client and the supplier consultant or contractor), it has been extremely difficult to get the survey sent in. Now, both of these two organisations have designated personnel to track down projects and make them fill it out, according to guidelines, and send it in.

    2. The main performance the parties in the sector are interested to measure and to keep track of is efficiency and productivity. They are largely uninterested of measuring the performance of the product and/or how it affects the end-users. Similar tendencies have been seen in other national initiatives on housing in Sweden. This is to some extent in large contrast to the views and aim of the CREDIT project.

  • 173.
    Olander, Stefan
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hansson, Bengt
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Industrialiserat anläggningsbyggande – möjligheter och hinder2012Ingår i: Vägar till förbättrad produktivitet och innovationsgrad i anläggningsbranschen: bilagedel : betänkande. D. 2 / [ed] Produktivitetskommittén, Stockholm: Fritze , 2012, s. 327-356Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 174.
    Olander, Stefan
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hansson, Bengt
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Pemsel, Sofia
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Productivity comparisons, are they possible or even desirable?2010Ingår i: CIB World Congress 2010, Building a Better World, Programme & Book of Abstracts / [ed] Peter Barrett, Dilanthi Amaratunga, Richard Haigh, Kaushal Keraminiyage, & Chaminda Pathirage, Salford: University of Salford , 2010, s. 58-67Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased productivity is of societal good and efforts to achieve this should be a relevant task for all businesses. However, the concept of productivity is not clear as to what is to be measured. This becomes a problem especially when statements are made that the development of productivity in the construction industry is not as good as other sectors of industry. It is not clear if this comparison is relevant or even possible to make. This study aims to address and discuss the problem surrounding productivity measurements and comparison of them and is based on literature reviews that address the problem of evaluating productivity, with special focus on construction productivity. The results show that there is no uniform measure for construction productivity that can be used. Different situation calls for different measures. There unique circumstances for various construction activities, such as housing, commercial, industrial, infrastructure etc, that makes comparison of productivity between them virtually impossible. If statements of productivity are made without the knowledge of what the measures really show or is based on, there is a risk that these lead to misleading conclusions. Every study of productivity needs to be critically scrutinised with a high degree of scepticism. Instead of trying to achieve one uniform measure of productivity a set of key performance indicators can be used instead in order to obtain more qualitative facts about the state of the construction industry.

  • 175.
    Olander, Stefan
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Nordvall, Frida
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Implementering av LOU: effekter för byggsektorn2008Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 176.
    Olofsson, Amanda
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Dahlman, Jonatan
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Ändring av flerbostadshus från folkhemsperioden2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 177.
    Olsson, Josefin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Agrelius, Felicia
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Förslag på renoveringsprojekt för den bebyggda staden: Att anlägga gröna tak inom Halmstads kommun2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Since cities are becoming more densely built, the green areas are replaced with roads and buildings, which increase the proportion of hard surfaces. The construction industry has a great responsibility concerning this and sustainability is a big part of the design of new buildings. By implementing green roofs on both new constructed buildings and already existing buildings, the replaced green areas will be recovered. With green roofs this study refers to extensive green roofs.

    The selected area in central Halmstad consists of both new and older buildings. Cultural labeling legally protects most of the older buildings. This label protects the building from demolition and renovation. These buildings are thus excluded from the survey.

    The remaining roofs in the area are categorized, based on its design and inclination. The different types of roofs in these categories have different conditions in the construction of green roofs. The aim is to obtain a potential area of the relevant roofs that have the potential to implement green roofs of their construction. The expectation is that this study will be considered to be general and could be applied to other areas as well.

  • 178.
    Olsson, Viktor
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Luftläckage I Småhus: Hur de upptäcks och attityderna till dem2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Air tightness in new buildings has been discussed for several decades. But the knowledge in the subject is low. With tougher requirements from the Swedish government about energy consumption for a new building required competences how these shall be met. It's not only the thick mess of insulation that are important, it's also the air tightness. This report is about air leakage in Swedish houses. How these leaks can be measured/detected and what the consequences may be of them. Both theoretical and practical tips and advice will be given. The author wants to increase the knowledge in this subject for people in the Swedish building industry.

  • 179.
    Ormazabal, Stephanie
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Fuktproblem i chilenska småhus2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Humidity problems and poor ventilation are factors that we associate with poor indoor airquality which are known to negatively affect health. Such problems have decreased with timein Sweden but, in other countries this is still a major problem especially during winter. InChile, this is most common in the central regions of the country, especially the Strait ofMagellan. This issue is primarily due to surface condensation happening indoors which bringsabout dampness which facilitates the growth of fungus and stains, foul odors, metal corrosionand more. This is due to a combination of poor ventilation and insufficient forms of heatingalong with buildings which have no insulation. The heating system in Chile, which isprimarily fuel stoves, amounts to approximately 80 percent of the total energy usage. Due tothe stoves not having a fuel diversion system, the fuel sometimes is contaminated with waterfuel increasing the pollution output inside buildings, especially in homes.With improvements to regulations to the building code in regards to health and safety since2008, the country has begun working to build safer accommodations that are well insulatedwith good ventilation, good heating system and decreased emissions to ensure that theoccupants’ health is not affected.

  • 180.
    Osbeck, Björn
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Energieffektiviseringens position i kommunala energiplaner: En kritisk granskning - på jakt efter det konkreta2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    År 1977 trädde lagen 1977:439 om kommunal energiplanering i kraft i samband med allt mer uppmärksammade miljöproblem. Detta innebar att alla kommuner i Sverige nu var tvungna att arbeta fram en plan för tillförsel, distribution och användning av energi. Planen skulle följas upp löpande och visa såväl genomförda som nya mål. Drygt trettio år har gått sedan dess och miljöproblemen har genom forskning visat sig allt mer hotande för varje år.

    Idag belyses energieffektivisering som en av de både mest effektiva och långsiktigt hållbara lösningarna på energianvändningens negativa miljöpåverkan. Dessutom är det till och med ofta lönsamt att investera i energieffektiviseringar. Rimligtvis bör dessa vara en viktig del i den kommunala energiplanen, men är de det? Arbetet redovisar i vilken omfattning som energieffektivisering prioriteras bland de kommunala målsättningarna och åtgärdsförslagen. Resultatet är att de allra flesta av energiplanerna borde vara mer i framkant än idag. Generellt saknas det förslag på åtgärder och många av planerna förlitar sig istället på övergripande mål om en minskad total energianvändning.

    En viktig slutsats av granskningen är att energiplanerna skiljer sig stort åt i såväl upplägg som målsättningar, vilket tyder på ett bristande samarbete kommuner emellan samt en oprecist formulerad lagtext. I en bedömning av de tolv energiplaner som granskningen innefattar kan vissa förefalla mer föredömliga än andra men utifrån lagen är det svårt att peka ut någon som oduglig eftersom lagens krav är mycket tolkningsbara. Urvalet av Västra Götalands 49 kommuner gjordes i samråd med Margareta Hallander med ambitionen att få en spridning av små och stora kommuner samt landsbygd och tätort.

    Examensarbetet visar även upp ett föredömligt tillvägagångssätt för att få en konstruktiv och motiverande energiplan som skapar förändring. Som grund till detta goda exempel ligger litteratur och egna åsikter.

  • 181.
    Ottosson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap. 9110141414.
    Wallqvist, Dennis
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Produktionschefer i Byggbranschen: En studie om arbetssituationen för produktionschefer i byggbranschen2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The site manager has a key role in every construction project and is the person who has utmost responsibility on the site. This often leads to high workload and a high stress level for the site managers. It has also taken place a change in the construction industry the recent decades and is also constant under development, and this is all of the new technologies and methods, which has led to a more efficient production and increased requirements and regulations. This is a thing that many site managers think leads to a more stressful existence for them, as it is their task to manage and control the production and meet all the demands and requirements. 

    The problems with a more stressful work and a lot higher workload were encountered in the literary studies, and also by the respondents in the interviews. At the same time, the attitude to the site manager role was more positive by the respondents than the studies showed, but everyone felt that there were several possibilities for improvement in order to make the profession more sustainable. The authors found that the various problems were due in part to differences between the generations. Based on this, a couple of conclusions could be drawn. The importance of having a person in each project dealing with the administrative parts that site manager carries, a coordinated role to facilitate the transition of new site managers and widen the older generations' approach to the younger.

  • 182.
    Pascual Beneyto, Alejandro
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    30 Flats in Halmstad2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett byggnadsprojekt med planering, kostnadsberäkning och projektering av ”30 Flats in Halmstad” på en fastighet i Halmstad.

  • 183.
    Patsonen, Joakim
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Johansson, Jonas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Energianalys av studentbostäder: -Kv. Gråstenen i Halmstad2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete är en energianalys av Studentboendet på Nyhemsgatan, Kv. Gråstenen Halmstad, i samarbete med Halmstads Fastighets AB.

     

    Fastigheterna är byggda 1997 och är till antalet 11 stycken med sammanlagt 385 lägenheter, avsedda för studenter under den tid de studerar i staden. I var och ett av de 11 husen finns för gemensamt bruk ett allrum samt ett större kök där studenter kan samlas om så önskas och på entréplan finns en tvättstuga tillgänglig.

     

    En analys genomfördes genom att studera konstruktionsritningar, ventilation, värme och vattensystem samt att beräkningar på fastigheterna utfördes i datorprogrammen, VIP+ och Isover Energi vilka sedan analyserades. Med hjälp av termografering påvisar vi här köldbryggor vid fönster samt vid anslutningen vägg och vindsbjälklag.

     

    Till sist tog vi fram åtgärdsförslag som vi rekommenderar för att sänka energiförbrukningen. Bland dessa åtgärdsförslag kan nämnas installation av frånluftsvärmepump samt en översyn av duschanordningarna.

     

    Som sammanfattning kan sägas att byggnaderna är i ett gott skick men med höga energiförbrukningar där möjlighet till besparingar finns.

     

  • 184.
    Pemsel, Sofia
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bridging boundaries between organizations in construction2011Ingår i: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 29, nr 5, s. 495-506Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations have boundaries that serve various purposes; for example, differentiating internal operations from external activities and controlling flows of information. Boundaries can however hinder knowledge exchange in inter‐organizational collaboration, leading to less effective outcomes. Empirical results from comparative case studies on how boundaries between organizations in a project can be bridged effectively to support knowledge exchange are presented. End‐user organizations and real estate companies form the subjects of the enquiry. The results show that the depth of involvement of the end‐user organization varies widely and, with it, the use of bridging roles and activities. To identify bridging strategies that can foster productive knowledge exchange in inter‐organizational collaboration, it is necessary to understand contextual aspects of end‐users’ needs to ensure the availability of sufficient competence within, and time for, the project team to perform its duties. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

  • 185.
    Pemsel, Sofia
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Creating knowledge of end users' requirements: The interface between firm and project2010Ingår i: Project Management Journal, ISSN 8756-9728, E-ISSN 1938-9507, Vol. 41, nr 4, s. 122-130Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to stay competitive and meet the changing needs of the market, construction firms must develop efficient means of gathering and using knowledge of end-users requirements. This study uses two case studies, to explore the knowledge creation of end-users requirements in project driven firms. The focus of the study is the interface between firm and project. The interface is analyzed from both an autopoietic and cognitive, organizational and societal view. The findings implicates the importance of understanding (a) what kinds of knowledge that is dominated in the different organizations (b) what could be expected in the exchange of data, (c) what action needs to be taken in order to create value of it. The study suggests that considering the organization as an autopoietic system could be useful to understand the organizations responses to a dynamic environment. © 2010 by the Project Management Institute.

  • 186.
    Pemsel, Sofia
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hansson, Bengt
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Managing the needs of end-users in the design and delivery of construction projects2010Ingår i: Facilities, ISSN 0263-2772, E-ISSN 1758-7131, Vol. 28, nr 1/2, s. 17-30Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The two-fold purpose of this paper is identifying areas of difficulty in managing the needs of end-users in the course of the design and delivery of construction projects and suggesting possible solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The focus of the paper is the interaction between three principal parties: end-users, project leader (a selected end-user) and facility planner (a facilities professional). The context is two projects in the public sector: a university and a hospital. The end-users of both are known from the start and participate in the whole process. The paper is based on a case study comprising 12 interviews - seven end-users and five professionals. Findings: The research shows that during the project's design and delivery, communication and attitudinal problems have to be managed alongside the inherent difficulty of understanding end-users' real needs. To help in managing these issues, facility planners relied heavily on pedagogical and behavioural skills, rather than formalised methods as found in the literature. Practical implications: The findings highlight areas of difficulty for managers and planners and how these areas were handled in practice. Suggestions on how to resolve some of the areas are presented and discussed. Originality/value: Much of the research related to managing end-users focuses on how to extract value from the construction process, for instance providing greater flexibility and improved air quality. This paper concentrates on relations between parties who are central to the briefing, design and delivery process © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 187.
    Pemsel, Sofia
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Svetoft, Ingrid
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL). Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hansson, Bengt
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Managing End User Requirements in Construction Projects2009Ingår i: Proceedings of 5th Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organisation, Vol. 1, 2009, s. 44-55Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The research presented is the initial part of a project with the aim of increasing the use of end-user requirement through out the construction process. This initial part maps how Swedish real estate companies manage end-user requirements and evaluate the outcome.

    Methodological approach

    The focus of the study was on methods for capturing and managing end-user requirements and for measuring their satisfaction with the outcome. The study was conducted as a desktop study using literature databases and through interviews with key personnel from 12 different companies; from housing, office and school real estate management to health care facilities management.

    Results

    The literature review showed that there are a number of different methods that could be used for parts, but that there exist no method that cover the whole process. There are different ways to combine methods for achieving an end-user focus throughout the project. The Swedish real estate companies did, in most cases, measure end-user satisfaction; not in relation to construction projects, but on a general level. Feeding back the knowledge, gained from the evaluations, into construction projects were found difficult and thereby not done. The companies were all interested in new ways of working and thought that it would improve there business.

    Status

    The paper is based on work made in the spring of 2008 this initial part of the study is almost finished and will be completely finished by the time of full paper submission.

    Contribution

    The work identifies the problems of keeping an end-user approach through the whole building cycle; from briefing to evaluating the building in use. The paper gives a collection of different methods and indicators and how these could be combined to create greater value for the end-users as well as the state of the art of work methods in practice in Sweden.

  • 188.
    Persson, Josefin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Silén, Johanna
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Fuktkvalitetssäkring vid byggande av småhus: Framtagande av checklistor2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att skapa en bra och hållbar byggnad är det viktigt att under hela byggprocessen arbeta påett fuktsäkert sätt. Skador som kan uppkomma vad gäller fukt är ofta mycket kostsamma, menibland även så pass hälsofarliga att byggnaden inte bör användas. En del av dessa skadorberor på felaktigt hanterade material eller felaktigt utförande. Detta arbete är framtagettillsammans med Derome Hus AB, avdelning Varbergshus vilka efterfrågade enklare riktlinjergällande fuktsäkerhet vid deras produktion samt en översyn av deras sätt att arbeta. För attkunna framställa dessa har littereraturstudier och arbetsplatsbesök genomförts.Litteraturstudier för att få en teoretisk bakgrund om material och dess egenskaper samtarbetsplatsbesök för att få en inblick av hur arbetet utförs i praktiken. Kritiska punkter ibyggprocessen har identifierats och utefter dessa har checklistor tagits fram. Dessa ärkonstruerade för att ge konkreta krav på utförande samt öka medvetenheten gällande fukt hosentreprenörerna. Ytterligare protokoll och metoder har tagits fram för att skapa struktur ochdokumentation över arbetet. Ett planerat och genomtänkt arbete i flera steg ökar möjligheternatill en fuktsäker och därmed en bättre byggnad.

  • 189.
    Persson, Mats
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Developing and Managing Knowledge of Construction Methods in the Swedish Building Sector2010Ingår i: Building a Better World - CIB World Congress 2010: Full paper proceedings - CIB 2010 World Congress / [ed] Professor Peter Barrett, Professor Dilanthi Amaratunga, Dr Richard Haigh, Dr Kaushal Keraminiyage, Salford: The University of Salford , 2010, s. 11 s.-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the 1960s and 1970s the construction industry made an effort to develop shared knowledge and performance measurement tools within the industry. This effort ceased as the bigger enterprises began to see information generated at their companies as enterprise assets and competitive resources. In recent years, the construction industry has begun to acknowledge the importance of detailed planning and work preparation on construction sites. The fragmentation of the construction process, with increased specialisation and involvement of many interested parties and actors calls for a shared format for creating, converting, and exchanging knowledge. There is a need for better documentation and control of what is actually done on the construction site, and of how it is done. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how knowledge about construction methods is created, converted, and shared in the Swedish construction sector. It examines past efforts to share information and how the efforts have developed over time. New initiatives are examined and analysed, looking at how well knowledge is managed and applied on construction sites. A web portal developed at Lund University (www.ByggAi.se) in close cooperation with the construction industry exemplifies a new initiative in this respect. The paper will also present end users’ analysis regarding the accessibility of information from the web portal. The web portal has a great potential to disseminate information to various actors: construction enterprises, manufacturers, consultants, and clients. The web portal has also developed to include other areas of interest, promoting issues such as health, safety, and ergonomics; energy-efficient buildings; energy-efficient construction work; and handling of moisture issues. The main advantage of the portal is its packaging of situational knowledge, so that workers at all levels can find all of the relevant information about specific construction methods before they begin work on the construction site. Moreover, the portal makes the information available on a “just-in-time” basis, so workers can continue to access it throughout the project, taking what they need to know at the time they need it.

  • 190.
    Persson, Mats
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Impact assessment and project appraisal in cases of coastal erosion2010Ingår i: International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, ISSN 1759-5908, Vol. 1, nr 3, s. 297-309Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: There are several urban areas close to the sea and other water bodies that may be adversely affected by erosion and flooding. Global climate change, including sea-level rise and more intense and damaging storms, will increase the threats of natural hazards in several areas. Mitigating and adapting to these risks in urban areas are huge challenges for society. There is a need for a proper decision basis to build a society that is economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable. By incorporating coastal hazard and risk mapping into spatial planning, new developments can be diverted away from threatened areas. Further, by taking adaptation measures, risks in existing urban areas can be reduced. The purpose of this paper is to address these issues.

    Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents the results of two case studies and discusses the prerequisites for impact assessment and project appraisal and how this is used and accepted by the users and decision-makers.

    Findings: A guideline has been developed as a tool for the integration of costs and benefits in decision making on investments in coastal zones. The guideline gives an overview of why, when, and how impact assessments and project appraisals can be made using socio-economic valuations of coastal areas affected by erosion. Two case studies have been performed to demonstrate the practical application of the guideline and economic analysis and valuation in coastal management.

    Originality/value: The guideline can be used to prioritise areas that need attention due to threatened shorelines, and to decide which preventive measures are the most efficient from a socio-economic point of view.

  • 191.
    Persson, Mats
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal in Cases of Coastal Erosion2010Ingår i: Building a Better World - CIB World Congress 2010: Full Paper Proceedings - CIB 2010 World Congress / [ed] Professor Peter Barrett, Professor Dilanthi Amaratunga, Dr Richard Haigh, Dr Kaushal Keraminiyage & Dr Chaminda Pathirage, 2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There are several urban areas close to the sea and other water bodies that may be adversely affected by erosion and flooding. Global climate change, including sea-level rise and more intense and damaging storms, will increase the threats of natural hazards in several areas. Mitigating and adapting to these risks in urban areas are huge challenges for society. There is a need for a proper decision basis to build a society that is economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable. By incorporating coastal hazard and risk mapping into spatial planning, new developments can be diverted away from threatened areas. Further, by taking adaptation measures, risks in existing urban areas can be reduced. A guideline has been developed as a tool for the integration of costs and benefits in decision-making on investments in coastal zones. The guideline gives an overview of why, when, and how impact assessments and project appraisals can be made using socio-economic valuations of coastal areas affected by erosion. The guideline can be used to prioritise areas that need attention due to threatened shorelines, and to decide which preventive measures are the most efficient from a socio-economic point of view. Two case studies have been performed to demonstrate the practical application of the guideline and economic analysis and valuation in coastal management. This paper presents the results of the two case studies and discusses the prerequisites for impact assessment and project appraisal and how this is used and accepted by the users and decision-makers.

  • 192.
    Persson, Mats
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Landin, Anne
    Lund University, Construction science, Lund, Sweden.
    Transfer of experience in a construction firm2010Ingår i: Performance Improvement in Construction Management / [ed] Brian Atkin & Jan Borgbrant, Oxon & New York: Spon press, 2010, s. 59-69Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 193.
    Persson, Mats
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Larsson, Bengt
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Svetoft, Ingrid
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Decision making for sustainable rebuilding: a theoretical approach2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In facilities management, decisions regarding how and when maintenance and rebuilding are to be carried out are made on a regular basis. Typically, there is a compromise regarding cost, usability and the possibility of exploring new options. Many case studies indicate that a large number of these decisions are based on simple models and that they are not adequately investigated. This is a problem, especially in cases of public procurement, where a high level of transparency in decision making is desired. There is a need for a proper decision basis in order to build a society that is economically, socially and environmentally sustainable. A working method is proposed as a tool for the integration of costs and benefits in decision making on investments in sustainable re-building. The guideline gives an overview as to why, when and how impact assessments and project appraisals can be conducted on different levels on a scale from tactical decisions to strategic decisions. The proposed method can be used to prioritise actions that need attention and to decide which preventive measures are the most efficient from an economic point of view. This paper explores the practical application of the guideline and presents an economic analysis and valuation in sustainable rebuilding management. Finally, the prerequisites for impact assessment and project appraisal and how they can be used and accepted by the users and decision-makers are discussed.

  • 194.
    Persson, Sebastian
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Entreprenörens risker vid övergången från utförandeentreprenader till totalentreprenader!: En nulägesanalys som skildrar entreprenörens perspektiv i väg och anläggningsprojekt.2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    When clients more often choose to transfer from” traditional” design-bid-build contracts to design-build contracts it creates consequences of risks and possibilities for all involved parties. In collaboration with Skanska as a case company and their division “Väg och Anläggning i Väst”, this thesis was conducted as a qualitative study with the intention to examine what consequences it have on the contractor when an increased amount of contracts transfer from design-bid-build to design-build.

    This thesis shows that the contractor agrees that there are some difficulties with design-build contracts, and that the transition from design-bid-build to design-build takes place in a relatively short time, also that the contractor and the client lack the experience and skills required to perform a good project without major complications.

    Many of the problems that occur today can be derived to individuals and their communication skills, by increasing cooperation and open up for a better dialogue between the parties, which creates opportunity for both the client and the contractor to gently adjust to the changes that the transition to design-build contracts means.

    An Increased cooperation and a more open communication, will result in better working conditions and a better end product. 

  • 195.
    Pettersson, David
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Framtagning av korrigeringsfaktorer för enhetstider och kapaciteter: Ett sätt att öka kvalitén på Skanskas normallägen.2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Skanska is using work schedules that are specifically designed for employees in the production. These work schedules are called best practice. These are guides containing technical descriptions, design references, capabilities, etc. for work activities. This support function facilitates the work preparation and planning of future work. For placing unbound base course, there are only few capacities specified in the best practice model. The possibility of correcting the capacities is considered to be minimal. Hence, Skanska has requested to supplement the best practice with correction values based on factors that affect it negatively. With the correction values capacities can be used for similar projects.  The purpose of the report is to assess an approach taken to produce correction values. A general process model was used to produce correction values. The model follows four steps to generate correction values ​​using reported production data. By collecting data, categorize and process the data, correction value can then be calculated. The model's second step categorizes the production data by similar factors. An average correction value can then be calculated for every category. During the study, it has been clear that the production data must contain the right information to allow categorization of data. In order to verify and ensure the right information is provided, own follow-up forms can be designed. The focus of the follow-up forms is to answer questions that enable a categorization. The study examined road-width and settlements as influencing factor in placing unbound base course.

  • 196.
    Porkka, Janne
    et al.
    VTT, Esbo, Finland.
    Huovila, Pekka
    VTT, Esbo, Finland.
    Bertelsen, Niels Haldor
    Statens Byggeforskning Institut (SBi), Hørsholm, Danmark.
    Hansson, Bengt
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Haugbølle, Kim
    Statens Byggeforskning Institut (SBi), Hørsholm, Danmark.
    Hietanen, Päivi
    Senate Properties, Helsinki, Finland.
    Karud, Ole Jørgen
    Selskapet for industriell og teknisk forskning ved Norges tekniske høgskole (SINTEF), Trondheim, Norway.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Nordic and Baltic Case Studies and Assessments in Enterprises - CREDIT Report 22010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report summarizes 28 case studies addressing the common interest for indicators in case studies in Nordic and Baltic countries and is distributed to different building types

    – Benchmarking systems and indicators (4 case studies)

    – Offices (7 case studies)

    – Housing (8 case studies)

    – School and nursery (5 case studies)

    – Shopping centres (3 case studies)

    – Hospital (1 case studies)

    There are some good practices for benchmarking in large scale. At the moment, those are addressing mostly process and investment indicators, and do not yet cover performance indicators. Front-runner enterprises are already recognizing the potential of benchmarking, rating to highest class may increase interest from investors and building owners. Otherwise, some national and international rating systems are available in the market.

    Few frontline owners are already using cost and performance indicators in daily operations, such as Senate Properties in Finland and Statsbygg in Norway. Their focus is mostly directed to investment, costs, and energy efficiency. Altogether, it seems that systematic procedures are needed in the industry for evaluating performance and compliance to end result to needs.

    There is no commonly agreed or standardized global or European Key Performance Indicator system, but some national and international rating schemes are available. During the past five years a number of rated buildings has grown greatly, and motivation for using those is increasing.

    Market signals are also showing paradigm shift towards end user involvement, and standardized methods for involving end users and making continuous monitoring of satisfaction should be agreed. When committing end users, they need help in order to be able to contribute in value adding way. Workplace management in office buildings is used for tailoring spaces better to end user needs. Senate Properties in Finland develops services where spaces are a strategic asset that can help to contribute an organizational change.

    National and international indicator systems do not cover all important business matters and companies are developing their own systems. Some contractors have been developing national systems for process performance monitoring. Indoor environment is important in shopping centres, and performance level for spaces is an opportunity to owner to enhance cash flow through rental agreements. In the future, building automation systems could provide real-time monitoring of performance indicators continuously contributing changes automatically to reach desired performance.

    Organizations are looking for an indicator system that could help them to measure and enhance performance of buildings. Apparently some indicators are more important than others; regulations for accessibility have become tighter, location is still the core driver, common interest towards operations and reducing annual energy consumptions is growing. There is potential to improve energy efficiency of buildings. Indicator systems should be implemented in tools to encourage usage in projects; those processes are now rather manual. Building Information Models (BIMs) may be suitable tool for managing those more automated way. Based on findings in CREDIT project, offices and shopping centres are most attracting building types in terms of benchmarking.

    Enterprises are benchmarking indicators to some extent but systematic process has not yet been developed and a uniform indicator system considering also building performance and value creation is missing. CREDIT project has increased understanding on indicators and transparency and industry needs more research on this matter.

  • 197.
    Pérez Martín, Beatriz
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Nursery in Halmstad (Sweden)2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett byggnadsprojekt med planering, kostnadsberäkning och projektering av en ”Nursery school” på en fastighet i Halmstad.

  • 198.
    Radtke, Oliver
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Kellgren, Markus
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    3D-visualisering i mark- och anläggningsprojekt.: En studie utifrån Veidekkes förutsättningar att implementera 3D-modeller i produktion.2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Samhällsdigitaliseringen har lett till att byggbranschen mer och mer strävar efter att digitalisera verktyg och arbetssätt. Att presentera projekt i 3D har därför blivit ett hett ämne där flera aktörer strävar efter att både projektera och nyttja 3D ute i produktionen. Tidigare forskning inom ämnet har till största del valt att lägga fokus på byggskedet och belyser de fördelar som går att utvinna genom nyttjandet av så kallade VDC- eller BIM verktyg. Samtidigt belyser andra vetenskapliga rapporter mark och anläggning som ett betydelsefullt skede inom hela byggprocessen. Ett flertal menar också att mark- och anläggningsskedet spelar en huvudroll i huruvida ett byggprojekt når framgång eller inte. Med detta i åtanke upplever författarna att 3D-modeller i mark- och anläggningsprojekt inte utforskats till den grad som känns nödvändig för att belysa fördelarna, men även de olika hinder som står i vägen för en lyckad implementeringsprocess. Det råder inte heller några tvivel om att byggskedet kommit längre i digitala utvecklingsaspekter, så som att visualisera projekt i 3D, vid en jämförelse med mark och anläggning.

    I denna studie belyser därför författarna de fördelar som går att utvinna genom att visualisera mark- och anläggningsprojekt i 3D. Studien visar upp bevis på varför verktyget bör implementeras och vad aktörer bör tänka på vid en eventuell implementering av 3Dvisualisering i projekt. Syftet med studien är därav att utreda hur det undersökta fallföretaget kan integrera 3D-modeller i mark- och anläggningsprojekt, samt belysa vilka krav fallföretagets anställda ställer på en 3D-modell för att främja utvecklingen av ett verktyg som passar och leder till en hög nyttjandegrad ute i produktionen. Vidare sker en identifiering av vilka förutsättningar ute i mark och anläggningsprojekt som spelar en nyckelroll i huruvida en implementerad 3D-modell skall kunna figurera och verka så som det är tänkt.

    Studien utförs med en kvalitativ metod där granskning av befintlig litteratur lyfter fram de problemområden som författarna identifierat. Vidare utförs semistrukturerade intervjuer med tjänstemän och yrkesarbetare på fallföretaget Veidekke Entreprenad AB. Intervjuerna genomförs i syfte att identifiera aktuella problem ute i produktionen, undersöka respondenternas syn på 3D-modeller samt belysa verktygets potentiella inverkan på deras vardagliga arbete. 

    En tydligt övergripande slutsats är att 3D-modeller i allra högsta grad behövs ute i produktionen på mark- och anläggningsprojekt. Mycket pekar på att verktyget bland annat skulle bidra med en ökad förståelse kring utförandet av projekten, men också förbättra kommunikation och produktionsledande. Verktyget kan också enligt studien minimera problemområden gällande tekniska lösningar, förbättra planering, samt genom att digitalisera moment även tillfredsställa arbetsglädjen för produktionsteamet.

  • 199.
    Reyes, Mary Lorence
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    A study of the Possibilities of Sustainable Building in Timber- in the City of Pines2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Our generation is about saving the earth, our one and only home. For centuries resources have been used without the consideration of tomorrow. Modernization contributed to today’s environmental issues such as climate change and greenhouse effects. Effects of past deeds have been seen and experienced. We are trying to correct these mistakes and this paper is all about that. Construction industry is a major contributor to these issues and sustainable building is one solution to aid these matters. This paper is about exploring the possibility of sustainable building in timber in Baguio City, Philippines.

    Considering the intensive development, rapid population increase and natural conditions, the city like most of the cities in the world is in need of sustainable building. This paper reviews modern green architecture and today’s durable timber construction design particularly suited for the city. There is of course a presentation of timber as sustainable material. To complement these reviews fieldwork in documentation on traditional and current sustainable building in timber of the city was performed.

    Discussions with the different Philippine organizations regarding the current use of timber as sustainable material were also completed in this work. While to recognize the current situation in Baguio City enquiry to Department of Environmental and Natural Resources-CAR was necessary. Visit and phone call survey of the availability of Benguet Pine, the most dominant timber, in local suppliers were made as well.

    For decades the Luzon Tropical Pine Forest has been exploited for its timber. These forests have not been sustainably managed. Logging (illegal and legal), regular fires and natural calamities are causes of forest destructions. These are the constraints of sustainable building in timber not only in the city but the whole country. There is now an on going forest rejuvenation and log banning. That is why Benguet Pine is not available in the market. Building in timber is expensive and very limited.

    The future success of the Department of Environmental and Natural Resources – CAR as well as the international and national NGOs in saving the forest and promoting Sustainable Forest Management will answer the availability of Benguet Pine for local timber production.

    The package of green architecture, combination of traditional and modern durable timber construction designs is the beginning of future Sustainable Building in timber in the City of Pines.

  • 200.
    Ribbing, Viktor
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Pressade byggtider i byggbranschen: En studie om tidspress på platsledningen med arbetsledaren i fokus.2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This report contains a study of how pressured construction times affects the foreman in construction. Pressured construction times are becoming increasingly popular in today´s construction industry and is a subject that can be perceived differently from case to case.

    This report aims to get a better clarity on what pressured building times means and how it affects the foreman. Three main questions were made before the case study began: What does pressure construction times mean? How does the foreman perceive his workload in construction projects during pressure? What work tasks the foreman has that is mainly affected by pressured construction times.

    To ensure that the right purpose of the report could be fulfilled a choice of method was done before the essay could start. The method used in this case was a qualitative method based on a theoretical framework followed up by nine interviews with foreman’s and site managers at three different construction sites.

    The most interesting conclusion that were made during this report was that work experience wasn’t something that made the workload lighter for the foreman. The workload is instead increasing over the year as the experience grows wider due to the higher expectations on the individual.  

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