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  • 151.
    Lundberg, Max
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Regionalt lärande och ledarskap (RELL).
    Tell, Joakim
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    From practice to practice: On the development of a network of small and medium sized enterprises1997Inngår i: Concepts and Transformation, ISSN 1384-6639, E-ISSN 1569-9692, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 1-24Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Small and medium sized enterprises are an important feature of the Swedish industrial infrastructure. The formation of collaborative networks is seen as an important means for dealing with a shortage of financial, technical and other resources. This article deals with the start up and development of two networks involving managers of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) and researchers from the Centre for Working Life Research and Development of Halmstad University. The striking features of the various phases of the development of the networks, as well as of those of the role of the researchers, are presented and discussed. Some important recent developments, such as connections between networks and community-based relationships, are also revealed.

  • 152.
    Lundbäck, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden .
    Hörte, Sven-Åke
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Decision-making in conditions of constant change - a case within the automotive industry2005Inngår i: Management Decision, ISSN 0025-1747, E-ISSN 1758-6070, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 220-235Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    To analyse how differences in decision-making affected the integration of the R&D functions after Ford's acquisition of Volvo Cars.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The analysis is carried out in two steps. Step one analyses which type of approach Ford employed to integrate Volvo into the company. Step two analyses how R&D decisions are made by both firms and the consequences of found differences in decision-making on the success of the integration process.

    Findings

    Ford's approach to the integration of Volvo Cars follows a symbiosis approach, combining a high need of both organizational autonomy and strategic interdependence. A symbiosis acquisition integration approach demands that the decision-making processes are given special attention. The acquired firm's specific decision-making processes need to remain intact in order to preserve its embedded unique R&D value creation capabilities. The decision-making processes should be kept separate in order to prevent disruption.

    Originality/value

    The paper relates theories about firm acquisition processes and aspects of organization theory to establish a bridge between these research areas.

  • 153.
    Pataci, Hilal
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Danilovic, Mike
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Liu, Lihua
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI). Shanghai Dianji University, School of Business, Shanghai, China.
    Hoveskog, Maya
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI).
    Halila, Fawzi
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Exploring the Dynamics of the Wind Energy Industry2015Inngår i: International Association for Management of Technology: IAMOT 2015 Conference Proceedings / [ed] Pretorius, Leon, Cape Town: International Association for Management of Technology (IAMOT) , 2015, s. 631-654Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the end of 1990s the growth of new energy and renewable energy production has been strong and increasing. Wind power energy has become one important source of energy almost all over the world. Europe, USA and Asia has become the leading markets in the development of wind energy. The total volume of global wind energy production has increased from 13,600 MW in 1999 to 318,137 MW in 2013. Since 2006 the wind energy industry is showing very rapid growth as well as dynamics among major industry actors. Some companies has left the industry due to heavy competion, some has used the growth as an opportunity to expand and the inceasing demand and the growth in the wind energy sector has opened opportunities for new actors to enter the industry. China has very fast become the largest country in the world in terms of installed wind energy capacity (28,7% share of total installed capacity and 45,4 % share of installed capacity in 2013). China is followed by Germany, UK and India. USA is now on the 6th place regarding the share of new installed capacity in 2013 with 3,1%. Sweden is on the 9th global place, shared with Romania, with 2.0 % installed capacity in 2013.The study focuses on the industry dynamics among major wind turbine producers during the period of 2006 and 2013. The study explores how the seven top wind energy companies, with the greatest market share of wind turbine manufacturing, used business model innovation to create competitive advantage, how they act to sustain competitive, and how they act business wise globaly in the wind energy industry. Our analysis identifies three major industry clusters based on their mix of business model components. We have labeled those three as “Born in Wind – Stay In Wind”, “Born In Wind – Expand In Others” and “Born In Others – Expand In Wind” due to the patterns of actors from their origin, growth and expansion strategies to diffusion in different markets. The majority of manufacturers have their origin outside wind energy industry, and they create success through new combinations of resources and new value creation for customers. Only one global actors is born in the wind energy and is still remaning in the wind energy industry. All actors have over the years reshaped their business model components, value propositions and value creation to customers in order to sustain competitive on the market. There are new comers in the wind turbine industry that in short of time has achieved high growth and high market shares. Our analysis shows that the business model innovation can be seen as one important perspective to understand the dynamics of wind power industry. Based on our analysis and findings we suggest that companies in the future even more should focus on the design and innovation of their business models, and that those should have the focus on the value creation for customers from a customer perspective and make differentiation from their competitors in the global wind power industry. Copyright © 2015 by Halmstad University & Shanghai Dianji University.

  • 154.
    Payan, Janice
    et al.
    University of Northern Colorado.
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Andersson, Svante
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Svensson, Göran
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Interorganizational Cooperation and Coordination: A comparison of US and Swedish Distributor Relationships2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperation/coordination is related to positive interorganizational outcomes.  Because Sweden is more collectivist/feminine than the U.S. (Hofstede 2001), stronger effects in Swedish distributor cooperative/coordinative relationships are expected compared to the U.S.

  • 155.
    Payan, Janice M.
    et al.
    University of Northern Colorado.
    Svensson, Göran
    Oslo School of Management, Norway.
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Andersson, Svante
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Relationship Quality in Interorganizational Contexts2009Inngår i: Proceedings of the 14th biennial world marketing congress (preliminary release): Marketing in transition: scarcity, globalism, & sustainability / [ed] Colin L. Campbell, Academy of Marketing Science , 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study provides support for the dimensional distinctiveness of cooperation, specific assets, satisfaction, trust, and commitment. Based on the results, it is suggested that four of these dimensions are reflective of relationship quality or the "Cross-Cultural RELQUAL-scale" (cooperation, coordination, trust, and commitment) and that relationship quality impacts satisfaction with the relationship. Data was used to test the cross-cultural RELQUAL-scale in supplier-distributor relationships in Sweden and USA.

  • 156.
    Payan, Janice M.
    et al.
    University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, USA.
    Svensson, Göran
    Oslo School of Management, Norway.
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Andersson, Svante
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Hair, Joe
    Kennesaw State University, USA.
    A  "cross-cultural RELQUAL-scale" in supplier-distributor relationships of Sweden and USA2010Inngår i: International Marketing Review, ISSN 0265-1335, E-ISSN 1758-6763, Vol. 27, nr 5, s. 541-561Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a cross-cultural RELQUAL-scale in supplier-distributor relationships in Sweden and the USA. 

    Design/methodology/approach: The Swedish and US sampling frames consisted each of a random sample of 600 owners and managers of distribution firms of specialty tools and fasteners. A total of 161 usable surveys were returned from the US-survey, for a response rate of 27 percent, while 121 usable surveys were returned from the Swedish survey, for a response rate of 20 percent. An overall response rate of 24 percent was achieved across both countries. 

    Findings: The paper provides support for the dimensional distinctiveness of cooperation, coordination, specific assets, satisfaction, trust, and commitment. Four of the dimensions are reflective of relationship quality or the "cross-cultural RELQUAL-scale" (cooperation, coordination, trust, and commitment) and relationship quality was found to be associated with relationship-satisfaction with suppliers. A test of metric invariance confirmed the RELQUAL-scale is appropriate for cross-cultural research. 

    Research limitations/implications: Examining the tested in other industrial and cultural contexts and countries in other inter-organizational settings could help establish the generality of findings beyond Sweden and the USA and that beyond the context of the distributor-supplier relationship of fasteners and specialty tools. Practical implications The "cross-cultural RELQUAL-scale" is of interest to business practice as it provides a structure of dimensions to be considered in the organizational effort of maintaining satisfactory levels of relationship quality with suppliers. 

    Originality/value: The paper focuses on two different cultural contexts, which is an approach rarely seen in inter-organizational research. The focal constructs are frequently included in inter-organizational research, but have previously not been included in the same empirical study of RELQUAL.

  • 157.
    Reinert, Venilton
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER). Universidade Regional de Bumenau, Blumenau, Brazil.
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Andersson, Svante
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    da Silva, Nathalia Virginia
    Universidade Regional de Blumenau, Blumenau, Brazil.
    The Usage of Social Media by the Agri-Business Companies in Brazil2014Inngår i: Journal of Academy for Advancement of Business Research, ISSN 2332-0311, E-ISSN 2332-032X, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 89-98Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the usage of social media by companies. The gathered information was related to the objective of using it, the criteria when selecting the tools and to find out the type of activities which the companies have done. The methodology is a qualitative approach with exploratory study. The results show that the main objective of the company was to strengthen the brand´s name. The criteria to select the online tools were the huge presence of their stakeholders in the selected tool. Besides the use of Twitter, the company has not done any other activities using social media tools.

  • 158.
    Rundquist, Jonas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Effects of knowledge integration on innovation performance: A framework and empirical study2009Inngår i: Proceedings of the 16th International Product Development Management Conference (IPDMC'09), Twente: EIASM , 2009, s. 23-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE – To provide empirical evidence to support the effect of a firm’s ability to integrate knowledge on the innovation performance of a firm, and to examine the different effects of three categories of knowledge.

    DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH – Data were collected using an e-survey sent to R&D managers representing firms with between 100-800 employees from a cross-section of industries. A total of 355 firms were addressed and 193 questionnaires were returned and usable (54.4% response rate). Hypotheses were tested using multiple regression analysis with and without interaction terms.

    FINDINGS – Results indicate that ability to integrate thematic knowledge is significantly related to innovation performance. There is also a less significant indication that product properties, as product complexity and newness, have a positively moderating effect on the above relation.

    RESEARCH LIMITATIONS – The sample represented medium sized firms. The data were collected in Sweden. As with most studies, it is important to replicate this study in different contexts.

    PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS – The study offers a suggestion to how managers can focus their efforts in order to improve their ability to integrate knowledge from product development projects.

  • 159.
    Rundquist, Jonas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Integrating information and knowledge created in distributed product development2013Inngår i: Proceedings of the International Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship ICIE-2013 / [ed] Dr. Radwan A. Kharabsheh, Reading, UK: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited , 2013, s. 85-93Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has indicated that small and medium sized firms (SMEs) play an important role for the growth of economy. However, in order to be able to compete at an international level, most SMEs are bound to work in alliances in order to gather enough knowledge and resources for product and technology development or to be able to penetrate a larger market.

    Alliances can be formed with different types of actors (i.e. suppliers, costumers, agents, universities, consultancies) and in the alliance information and knowledge is gathered and created. Information is defined by Kogut & Zander as “knowledge which can be transmitted without loss of integrity” which includes facts, axiomatic propositions and symbols. This knowledge can be categorized as the domain-specific, procedural knowledge or general knowledge.

    In the present study a case approach is used to investigate how different types of information and knowledge generated in a distributed product development is integrated to the firm. What methods are used and some conclusions on what methods are more successful for each type of information/knowledge.

    Results indicate a very high representation of formal information sharing (server or documents) even if there is a high degree of belief (understanding) among the respondents that personal meetings and continuous information sharing would be better if they had a system for this. Therefore the conclusions should lead to systems that address the above problems.

  • 160.
    Rundquist, Jonas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Outsourcing and knowledge integration in new product development2009Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with two aspects of knowledge needed for new product development; theaccess to external knowledge through outsourcing of NPD and the integration of knowledgedeveloped when outsourcing activities in the NPD process. As modern products competing onincreasingly international markets call for both complex and specialized knowledge, it isbecoming more important to take an outward perspective of knowledge, searching for externalknowledge sources, in order to be competitive. But it is also important for the firm to take aninward perspective on integration of the knowledge achieved from external sources in order tosecure the knowledge gained.

    Outsourcing of New Product Development (NPD) refers to the outsourcing of activities fordeveloping new products (goods and/or service), where all or the innovative part of the NPDprocess is purchased externally according to a contract from organizational units separatefrom the outsourcing firm. This means that the service to develop a whole or a part of a newproduct is outsourced. This definition implies that (A) the outsourced activity shall be aninnovative (strongly contributing to the newness) part of the NPD process, (B) the outsourcedactivity was previously conducted internally, and (C) the activity shall be purchased andregulated in a contractual agreement between the organizations.

    Knowledge integration refers to the process of acquiring, sharing, and making use ofknowledge by combining it with previous knowledge in order to create new value. Becauseknowledge possessed in collaborating firms is often complementary, it is important tocombine it with previous knowledge in the firm. Therefore knowledge integration is chosenthroughout the thesis as the term for the overall process.

    Based on transaction costs theory, resource based and knowledge based perspectives twomajor issues are investigated. First, the identification of which factors are the most importantfor firms when making the decision to outsource activities in the NPD process. Second, theestablishment of the importance for knowledge integration of external knowledge in the firm,and to find what role level of involvement among staff plays for efficiently achievingknowledge integration.

    The thesis is a compilation thesis (with six appended papers) based on findings from threequantitative studies and a longitudinal case study (presented in two of the appended papers).Using cases from and samples of medium-sized manufacturing firms with in-house NPD itwas found that, while cost has been traditionally considered the most important factor foroutsourcing in general, search for external knowledge is found to have a greater importancewhen intangible processes as NPD is object for outsourcing. It is also found that thematicknowledge is the most important type of knowledge to efficiently integrate to achieve highinnovation performance and that a higher degree of processes and culture supportinginvolvement, increase knowledge integration when outsourcing activities in the NPD process.

  • 161.
    Rundquist, Jonas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Practices for NPD collaboration: From idea to market launch2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is known that awareness and use of methods and processes for NPD raise thesuccess rate of NPD projects. PDMA’s studies indicate that the use of NPD processesis increasing. However, their sample covers only large firms and addresses samples ofonly US firms. The present paper focuses on the use of methods and processes inmedium sized firms. The study is a repeat study of a survey presented at the EIASMconference in Sofia Antipolis in 2002 and later published in 2004. This survey willbe repeated in Swedish firms every fifth year. It was originally motivated by the repeated PDMA survey of NPD practices.The survey of 2007 has a general purpose to describe practices for NPD in medium sized firms and make a comparison over time possible in order to find trends or changes. But as a special theme the 2007 survey maps: a) sources for new ideas (“the fuzzy front end”), and b) methods and practices for collaboration when outsourcing NPD.

  • 162.
    Rundquist, Jonas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The ability to integrate different types of Knowledge and its effect on Innovation Performance2012Inngår i: International Journal of Innovation Management, ISSN 1363-9196, E-ISSN 1757-5877, Vol. 16, nr 2, artikkel-id 1250014Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of a firm’s ability to integrate knowledge on their innovation performance, in order to help firms prioritize their resources used for knowledge integration more effectively. Data were collected from a survey mailed to R&D managers in firms with between 100-1000 employees in a cross-section of industries. Five hypotheses were tested using multiple regression analysis with and without interaction terms. The results indicate that a categorization of knowledge is useful for understanding knowledge integration. The study also shows that the ability to integrate domain-specific knowledge is significantly related to innovation performance. Furthermore, the results indicate that technology turbulence in the industry has a positive moderating effect on the above relation. Managerial implications suggest how managers can focus their efforts in order to effectively integrate knowledge in product development projects. © Imperial College Press.

  • 163.
    Rundquist, Jonas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The interactive decision when outsourcing new product development2011Inngår i: Research on Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management 2009‐2011: Introducing the research area of Innovation science / [ed] Sven-Åke Hörte, Halmstad: Högskolan i Halmstad , 2011, 1, s. 83-101Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on the outsourcing of new product development (NPD) in medium‐sized firms, and it specifically focuses the decisions connected to outsourcing. Although the model presented in the article is probably useful for small and large firms, the firms in the empirical study are medium‐sized. NPD is a knowledge‐intensive line of activities that requires the ability to handle uncertainties and it is very dependent on the individuals involved in the process. In this way it differs from production, which (especially when producing standard items in a large scale) is easier to control, monitor and evaluate the costs.

    Outsourcing can lead to advantages in the form of lower costs, access to knowledge or other resources (labs, funding etc.) as well as access to new markets, but it can also result in aknowledge drain, lower motivation among in‐house staff or an increased level of dependency on external organisations. A decision model is presented in this article that describes the decision process when outsourcing NPD.

  • 164.
    Rundquist, Jonas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Al-Shalabi, Ammar
    Multimedia University, Melaka, Malaysia.
    Outsourcing and organizing NPD at emerging markets: a survey of Malaysian firms2010Inngår i: International Journal of Business and Emerging Markets, ISSN 1753-6219, E-ISSN 1753-6227, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 213-234Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Malaysian manufacturing firms need New Product Development (NPD) methods as tools for boosting their ability to survive. The purpose of this study is to investigate NPD practices in Malaysia, especially practices for outsourcing NPD and organizing NPD. The objectives were achieved by using a mail survey addressing companies in the automotive, chemical, and electrical industries. The results of the survey indicate that the NPD practices used in Malaysian firms focus more on production cost and manufacturability, whereas the need for increased knowledge receives lower priority. The results also reveal a major difference in practice between locally owned firms and subsidiaries of multinational companies.

  • 165.
    Rundquist, Jonas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Al-Shalabi, Ammar
    Multimedia University, Melaka, Malaysia.
    Use of processes and methods in NPD: A survey of Malasian industry2009Inngår i: International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management (IJITM), ISSN 0219-8770, Vol. 6, nr 4, s. 379-400Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, there has been a considerable interest for New Product Development (NPD) in Malaysian firms. The purpose of this study is to highlight the use of NPD processes and methods in Malaysian industry with focus on the formal NPD-processes, NPD Strategies, Outsourcing of NPD activities, and the Organizing of NPD. A total of 72 useful questionnaires were analyzed in the study. The results from the study are compared with the results from similar studies that have been carried out in US and Sweden in the same context. The results indicate that the use of formal NPD-processes, in Malaysia, is markedly lower than in USA and Sweden. © 2009 World Scientific Publishing

  • 166.
    Rundquist, Jonas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Chibba, Aron
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    The use of processes and methods in NPD: A survey of Swedish industry2004Inngår i: International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management (IJITM), ISSN 0219-8770, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 37-54Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research often suggests that formal New Product Development (NPD) processes increase the success rate of NPD projects in a firm. However, recent studies indicate a relatively low usage of formal NPD-processes. Very few studies of NPD practices have been carried out in contexts other than that of the US, thus it is of interest to explore whether or not important differences exist. The present study aims to identify the use of and practices within formal NPD-processes in Swedish manufacturing firms and to compare the results with a study conducted in a US context. The results indicate that differences exist in for example reward systems for NPD teams.

  • 167.
    Rundquist, Jonas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Emmitt, Stephen
    Loughborough University, School of Civil and Building Engineering, UK.
    Halila, Fawzi
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Hjort, Bengt
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Larsson, Bengt
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Construction Innovation: Addressing the Project–Product Gap in the Swedish Construction Sector2013Inngår i: International Journal of Innovation Science, ISSN 1757-2223, E-ISSN 1757-2231, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 1-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction sector is often accused of being inefficient, conservative and noninnovative, although some commentators have suggested that the construction sector is not backward, it is merely different to other industries. One of these differences is the uniqueness of construction projects, which are determined by the characteristics of the site, interaction of project participants (also partly site specific) and the relationship between contractors and building product producers (which changes from one project to another). These factors are known to colour construction innovation. Previous research into the Swedish construction sector has identified a significant gap between the building product producers who are 'product focused' and the contractors who are 'project focused', with concerns expressed about effectiveness of communication between two. The findings of previous research imply, both implicitly and explicitly, that this gap may be hindering innovation within the construction sector. This appears to have implications for those concerned with construction, the building users and society as a whole. In this paper the authors provide an extensive review of the literature and research findings from which a number of unique insights are offered. The reasons for the gap between producers and contractors are discussed and a number of innovative measures are proposed that may help to bridge the gap, and hence improve innovation systems. The paper concludes with some practical findings for producers and contractors as well as some thoughts on where future research should be targeted.

  • 168.
    Rundquist, Jonas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Florén, Henrik
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Fischer, Sebastian
    Ludwigshafen Rhine University, Ludwigshafen am Rhein, Germany.
    Entrepreneurial orientation and Human Resource Management: Effects from HRM practices2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    From previous research it can be concluded that entrepreneurial orientation, as it for instanceinvolves organizational learning shaped by creativity, individual commitment and teamwork, can beinfluenced by human resource management practices. This paper aims to further explore the relationship between HRM practices andentrepreneurial orientation in large established firms. More specifically, our purpose is to add indepthknowledge of the influence of HRM practices on entrepreneurial orientation. Usinga a survey, data from a sample of Swedish and German manufacturing firms in high‐ and medium high‐techmanufacturing industries, and firms in knowledge‐intensive services sectors was analyzed. The results suggest that it is only in the case of training & development including entrepreneurial aspects actually lead to increased entrepreneurial orientation.

  • 169.
    Rundquist, Jonas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Halila, Fawzi
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Outsourcing of NPD Activities: A best practice approach2010Inngår i: European Journal of Innovation Management, ISSN 1460-1060, E-ISSN 1758-7115, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 5-23Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to improve our understanding of outsourcing NPD, and specifically of factors affecting the outsourcing decisions, by exploring the practices of the most innovative firms.

    Design/methodology/approach – An internet based survey sent in winter 2008 to 494 medium-sized firms in four industries. The response rate was 77.3%. Sample was split into the best firms and the rest, and a best practice analysis was performed with correlation analysis.

    Findings – The best firms focus on knowledge issues to a higher extent, while cost and geographical proximity are more important for the rest firms. The best firms prioritize knowledge integration and development of knowledge about the outsourcing process higher.

    Research limitations/implications - The sample is taken from medium-sized Swedish manufacturing firms. Future samples need to be expanded to further generalize the conclusions. Results show that further research combining resource and cost perspectives are needed.

    Practical implications – Managers are recommended to not only find access to needed knowledge, but also give time to integration on a personal level, as this protect knowledge and lower costs in the long run.

    Originality/value – Studies of outsourcing NPD are few and, to our knowledge, no quantitative studies on the topic have been made.

  • 170.
    Rundquist, Jonas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Tell, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping, Sweden.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    The Effects of Knowledge Integration on New Product Development Performance2011Inngår i: School of Business, NFF 2011 August 20-24, Stockholm: Stockholm University, 2011, s. 132-132Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The knowledge needed for development of new products is becoming increasingly complex and distributed. There is a need for firms to develop their capabilities for knowledge integration. Although prior knowledge-based literature has pointed to the importance of knowledge integration for competitive advantage, our understanding of how the integration of different types of knowledge affects new product development (NPD) performance is still limited. We quantitatively examine the effect of the integration of different types of knowledge on performance in NPD. Knowledge integration refers to the process of combining specialized but complementary knowledge. In this article we seek to study the effects of knowledge integration on NPD performance. Previous studies point to the positive effects of knowledge integration on NPD performance, but they do not distinguish between different types of knowledge in examining these effects. This article therefore seeks to contribute to this emerging literature by explicitly studying the integration of different types of knowledge and the effects that such integration have on NPD performance. We draw upon a classification of knowledge suggested by Ullman (1997) in discussing what types of knowledge that is particularly pertinent in engineering practices. That is, what knowledge engineers draw upon in conducting design and development work. We address the types of domain-specific knowledge, procedural knowledge, and general knowledge integration. Three hypotheses suggesting that the capabilities for integration of each type of knowledge respectively affect NPD performance positively are tested. A fourth hypothesis suggests that there are complementarity effects between integration of the three types of knowledge upon NPD performance. Data was collected during 2009 from a sampling frame of 355 medium-sized Swedish manufacturing firms in four industries. We received 193 valid answers, i.e. a 54% response rate) Hypotheses were tested with standard OLS regression together with EFA and CFA analysis. The results provide support for the first three hypotheses, while the fourth one was rejected. This implies that capabilities to integrate domain-specific, procedural and general knowledge are all independently affecting NPD performance positively, but no combined effect above and beyond the individual variables. This indicates that one knowledge type can be integrated without an absolute need to integrate two types or all three types.

  • 171.
    Shui, Yinzi
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wu, Yuesi
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Internationalization of firms through acquisition: A case of post-acquisition market integration management in Chinese market2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 172.
    Solberg Søilen, Klaus
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    An overview of articles on Competitive Intelligence in JCIM and CIR2013Inngår i: Journal of Intelligence Studies in Business, ISSN 2001-015X, E-ISSN 2001-015X, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 44-58Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an overview of fifty-one articles from the Journal of Competitive Intelligence and Management (JCIM) posted on the Strategic and Competitive Intelligence Professionals´ webpage. It also looks at sixty-tree randomly selected articles out of about 250 from the Competitive Intelligence Review (CIR), published between 1996 and 2001. The first analysis is based on a comparison with eleven different variables that have been picked out from each of the articles. Findings: The most common country where the authors’ come from is the United States of America. Sixty-one of the eighty-three authors have a higher degree, first of all MBA and/or Ph.D. North American authors have a higher degree than authors from Europe. Authors from North America have contributed with fifty-seven percent of the proposals for further research of a total of twenty-one proposals. Fourteen articles have a professional author. The rest are academic contributions. The main topic in these articles is how to develop Competitive Intelligence (CI) but also how to define CI. The articles have different methodological approaches, qualitative and quantitative. Seventy tree percent have a qualitative approach and of those there are thirty-seven percent that also have a qualitative approach. For the second analysis dedicated to CIR one clear conclusion points to the large number of articles which resulted from the introduction of the Economic Espionage Act of 1997. Most contributions at CIR come from practitioners.

  • 173.
    Solberg Søilen, Klaus
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Exhibit Marketing & Trade Show Intelligence: Successful Boothmanship and Booth Design2013 (oppl. 1)Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 174.
    Solberg Søilen, Klaus
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2). KPMG Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    In Search of a Methodological Basis for the Critique of Neoclassical Economics: David A. Westbrook, Out of Crisis: Rethinking our Financial Markets2013Inngår i: Telos, ISSN 0090-6514, E-ISSN 1940-459X, Vol. Winter, nr 165, s. 185-188Artikkel, omtale (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Methodological changes within the study of man are inspired not only through new scientific insights and discoveries, but also through crises, wars, and the appearance of new political masters. Within the study of economics, the edifice of neoclassical economics is now standing on the scaffold seeking pardon among the spectators and hoping the executioner has been called away and the verdict redrawn. The critique is not new, but has been continuous and gaining in strength especially over the past three decades, particularly after the recent financial crisis. In the wake of this devastating event, more people are questioning the usefulness…

  • 175.
    Solberg Søilen, Klaus
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Tontini, Gerson
    Regional University of Blumenau, Businness Management School, Blumenau, Brazil.
    Knowledge Management systems and Human Resource Management policies for Innovation benchmarking: a study at ST Ericsson2013Inngår i: International Journal of Innovation Science, ISSN 1757-2223, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 159-171Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper shows in theory how a knowledge management system can be built as a human resource management (HRM) function. The solution builds on the notion of innovation benchmarking. A case study from the company ST Ericsson illustrates the discrepancy between what the company needs to do and what the HRM function is able to support when it comes to innovation. The study shows the ability of employees in the company to innovate within key success factors. More worryingly, it also shows key areas where the company is not able to compete and where it is not getting any support from the HRM function. At the end, we identify a number of directions for future research in the field of innovation benchmarking as it relates to HRM policies.

  • 176.
    Svensson, Göran
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Forskningsprocess och artikelstruktur i internationell publicering?2010Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 177.
    Svensson, Göran
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Komplexitetsteori i strategiforskning?2010Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 178.
    Tell, Joakim
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Designing management training using a learning network approach2011Inngår i: Research on Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management 2009‐2011: Introducing the Research Area of Innovation Science / [ed] Sven-Åke Hörte, Halmstad: Högskolan i Halmstad , 2011, s. 103-116Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In academic literature there are many references to empirical research about collaborations between companies and Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in different network constellations in order to create change and development. However, when reading about all these different collaborations, it becomes obvious that the organising principles and under which conditions networks are effective to use as a development method are not clearly identified. In order to understand this complex area in a better way, I propose that researchers first need to understand the day‐to‐day work of managers and the issues they are confronted with in order to use a network approach as a transformation process that enables learning, in order to design a HEI‐based management training programme that supports action and therefore enables change. Another point of departure in this article is that, when using a learning network approach to design a management training programme, it is important to communicate and make different dimensions of learning very clear. Traditionally, it is often the cognitive (know how) and the social knowledge (know who) that is in focus when using a network perspective to work with management development. What I want to draw attention to in this article is that the psychodynamic knowledge (know myself), which creates self‐confidence and the courage/motivation to work with and try out new ideas, is important if change is to be reached. Also, this will create learning, not only at an individual level, but also at an organisational level, when knowledge is made clear through action (trial and error).

  • 179.
    Tontini, Gerson
    et al.
    School of Business Management, Regional University of Blumenau (FURB), Rua Paraguai 436 #101, Blumenau, SC 89050-020, Brazil.
    Solberg Söilen, Klaus
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Silveira, Amélia
    Graduate Program in Business Management, Nove de Julho University (UNINOVE), Rua Tucuna 600 #132, São Paulo, SP 05021-010, Brazil.
    How do interactions of Kano model attributes affect customer satisfaction? An analysis based on psychological foundations2013Inngår i: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 24, nr 11-12, s. 1253-1271Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses how the interactions of services' attributes, classified by the Kano model, affect customer satisfaction. The present research argues that foundations of the attributes interactions' impact on customers' satisfaction are similar to interactions between intrinsic and extrinsic psychological motivators. To carry out this research, data were collected by interviewing a sample of 119 customers of pizzerias and 152 customers of video rental stores. The results show that the impact of a superior level of ‘attractive’ and ‘one-dimensional’ attributes on customer satisfaction, decreases from 30% to 70% if ‘must-be’ or ‘one-dimensional’ attributes are unfulfilled. These findings support the assumption that it is important to achieve adequate performance of ‘must-be’ and ‘one-dimensional’ attributes before offering ‘attractive’ attributes or hoping to achieve superior performance of ‘one-dimensional’ attributes. It is important for a company to be able to identify the Kano model category for each attribute. The managerial implication suggests that companies should identify and keep ‘must-be’ and one-dimensional attributes on an adequate performance level. Only in this way attributes classified as ‘attractive’ or ‘one-dimensional’ can bring differentials in the market and have full effect on customer satisfaction. No previous papers have studied how the interaction of attributes with different Kano model classifications impact on customer satisfaction and relate it with psychological aspects. This study may lead to the development of more refined methods to design, manage and improve services and products, finding not only attributes relevancy, but also their best combination.

  • 180.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    A Born Global Company’s Way to Growth2011Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a Born Global company is studied, with the aim of investigating how it has developed from 1990 to 2007. Which growth stages can we identify over time? Which factors influence these stages? The method used is the case study and the information was gathered through interviews and secondary data. For the theoretical approach, I have used the indicative ‘stages’ of the growth/life-cycle modelsby Churchill and Lewis (1987) and Smallbone and Wyer (2006), a framework focusing oninternational growth, international market strategy, international entrepreneurship and cultureand international organisation. The Rubber Company was studied from 1990 to 2007, which suggests that three CEOs have been in charge of the company; the founder, external CEO I and CEO II. The company’s development and expansion over the study period were followed and related to the stages of growth/life-cycle model and theoretical framework. The stages analysed are the Entrepreneurial stage (1990–1999), the Expansion stage (2000–2004) and the Industrial stage (2005– ). The three CEOs took part in different stages, which affect firm development. The Rubber Company is still growing and very entrepreneurial, over time lifting its development curve to newlevels. Market strategy has changed from distributors to subsidiaries. Unknown global segmentshave been developed. Critical incidents over time have been the founder’s way of acting during the second stage in relation to CEO I, who came from a much larger company with a strong support staff. In combination with the fact that the founder was still the owner and had the power, this did not make it easy to change the company to a new stage of development. He also did not have the experience of working in a smaller company. CEO II already had a close relationwith the founder and thus he was more quickly accepted. During the Industrial stage, the new investor supported the firm’s strong development.The ongoing Entrepreneurial stage on the business development curve indicates even faster growth for the Rubber Company. For that situation, entrepreneurship strategies must be more open, decentralised and teamwork-oriented. Another management style is later required to leadand expand the company. Since 2005, the company has been in the Industrial stage; i.e.expanding even faster in the global market. A value-added pricing concept has been developed. The company’s external focus on customers and relations is very important. CEO II suggests that traditional multinationals have too much of an internal focus. The learning process in the Rubber Company has been present from inception, but the firm hashow become more professionalised through international workshops. For the culture and vision,it is important to agree on the internal values of the company all over the world – the “CompanyWay” of doing business. Entrepreneurship strategies have changed from an entrepreneur deciding in most cases to a more coaching style of leadership. New owners have now invested inthe company and capital for expansion is available.The most interesting question is how the Rubber Company grows over time and how management continuously manages to shift the life-cycle curve to new levels. A Born Global company grows and develops in its special way according to the prevailing theory. However,when it is growing, it is more and more like a traditional company but still with an extreme entrepreneurial focus, in some cases because of the founder.

  • 181.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Born Globals: Rapid International Growth in New Ventures2012Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The traditional theories developed by Johanson and Vahlne (1977, 1990) and other researchers ofinternationalisation have long been questioned because of the fast-changing environment and deregulations. In particular, for Born Global firms, namely a company that has achieved a foreign sales volume of at least 25% within three years of its inception and that seeks to derive significant competitive advantage from the use of resources and the sales of outputs in multiple countries (Andersson and Wictor, 2003, p. 254), itis a question of surviving by establishing in many markets in a short period of time.This thesis summarises five papers. Paper 1 showed that the CEO´s perception and the fast changing environment push small firms to internationalise and that younger CEOs have an important role in expanding the firm. This is often because of their experiences accumulated inthe organisation over time or because the entrepreneur has been exposed to the international arena and information technologies, which can explain why some small firms continue to expandtheir international activities.The conceptual framework in paper 2 comprises four factors that influence Born Global firms:entrepreneurs, networks, industry and globalisation. To succeed in establishing a global firm it isimportant to have certain resources, such as an entrepreneur with international experience and strong networks. A Born Global entrepreneur is distinguished by his interest and motivation todo business abroad and his vision for the future.Paper 3 focuses on the importance of Born Globals’ foreign market channel strategies. The decision to establish a new market is of great importance for the long-term survival of the company. In this comparative case study, four companies that display different foreign entrymodes are compared. We found that these companies had very different market channel strategies even though they internationalised rapidly.Paper 4 is a study of four companies that indicates that their CEOs are active and involved in making strategic decisions in all parts of a Born Global firm’s value chain activities. Decisions on localisation and outsourcing are influenced by the entrepreneur’s definition of his firm’s core competencies. However, factors outside the firm are also an influence: potential suppliers,outsourcing of manufacturing and potential partners in distribution, especially relating to the riseof new emerging markets (e.g. China). The importance of coordinating value chain activities also influences the localisation of different activities. Entrepreneurs aim to arrange value-creating networks to secure their core manufacturing processes and close relations with local suppliers when they outsource products. In such a case, the entrepreneur can be seen as an orchestrator ina virtual organisation. The ‘global factory’ concept can be adjusted to fit locally for a Born Global company and its environment. Paper 5 focuses on a Born Global company’s way to grow and is a longitudinal study of acompany over 17 years (1990–2007) and its development in the different stages in the growth/life-cycle curve. From inception, the vision is already strong to go global. During thea bove period, the founder, external CEO I and CEO II were interviewed to assess whatcharacterises the different stages of growth over time compared with the growth/life-cycle model of Smallbone and Wyer (2006). The company is still growing and very entrepreneurial. The leadership has changed from a deciding style to a more coaching way of leading. Themanagement and organisation have changed to be more professionalised and team-oriented over8time. Entrepreneurial teams have also become more and more important for transferring knowledge to individuals in the organisation.The traditional models of Johanson and Vahlne (1977, 1990) point out that learning at an organisational level is a main factor in international development over time. However, a way to speed up the development of Born Global firms is entrepreneurial background with long experience and different knowledge serving his vision for the company. Nevertheless, theknowledge transfer from the entrepreneur and his team to the organisation is important. Knight and Cavusgil (2004, p. 137) find that “Born Globals pose an important new challenge to traditional views on the internationalization of the firm”.Johanson and Vahlne (2003) study what happens in companies because of rapid changes in the environment. They suggest that the Uppsala model is still valid, but that the early stage of a firm’sinternationalisation is important to study. Organisational learning is carried out at an individual and an entrepreneurial level. Johanson and Vahlne (1977) focus on the importance of the people working in a market and their learning. In their latest published article by Schweizer et al. (2010,pp. 368–369), they argue that “it is the liability of outsidership rather than the liability offoreignness that gives rise to internationalization difficulties. Outsidership implies that the firm isnot a member of relevant networks. Internationalization can be seen then as taking steps tobecome an insider in relevant networks in focal foreign markets … In their last study it emphasizes the entrepreneurial facets of a firm’s internationalization process”. The above defined background of the entrepreneur, his entrepreneurial way of working and his experience from former jobs also means that he already has the networks necessary for international expansion.The entrepreneur and his team in a Born Global company must from the beginning have the capability and knowledge of the environment and market in a country to establish in the new market as well as the understanding of how to manage the company and organisation. If they do not have this knowledge, they must have a network from which to extract this information. The entrepreneur has to be strongly involved in building and sustaining relationships with both customers and suppliers. In the organisation, he also has to build a powerful culture with decentralisation and empowered employees. The leadership in these companies is charismatic,employees are empowered in their jobs and the teams are entrepreneurial. Employees are therefore also allowed to make their own decisions within certain limits. Networks are important to overcome “perceived barriers on cultural and regulatory issues, those associated with locating partners, plus other matters deemed important to specific management teams” (Crick, 2009, p. 466). Coviello and Cox (2006) find that a company’s network is aresource when it is working with acquisitions and important recruitments. For companies growing over many years such as the Rubber Company studied herein, networks change and the chairman’s networks can be of great importance when core individuals should be recruited as an important part of the company’s strategies.

  • 182.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The importance of value chain in born globals2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 183.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The Management of Value Chain Activities in Born Global Companies2011Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how Born Global companies’ value chain activities are managed and organised.

    Methodology

    This study explores how Born Global firms’ activities are managed and organised through qualitative research using secondary data and interviews with the entrepreneurs and CEOs offour Swedish Born Global firms.

    Findings

    This study indicates that CEOs are active in making strategic decisions in all parts of a Born Global firm’s value chain activities. Decisions on localisation and outsourcing are influenced by the entrepreneur’s definition of his firm’s core competencies. However, factors outside the firmare also an influence: potential suppliers, outsourcing of manufacturing and potential partners indistribution, especially relating to the rise of new emerging markets (e.g. China). The importanceof coordinating value chain activities also influences the localisation of different activities. The use of value-creating networks is important for Born Global companies. These networks,especially local ones, can also be seen in connection with the ‘global factory’ concept but adjusted to the Born Global Company and its international environment.

    Research limitations/implications

    This study provides a deeper understanding of how entrepreneurs in Born Global firms are involved in decisions regarding all parts of the value chain. A limitation is that it has focused onthe value activities within these firms. Future studies should also investigate how the relationship with other actors in the value chain (e.g. suppliers and distributors) influences the development of Born Global firms.

    Practical implications

    It is important to focus on strategic decisions in all parts of the value chain in global settings. The management team needs to create an organisation that can deal with operative matters and work without the direct supervision of top-level management.

    Originality/value

    This paper takes a holistic view of all parts of Born Global firms’ value chain activities and the role of the entrepreneur and management in the value chain, which few previous studies have investigated.

  • 184.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Andersson, Svante
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Charismatic leadership and empowerment in born globals2010Inngår i: McGill International Entreprenurship Conferences Series / [ed] Hamid Etemad, 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 185.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Andersson, Svante
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The Importance of Leadership and Vision in Born Globals2012Inngår i: Business and Management Research, ISSN 1927-6001, E-ISSN 1927-601X, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 13-25Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the beginning of the 1990s studies of Born Global companies has become a major topic in internationalizationliterature. Earlier research has pointed out the importance of the entrepreneur in the born global firm’s internationaldevelopment. Even if many studies have been done which identify the impact of entrepreneurs and management onfirms’ internationalisation and behaviour few studies have focused on leadership in Born Global Companies. Followingearlier research, the aim of this paper is to investigate how the entrepreneur uses his/her vision in Born Globalcompanies. The main findings and conclusions are that the entrepreneur and his/ her vision have an important role inthese companies. The vision is like an umbrella and affects many important parts of the company, such as organisation,communication, recruitment, knowledge transfer and other parts that will form the company’s culture. The born globalentrepreneurs create the company values and motivate the employees in the organisation. The Born Global leaders sharethe power with subordinates. It is crucial to delegate operational decisions to subordinates so the entrepreneur can workwith strategic issues fostering the firms’ international expansion. Communication is open and straight with an openatmosphere in the culture. Good communication is important when building goals, values and conveying the leader’svision. Even if the entrepreneurs motivate their employees in a positive way the entrepreneurs still have a tight control ofthe company. The main implications from this study are that the entrepreneurs in The Born Global firms have been ableto create an innovative culture in the firm that creates international growth.

  • 186.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Andersson, Svante
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The Importance of vision in born global companies2011Inngår i: Research on Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management 2009‐2011: Introducing the Research Area of Innovation Science / [ed] Sven-Åke Hörte, Halmstad: Högskolan i Halmstad , 2011, s. 37-53Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the entrepreneur uses his vision in Born Global companies. Design/methodology/approach – In this qualitative study, data has been collected by carrying out case studies of three companies. The main approach has been to study the role ofvision, leadership and communication in these companies. Findings – The entrepreneur and his vision is very important in a Born Global company. The vision is like an umbrella and affects many important parts of the company, such as communication,r ecruitment, knowledge transfer and other parts that will form the company’s culture. After a few years these items will help to create the company’s handbook, which will form the guidelines for how employees in the company work and act. Even if the entrepreneurs motivate their employees in a positive way, so that they can develop and do a good job, the entrepreneurs still must control the company. Research implications – This is an area where much more research needs to be done. In this study the entrepreneurs have been interviewed. To get more information the employees need to be interviewed. Practical implications – Implications for traditional small to medium‐sized enterprise (SME) companies could help to understand what happens in Born Global companies. Originality/value – This paper uses a view of the visionary perspective to study the three companies. This could be used by more traditional companies to discover new areas of potential.

  • 187.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Andersson, Svante
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Mullern, Tomas
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping, Sverige.
    Leadership and organization in born globals2013Inngår i: Current Issues in International Entrepreneurship / [ed] Hamid Etemad, Tage Koed Madsen, Erik S. Rasmussen, Per Servais, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013, s. 38-69Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 188.
    Wolfsteller, Corinna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wang, Yichen
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The interactive process of mass customization2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Expressing the individual personality with the help of the products, people use, and the mass customization are getting closer to our daily life. As a result, more and more companies have begun to implement mass customization in different industries. Also, flexible production becomes a key factor to win the market after more online customization appear and connect different demanders across the borders. Between companies and customers, there exists an important connection which is the interactive process influencing mass customization. An interactive process consists of three parts which are named: information about customers, trans-formation of data and use of information to produce more products. However, there are a lot of factors that will affect the interactive process and finally set thereby requirements for mass customization. During this research, the authors use a qualitative case study and deductive ap-proach to obtain a theoretical model. Through interviewees with two managers of Dooria AB and a visit of the factory in Kungsätter, the authors identified high quality approach, experienced employees, high loyalty of employees, flexibility of human capital, flexibility of production, feedback of customers, education information flow and interaction as important factors which influence the interactive process. Hence, this investigation provides insights about the interrelations between these factors. So, manager in similar industries can identify the situation of their own company and improve the efficiency mass customization.

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