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  • 151.
    Mogard, E.
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Olofsson, T.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bergman, Stefan
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kristensen, L-E
    Copenhagen University Hospital Fredriksberg and Bispebjerg, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Kvistgaard Olsen, J.
    Copenhagen University Hospital Fredriksberg and Bispebjerg, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wallman, JK
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, E.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Chronic Pain in Patients With Established Axial Spondyloarthritis and Assessment of Pain Sensitivity by Computerized Pneumatic Cuff Pressure Algometry: Results from the Spartakus Cohort2017In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 76, no Suppl. 2, p. 651-651Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Pain is a common symptom in all arthritides, and remains a problem also with better treatment options. In axial spondyloarthritis (ax-SpA), data on chronic pain remain scarce.

    Objectives: To study pain distribution, duration and intensity in ax-SpA, and relate this to disease status and measurement of pressure pain sensitivity.

    Methods: Consecutive patients (n=115) with clinical ax-SpA diagnoses (ankylosing spondylitis (AS) or undifferentiated axial spondyloarthritis (USpA)) were examined and answered pain questionnaires. Patients were categorised as having no chronic pain (NCP), chronic regional pain (CRP) or chronic widespread pain (CWP). Pressure pain sensitivity was assessed by computerized pneumatic cuff pressure algometry (CPA) on the dominant lower leg, and pain threshold, pain tolerance and temporal summation (assessed by the temporal summation index, TSI) were recorded. Differences in disease status and pressure pain sensitivity between patients with CWP versus NCP were assessed (Chi-square or Mann-Whitney U-test). Pressure pain sensitivity was also compared between patients with/without unacceptable pain levels (VAS pain >40 versus ≤40; Mann-Whitney U-test).

    Results: Fifty percent of patients reported CWP, irrespective of clinical diagnosis (AS 47%, USpA 53%), and more women than men reported CWP (59% versus 37%, p<0.001). Only 18% of all patients reported NCP. Overall, higher disease activity, pain intensity, worse fatigue, global health and function were observed among patients with CWP compared to those with NCP. There was a trend towards lower pain tolerance in patients with CWP compared to NCP (Table). Lower pain tolerance and higher TSI scores were observed among patients reporting VAS pain >40 versus those with VAS pain scores ≤40 ((mean (SD)) 51.9 (21.2) versus 68.1 (28.1), p=0.007; 0.73 (0.60) versus 0.55 (0.59), p=0.045). 2017, BMJ Publishing Group Limited.

  • 152.
    Mogard, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Rheumatology, Lund, Sweden & R&D Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Rheumatology, Lund, Sweden & R&D Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Department of Regional Health Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark & Danish Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, University Hospital of Southern Denmark, Sønderborg, Denmark.
    Haglund, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). R&D Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    The combined effects of lifestyle habits on health-related quality of life, physical and mental functions in patients with spondyloarthritis2019In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 78, no Suppl 2, p. 2144-2144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Earlier studies have found strong correlations between worse health and an unhealthy lifestyle, such as not meeting recommendations of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, being overweight or obese and the use of tobacco in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA). The impact of more than one unhealthy lifestyle habit (LsH) is however, scarcely described.

    Objectives: To study the combined effects of unhealthy LsHs on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and physical and mental functions in patients with SpA. Differences between SpA subgroups and gender were also studied.

    Methods: Postal questionnaires were in 2009 and 2011 sent to all patients diagnosed with SpA and registered in the Skane Healthcare Register. This study included patients who at both time points responded to the survey, were ≥20 years, and had ankylosing spondylitits (AS), psoriatic arthritis (PsA) or undifferentiated spondyloarthritis (USpA). Cross-sectional data from the 2011 questionnaire were available for 1601 patients (AS n=455, PsA n=883, USpA n=263), with a mean age of 58 (13) years (52% women). Self-reported levels of weekly physical activity at moderate or vigorous intensity, (MVPA), use of tobacco (cigarettes and/or snuff) and BMI (overweight or obese) were dichotomized as “healthy” or “unhealthy”. The number of unhealthy LsH were then summarized and stratified into four groups (scoring 0-3, 0=no unhealthy LsH). HRQoL was assessed with EQ-5D (0-1, worst-best), and physical function with BASFI. Disease activity (BASDAI), pain, fatigue (0-10, best-worst), anxiety, and depression (HADa/d) (0-21, no distress-maximum distress) were also measured. Statistical analyses were performed with Chi Square test and ANOVA.

    Results: Fourteen percent (n=226) reported none of the studied unhealthy LsH, while 35% (n=555) reported one, 38% (n=611) two, and 13% (n=209) three unhealthy LsH. Reports of one and more unhealthy LsH had increasing negative impact on HRQoL (from mean 0.74 (SD 0.19) to 0.57 (0.30)), disease activity (from 3.2 (2.1) to 4.5 (2.3)), physical function (2.3 (2.1) to 4.4 (2.6)), VAS-pain (3.4 (2.3) to 4.8 (2.5)), VAS-fatigue (4.2 (2.7) to 5.5 (2.7)), anxiety (4.8 (4.2) to 5.6 (4.4)) and depression (3.3 (3.3) to 4.8 (3.8)) in patients with SpA (p=0.019-<0.001).

    Patients with PsA (p≤0.001) and men (p=0.040) reported more often ≥2 unhealthy LsHs, while patients with USpA were least likely to have ≥2 unhealthy LsHs (Figure 1,2). The negative impact on HRQoL, physical and mental functions still remained significant when stratified into different SpA subgroups and gender, except for anxiety in women, and for patients with PsA or USpA.

    Conclusion: Our findings support that the combined effect of unhealthy lifestyle habits have negative impact on many aspects of health. There is a need for interventions aiming at screening for not only one but several unhealthy lifestyle habits combined, and to offer coaching to increase behavioral change and promote better health. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

  • 153.
    Mogard, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Elisabet
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden & The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Spinal Mobility in Axial Spondyloarthritis: A Cross-Sectional Clinical Study2017In: Musculoskeletal Care, ISSN 1478-2189, E-ISSN 1557-0681, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 36-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Research concerning spinal mobility in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) has focused on ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and data on the clinical diagnosis of undifferentiated spondyloarthritis (USpA) are limited. The objective was to study differences in spinal mobility between axSpA subgroups AS and USpA, including gender differences.

    METHODS: A total of 183 patients with axSpA from a rheumatology clinic were included in the study. The earliest recorded spinal mobility measures (cervical rotation/flexion/extension/lateral flexion, tragus-to-wall distance, vital capacity, chest expansion, thoracic flexion, thoracolumbar flexion, lateral spinal flexion, lumbar flexion and intermalleolar distance) were obtained by specialized physiotherapists. Differences between subgroups were analysed using analysis of covariance, controlled for gender and disease duration.

    RESULTS: In the USpA group (n = 57), the mean [standard deviation (SD)] age was 41.6 (11.4) years, and disease duration was 13 (10.6) years, with 54% men. In the AS group (n = 126), the mean (SD) age was 48.4 (13.5) years, and disease duration 24.6 (13.3) years, with 77% men. Spinal mobility was less restricted in USpA versus AS patients (p ≤ 0.05), with a median (interquartile range) tragus-to-wall distance of 11 (10-12) cm versus 13 (11.3-18.5) cm; thoracolumbar flexion 9 (7-10) cm versus 6.5 (4-9) cm; lateral spinal flexion 29 (25-36) cm versus 21.3 (12-31) cm; lumbar flexion 4.5 (3.5-5.0) cm versus 3.5 (2.0-4.5) cm and intermalleolar distance 113 (102-121) cm versus 101 (86-114) cm. There were no differences between the subgroups in cervical mobility, vital capacity, chest expansion or thoracic flexion, and there were few gender differences, besides anthropometric measures.

    CONCLUSION: Patients with USpA and AS had similar cervical and chest mobility, while thoracic and lumbar mobility were more severely restricted in AS. There were few gender differences in either subgroup. Further studies, to understand the full impact of USpA on spinal mobility, are needed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 154.
    Möller, Bernd
    et al.
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Updated Peta atlas for each MS with the final level of district heating recommended in WP6: Deliverable 6.52018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents in brief the development and content of the Pan-European Thermal Atlas (Peta), with focus on the current update in response to project deliverable 6.5, which concerns for the final levels of district heating for each of the 14 member states to be recommended in WP6.

    The update refers to data that has been rendered in work package 2 (WP2) and consists of three main parameters: a high-resolution model of the heat demand and its density; the specific investment costs for district heating systems, and allocated volumes of industrial and energy sector excess heat for current and prospective district heating areas. All of these parameters represent spatially derived information that has been provided as data matrices to the energy systems modelling colleagues in WP6, as a basis for their assessment of national heating and cooling scenarios for the 14 member states (deliverable 6.4).

    In terms of dynamic maps, a new dynamic layer, labelled: Recommended DH levels, has been added to the Peta 4.2 online web map application on August 31, 2018, where it now is publicly available. This new layer contains recommendations to develop district heating at the local scale, based on current heat demand densities, temporally and spatially accessible excess heat from industries, from waste-to-energy facilities, from current power plant locations, and in terms of access to locally available renewable energy resources.

    In November 2018, the Pan-European Thermal Atlas is scheduled for a comprehensive update, rendering the third version (Peta 4.3), to be released at the 4th International Conference on Smart Energy Systems and 4th Generation District Heating conference (SES4GDH) in Aalborg, Denmark, on November 13-14. Apart from several other new dynamic layers to be introduced in this coming update (see sub-section 1.2.3), the new layer on recommended district heating levels, added here to the current Peta 4.2, will also be part of this general update.

  • 155.
    Möller, Bernd
    et al.
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany & Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Wiechers, Eva
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Grundahl, Lars
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Connolly, David
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Heat Roadmap Europe: Identifying local heat demand and supply areas with a European thermal atlas2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 158, p. 281-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2016 the first Strategy for Heating and Cooling of the European Union has shown that district heating and cooling networks can integrate renewable energies in an increasingly energy-efficient built environment. At the same time, the heating and cooling sector is probably the most diverse and least mapped component of the European energy system. The aim of the Pan-European Thermal Atlas is to improve the knowledge base for the geographical distribution of heat and cooling demands across Europe. Demand densities of the demanded thermal services themselves, the spatial coherence of these demands, and their location relative to sources of heating greatly affect the economy of district heating schemes compared to individual solutions. The objective is therefore to develop a comprehensive model, which can be used to a) quantify heat demands by density, b) group coherent areas with demands into prospective supply zones, c) produce supply curves for these zones, and d) ultimately calculate local energy mixes on the basis of allocated excess heat as well as renewable energy sources. The developed method spatially disaggregates national demand data to high-resolution geospatial data on urban structures. The resulting atlas allows for an advanced quantitative screening process, which can establish the basis for energy systems analyses relying on geographically explicit information on the heating demand and supply volumes and costs. The present paper presents version 4 of the Pan-European Thermal Atlas, which takes another step towards higher spatial resolution and confidence in comparison to its predecessors, version 1 to 3. For the first time, a 100m resolution heat atlas of Europe is being presented, which may help describing the heating sector in the required spatial resolution. By means of spatial statistical analyses using ordinary least square linear regressions, multiple spatial inputs such as population, degree of built-up and its derivatives are turned into a coherent model of the urban tissue. Plot ratios form the basis of models of heat demand in single and multi-family residential buildings as well as the service sector. Prospective district heating areas have been delineated, and the resulting zoning of heat supply has been linked to a resource-economic analysis, which allows for cost-supply studies in disaggregated form. The present heat atlas version 4 is now available for 14 countries that altogether represent 90% of the heat demand in the 28 European Union member states. First results are being presented with emphasis on the achieved methodological improvements. Moreover, a newly developed online mapping system is being presented, which will assist in mapping the new geography of heating and cooling demands and supplies. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 156.
    Möller, Bernd
    et al.
    Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems, Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany & Department of Planning, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wiechers, Eva
    Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems, Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Grundahl, Lars
    Department of Planning, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Søgaard Lund, Rasmus
    Department of Planning, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Vad Mathiesen, Brian
    Department of Planning, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Heat Roadmap Europe: Towards EU-Wide, local heat supply strategies2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 177, p. 554-564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper describes a quantitative method for preparing local heat supply strategies. Detailed spatial data on heat demand and supply are generated using combined top-down and bottom-up modelling for 14 member states of the European Union, which constitute 91% of its heat demand in buildings. Spatial analysis is used for zoning of heat supply into individual and collective heating. Continuous cost curves are used to model economically feasible district heating shares within prospective supply districts. Excess heat is appraised and allocated to prospective district heating systems by means of a two-stage network allocation process. Access to renewable energy sources such as geothermal, large-scale solar thermal, as well as sustainable biomass, is analysed. The result is a comprehensive and detailed set of heat supply strategies in a spatially discrete manner. The findings indicate that in the 14 European Union member states, up to 71% of building heat demand in urban areas can be met with district heating. Of this, up to 78% can be covered with excess heat, while the remainder can be covered with low enthalpy renewable energy sources. The conclusion shows the possibility of a largely de-carbonised heat sector as part of a smart energy system for Europe.  © 2019 Elsevier Ltd

  • 157.
    Möllerström, Erik
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Noise, eigenfrequencies and turbulence behavior of a 200 kW H-rotor vertical axis wind turbine2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) have with time been outrivaled by the today more common and economically feasible horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs). However, VAWTs have several advantages which still make them interesting, for example, the VAWTs can have the drive train at ground level and it has been argued that they have lower noise emission. Other proposed advantages are suitability for both up-scaling and floating offshore platforms.

    The work within this thesis is made in collaboration between Halmstad University and Uppsala University. A 200-kW semi-guy-wired VAWT H-rotor, owned by Uppsala University but situated in Falkenberg close to Halmstad, has been the main subject of the research although most results can be generalized to suit a typical H-rotor.

    This thesis has three main topics regarding VAWTs: (1) how the wind energy extraction is influenced by turbulence, (2) aerodynamical noise generation and (3) eigenfrequencies of the semi-guy-wired tower.

    The influence from turbulence on the wind energy extraction is studied by evaluating logged operational data and examining how the power curve and the tip-speed ratio for maximum Cp is impacted by turbulence. The work has showed that the T1-turbine has a good ability to extract wind energy at turbulent conditions, indicating an advantage in energy extraction at turbulent sites for VAWTs compared to HAWTs.The noise characteristics are studied experimentally, and models of the two most likely aerodynamic noise mechanisms are applied. Here, inflow-turbulence noise is deemed as the prevailing noise source rather than turbulent-boundary-layer trailing-edge noise (TBL-TE) which is the most important noise mechanism for HAWTs. The overall noise emission has also been measured and proven low compared to similar sized HAWTs.

    The eigenfrequencies of a semi-guy-wired tower are also studied. Analytical expressions describing the first-mode eigenfrequency of both tower and guy wire has been derived and verified by experiments and simulations.

  • 158.
    Möllerström, Erik
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Whatever became of the vertical axis wind turbine?2019In: Modern power systems, ISSN 0260-7840, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 12-16Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Alongside the story of today’s commercially successful, propeller-type, horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT), there is the lesser known story of the vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT). Once seen as a competitor in setting the standard for wind turbine design, utility-scale VAWTs have become a more and more unusual sight. However, utility-scale VAWT prototypes do from time to time still appear as attempts are made to establish vertical axis technology in a market totally dominated by horizontal axis machines. This is a retrospective survey of utility-scale VAWT projects, with turbines of 100 kW or more.

  • 159.
    Möllerström, Erik
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Wind Turbines from the Swedish Wind Energy Program and the Subsequent Commercialization Attempts – A Historical Review2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 4, article id 690Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes wind turbines of Swedish origin, 50 kW and above. Both the large governmental-funded prototypes from the early 1980s and following attempts to build commercial turbines are covered. After the 1973 oil crisis, a development program for wind turbine technology was initiated in Sweden, culminating in the early 1980s with the 2 and 3-MW machines at Maglarp and Näsudden. However, government interest declined, and Sweden soon lost its position as one of the leading countries regarding wind turbine development. Nevertheless, several attempts to build commercial wind turbines in Sweden were made in the following decades. Most attempts have, like the earlier prototypes, used a two-bladed rotor, which has become synonymous with the Swedish wind turbine development line. The current ongoing Swedish endeavors primarily focus on the niche-concept of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs), which is a demonstration of how far from the broad commercial market of Sweden has moved. Thus far, none of the Swedish attempts have been commercially successful, and unlike countries like Denmark or Germany, Sweden currently has no large wind turbine producer. Suggested reasons include early government interventions focusing on two-bladed prototypes and political disinterest, with wind power grants cut in half by 1985, and the domestic industry not being favored in government policies for deploying wind power.

  • 160.
    Möllerström, Erik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Gipe, Paul
    Wind-works.org, Bakersfield, CA, USA.
    Beurskens, Jos
    SET Analysis, Schagen, the Netherlands.
    Ottermo, Fredric
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    A historical review of vertical axis wind turbines rated 100 kW and above2019In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 105, p. 1-13Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes and introduces all vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) projects where 100 kW or larger turbines have been installed. The basis for the review is both existing literature and personal correspondence with people once involved in the different developments. By citing the most relevant work for each project, the paper will also work as an information hub, making information on these projects more accessible.

    Since the 1970s, there have been several VAWT projects with installed turbines of significant size, either as attempts to commercialize VAWTs, or as university led research projects, or as a combination of the two. Most have involved Darrieus turbines built in North America during the 1980s. However, H-rotors, which have always been a favored concept in Europe, have seen a revival during the 2010s.

    The reason VAWTs have never fully challenged the success of the horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) is too broad a question to answer here. However, the reasons some VAWT projects have failed are addressed in this paper. Besides the fact that many of the prototypes had terminal failures, most of the installed medium or large-scale VAWTs have to some extent had problems with metal fatigue and durability. Additionally, a lack of long-term interest from governmental or private funders, as well as the introduction of reliable HAWTs, was a recurring theme from those involved in VAWT development, regarding the reason VAWTs so far have failed to succeed. © 2018 The Author(s)

  • 161.
    Möllerström, Erik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Ottermo, Fredric
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Calculational model for first-mode eigenfrequency of a semi-guy-wired vertical-axis wind turbine tower2019In: Wind Engineering: The International Journal of Wind Power, ISSN 0309-524X, E-ISSN 2048-402XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A simple model for accounting for tower mass when estimating the first-mode eigenfrequency of a semi-guy-wired tower has been derived. This extends previous work where an analytical model of the semi-guy-wired tower of a 200-kW vertical-axis wind turbine was developed. The model was primarily used to estimate the eigenfrequencies as a result of adding guy wires to a free-standing tower (thus creating a semi-guy-wired setup). However, a weakness with the model was that the tower mass was accounted for in a rough way that essentially ignored the guy wires, which gave a larger-than-necessary error. In this work, an effective top mass, that takes into account the tower mass and the constraints from the guy wires, is derived to achieve a higher accuracy when estimating the first-mode eigenfrequency. This, together with the earlier models, gives a more complete method to estimate the eigenfrequencies for a semi-guy-wired wind turbine. © The Author(s) 2019.

  • 162.
    Möllerström, Erik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Ottermo, Fredric
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Comparison of inflow-turbulence and trailing-edge noise models with measurements of a 200-kW vertical axis wind turbine2019In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 1222, article id 012028Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Models of inflow-turbulence noise and turbulent-boundary-layer trailing-edge noise are compared to earlier measurements of a 200-kW vertical axis wind turbine so that conclusions regarding the origin of the aerodynamic noise can be drawn. The measurement campaigns, which aimed at establishing the noise emission value and locating the aerodynamic noise sources with a microphone array, are here both compared to further modified versions of the trailing-edge and inflow-turbulence models respectively. Unlike the case for horizontal axis wind turbine, inflow-turbulence noise is deemed as the prevailing noise mechanism. Reducing the self-induced turbulence could then be an effective way of lowering the noise levels for vertical axis wind turbines. Also, looking at the directivity of the inflow-turbulence noise model which indicate most noise in the cross-wind directions, a deviation from the standard downwind measurement position for measuring noise emission is suggested for the VAWT case.

  • 163.
    Nilsdotter, Anna K.
    et al.
    Departments of Orthopedics and Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden & Department of R&D, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Cöster, Maria E.
    Departments of Orthopedics and Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Departments of Rheumatology and Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Cöster, M. C.
    Departments of Orthopedics and Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    Patient-reported outcome after hallux valgus surgery — a two year follow up2019In: Foot and Ankle Surgery, ISSN 1268-7731, E-ISSN 1460-9584, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 478-481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Patients with hallux valgus deformity may require surgery but prospective patient-reported data is scarce.

    Methods: We evaluated 53 patients with a mean age of 55.3 years (SD 14.1, 50 women), who underwent surgery due to hallux valgus. They completed the PROMs SEFAS, EQ-5D and SF-36 before and 6, 12 and 24 months after surgery.

    Results: All patient-reported outcomes improved at 6, 12 and 24 months compared with the preoperative status. The greatest improvement occurred at 6 months: SEFAS Δ 10.0 (95% confidence interval 7.8–12.2), EQ-5D Δ 0.22 (0.15–0.29), EQ-VAS Δ 8.4 (4.4–12.4), PF SF-36 Δ 22.0 (14.6–29.3) and BP SF-36 Δ 30.6 (23.1–38.1).

    Conclusions: Hallux valgus surgery considerably reduced pain and improved function already within 6 months after surgery. The improvement between 6 and 24 months’ follow-up was minimal measured with PROMs.

    Level of clinical evidence: III — prospective observational cohort study.

    © 2018 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 164.
    Nilsson, Josefin E.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Liess, Antonia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Will planting of surface-flow wetlands improve nitrogen removal in the long run?2019In: Book of Abstracts: 8th International Symposium on Wetland Pollutant Dynamics and Control. 17 – 21 June, 2019. Aarhus University, Denmark / [ed] Carlos A. Arias, Carlos A. Ramírez-Vargas, Lorena Peñacoba-Antona & Hans Brix, Aarhus: Aarhus Universitetsforlag, 2019, p. 340-340Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Initial planting of created wetlands is common practice in order to, for instance, improve nitrogen (N) removal. It has been shown that vegetated surface-flow wetlands remove more N than non-vegetated surface-flow wetlands. However, changes in N removal as differently vegetated wetlands progress from an early successional stage to a mature system are less investigated.

    In our study, we followed three different wetland types of initial planting over the course of 12 years, with the aim to examine how planting of newly created wetlands affects long-term N removal. All our data were collected in the experimental wetland facility near Halmstad in south-western Sweden. The facility consist of 18 small (ca. 25 m2) surface-flow wetlands, equal in age, shape and size. At the time of creation, the 18 wetlands were randomly divided into three types. One type was then planted with emergent vegetation, one was planted with submerged vegetation and the last type was left unplanted for free development. Succession of vegetation was thereafter allowed to progress uninhibited in all wetlands.

    Our results confirmed that emergent vegetation wetlands initially removed more N than submerged vegetation and free development wetlands. In addition, our results showed that N removal in submerged vegetation and free development wetlands increased with ecosystem age, whereas N removal in emergent vegetation wetlands did not. N removal in all three wetland vegetation types converged when the wetlands reached a more mature state, around year 9 after wetland creation. However, although all wetlands contained emergent vegetation in year 9, proportion cover of emergent vegetation and vegetation composition still differed substantially between wetland types.

    We therefore conclude planting of created surface-flow wetlands with emergent vegetation will have a positive effect on N removal, but only during an early successional stage. Our study indicates it is not the emergent vegetation per se which results in higher N removal in more mature wetlands, but the maturation process in itself, since mature wetlands with different emergent vegetation cover achieved similar N removal. Initial planting will not result in higher N removal once the system has reached maturity.

  • 165.
    Norrström, Heidi
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Gong, Mei
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    InterSolar 2019 14–17 maj, München, Tyskland: Trendrapport från konferens och mässa2019Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är en summering av ett besök vid InterSolar-eventet som ägde rum 14-17 maj 2019 i München. Besöket genomfördes på uppdrag av Alexanderssoninstitutet inom deras projekt SolReg Halland med Julia Englund som projektkoordinator. Syftet med att besöka InterSolar var att göra en trendspaning i solenergibranschen. Uppdraget var att samla information för att analysera mönster. Frågorna som skulle besvaras var:

    ☼   Vilka trender kan vi lära av för att öka användningen av solenergi i Halland?

    ☼   Vad kan vi göra för att stärka solenergibranschen i Hallandsregion?

    Konferensen och mässan InterSolar Europe ingår i the Smarter E Europe the Innovation Hub for New Energy Solutions. Deras syfte är dels att uppmärksamma de innovatörer som driver omställningen av energisystemen och dels att fungera som mötesplats för solenergibranschen. Bokningsbara konferensrum fanns tillgängliga över hela konferens- och mässområdet.

    Konferensen InterSolar marknadsfördes tillsammans med tre andra konferenser 14-15 maj;

    • ees Europe —för lagring av elektrisk energi
    • Power2drive Europe — för infrastruktur, laddning och e-mobilitet
    • Smart renewable systems — för interaktiva byggnader, smarta hem och lokala mikronät.

    Nästan samtidigt, 15-17 maj, genomfördes mässan InterSolar Europe tillsammans med tre andra mässor;

    • ees Europe —för lagring av elektrisk energi
    • Power 2 drive Europe — för infrastruktur, laddning och e-mobilitet
    • EM-power — för intelligent energianvändning inom industrin och bebyggelse.

    Hela konceptet genomförs såväl i Europa som i Asien, Sydamerika och Nordamerika men vid olika tidpunkter på året.

  • 166.
    Olsson, Charlotte M.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bernhardsson, Lina
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Electromyographic Analysis of Left and Right Side Gluteus Medius in Unilateral and Bilateral Bodyweight Exercises2017In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 49, no 5S, p. 464-465Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 167.
    Olsson, Charlotte M.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Fälth, Jenny
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Ahlebrand, August
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Sex-Differences In Bench Press Muscle Activation With Pre-Exhaustion Of Triceps Brachii2018In: Conference Abstracts, 2018, p. 67-68Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Pre-exhaustion is a resistance training method which activates a stronger single-joint muscle to momentary exhaustion directly before a multi-joint exercise including the pre-exhausted muscle. This results in greater recruitment of muscles in the multi-joint exercise to further increase muscle strength. The pre-exhaustion method in bench press has mainly been studied in men and it is uncertain if sex-differences exists. Men are stronger than women in absolute strength, especially in the upper body but if this holds true for upper body relative strength is debated. The purpose was to investigate muscle activity by surface electromyography (EMG) between women and men in bench press with and without pre-exhaustion of triceps brachii (TB) and to compare relative strength in 10RM bench press between the sexes.

    Methods: 15 women and 15 men in their 20s with weight lifting experience were recruited to the study. During the first session body composition and 10 repetition maximum (10RM) bench press were determined Participants performed both protocol A and B in a cross-over design on separate days. Protocol A began with 10 RM bench press, five minutes recovery, pre-exhaustion exercise (triceps extensions to failure) immediately followed by a second round of bench press with the same 10RM load as before pre-exhaustion. Protocol B started with triceps extensions to failure immediately before bench press at their before established 10RM, five minutes of recovery then they performed 10RM bench press again. IN both protocols, EMG electrodes were attached to TB), pectoralis major (PM) and deltoideus anterior (DA). EMG values were normalized to maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) and expressed as % MVIC.

    Results: Bench press only EMG activity in %MVIC was similar between women and men, but analysis of variance (TB interaction p=0.02) showed that women had higher %MVIC in TB after pre-exhaustion whereas muscle activity decreased in men compared to bench press without pre-exhaustion. Yet, the number of repetitions completed in bench press after pre-exhaustion of TB were the same (women 4.3 ± 2.6 vs men 3.8 ± 2.2; p=0.55). As expected, in 10RM weight men (64.0 ± 7.1 kg) were stronger than women (37.1 ± 6.5 kg; p<0.01), however when related to fat free mass no difference was evident in relative strength between women and men.

    Conclusion: Men and women have similar muscle activation patterns during a 10RM bench press, but TB pre-exhaustion followed by a bench press appears to have a greater effect on TB activation in women compared to men. Absolute strength was greater in men, but normalized to fat free mass women and men had similar upper body relative strength.

  • 168.
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Fälth, Jenny
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Ahlebrand, August
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Andersson, Åsa
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Haglund, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bench press muscle activation with triceps brachii pre-exhaustion in females and males2019In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 37, no Supp1, p. 71-72, article id D2.P6.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 169.
    Ottermo, Fredric
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Möllerström, Erik
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nordborg, Anders
    Sound View Instruments, Borrby, Sweden.
    Hylander, Jonny
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Location of aerodynamic noise sources from a 200 kW vertical-axis wind turbine2017In: Journal of Sound and Vibration, ISSN 0022-460X, E-ISSN 1095-8568, Vol. 400, p. 154-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Noise levels emitted from a 200 kW H-rotor vertical-axis wind turbine have been measured using a microphone array at four different positions, each at a hub-height distance from the tower. The microphone array, comprising 48 microphones in a spiral pattern, allows for directional mapping of the noise sources in the range of 500 Hz to 4 kHz. The produced images indicate that most of the noise is generated in a narrow azimuth-angle range, compatible with the location where increased turbulence is known to be present in the flow, as a result of the previous passage of a blade and its support arms. It is also shown that a semi-empirical model for inflow-turbulence noise seems to produce noise levels of the correct order of magnitude, based on the amount of turbulence that could be expected from power extraction considerations.

  • 170.
    Paardekooper, Susana
    et al.
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Søgaard Lund, Rasmus
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Vad Mathiesen, Brian
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Chang, Miguel
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Petersen, Uni Reinert
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Grundahl, Lars
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    David, Andrei
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Dahlbæk, Jonas
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Kapetanakis, John
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Lund, Henrik
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Bertelsen, Nis
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Hansen, Kenneth
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Drysdale, David
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Heat Roadmap Europe 4: Quantifying the Impact of Low-Carbon Heating and Cooling Roadmaps: Deliverable 6.42018Report (Other academic)
  • 171.
    Parker, James
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    A multi-disciplinary approach to studying performance among high-level golfers: physiological and biomechanical aspects2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In competitive golf, the player’s ability to hit the ball a long distance affects the score in a positive way. Swing kinematics is considered an important factor in driver performance; one way of improving swing kinematics is through strength and power training. Subsequently, high-level golfers and their coaches often explore novel ways of increasing the distance of a shot, in particular driver carry distance (CD). This licentiate thesis presents two studies with the overall aim of studying how swing kinematic and physical characteristics are associated with driver performance among intercollegiate golf players. The studies report swing kinematics associated with driver performance (study 1) and the impact of isokinetic rotational training on driver performance and swing kinematic variables (study 2).

    The methods used were (1) a cross-sectional correlation study (n=15) and (2) an open trial intervention study (n=20). The studies investigated (1) the relationship between golf swing kinematics and driver performance, and (2) the impact of strength training on swing kinematics and driver performance variable.

    The results show variables that were distinctive for the club head speed (CHS) were mainly during the downswing: greater X-factor stretch; and higher pelvis peak speed. Whilst, factors distinctive to the regression model for CD were mainly at impact: reduced thorax rotation; and greater thorax lateral bend. Nine weeks of isokinetic training increased seated rotational force and power, peak arm speed and arm acceleration, ball speed, and CD more compared to isotonic training. Even though isokinetic training did not increase CHS, it did result in greater CD.

    This licentiate thesis contributes to the understanding of which variables influence driver performance, in particular CD, among high-level golfers. Segmental interactions (pelvis-thorax), lead arm speed and acceleration, isokinetic and isotonic training. These results may guide training interventions aiming to improve driver and golf performance among high-level golfers, particularly those with a background of strength training. Future studies could investigate how the interaction between swing kinematics, clubhead trajectory, and driver performance variables differ between male and female golfers.

  • 172.
    Parker, James
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Construct validity and test-retest reliability of the force-velocity profile in a golf specific rotation movement2017In: Book of Abstracts of the 22nd Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science – 5th - 8th July 2017, MetropolisRuhr – Germany / [ed] Ferrauti, A., Platen, P., Grimminger-Seidensticker, E., Jitner, T., Bartmus, U., Becher, L., De MArées, M., Muhlbauer, T., Schauterte, A., Wiewelhove, T., Tsolakidis, E., Cologne: European College of Sport Science , 2017, p. 294-294Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Assessing the isoinertial force-velocity (F-V) and power relationships has previously been found valuable to assist the understanding of the underlying mechanisms responsible for maximal power output. Multiple studies have investigated the F-V profile in the lower body, however, few studies have investigated F-V profiling in rotational movements, in particular, the golf swing. There is a need for isoinertial strength assessment protocols which can relate to final swing performance. The specific objective of the study was to investigate if measurements of force, velocity, and power using five different loads in a golf specific rotational movement are valid and reliable. Methods: 12 elite golfers (handicap -1.5±1.2) 8 men and 4 women performed a golf relevant rotational movement using five different loads (2, 6, 10, 14, and18 kg) in a motorised cable machine (1080 Motion AB, Sweden), measuring exercise peak force (PF), peak velocity (PV), and peak power (PP). In addition, normal-swing driver clubhead speed (CHSnor), and maximum clubhead speed (CHSmax) was measured using radar (Trackman, Denmark). The best of three trials for CHSnor, CHSmax, and the golf rotation was used for further analysis. Test-retest occasions were separated by 7-14 days. Statistical analysis: Change in mean (CIM) individual inter-session coefficient of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to analyze test-retest reliability, a Spearman's correlation between the rotation output variables and the CHS was used to assess construct validity.For reliability, an ICC of >0.70 was considered acceptable and results for correlation was considered excellent (≥0.90), good (0.75–0.89), moderate (0.50–0.74), poor (<0.50).was considered to be acceptable. Results: PF, PV, and PP for all of the five loads, apart from PP with 2 kg (CIM=12.2%, CV=14.1%, &ICC= 0.29) and PP with 18kg (CIM=8.6%, CV=19.1%, & ICC= 0.93), showed good reliability (CIM= 0.05-3.6%, CV=1.4-8.5%, & ICC= 0.84-0.97). PF (r=0.780-0.89 & 0.75-0.88), PV (r=0.76-0.86 & 0.78-0.85), and PP (r=0.75-0.84 & 0.76-0.85) for all loads had statistically significant strong correlations with both CHSnor and CHSmax respectively, apart from PF at 2kg (r=0.33). The average day to day variation among all loads for PF, PV and PP were 17.9 ±13.7 N, 0.30 ± 0.23 m/s, and 135.9 ± 128.1 W respectively. Greatest PP was achieved with the 14 kg load, although PP at 6, 10, and 14kg only differed by 90 W (8%) between these loads. Discussion: Isoinertial force-velocity-power profiling in high-level golfers can be assessed after a familiarization session. The strongest correlation among the rotational tests and CHS was between PF at 10 kg and CHSnor (r=0.89) and in general, the PF, PV, and PP variables had a strong relationship with both CHSnor and CHSmax. Such profiling may provide valuable information insight into the neuromuscular capabilities of high-level golfers and may be used to monitor specific training adaptions.

  • 173.
    Parker, James
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Scandinavian College of Sport, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hellström, John
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science. Swedish Golf Federation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Olsson, Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    The Variability in Kinematics and Carry in a Longitudinal Intra-individual Study of Elite Golfers2016In: Abstracts: July 18-22, 2016, 2016, p. 47-48Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To hit further and with high accuracy is important for success in the long game in golf. Even for very accomplished golfers a certain degree of between shot variance is evident even when trying to consistently repeat a successful shot. The consistency is determined by the biomechanics of the golfer, which influences club head speed (CHS) and position, and initial ball launch conditions, which in combination with environmental factors determine shot outcome. Previous research has identified several biomechanical variables associated with variance in CHS, including thorax rotation speed  and lead arm speed (LAS). Pilot data from our laboratory have indicated moderate non-significant relationship between CHS and carry in elite male golfers when studied over time. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the relationship between peak speed of the pelvis, thorax, and lead upper arm and carry over time, investigating both within and between session variability in elite male golfers.

    Methods: Six elite male golfers (handicap range -3 to +0.5) (age range 21-23 years) were included in this study. The golfers were studied on four separate occasions over a year.  Each test occasion included a golf specific warm-up of the golfers’ choice, then subjects were instructed to hit five balls with their driver and use the swing that was as ‘normal ‘as possible. Data on swing kinematics was collected using a four sensor electromagnetic motion capture system at 120Hz (Polhemus Inc. USA). Nine landmarks were digitized to define segment lengths, orientations and joint axes. CHS and carry were collected using a launch monitor (Trackman3e, v.3.2, Trackman, Denmark). The swing events were determined from sensors on the club; top of backswing was determined when the club changes direction from backswing to downswing. Impact was determined when the clubhead reaches the horizontal position equivalent to where it was at address. Angular velocities and displacements of the pelvis, thorax, and lead arm were calculated using standard biomechanics principles in conjunction with advanced motion measurement software (AMM 3D, USA). No data smoothing techniques were used before data analysis. IBM SPSS v.22 was used to analyse the data through hierarchical multilevel modelling (MLM). First a baseline model without predictors was run, then MLM was repeated with predictors where the first level of the data contained carry and kinematic data from each shot (within session level). At the second level, the carry scores were nested within sessions and analysed between sessions. Lastly, at the third level, the sessions were nested within players (between players). Carry was used as outcome variable and kinematics as predictor variables with a probability level of 0.05.

    Results: Initially MLM baseline model for carry only, was tested) without predictors. The results showed a statistical significant intercept (Estimate = 226.24, p<.001). Intraclass correlations (ICC) suggested that 32.5% of the variance in carry were present within sessions (level 1), whilst 38.0% were attributed to differences in carry between sessions (level 2). Results from the second MLM generated an improved model fit (-2 LL & BIC) where peak speeds of the pelvis, thorax, and lead upper arm were included as fixed effect covariates on level 1. The result showed that peak LAS was a statistically significant predictor of carry (β=.17, p=.001) whereas peek speed of neither thorax (β=-.04, p=.364) nor pelvis (β=.02, p=.673) had any statistically significant relationship with carry.

    Discussion: The present study found that 32.5% of variation in shot consistency can be explained at the within session level (influenced by for example variance in centeredness of impact), and 38% of variation in shot consistency can be explained at the between session level (influenced by for example environmental factors). Furthermore, LAS was the only significant predictor of within session variance in carry. Our results indicated peak LAS speed as a predictor of within session variance in carry and this is partly supported by previous research who found golfers with higher arm speed had higher ball velocity than golfers with lower arm speed(Healy et al., 2011). However, results from our pilot study differ from previous research which reports a relationship between peak thorax speed and driver performance. The difference could be due to our results being based on longitudinal data at intra-individual level, whereas previous studies have used a cross-sectional study design, different analysis methods and reported at an inter-individual level. In conclusion, our preliminary data show that within session LAS is a predictor of carry distance when the objective is shot consistency. Practitioners may consider training strategies to optimize arm speed when improve driving consistency among elite golfers. 

    References

    Healy, A., Moran, K. A., Dickson, J., Hurley, C., Smeaton, A. F., O'Connor, N. E., . . . Chockalingam, N. (2011). Analysis of the 5 iron golf swing when hitting for maximum distance. Journal of sports sciences, 29(10), 1079-1088. 

  • 174.
    Parker, James
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Scandinavian College of Sport, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hellström, John
    Swedish Golf Federation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Differences in kinematics and driver performance in elite female and male golfers2019In: Sports Biomechanics, ISSN 1476-3141, E-ISSN 1752-6116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to compare swing kinematic differences between women and men and investigate which variables predict clubhead speed (CHS) and carry distance (CD) whilst accounting for individual variation. Methods: Swing kinematics and driver performance data were collected on 20 (10 women) elite golfers (HCP 0.7 ± 1.4). We used Bayesian T-test for between sex comparison of swing kinematics and Bayesian Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to produce general linear models for CHS and carry distance for elite female and male golfers separately. Results: There was strong evidence that the driver performance variables CHS and CD were decreased in women compared to men, and two kinematic variables; time to arm peak speed downswing and angular wrist peak speed were slower in women. The ANCOVAs identified very strong to overwhelming evidence that participant as a fixed factor was a determinant of CHS for both women and men but was not a determinant of CD. Conclusion: when looking to enhance driver performance among high-level golfers, coaches should be aware that variables that determine CHS and CD differ among women and men and if the aim is to improve CHS coaches should not forget the importance of individual swing characteristics. © 2019 Parker, Hellström & Olsson. Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 175.
    Parker, James
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Hellström, John
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Swedish Golf Federation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Relationships between golf swing kinematics and driver performance in elite golfersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swing kinematics and driver performance are considered important factors in golf performance. In golf research clubhead speed (CHS) is commonly used as the driver performance measure, whereas carry distance (CD) is less investigated and together with final ball position determine the success of a drive. The aim of this study was to investigate which kinematic factors of the pelvis, thorax, and lead arm explain CHS and/or CD. Swing kinematics data on 15 elite golfers were collected using an electromagnetic 3-D system and a doppler-radar launch monitor system. Variables that emerged as important for both CHS and CD were: reduced pelvis rotation top of backswing (TOB); reduced X-factor TOB; and more thorax lateral bend TOB, along with greater thorax peak speed during the downswing. Variables that were distinctive for the CHS model were mainly during the downswing: greater X-factor stretch; and higher pelvis peak speed. Finally, factors distinctive to the regression model for CD were: reduced thorax rotation; and greater thorax lateral bend. Implications from the results suggest whilst greater peak pelvis speed and x-factor stretch effect CHS they do not significantly influence CD. Likewise, the variables unique to CD do not significantly influence CHS but may be a technical attributes which allow for more optimal clubhead delivery leading to improved CD.

  • 176.
    Parker, James
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Svetoft, Ingrid
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Andersen, Mark
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Schough, Camilla
    Eleiko Sports AB, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Erik
    Eleiko Sports AB, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Viberg, Erik
    Swedish Adrenaline, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bärwald, Anton
    Swedish Adrenaline, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Warpman, Sofia
    Halmstad Municipality, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Is self-determined motivation associated with the effects of an intervention aimed to increase physical activity and exercise levels? An 80-day follow-up2019In: Abstract book for the ISBNPA 2019 Annual Meeting in Prague, International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2019, p. 488-488Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: State-of-the-art technologies, for instance smart watches and smartphones, have the potential to positively influence physical activity and exercise in sedentary populations. Psychological factors, such as self-determined (SD) motivation, might influence the impact state-of-the-art technologies have on level of physical activity and exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate if self-determined motivation influences an intervention on both physical activity (PA) and exercise in a sedentary population.

    Methods: 16 participants (men = 5, women = 11) with a self-reported low level of PA over the last year and predominantly sedentary jobs volunteered to participate in the study. PA data (steps and exercise time) were collected over an 80-day period using a wrist-worn accelerometer (Apple-watch and iPhone). Motivation was measured with the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2. At the start of the study, each participant completed the questionnaire and received their Apple-watches. Data analysis: All PA and exercise data were recorded through the Apple-watch and via Health App. Data for PA (steps) and exercise time were then extracted and aggregated to daily totals. Statistical analysis: Group means and standard deviations were calculated. A linear regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between exercise time, PA, and SD, the R2 value effect size (ES) was used to estimate the magnitude of the differences. All data analyses were performed in MatLab (software, R2016b).

    Results/findings: SD motivation (3.9±0.9) had a medium (R2 = 0.09) but not statistically significant (p = .26) effect on the amount of moderate to high-intensity exercise time (33.3±39.6 minutes) during the 80-day period. There was no statistically significant effect (R2 = 0.003, p = .84) of SD on PA (12953±7717 steps).

    Conclusions: Given the small sample size, achieving a medium effect size has meaningful significance despite not achieving statistical significance. This result suggests that self-determined motivation effects the amount of daily exercise but not PA in a sedentary population. Combining technology and other strategies (e.g., motivational interviewing, coaching) to promote behavior change is promising, and these interventions should include theoretically derived behavior change techniques and take level of SD motivation into account.

  • 177.
    Parker, James
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Is perceived autonomy support provided by a coach related to the frequency of injury preventative behavior among elite golfers?2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that perceived autonomy support can have an indirect effect on behaviors via autonomous motivation (Hagger & Chatzisarantis, 2015). This indirect effect has, for example, been found in relation to injury preventive behaviors within sport (Chan & Hagger, 2012). Overuse and acute injuries are a common problem among golfers (McHardy & Pollard, 2005) and exploring factors that might increase the frequency of preventive behaviors is warranted. The aim of the study was to investigate if perceived autonomy support from the coach has an indirect effect on the self-reported frequency of injury preventive behaviors via the level of autonomous motivation. A total of 59 elite golfers, (handicap M=-1.2, SD=4.9, age M=21, SD=5.5), completed a questionnaire with questions related to autonomy support from the coach, autonomous motivation for injury prevention, and the frequency of five injury preventive behaviors (e.g., how often do you ask for advice about injury preventive exercises, how often to you train to improve your physiological status). A mediation analysis, using Hayes (2012) process macro in SPSS 20.0, was performed. The results showed that perceived autonomy support and autonomous motivation could explain 45% of the variance in the frequency of preventive behaviors, F (1,56) = 22.71, p < .001. The result showed that perceived autonomy support had a statistically significant positive indirect effect on the frequency of preventive behaviors via autonomous motivation (ab = .16, 95% CI = 0.05-0.34, p<.05). Based on the results, coaches should consider giving feedback that supports autonomous motivation among golfers when aiming to encourage injury preventative behavior. Injury prevention programs should include strategies to improve the athlete’s autonomous motivation to carry out preventive activities. Future research should investigate the relationship between estimated and the objective frequency of injury prevention behavior. 

  • 178.
    Parker, James
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Scandinavian College of Sport, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lagerhem, Charlie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Hellström, John
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science. Swedish Golf Federation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olsson, Charlotte M.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Effects of nine weeks isokinetic training on power, golf kinematics, and driver performance in pre-elite golfers2017In: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation, ISSN 2052-1847, Vol. 9, article id 21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    It has previously been shown that isotonic strength training can improve driver performance among golfers, though few studies have investigated effects of strength training on swing kinematics together with driver performance. In this study we investigated whether isokinetic rotational training could improve driver performance and swing kinematic variables amongst elite golfers.

    Methods

    Twenty competitive pre-elite golfers (handicap better than −3.0), 13 men and 7 women, were split into two groups, one group received the isokinetic power training (IK) alongside their normal isotonic pre-season strength-training and the other group continued with their normal isotonic pre-season strength-training regime (IT). The IK group completed 12 sessions of isokinetic power training on a standing rotation exercise (10% body weight at 1 m/s) and barbell squat (25 kg plus 10% body weight at 0.5 m/s). The IT group continued with their normal isotonic pre-season strength-training regime. Participants were tested for rotational power, lower body power, golf swing kinematics, and driver performance before and after a nine-week training period.

    Results

    After the nine-week training period both the IK and the IT groups increased their dominant side rotational force and power (effect sizes between 0.50–0.96) and magnitude based inference indicated that IK had a likely (> 80%) more beneficial increase in dominant side rotational force and power. For swing kinematics, IK had a likely (> 80%) more beneficial improvement in lead arm speed and acceleration compared to the IT group. For driver performance, IK had a possible (65%) beneficial effect on ball speed and likely (78%) beneficial effect on carry distance when compared to IT, whereas neither of the groups improved club head speed.

    Conclusion

    In the present study on pre-elite golfers we found that 9 weeks of isokinetic training increased seated rotational force and power, peak arm speed and arm acceleration, ball speed, and carry distance more compared to isotonic training. Even though isokinetic training did not increase CHS, it did result in greater carry distance. © The Author(s). 2017

  • 179.
    Parker, James
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Lundgren, Lina
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Surfing the Waves of the CMJ: Are There between-Sport Differences in the Waveform Data?2018In: Sports, E-ISSN 2075-4663, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 1-12, article id 168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to analyse countermovement jump (CMJ) waveform data using statistical methods, like principal component analysis, can provide additional information regarding the different phases of the CMJ, compared to jump height or peak power alone. The aim of this study was to investigate the between-sport force-time curve differences in the CMJ. Eighteen high level golfers (male = 10, female = 8) and eighteen high level surfers (male = 10, female = 8) performed three separate countermovement jumps on a force platform. Time series of data from the force platform was normalized to body weight and each repetition was then normalized to 0–100 percent. Principal component analyses (PCA) were performed on force waveforms and the first six PCs explained 35% of the variance in force parameters. The main features of the movement cycles were characterized by magnitude (PC1 and PC5), waveform (PC2 and PC4), and phase shift features (PC3). Surf athletes differ in their CMJ technique and show a greater negative centre of mass displacement when compared to golfers (PC1), although these differences are not necessarily associated with greater jump height. Principal component 5 demonstrated the largest correlation with jump height (R2  = 0.52). Further studies are recommended in this area, to reveal which features of the CMJ thatrelate to jumping performance, and sport specific adaptations. © 2018 by the authors.

  • 180.
    Parker, James
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Lundgren, Lina E.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Pedal to the Metal: Velocity and Power in High Level Golfers2019In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In most rotational power assessments, discrete variables are used for subsequent examination; however, movements are continuous, and data can be collected in time series. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the velocity- and power-time series characteristics of a standing rotation test and identify relationships with golf performance. Thirty-one golfers performed a golfspecific rotation test (GSRT) with 3 different resistances (6, 10, and 14 kg) in a robotic engine system. Time series of velocity and power was calculated from the raw data, and each repetition was then normalized to 0–100%. Principal component analyses (PCAs) were performed on velocity and power waveforms. The PCA used an eigenvalue analysis of the data covariance matrix. The relationship between clubhead speed (CHS) and all principal components (PC) was examined using linear regression. Ten velocity parameters and 6 power parameters explained 80% of the variance in the data. For velocity, the first 2 PCs identified both magnitude and phase shift features while PCs 3–5 identified difference features. For power, the first 2 PCs identified both magnitude and phase shift features, the third PC identified a phase shift feature, and the fourth PC identified a difference feature. The highest relationship with CHS was shown for GSRT with 14 kg in PC2 for power (R2 5 0.48, p , 0.001). The PCA of the GSRT power test could distinguish intraindividual differences, external loads, and sex-based differences. Athletes should focus on accelerating smoothly through the movement, particularly with heavier loads, and not pulling aggressively at the beginning of the rotational AU3 movement to achieve maximum power. Copyright © 2019 by the National Strength & Conditioning Association.

  • 181.
    Pedersen, Eja
    et al.
    Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    Johansson, Maria
    Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Värdering av kulturella ekosystemtjänster baserat på bidrag till livskvalitet: slutrapport2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten presenterar resultaten av forskningsprojektet Värdering av kulturella ekosystemtjänster baserat på bidrag till livskvalitet, ett av sju projekt som ingår i forskningssatsningen Värdet av ekosystemtjänster. I projektet undersöks om etablerade teorier, begrepp och metoder från miljöpsykologisk forskning kring interaktionen mellan människa och naturmiljö kan bidra till förståelsen av kulturella ekosystemtjänster och deras värde.

    Projektet visar att värdet av grönområden kan beskrivas utifrån hur områ­ dena bidrar till närboendes livskvalitet genom att de ger möjlighet till miljö­ upplevelser, känsloresponser och aktiviteter som främjar hälsan, inte minst återhämtning. Slutsatsen är att kulturella ekosystemtjänster kan värderas ickemonetärt med utgångspunkt från väletablerade teorier, begrepp och metoder. Men forskarna ser att den kompetens som finns bland tjänstemän som arbetar med kulturella ekosystemtjänster idag behöver kompletteras med kunskap i beteendevetenskap.

    Ekosystemtjänster är grunden för vår välfärd. Ändå tar vi dem ofta för givna. Genom en ökad medvetenhet om och värdering av ekosystemtjänster kan vi påverka vår framtida välfärd och livskvalitet. Politiker, myndigheter, kommuner, företag och organisationer kan därigenom fatta mer välunderbyggda beslut.

    Rapporten är författad av Eja Pedersen och Maria Johansson, Miljöpsykologi, Institutionen för arkitektur och byggd miljö, Lunds universitet och Stefan Weisner, Våtmarkscentrum, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap. Eja Pedersen har varit projektledare och organiserat resultatrapporteringen. Maria Johansson har ansvarat för de miljöpsykologiska teorierna och metoderna. Stefan Weisner har deltagit i projektet som expert på anlagda våtmarker. Samarbetspartners var Länsstyrelsen i Skåne, Hässleholms kommun, Staffanstorps kommun och Helsingborgs stad.

    Forskningssatsningen Värdet av ekosystemtjänster är en central insats för att nå ett av etappmålen inom miljömålssystemet genom att öka kunskapen om hur ekosystemtjänster bättre kan användas i olika beslutssituationer. Etappmålet innebär att betydelsen av biologisk mångfald och värdet av ekosystemtjänster senast 2018 ska vara allmänt kända och integreras i ekonomiska ställningstaganden, politiska avväganden och andra beslut i samhället där så är relevant och skäligt. Sju olika forskargrupper ingår i den omfattande satsningen som började 2014.

    Författarna tackar alla som bidragit med kunskap och erfarenhet under projektets gång. För projektets genomförande och analyser av resultaten, tack till Beatrice Marschke, Emilie Björling, Eva Hedenfelt, Lina Haremst, Linnea Saarela, Lukas Österling och Sanna Stålhammar. För värdefulla synpunkter i slutskedet av rapporteringen tackar projektet David Barton och Eeva Furman. Och till alla som deltagit i fokusgrupper och strukturerade vandringar, svarat på enkäter och deltagit i workshopar – ett stort tack!!

  • 182.
    Pedersen, Eja
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Persson Waye, K.
    Department of Acoustics, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Audio-visual reactions to wind turbines2003In: Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, ISSN 1610-1928, E-ISSN 1861-9959, Vol. 89, no Suppl.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A cross sectional study with the aim of evaluating dose response relationships between noise exposure from wind turbines and subjective reactions was performed in a flat landscape in Sweden. The study area comprised 16 turbines. Subjective reactions were obtained by a questionnaire, which purpose was masked. The response rate was 69% (356 respondents). Outdoor noise levels (dBA) were calculated for each dwelling at 2.5 dB intervals. The results showed a significant dose response relationship between noise level and annoyance. The prevalence of noise annoyance was comparatively high. In the categories of greatest noise exposure 37.5-40 dBA and >40 dBA, 20% (95%Cl: ±12.4) and 36% (95%Cl: ±18.4) were very annoyed. The noise only explained part of the annoyance. Noise annoyance was also correlated to visual factors such as the respondents’ opinion of the turbines’ impact on the landscape. To further study interactions between noise annoyance and visual disturbance, the shadows from wind turbines (hours/year) were calculated for each respondent and used as dose for annoyance of shadows, but also as a variable when trying to explain noise annoyance. The results of the analysis and the possible interactions between audio and visual annoyance will be presented at the conference.

  • 183.
    Pedersen, Eja
    et al.
    Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, LTH, Lund University, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Johansson, Maria
    Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, LTH, Lund University, Sweden.
    Wetland areas' direct contributions to residents' well-being entitle them to high cultural ecosystem values2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 646, p. 1315-1326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wetlands in urban areas will be crucial to counteract the effects of climate change, for example, by improving flood protection and regulating local climate. To gain acceptance for larger-scale creation of wetlands, total values must be identified and revealed. Provisioning and regulating ecosystem services can be described as the quantitative effect, but cultural ecosystem services require other assessments. This study sought to determine whether peri-urban and urban wetland areas contribute to the well-being and quality of life of nearby residents, and to capture their value relative to two other types of green areas (i.e., parks and urban forests). A postal questionnaire survey, based on validated environmental psychology instruments, was distributed to residents in three municipalities with wetland areas of different structures and locations. In these municipalities, respondents (n = 474; response rate = 40%) reported that the wetland area contributed to several quality-of-life aspects, such as encountering nature and experiencing beauty. The areas also facilitated activities that support well-being, were perceived to have high restorative qualities, and evoked positive affective responses. All wetland areas were rated high on most of the measured concepts, but their value relative to other green areas differed possibly depending on the accessibility of the wetland and the availability of other green areas. The location and extent to which the wetland area was integrated in the residential area determined what quality-of-life aspects were most satisfied. Wetland areas can be ascribed cultural ecosystem service values based on how residents perceive their contribution to their quality of life. These values can be added to those of provisioning and regulating ecosystem services, forming the basis for planning urban environments. © 2018 The Authors

  • 184.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Quantifying the Excess Heat Available for District Heating in Europe: Work Package 2, Background Report 7 2015Report (Other academic)
  • 185.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Averfalk, Helge
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Accessible urban waste heat: Deliverable 1.42018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the work performed in Task T1.2 of the ReUseHeat project to assess the accessible EU28 urban excess heat recovery potential from four unconventional excess heat sources: data centres, metro stations, service sector buildings, and waste water treatment plants. The report presents in overview and detail the concepts, data, basic premises, and methods, used to produce the results from this work. In all, excess heat potentials are modelled and spatially mapped for a total of some 26,400 unique activities, but by application of two new concepts: available excess heat and accessible excess heat, by which total potentials are distinguished from practical utilisation potentials, a significantly reduced count of some 6800 unique facilities represent the final cut. Common for these facilities are that they all are located inside or within 2 kilometres of urban district heating areas. For the total count of activities, the full available excess heat potential is assessed at some 1.56 EJ per year. At the restrained conditions, thus representing a conservative estimate, the final available excess heat potential from the four unconventional sources is estimated at 0.82 EJ per year, which here corresponds to a final accessible excess heat potential anticipated at 1.24 EJ annually.

  • 186.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Möller, Bernd
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Wiechers, Eva
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Methodologies and assumptions used in the mapping: Deliverable 2.3: A final report outlining the methodology and assumptions used in the mapping2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is the main account for the methodologies, assumptions, data, and tools used in the WP2 mapping of the fourth Heat Roadmap Europe (HRE) project during its first reporting period (March 2016 to August 2017). During this period, the work with the major tasks assigned to WP2 in the project, including e.g. highly resolved spatial demand and resource atlases for the 14 MS´s of the EU under study, has resulted in a wide array of intermediate, complementary, and final outputs. Mentionable among these are for example hectare level projections of demand densities (residential and service sector heating and cooling demands) and investment costs for district heating and cooling systems, as well as feature polygon representations of current district heating cities in these countries. However, since the core focus here is to describe the methodological approaches and data sets used in the work, and not explicitly to present the results of the application of these, only a limited representative selection of study results are included in this report. For more exhaustive output presentations of the WP2 productions (apart from deliverables D2.1 and D2.2), all final output datasets generated are made available as operational layers in the online web map application Peta4 (the fourth Pan-European Thermal Atlas).

  • 187.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Möller, Bernd
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Wiechers, Eva
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Grundahl, Lars
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Map of the heat synergy regions and the cost to expand district heating and cooling in all 14 MS: Accessing the outputs of D2.22017Report (Other academic)
  • 188.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Möller, Bernd
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Wiechers, Eva
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Grundahl, Lars
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Connolly, David
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Demand and Resource Atlases for all 14 MS: Accessing the outputs of D2.12016Report (Other academic)
  • 189.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Möller, Bernd
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Wiechers, Eva
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Rothballer, Carsten
    ICLEI Europe, Freiburg, Germany.
    Maps Manual for Lead-Users: Deliverable 2.4: A report, based on the template from D7.4, describing how these maps can be used by lead-users2017Report (Other academic)
  • 190.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Quantifying the Heating and Cooling Demand in Europe: Work Package 2, Background Report 4 2015Report (Other academic)
  • 191.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Wiechers, Eva
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Möller, Bernd
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany & Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Heat Roadmap Europe: Heat distribution costs2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 176, p. 604-622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This analysis elaborates further the concept of physical and economic suitability for district heating in EU28 by an aggregation regarding key dimensions such as land areas, populations, heat demands, and investment volumes. This aggregation is based on a resolution on hectare level by slicing the total land area into 437 million pieces. Results show that heat demands in buildings are present in 9% of the land area. Because of high concentrations in towns and cities, 78% of the total heat demand in buildings originate from dense urban areas that constitute 1.4% of the total land area and 70% of the population. Due to these high heat densities above 50 MJ/m2 per year, the paper evaluates a setting where district heating is individually expanded in each member state for reaching a common 50% heat market proportion in EU28 at lowest cost. At this saturation rate, the aggregated EU28 district heat deliveries would increase to 5.4 EJ/a at current heat demands and represents an expansion investment volume, starting from current level of 1.3 EJ, of approximately 270 billion euro for heat distribution pipes. Given the current high heat densities in European urban areas, this study principally confirms earlier expectations by quantitative estimations. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd

  • 192.
    Peters, Wibke
    et al.
    Wildlife Biology Program, Department of Ecosystem and Conservation Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, MT, United States & Bavarian State Institute of Forestry (LWF), Freising, Germany.
    Hebblewhite, Mark
    Wildlife Biology Program, Department of Ecosystem and Conservation Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, MT, United States.
    Mysterud, Atle
    Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis, Department Biosciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Eacker, Daniel
    Wildlife Biology Program, Department of Ecosystem and Conservation Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, MT, United States.
    Hewison, A. J. Mark
    CEFS, University de Toulouse, INRA, Castanet Tolosan, France.
    Linnell, John D. C.
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA), Trondheim, Norway.
    Focardi, Stefano
    stituto dei Sistemi Complessi, CNR, Sesto Fiorentino, Italy.
    Urbano, Ferdinando
    Eurodeer Project, freelance consultan.
    De Groeve, Johannes
    Department of Geography, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium.
    Gehr, Benedikt
    Department of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Heurich, Marco
    Department of Conservation and Research, Bavarian Forest National Park, Grafenau, Germany.
    Jarnemo, Anders
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Kjellander, Petter
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Science (SLU), Riddarhyttan, Sweden.
    Kröschel, Max
    Chair of Wildlife Ecology and Management, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany & Forest Research Institute of Baden-Wuerttemberg, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany.
    Morellet, Nicolas
    CEFS, University de Toulouse, INRA, Castanet Tolosan, France.
    Pedrotti, Luca
    Parco Nationale dello Stelvio, Glorenza (BZ), Italy.
    Reinecke, Horst
    Department of Wildlife Sciences & Institute for Wildlife biology of Göttingen and Dresden, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.
    Sandfort, Robin
    Institute of Wildlife Biology and Game Management, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Sönnichsen, Leif
    Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Białowieża, Poland & Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research (IZW), Berlin, Germany.
    Sunde, Peter
    Deptartment of Bioscience – Wildlife Ecology, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Cagnacci, Francesca
    Biodiversity and Molecular Ecology Department, Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, San Michele all'Adige (TN), Italy & Organismic and Evolutionary Department, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, United States.
    Large herbivore migration plasticity along environmental gradients in Europe: life-history traits modulate forage effects2018In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 128, no 3, p. 416-429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The most common framework under which ungulate migration is studied predicts that it is driven by spatio–temporal variation in plant phenology, yet other hypotheses may explain differences within and between species. To disentangle more complex patterns than those based on single species/ single populations, we quantified migration variability using two sympatric ungulate species differing in their foraging strategy, mating system and physiological constraints due to body size. We related observed variation to a set of hypotheses. We used GPS-collar data from 537 individuals in 10 roe Capreolus capreolus and 12 red deer Cervus elaphus populations spanning environmental gradients across Europe to assess variation in migration propensity, distance and timing. Using time-to-event models, we explored how the probability of migration varied in relation to sex, landscape (e.g. topography, forest cover) and temporally-varying environmental factors (e.g. plant green-up, snow cover). Migration propensity varied across study areas. Red deer were, on average, three times more migratory than roe deer (56% versus 18%). This relationship was mainly driven by red deer males which were twice as migratory as females (82% versus 38%). The probability of roe deer migration was similar between sexes. Roe deer (both sexes) migrated earliest in spring. While territorial male roe deer migrated last in autumn, male and female red deer migrated around the same time in autumn, likely due to their polygynous mating system. Plant productivity determined the onset of spring migration in both species, but if plant productivity on winter ranges was sufficiently high, roe deer were less likely to leave. In autumn, migration coincided with reduced plant productivity for both species. This relationship was stronger for red deer. Our results confirm that ungulate migration is influenced by plant phenology, but in a novel way, that these effects appear to be modulated by species-specific traits, especially mating strategies. © 2018 The Authors. Oikos © 2018 Nordic Society Oikos

  • 193.
    Petersson, Håkan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Mesh-Less Analysis of Products: A Revolution within Computer Based Design Analysis2019In: Proceedings of the ASME 2019 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition  (IMECE2019): November 11-14, 2019, Salt Lake City, UT, USA, 2019, Vol. 1, article id 11550Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For many years, FEA (finite element analysis) has been the dominant way of evaluating the mechanical properties of products. Engineers and design analysts are well familiar with the technology, and it is used for a lot of different types of phenomena. It is not easy to use FEA as it requires a lot of knowledge and skills for the analysis to be successful. One of the many problems is that it quickly becomes a large model with a large number of equations that have to be solved. A computer with a large internal memory, a fast CPU and fast hard disk drives is expensive to purchase and to keep up to date.

    Another problem is when thin-walled solids have to be analyzed. You usually need 2-3 elements in thickness to be able to obtain all stresses, which requires a lot of elements and nodes and makes the computations large or even too large. To solve these types of problem, a conversion to surfaces has to be made, where 2D shell elements may be used. Converting solids to surfaces can be demanding and time-consuming. It is a compromise, but it is solvable as a 2D model. As we all know, all body-in-white, e.g., automotive and aerospace industry, is analyzed by this method.

    A new type of software has recently reached the market, mesh-less design analysis, which makes it possible to perform design analysis in all kind of solids, very quickly and by using much less solving time and computer power. As this type of software doesn’t mesh the geometry, much time can be saved both on the geometry but also on waiting time for the problem to be solved. The main question is, “is it too good to be true”?

    In this paper, the focus is on comparing two types of design analysis software, traditional FEA, and mesh-less design analysis. Different samples of design problems have been analyzed and compared; results and conclusions are reported. © 2019 by ASME

  • 194.
    Petersson, Håkan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Optimizing Products and Production Using Additive Manufacturing by Introducing Bionics into the Engineering Design Process2017In: ASME 2017 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, New York: ASME Press, 2017, article id V011T15A017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to perform engineering design activities aiming at the design of new or redesign of existing products, a number of alternative processes, methods and techniques are available in the literature to the engineering designer/product developing enterprise. These processes, methods and techniques, are usually not explicitly expressed in terms of directives as to when and how they are to be used in the actual design of the product-to-be.

    An important goal in product development of today is to fulfill the terms for sustainable development, thus emphasizing the need to develop products which are not overexploiting the available resources provided by nature. By utilizing an approach to development and design based on bionics, i.e. utilizing biological methods and systems found in nature as a means of creating technical solutions, a conceptual framework is provided which is especially fit to accommodate the striving for sustainability.

    Striving for lightweight designs provides a significant potential to reduce the energy consumption of the product-to-be, which at present is a highly prioritized goal within sustainable development. Up until now, the dominating approach to lightweight designs has been to utilize lightweight materials such as different types of composites and metallic materials such as aluminum, magnesium and titanium.

    By introducing biomimicry into the engineering design process, an additional step towards efficient lightweight design solutions might be within reach. Since the objects created by nature are independent of costs and time, these are most often very complex especially regarding shapes and dimensions. In order to match these constraints in the creation of technical solutions (products), it is necessary to utilize optimization in combination with a flexible manufacturing process. The ideal manufacturing method to meet these demands is Additive Manufacturing (AM), though, at least for the time being, it imposes some constraints in size, costs etc. of the product to be manufactured.

    If the product designed is to be suitable for manufacturing for AM, it must be optimized, and so must the way it is to be processed. Therefore three of the most essential problems which need to be addressed in order to efficiently utilize AM are also elaborated upon and reported in the paper.

    The first of these problems is how to optimize the product-to-be. The second is to establish the orientation in which the product is to be manufactured during the AM process. The third is to find the best usage of the support material in the 3D printer, as there is no optimized process available for this activity. This is mainly due to the difficulties to foresee the waste of building material as, in most cases, this material can only be used once.

    In this paper, a process for the design and development of new products is proposed. The application of the process also includes essential elements to assure an efficient use of AM as mentioned above. The process is established on the basis of an integration of the Biomimicry Design Spiral, Bionic Structures and Elements and optimization into the Engineering Design Process. The utilization of the process is demonstrated by an application and reported in the form of a modified engineering design process — the Engineering Design and Biomimicry Design Process or the EDBP process for short.

    Copyright © 2017 by ASME

  • 195.
    Petersson, Johan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Riggberger, Kenneth
    Stadionkontoret, Malmö Sports Academy, Malmö, Sweden.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Olsson, Charlotte M.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Unilateral Strength Training With Maximal Velocity Improves Lower Body Power Outcome And Movement Velocity2012In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 44, no Suppl. 2, p. 671-671Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 196.
    Philip, Rony
    et al.
    Amrita University, Coimbatore, India.
    Löfgren, Hans
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Experimental Verification of an Instrument to Test Flooring Materials2018In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2018, Vol. 310, no 1, article id 012121Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this work is to validate the fluid model with different flooring materials and the measurements of an instrument to test flooring materials and its force attenuating capabilities using mathematical models to describe the signature and coefficients of the floor. The main contribution of the present work focus on the development of a mathematical fluid model for floors. The aim of the thesis was to analyze, compare different floor materials and to study the linear dynamics of falling impacts on floors. The impact of the hammer during a fall is captured by an accelerometer and response is collected using a picoscope. The collected data was analyzed using matlab least square method which is coded as per the fluid model. The finding from this thesis showed that the fluid model works with more elastic model but it doesn't work for rigid materials like wood. The importance of parameters like velocity, mass, energy loss and other coefficients of floor which influences the model during the impact of falling on floors were identified and a standardized testing method was set. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

  • 197.
    Pires, Mateus Marques
    et al.
    Ecology and Evolution Laboratory, Vale do Taquari University (UNIVATES), Lajeado, Rio Grande Do Sul, Brazil.
    Périco, Eduardo
    Ecology and Evolution Laboratory, Vale do Taquari University (UNIVATES), Lajeado, Rio Grande Do Sul, Brazil.
    Renner, Samuel
    Ecology and Evolution Laboratory, Vale do Taquari University (UNIVATES), Lajeado, Rio Grande Do Sul, Brazil.
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Predicting the effects of future climate change on the distribution of an endemic damselfly (Odonata, Coenagrionidae) in subtropical South American grasslands2018In: Journal of Insect Conservation, ISSN 1366-638X, E-ISSN 1572-9753, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 303-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is predicted to affect the distribution of freshwater taxa, and stronger impacts are expected on endemic species. However, the effects of future climates on freshwater insects from the Neotropical region have been generally overlooked. In this study, the distribution of a damselfly (Cyanallagma bonariense, Odonata, Coenagrionidae) endemic to the subtropical South American grasslands (Pampa) was modelled in relation to future scenarios of high greenhouse gas emissions (RCP 8.5) for 2050 and 2070. For this purpose, ecological niche models were developed based on assumptions of limited dispersal and niche conservatism, and the projected distribution of C. bonariense was contrasted with the location of current protected areas (PAs) in the Pampa. A broad potential distribution of C. bonariense was indicated throughout the Pampa, and projections predicted a predominance of range contractions rather than range shifts in climatically suitable areas for C. bonariense in 2050 and 2070. Projections of suitable areas overlapped in central Argentina and southernmost Uruguay in these periods. Our results indicated a potential resilience of C. bonariense to future climate change, which is likely related to the low restrictions in habitat use of C. bonariense. In every projection, however, most PAs were expected to lose effectiveness, as by 2070 most PAs fall outside the range of the predicted distribution of C. bonariense. Thus, the creation or enlargement of PAs in these areas is recommended and these results represent an important information for the conservation of endemic freshwater insects under global warming scenarios in an overlooked Neotropical landscape. © Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

  • 198.
    Ražanskas, Petras
    et al.
    Department of Electric Power Systems, Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Verikas, Antanas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research. Department of Electrical Power Systems, Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania.
    Viberg, Per-Arne
    Swedish Adrenaline, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Olsson, Charlotte M.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Predicting physiological parameters in fatiguing bicycling exercises using muscle activation timing2017In: Biomedical Signal Processing and Control, ISSN 1746-8094, E-ISSN 1746-8108, Vol. 35, p. 19-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is concerned with a novel technique for prediction of blood lactate concentration level and oxygen uptake rate from multi-channel surface electromyography (sEMG) signals. The approach is built on predictive models exploiting a set of novel time-domain variables computed from sEMG signals. Signals from three muscles of each leg, namely, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, and semitendinosus were used in this study. The feature set includes parameters reflecting asymmetry between legs, phase shifts between activation of different muscles, active time percentages, and sEMG amplitude. Prediction ability of both linear and non-linear (random forests-based) models was explored. The random forests models showed very good prediction accuracy and attained the coefficient of determination R2 = 0.962 for lactate concentration level and R2 = 0.980 for oxygen uptake rate. The linear models showed lower prediction accuracy. Comparable results were obtained also when sEMG amplitude data were removed from the training sets. A feature elimination algorithm allowed to build accurate random forests (R2 > 0.9) using just six (lactate concentration level) or four (oxygen uptake rate) time-domain variables. Models created to predict blood lactate concentration rate relied on variables reflecting interaction between front and back leg muscles, while parameters computed from front muscles and interactions between two legs were the most important variables for models created to predict oxygen uptake rate.© 2017 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 199.
    Rebeggiani, Sabina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Rosén, B.-G.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Traceology for prediction of polishing roses2019In: Abstracts book Met&Props 2019 LYON, 2019, p. 173-174Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 200.
    Rebeggiani, Sabina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Wagner, Michael
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Mazal, Jonas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Rosén, Bengt Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Dahlén, Malin
    Volvo Car Corporation, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Detection of paint polishing defects2018In: Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties, ISSN 2051-672X, Vol. 6, no 2, article id 024009Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface finish plays a major role on perceived product quality, and is the first thing a potential buyer sees. Today end-of-line repairs of the body of cars and trucks are inevitably to secure required surface quality. Defects that occur in the paint shop, like dust particles, are eliminated by manual sanding/polishing which lead to other types of defects when the last polishing step is not performed correctly or not fully completed. One of those defects is known as 'polishing roses' or holograms, which are incredibly hard to detect in artificial light but are clearly visible in sunlight.

    This paper will present the first tests with a measurement set-up newly developed to measure and analyse polishing roses. The results showed good correlations to human visual evaluations where repaired panels were estimated based on the defects' intensity, severity and viewing angle.

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