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  • 151.
    Graneskog, Axel
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Gustafsson, Yngve
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Smart Control: En reaktion på EU:s ekodesignkrav2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to assist the Swedish energy company NIBE Energy Systems in their studies of adaptive regulation applicable to electrical water heaters. Due to coming energy classifications of these appliances in the European Union, NIBE Energy Systems needs to use adaptive regulation, called Smart Control, to keep their products in the best possible energy class and remain competitive to the market. By using this Smart Control regulation a 2-3 % improve-ment of efficiency can be credited the system. This is a small number, but heavily needed, since the energy classes are based on the idea that the European Union is provided with electricity from coal condensate power resulting in a 40 % maximum efficiency. Furthermore, doing noth-ing will result in some water heaters not being approved to use on the market from 2015 due to low efficiency. The thesis is made out of three sections; product-/literature studies of products already commercially available using similar principles, data analysis on existing Smart Controlled water heater and recommendations to the company for future development of their own system. Limitations have been made through simplified calculations and thermodynamic assumptions. A conclusion can still be made from the thesis; electrical water heaters using Smart Control saves 10 - 15 % of electrical energy use today in a real world environment. Main sources to this thesis have been data analysis, Internet, brochures and conversations with the mentors.

  • 152.
    Grotle, Margreth
    et al.
    Diakonhjemmets hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Klokkerud, Mari
    Diakonhjemmets hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Kjeken, Ingvild
    Diakonhjemmets hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Hagel, Sofia
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Strömbeck, Britta
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hørslev-Petersen, Kim
    King Christian Xth Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, Gråsten, Denmark.
    Meesters, Jorit
    Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Vliet Vlieland, Thea P. M.
    Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Hagen, Kåre B.
    Diakonhjemmets hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    What’s in the black box of arthritis rehabilitation?: A comparison of rehabilitation practice for patients with inflammatory arthritis in Northern Europe2013In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 458-466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In evaluating complex interventions, it is a challenge for researchers to provide transparent reporting of the intervention content with sufficient detail and clarity such that effects can be compared across studies or countries.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare the content of current rehabilitation for patients with inflammatory arthritis across 4 northern European countries. Patients and methods: A total of 731 patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases participated in a multicentre, longitudinal observational study carried out in Sweden, The Netherlands, Denmark and Norway. Data on context, structure and process were reported by patients and teams at the different participating study sites according to the Scandinavian Team Arthritis Register – European Team Intiative for Care Research (STAR-ETIC) framework.

    RESULTS: Although large similarities were found in the context, there were important differences between the Netherlands and the Scandinavian countries. Regarding structure, there were considerable differences in the length of the rehabilitation period across settings and countries. The most evident differences concerned process variables, especially the type and dosage of individual treatment modalities.

    CONCLUSION: The variation in important aspects of arthritis rehabilitation found in the present study underline the need for transparent and standardized description of these variables when comparing effects across settings and countries. A standardized description of current practice can be achieved by the STAR-ETIC framework.

    © 2013 The Authors

  • 153.
    Gunnarsson, Martin
    et al.
    Halmstad University. Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET). Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Johannesson, Rickard
    Halmstad University. Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET). Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Waste Management with Focus on Waste incineration with energyrecovery in Chisinau Municipality, Moldova2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of waste in the world increases every year due to an improved living standard andgrowing population. The problem is especially large in poor countries where the ability tohandle the waste is limited due to financial and management problems. If instead wastematerial is seen as a resource it can help reduce the amount of waste on landfill. Byincinerating waste and recover the energy it would also help reducing greenhouse gasemissions from landfill and give electric and thermal energy.Chisinau Municipality in the Republic of Moldova today lacks several important parts fora satisfying waste management. Today most of the waste generated in Chisinau municipalityends up at the municipality landfill. The current contract to use the landfill expires on the 31December 2010, if the municipality won’t be able to renew the contract they have to look forother ways to deal with the waste problem. As the dominating source for energy in Chisinau isimported natural gas, an effective way to reduce the use of gas for electricity and thermalenergy production would be to use waste material for incineration with energy recovery.Therefore, the goal with this thesis is to evaluate the possibility to extract energy from coincinerationof sewage sludge and waste material generated in Chisinau. To reach this goal thesituation in Chisinau where studied on site for two months, quantities and composition of thewaste material was investigated. Based on the data gathered on the waste, a suitabletechnology for the waste-to-energy (WTE) plant is proposed. The proposal is made based onthe assumption that a WTE plant would not be established until 2025.The result shows that the waste material in Chisinau can be used for co-incineration ofwaste and sludge. The calorific value of the waste material was determined to 7.87 MJ per kg.The suggested WTE plant has the total power of 138 MW, the result based on that all wastematerial available 2025 are incinerated. Annually this makes it possible to recover 1152 TJ(320 GWh) electric power and 2650 TJ (736 GWh) heat, based on 8000 operating hoursannually.Even if a WTE plant sounds like a good investment it is a long time before a plant couldoperational. Much is to be made in the waste management to have well-functioninginfrastructure that will work together with an incineration plant. Furthermore, the data used inthis study regarding the quantities is very uncertain and further studies in affected areas arenecessary before a WTE plant can be established.

  • 154.
    Gunterberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Nyqvist, Jennifer
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Bergström, Cecilia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    EFFEKTEN AV DROP JUMP PÅ VOLLEYBOLLSPELARES EFTERFÖLJANDE HOPPHÖJD2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Hopphöjden är en viktig faktor inom volleyboll och kan vara direkt avgörande i spelsituationer. Drop jump (DJ) är en vanligt förekommande plyometrisk övning som används för att förbättra hopphöjden. Ett fåtal studier har påvisat den omedelbara effekten utav att implementera DJ i ett träningsupplägg. Syfte: Syftet med studien var att undersöka om ett set med fem repetitioner av DJ kan förbättra hopphöjden efter tre minuters aktiv vila. Avsikten med studiens upplägg var att det med enkelhet ska kunna implementeras i en matchsituation. Metod: Nio kvinnliga volleybollspelare på elitnivå deltog i studien i åldern 25±7 år, med vikt 73±6 kg och längd 172±8 cm. Deltagarnas hopphöjd testades med tre countermovement jump (CMJ) och 72 timmar senare utfördes fem DJ innan liknande CMJ utfördes. Hopphöjden uppmättes med Ivar jump system.   Resultat: Resultatet påvisade ingen signifikant förbättring i hopphöjd (p = 0,6) efter utförandet av fem DJ. Dock noterades en positiv trend då åtta av nio deltagare förbättrade sin hopphöjd med ±1,6 cm. Slutsats: Utförandet av fem DJ före en hopprestation kan ge positiv effekt. Ytterligare forskning krävs dock för att kunna fastställa slutsatsen och hur länge effekten håller i sig.

  • 155.
    Gustafsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Jeanette, Backholm
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    PÅVERKAR ÅLDER, KÖN OCH TRÄNINGSMÄNGD FMS?: En tvärsnittsstudie mellan Functional movement screen samt sf-36v2 Health survey2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Regelbunden fysisk aktivitet motverkar en rad fysiska och mentala sjukdomar. Hälsovinster av fysisk aktivitet är bland annat en högre funktionell muskulär- och kardiovaskulär kapacitet samt en högre livskvalitet. Stillasittande och inaktivitet kan leda till övervikt, kardiovaskulära sjukdomar, cancer, psykosociala problem och metaboliska sjukdomar.

    Mellan män och kvinnor finns fysiologiska skillnader som visar sig i kroppsstorlek och muskelmassa. Detta ger generellt sett kvinnor mer flexibel fysik medan män är fysiskt starkare.

    WHOs rekommendationer om daglig fysisk aktivitet är 150 min/vecka av moderat aerobisk träning eller 75 min mer ansträngande aerobisk träning. Styrketräning som involverar större muskelgrupper rekommenderas i åldrarna 18-64.  

    Till hjälp att undersöka hypotesen har två oberoende test används. En skriftlig enkät, SF-36v2 Health Survey, samt ett fysiskt test, Functional Movement Screen.

    I denna studie undersöks huruvida det finns ett samband mellan en ökad träningsmängd och ett högre FMS-resultat samt om en högre ålder ger lägre FMS-resultat, oavsett kön. Vi tror oss även se ett samband mellan högre FMS-poäng och ett högre uppskattat mentalt och fysiskt mående.

    Testpersonerna (N:30) som deltog i studien var arbetande eller studerande män (N:15) och kvinnor (N:15) i åldrarna 20-65år.

    FMS-resultaten visade ingen signifikant skillnad mellan kön eller stigande ålder. Däremot ser vi signifikanta skillnader mellan könen vid specifika styrke- eller rörlighetstester i FMS. Kvinnorna visar tydligt via resultaten att de generellt har en mer flexibel fysik medan männen är starkare.

    Som slutsats av denna studie kan vi konstatera att FMS som testmetod är könsneutralt och kan användas på blandade populationer. Detta ger testmetoden en bred användbarhet på just en blandad population.

    Fler studier krävs för att få fram normerande poängsättning om FMS skall användas på medelmotionären. 

  • 156.
    Hagel, Sofia
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences in Lund, Section of Rheumatology & Orthopaedics, Lund University & Skane University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Elisabet
    Department of Clinical Sciences in Lund, Section of Rheumatology & Orthopaedics, Lund University & Skane University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Petersson, Ingemar F
    Department of Clinical Sciences in Lund, Section of Rheumatology & Orthopaedics, Lund University & Skane University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Meesters, Jorit J L
    Department of Rheumatology, Department of Physical Therapy, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands & National Resource Center for Rehabilitation in Rheumatology, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, Norway .
    Klokkerud, Mari
    National Resource Center for Rehabilitation in Rheumatology, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, Norway .
    Aanerud, Gerd J
    National Resource Center for Rehabilitation in Rheumatology, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, Norway .
    Stovgaard, Inger H
    King Christian Xth Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, University of Southern Denmark, Gråsten, Denmark.
    Hørslev-Petersen, Kim
    King Christian Xth Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, University of Southern Denmark, Gråsten, Denmark.
    Strömbeck, Britta
    Department of Clinical Sciences in Lund, Orthopaedics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Vliet Vlieland, Thea P M
    Department of Orthopaedics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands .
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS). Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & School of Business and Engineering, Department of Exercise Physiology, Biomechanics and Health, Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Which patients improve the most after arthritis rehabilitation? A study of predictors in patients with inflamatory arthritis in northern Europe, the STAR-ETIC collaboration2014In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 250-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To study health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in arthritis rehabilitation performed by multidisciplinary teams in patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis. Predictors of change in health-related quality of life and the proportion of patients with clinical improvement were investigated.

    DESIGN: Multicentre prospective observational study in 4 European countries.

    METHODS: HRQoL was measured with the European Quality 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) and the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) in 731 patients who underwent multidisciplinary rehabilitation. Potential predictors were physical functioning (Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ)), self-efficacy (Arthritis Self Efficacy Scale (ASES)), psychological health (Hopkins Symptom Check List (HSCL-25)), pain/fatigue (numeric rating scales (NRS)), age, sex, diagnosis, comorbidity, education, clinical setting and change of medication during rehabilitation. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to assess for potential predictors and interactions. The minimal important differences for HRQoL were analysed.

    RESULTS: Reporting worse function (b 0.05, p = 0.01), less psychological well-being (b 0.09, p = 0.000), and experiencing more pain (b 0.03, p = 0.000) or fatigue (b 0.02, p = 0.000) at admission predicted improved HRQoL. Change in medication during rehabilitation (b 0.08, p = 0.013) was associated with greater improvement in HRQoL. These EQ-5D findings were supported by SF-36 findings. Positive minimal important differences were noted in 46% (EQ-5D) and 23-47% (SF-36 subscales) of the patients.

    CONCLUSION: Patients with more severe symptoms experienced the largest gain in HRQoL post-intervention. The results of this study are of value for selecting the right patients for rheumatological team rehabilitation. © 2014 The Authors

  • 157.
    Hagel, Sofia
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Sweden & Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Petersson, Ingemar F.
    Department of Orthopedics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Lindqvist, Elisabet
    Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Sweden and Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Bergknut, Charlotte
    Department of Orthopedics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Englund, Martin
    Department of Orthopedics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Trends in 21st century Health Care Utilization in a Rheumatoid Arthritis Cohort Compared to the General Population2012In: Arthritis and Rheumatism, ISSN 0004-3591, E-ISSN 1529-0131, Vol. 64, no S10, p. S31-S32, article id 73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Statement of purpose: To study twenty-first century trends in health care utilization by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients compared to the general population. Methods: Observational cohort study; using Swedish health care register data, we identified 3977 Region Skåne residents (mean age year 2001, 62.7 years and 73% women) consulting for RA (ICD-10 codes M05 or M06) in 1998-2001. We randomly sampled two referents from the general population per RA patient matched for age, sex, and area of residence. We calculated the year 2001-2010 trends for the annual ratio (RA cohort/referents) of the mean number of hospitalizations and outpatient clinic visits. Results: By the end of the 10-year period 62% of RA patients and 74% of referents were still alive and resident in the region. From 2001 to 2010 the ratio (RA cohort/referents) of the mean number of hospitalizations for men and women decreased by 27% (p=0.01) and 28% (p=0.004), respectively. The corresponding decrease was 29% (p=0.005), and 16% (p=0.004) for outpatient physician care, 34% (p=0.009) and 18% (p=0.01) for nurse visits, and 34% (p=0.01) and 28% (p=0.004) for physiotherapy (Figure 1 and 2). Figure 1.Health care utilization during the first decade of the twenty-first century by patients in a closed rheumatoid arthritis cohort and their matched referents from the general population. The y-axes show the mean number of visits per subject per calendar year. Figure 2.Health care utilization during the first decade of the twenty-first century by patients in a closed rheumatoid arthritis cohort and their matched referents from the general population. The y-axes show the mean number of visits per subject per calendar year. Conclusions: During the twenty-first century, coinciding with increasing use of earlier and more active RA treatment including biological treatment, the overall inpatient and outpatient health care utilization by a cohort of RA patients decreased relative to the general population.

  • 158.
    Hagel, Sofia
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University and Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Petersson, Ingemar F
    Department of Orthopedics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Lindqvist, Elisabet
    Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University and Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Bergknut, Charlotte
    Department of Orthopedics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Englund, Martin
    Department of Orthopedics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Trends in the first decade of 21st century healthcare utilisation in a rheumatoid arthritis cohort compared with the general population2012In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 72, no 7, p. 1212-1216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To study 21st century trends in healthcare utilisation by patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared with the general population.

    Methods: Observational cohort study. Using Swedish healthcare register data, we identified 3977 Region Skåne residents (mean age in 2001, 62.7 years; 73% women) presenting with RA (International Classification of Diseases-10 codes M05 or M06) in 1998-2001. We randomly sampled two referents from the general population per RA patient matched for age, sex and area of residence. We calculated the year 2001-2010 trends for the annual ratio (RA cohort/referents) of the mean number of hospitalisations and outpatient clinic visits.

    Results: By the end of the 10-year period, 62% of patients and 74% of referents were still alive and resident in the region. From 2001 to 2010, the ratio (RA cohort/referents) of the mean number of hospitalisations for men and women decreased by 27% (p=0.01) and 28% (p=0.004), respectively. The corresponding decrease was 29% (p=0.005) and 16% (p=0.004) for outpatient physician care, 34% (p=0.009) and 18% (p=0.01) for nurse visits, and 34% (p=0.01) and 28% (p=0.004) for physiotherapy. The absolute reduction in number of hospitalisations was from an annual mean of 0.79 to 0.69 in male patients and from 0.71 to 0.59 in female patients. The corresponding annual mean number of consultations in outpatient physician care by male and female RA patients changed from 9.2 to 7.7 and from 9.9 to 8.7, respectively.

    Conclusions: During the first decade of the 21st century, coinciding with increasing use of earlier and more active RA treatment including biological treatment, overall inpatient and outpatient healthcare utilisation by a cohort of patients with RA decreased relative to the general population. Copyright Article author (or their employer) 2012.

  • 159.
    Haglund, Emma
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Research and Development Centre, Spenshult Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Petersson, Ingemar F.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Lennart T. H.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Strömbeck, Britta
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine. Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Differences in physical activity patterns in patients with spondylarthritis2012In: Arthritis Care and Research, ISSN 0893-7524, E-ISSN 1529-0123, Vol. 64, no 12, p. 1886-1894Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To study patient-reported physical activity in patients with spondylarthritis (SpA) and possible differences in physical activity patterns between the SpA subtypes and sexes.

    METHODS: In 2009, a questionnaire including inquiries concerning physical activity was sent to patients with a SpA diagnosis (n = 3,711). The World Health Organization (WHO) global recommendations of physical activity for health requiring 150 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity (MI-PA) or 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity physical activity (VI-PA) per week were used as recommended levels. Standardized risk ratios (RRs) were calculated by using physical activity data from the Swedish population. The association within the SpA group between sex, age, disease-related variables, anxiety, and depression and meeting recommended levels of MI-PA and VI-PA (dependent variables) was studied with multivariate analysis.

    RESULTS: A total of 2,167 patients with SpA (48% men, mean ± SD age 55 ± 14 years) responded to the questionnaire. Sixty-eight percent of the patients met the WHO recommendations, more frequently in women than in men (70% versus 66%). The recommendations were more often met in the SpA group (RR 1.09, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.04-1.15) compared with the Swedish population. There was a tendency for young women to meet the WHO recommendations less often than the Swedish population (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.63-1.25). Different factors were found to influence whether the patients were exercising with a moderate or vigorous intensity.

    CONCLUSION: Seven of 10 patients with SpA met the WHO recommendations of physical activity for health, but we found sex and disease subtype differences. This information can be useful in clinical practice when coaching patients to have a healthier lifestyle. © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  • 160.
    Haglund, Emma
    et al.
    R&D Center Spenshult, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Department of Rheumatology, Clinical sciences, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Lennart
    Department of Rheumatology, Clinical sciences, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    Strömbeck, Britta
    Musculoskeletal Sciences, Department of Orthopedics, Clinical Sciences, Lund, Sweden.
    Petersson, Ingemar
    Musculoskeletal Sciences, Department of Orthopedics, Clinical Sciences, Lund, Sweden.
    Work productivity in a population based cohort of patients with Spondyloarthritis2012In: Arthritis and Rheumatism, ISSN 0004-3591, E-ISSN 1529-0131, Vol. 64, no 10, p. S1015-S1015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Spondyloarthritis (SpA) often causes impaired function, activity limitations, affected health related quality of life and work disability. Work disability has been shown to be affected both in terms of absenteeism and in impaired productivity while working (presenteeism). In this group with increased socioeconomic costs there is also an increase in  the use of expensive pharmacotherapies. Thus, it is important to study factors related to the ability to stay productive while at work.

    Objective: The aim was to study factors associated with presenteeism in patients with SpA. Also to analyse possible differences in age, gender and SpA subtypes (ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis and undifferentiated SpA).

    Methods: The analysis was based on 1773 patients seeking health care for SpA aged 18-67 years from southern Sweden, identified by a health care register. A questionnaire survey in 2009 included questions concerning self-reported presenteeism, defined as the percentage of impairment due to SpA while working 0-100, (0=no impact), was answered by 1447 individuals. Patients´ characteristics: disease duration, disease activity (BASDAI), physical function (BASFI), health related quality of life (EQ-5D), anxiety (HAD-a), depression (HAD-d), self-efficacy pain and symptom (ASES) and register based sick leave. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient and univariate analyses with ANOVA were used to study factors associated with presenteeism and t-test was used for group comparisons.

    Results: Fifty-five percent (n=802/1447) reported no impact on work presenteeism, while mean impairment was 20 (95% CI 18-21) (n=1447). Women reported higher impact on work presenteeism than men (mean impairment 23 vs. 17, p<0.001) but no statistically significant differences were found between the SpA subtype groups. Twenty-eight percent (n=504/1773) were registered for any sick leave (absenteeism > 14 days). Worse outcome in quality of life (EQ-5D), disease activity (BASDAI) and physical function (BASFI) all correlated to higher impact on work presenteeism (r >0.5, p <0.001), while sick leave (absenteeism) did not.  In the univariate analyses experiencing worse outcome in EQ-5D (β-est -9.6, p<0.001) BASDAI (β-est 7.8, p<0.001) and BASFI (β-est 7.3, p<0.001) were all associated to higher impact on presenteeism regardless of age, gender and disease subtype. Worse outcome of EQ-5D was associated to a higher degree impact on presenteeism in the younger women (18-52 yrs). Self-efficacy, anxiety, depression, disease duration and education level <12 years were all associated to higher impact on presenteeism but were not significant in all strata for age, gender and disease subtype.

    Conclusion: Quality of life, disease activity and physical function all affect work presenteeism in patients with SpA, regardless of age, gender and disease subtype. The results indicate that work presenteeism is affected in patients with all types of SpA and more affected in women. We also find that presenteeism and register based sick leave (absenteeism) may be related to different dimensions of the individuals and their disease.

  • 161.
    Haglund, Emma
    et al.
    Spenshult Research and Development Center, Spenshult, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine. Spenshult Research and Development Center, Spenshult, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Spenshult Research and Development Center, Spenshult, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Lennart T H
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Petersson, Ingemar F
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Work productivity in a population-based cohort of patients with spondyloarthritis2013In: Rheumatology, ISSN 1462-0324, E-ISSN 1462-0332, Vol. 52, no 9, p. 1708-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To assess work productivity and associated factors in patients with SpA.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional postal survey included 1773 patients with SpA identified in a regional health care register. Items on presenteeism (reduced productivity at work, 0-100%, 0 = no reduction) were answered by 1447 individuals. Absenteeism was defined as register-based sick leave using data from a national register. Disease duration, disease activity (BASDAI), physical function (BASFI), health-related quality of life (EQ-5D), anxiety (HAD-a), depression (HAD-d), self-efficacy [Arthritis Self-efficacy Scale (ASES) pain and symptom], physical activity and education were also measured.

    RESULTS: Forty-five per cent reported reduced productivity at work with a mean reduction of 20% (95% CI 18, 21) and women reported a higher mean reduction than men (mean 23% vs 17%, P < 0.001). Worse quality of life, disease activity, physical function and anxiety all correlated with reduced productivity (r = 0.52-0.66, P < 0.001), while sick leave did not. Worse outcomes on the EQ-5D (β-est -9.6, P < 0.001), BASDAI (β-est 7.8, P < 0.001), BASFI (β-est 7.3, P < 0.001), ASES pain (β-est -0.5, P < 0.001) and HAD-d (β-est 3.4, P < 0.001) were associated with reduced productivity at work in patients with SpA regardless of age, gender and disease subgroup. ASES symptoms, HAD-a and education level <12 years were associated with reduced productivity but were not significant in all strata for age, gender and disease subgroup.

    CONCLUSION: Work productivity was reduced in patients with SpA and more so in women. Worse quality of life, disease activity, physical function, self-efficacy and depression were all associated with reduced productivity at work in patients with SpA.

    © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved.

  • 162.
    Haglund, Emma
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS). Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine. Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden & The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health promotion and disease prevention. Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Patient Education in Spondyloarthritis Should be Guiding, Reliable and Available and Presented in Varied Formats2015In: Arthritis & Rheumatology, ISSN 2326-5191, E-ISSN 2326-5205, Vol. 67, no Suppl. S10, article id 1196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Purpose:

    The treatment target for axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) is to maximize health-related quality of life (HRQoL) by controlling disease activity and improving functioning. The treatment cornerstones are a combination of patient education, pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment. Health professionals are familiar with providing patient education but the knowledge is scarce concerning how this education is experienced by the patients.

    The aim was to describe patients’ experiences of education in SpA management.

    Methods:

    The study had a descriptive design with a qualitative conventional content analysis approach performed in seven steps in accordance with Graneheim & Lundman (1). The analysis aimed to describe and preserve contextual meanings. After coding and subgrouping meaningful parts of the text were merged into categories. Eleven interviews were conducted between 2014-2015 in patients with SpA based on a strategic sampling in order to achieve variation with regard to sex (7 men, 4 women), age (38-66 years), subdiagnoses (5 patients with AS, 6 with USpA), quality of life (EQ5D 0.29-1.0), disease activity (BASDAI 1-6), physical function (BASFI 0-5), and global health (BASG 0-7) .

    Results:

    Three categories representing patients’ experiences of patient education in disease management emerged; guiding education, reliable education and available education. Guiding education comprised SpA management including disease knowledge such as symptoms, prognosis, treatment, self-management, climate impact, heredity, and assisting devices. Reliable education meant how and by whom the education was communicated and was considered reliable if it was based on science and communicated by specialists, for example by physician, nurse, PT, dietician and senior patients with experience of rheumatic diseases. The patients experienced difficulties in assessing the large flow of education coming from various sources. Individualized education also increased the reliability. Available education meant that the education can and should be presented in varied formats, and that the amount of information could be chosen. The education could be given orally (through meetings, videos, lectures), in writing (by pamphlets, e-mails, journals, webpages) or obtained through own personal experiences. There were requests to utilize newer media like skype, video and chat forums. Furthermore, individual contacts with healthcare professionals when needed were of importance.

    Conclusion:

    This study highlights the importance of obtaining a guiding, reliable and available patient education for management of SpA. Health care professionals need to consider the importance of presenting varied formats of education based on patients’ experiences and expectations.

    References:

    1.Graneheim UH, Lundman B. Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse education today 2004;24(2):105-12.

  • 163.
    Haglund, Emma
    et al.
    Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Petersson, Ingemar F.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine. Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden & Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden & Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Predictors of Presenteeism and Activity Impairment Outside Work in Patients with Spondyloarthritis2015In: Journal of occupational rehabilitation, ISSN 1053-0487, E-ISSN 1573-3688, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 288-295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purposes To assess predictors of presenteeism (reduced productivity at work) and activity impairment outside work in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA). Methods Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to study predictors of presenteeism and activity impairment in 1,253 patients with SpA based on a 2.5 year follow-up questionnaire. The Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI) questionnaire was used as main outcome. Age, gender, lifestyle factors, subgroups, disease duration, and different patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) were studied as possible predictors. The association between presenteeism and WPAI activity impairment outside work was assessed. Results Out of 1,253 patients, 757 reported being in work and of these 720 responded to the WPAI questionnaire. The mean (confidence interval, CI) reported presenteeism was 25 % (23-27 %) and mean activity impairment 33 % (31-35 %) (0-100 %, 0 = no reduction). Significant predictors of presenteeism and activity impairment at follow-up (controlled for gender, age, spondyloarthritis subgroups and presenteeism at baseline) were presenteeism at baseline, poor quality of life, worse disease activity, decreased physical function, lower self-efficacy pain and symptom, higher scores of anxiety, depression, smoking and low education level, and for activity impairment also female sex. There was a strong association between presenteeism and activity impairment outside work (OR 16.7; 95 % CI 11.6-24.3; p < 0.001). Conclusions Presenteeism and activity impairment were not only predicted by presenteeism at baseline, but also by several PROMs commonly used in clinical rheumatology practice. Impaired activity outside work could indicate problems also at work suggesting why both areas need to be addressed in the clinical situation. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  • 164.
    Haglund, Emma
    et al.
    R&D Centre, Spenshult, Oskarström, Sweden & Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Petersson, Ingemar F.
    Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Section of Orthopedics, Musculoskeletal Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine. R&D Centre, Spenshult, Oskarström, Sweden & Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    R&D Centre, Spenshult, Oskarström, Sweden & Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Predictors of Work Productivity in a Population Based Cohort of Individuals with Spondyloarthritis2013In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 72, no Suppl. 3, p. A127-A127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Spondyloarthritis (SpA) often causes work disability and predictors concerning the ability to stay productive while at work are scarcely studied in this group.

    Objectives: The aim was to study predictors of reduced productivity while at work and possible differences between gender and the SpA subgroups (Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS), Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) and Undifferentiated SpA (USpA)) in a defined cohort in southern Sweden.

    Methods: 1253 out of 1773 health care seeking individuals with SpA age 18-67 years (identified by a health care register in southern Sweden) responded to a questionnaire survey in 2009 and to the follow-up in 2011, 2,5 years later. Self-reported presenteeism, defined as reduced productivity at work (0-100%, 0= no reduction) due to SpA, individual´s characteristics, lifestyle factors, disease duration, health related quality of life (EQ-5D), disease activity (BASDAI), physical function (BASFI), self-efficacy pain and symptom (ASES), anxiety (HADa), depression (HADd) were measured. The main outcome productivity at work was dichotomized based on mean value, with values over 25% regarded as a reduced productivity. The Pearson's correlation coefficient and multivariate logistic regression analyzes were used to study predictors of reduced productivity.

    Results: At follow up 757 individuals reported that they were working and of those 720 responded to the productivity question. The mean age was 50 years and 49% were men. Based on the health care register 177 (24.6%) were diagnosed with AS, 373 (51.8%) with PsA and 170 (23.6%) with USpA. The mean reduction of productivity was 25% (95% CI 23%>27%) (n=720), women reported higher reduction than men (mean 28% vs. 22%, p<0.001). In the multiple logistic regression analyzes a reduced productivity at follow-up was predicted by a reduced productivity at baseline (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.03-1.05). Other predictors (controlled for age, sex, disease subgroup and productivity at baseline) were low education level (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.51-3.04), smoking (1.73; 1.22-2.45), worse score in quality of life (EQ-5D) (0.22; 0.003-0.14), worse disease activity (BASDAI) (1.47; 1.29-1.67), lower physical function (BASFI) (1.42;1.27-1.58), lower self-efficacy (ASES) pain (0.97; 0.97-0.98) and symptom (0.97; 0.96-0.98), higher score of anxiety (HADa) (1.09; 1.05-1.14) and depression (HADd) (1.15; 1.08-1.22). Disease duration, absenteeism and physical activity level had no predictive value.

    Conclusions: Reduced productivity at follow-up was not only predicted by productivity 2,5 years earlier, but also by other aspects of the individuals whole life situation. These different factors could be of clinical importance in order to influence the ability to maintain productivity at work in individuals with SpA.

    Disclosure of Interest: E. Haglund Grant/research support from: The project was supported by an unrestricted grant from Abbott., I. Petersson Grant/research support from: The project was supported by an unrestricted grant from Abbott., A. Bremander Grant/research support from: The project was supported by an unrestricted grant from Abbott., S. Bergman Grant/research support from: The project was supported by an unrestricted grant from Abbott.

  • 165.
    Hammar, Mikael
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Huszág, Máté
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Geotermi i Ungern: Undersökning av Ungerns energisituation inriktat på geotermi samt kapacitetsfaktorn för det största geotermiska värmeverket i Mellaneuropa.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hungary’s share of renewable energy in 2010 was 7.9 %, and their renewable energy goal for 2020 is 14.65 %. Geothermal energy is one option that could help to achieve the goal, since Hungary has favorable bedrock, the temperature gradient is above average and thepermeability is high. Today Hungary is importing just over half of its primary energy supply. Because of political conflicts between nations Hungary wants to expand its own production of energy. One of the major investments implemented was to build the largest geothermal heating plant in central Europe, located in Miskolc. This degree theses aims is to raise the capacity factor for this heating plant. To achieve this objective, a survey of how grain dryers and absorption chillers could increase the heat load in the summer has been performed. With grain dryers that only dries wheat, the capacity factor for the geothermal heating plant in Miskolc increased by 2.6 % and by 4.4 % for the absorption chiller. Although surveys have been carried out for a specific case the idea can be implemented in other heating plants.

    Keywords: Capacity factor, geothermal energy, wheat dryers and absorptions chiller.

  • 166.
    Hansson, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Lantbruksföretagares motiv och hinder för genomförande av energieffektivisering2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Genom energibesparande åtgärder kan både pengar och miljö sparas. Energieffektivisering innebär åtgärder som gör att en ökad produktion kan erhållas medan energiåtgången består.  Denna studie genomfördes inom ett projekt som handlar om Förnybar och Effektiv Energi i Näringslivet (FEEN), ett energieffektiviseringsprojekt med det övergripande syftet att öka energieffektivisering och omställning till förnybar energi i små- och medelstora företag. För att motivera svenska företag att genomföra energieffektiviseringsåtgärder har Energimyndigheten etablerat ett ekonomiskt stöd, så kallade energikartläggningscheckar. Stödet har sökts och beviljats av många företag men väldigt få lantbruksföretag har valt att utnyttja stödet, vilket gjort målen för FEEN-projektet svårare att nå. Anledningen till det låga deltagarantalet bland lantbruksföretagarna har tidigare inte undersökts ingående, men Jordbruksverket rapporterar att det finns misstankar om att informationsspridning om stödet eller stödets utformning hittills inte har passat lantbruksföretagarna. För att öka förståelsen för det låga intresset utformades en enkät som sedan skickades ut till samtliga lantbruksföretagare i Hallands län som var berättigade att söka stödet. Frågorna till enkäten utformades och validerades i kontakt med lantbruksföretagare. Resultatet, med en svarsfrekvens på 49 %, visade att lantbruksföretagarna i Hallands län generellt är positiva till energieffektivisering och 71 % av lantbruksföretagarna hade genomfört energibesparande åtgärder. Dock saknade 56 % kännedom om energikartläggningscheckarna. Lantbruksföretagarna såg energieffektivisering som motiv för att spara pengar i produktionen och som en konkurrensfördel. Samtidigt utgjorde ekonomin ett hinder då kostnaderna för investeringar ansågs oklara och därmed riskfyllda. Studien visar att stödet och även annan marknadsföring gällande energieffektivisering behöver omformas för att informationen till lantbruksförtagarna ska nå ut och för att motivera till större och mer långsiktiga åtgärder som gynnar samhällets energi- och miljöintressen. Utefter studiens resultat bör följande rekommendationer beaktas i det fortsatta arbetet:

    • Utforma information som tydligt vänder sig till företagaren och fokuserar på den företagsekonomiska vinsten med åtgärden.
    • Motivera större åtgärder genom att undanröja upplevda hinder kopplade till investeringskostnader och återbetalningstider.
    • Se över stödformen och utveckla verktyg som tydligt motiverar företagaren genom att visa potentialen för att effektivisera det egna företaget.
    • Rikta insatser i första hand på de större lantbruksföretagen och de företag som satsar på att utöka sin produktion då de upplever störst potential och motiv för energieffektivisering.
    • Rikta insatser i andra hand på de lantbruksföretag som kommer att ha en produktion som nuvarande även i framtiden och ta fram åtgärder för att minska dessa företags ekonomiska hinder för energieffektivisering. 
    • Stötta lantbruksföretagarna i deras beslut om energieffektiviseringsåtgärder baserat på lantbruksföretagarnas egna kunskaper om företaget.
    • Utveckla möjligheterna för lantbruksföretagare att lära sig av varandra samt av återförsäljare och entreprenörer.
  • 167.
    Hansson, Anna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Eno, Kristian
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bra kontakter kan bli bättre: Utvärdering av kontakter mellan brukare, handläggare och politiker inom miljö- och hälsoskyddsarbetet i Hallands län och Borås stad2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att få återkoppling från de som berörs av miljö- och hälsoskyddstillsyn och rådgivning, det vill säga brukarna, är viktigt i det ständiga förbättringsarbetet. Denna studie ”Bra kontakter kan bli bättre” handlar därför om hur mötet mellan myndighet (handläggare och nämndledamöter) och brukare kan utvärderas på bästa sätt. Studien fokuserar på miljö- och hälsoskyddstillsynen av två olika grupper av brukare: verksamhetsutövare med enskilda avlopp (som ofta är privata fastighetsägare) och verksamhetsutövare inom livsmedel (som ofta är företagare), i Hallands län samt i Borås stad.

    Studien tog utgångspunkt i metoden grundad teori där resultatet tas fram och valideras i en process där framväxande faktorer testas i datamaterialet, för att sedan modifieras och testas igen. I denna studie innebar detta en analys av fritextsvar från över 500 tidigare utskickade enkäter, gruppintervjuer med totalt 17 tjänstemän och närmare 30 nämndledamöter samt 23 intervjuer med brukare varav 8 innebar längre samtal vid platsbesök. Analysarbetet fortgick tills faktorerna var kompletta och mättnad uppstod, dvs. inga nya aspekter som ändrade faktorerna kom fram.

    Av analyserna framgår att brukare, handläggare och nämndledamöter har en gemensam syn på vilka faktorer som är viktiga i miljö- och hälsoskyddsarbetet, även om de olika rollerna ibland leder till delvis olika tolkningar av vad dessa innebär. Brukare, handläggare och nämndledamöter är överens om att brukaren har rätt Att bli rättvist behandlad med korrekt bemötande på jämlik nivå och med hänsyn tagen till omständigheterna kring den egna verksamheten. Det är också viktigt som brukare Att få stöd, men det kan vara svårt för handläggaren i sin dubbla roll som rådgivare och inspektör. Både brukare och handläggare upplevde att dialog är nyckeln till god kommunikation, ur brukarnas synpunkt uttryckt som Att bli lyssnad på. Att få kontakt och besked, gärna muntligt, under arbetets gång är centralt. Kontakt med samma handläggare ger möjlighet till Att få kontinuitet, men likartad handläggning oavsett handläggare är viktigast. De avgifter som brukarna betalar för miljö- och hälsoskyddstillsynen upplevdes ibland, av både brukare och handläggare, som svårmotiverade. Upplevelsen Att få valuta för pengarna kan ökas med ökad samsyn av vad miljö- och hälsoskyddstillsyn innebär.

    Resultatet gav också en bild av vad brukare, handläggare och nämndledamöter efterfrågar av utvärderingar kopplade till miljö- och hälsoskyddskontorens arbete. Brukarnas motiv är möjligheten att få uttrycka en åsikt och påverka tillsynsarbetet. Handläggare och nämndledamöter vill kunna använda utvärderingar för att få svar på vad brukarna tycker om tillsynsarbetet och deras bemötande. De vill att resultaten från utvärderingar värderas och leder till kunskap om vad som kan förbättras så att förbättringsåtgärder sätts in där de blir som mest effektiva. En utvärdering ska ge klara svar och förhoppningsvis leda till samsyn mellan olika handläggare och nämndledamöter samt mellan olika kommuner.

    Resultatet som identifierades i studien handlar mycket om kommunikation och behovet av ömsesidig förståelse mellan parterna. Att arbeta för en gemensam samsyn av vad miljö- och hälsoskyddsarbete innebär skulle kunna vara en väg att ytterligare förbättra kontakterna. Svårigheter som uppstår kan bero på att brukare, handläggare och nämndledamöter har olika målbild. Utifrån vad som framkommit i studien och tidigare erfarenheter ger vi ett förslag på hur framtida utvärderingar kan utformas. Förslaget ska ses som ett diskussionsunderlag, snarare än ett färdigt förslag.

    - Syftet med utvärderingen och hur resultatet ska användas klargörs gemensamt av handläggare och nämndledamöter.

    - En övergripande enkät, där det finns möjlighet att följa arbetet över åren och att jämföra kommuner, gärna nationellt, skickas ut även i fortsättningen. Resurser läggs på att få in så många svar som möjligt och att analysera resultaten.

    - Mer detaljerad kunskap om brukarnas upplevelse av miljö- och hälsoskyddsarbetet studeras i samband med utvärdering av själva verksamheten.

    - I utvärdering av en riktad satsning, eller av ett delområde inom den löpande verksamheten, utifrån de kriterier som respektive kommun använder, t.ex. nyckeltal för miljönytta eller kvalitetsmätningar, bör utvärdering av brukarnas upplevelse ingå och belysas av handläggare och nämndledamöter.

    - Utvärderingen bör göras av utredare utanför miljö- och hälsoskyddskontoren med kunskap om utvärderingar, t.ex. av kommunens utredningsavdelning eller av en fristående konsult.

    - Resultatet av utvärderingen, dvs. utvärdering av verksamhet där även brukare, handläggare och nämnledamöters synpunkter synliggörs, återkopplas till brukare som har ärenden inom det studerade ärendeområdet.

    - Utvärderingen ger nämndledamöter ökad kunskap om verksamheten och om hur brukare och handläggare uppfattar den.

    - Utvärderingen ger handläggare återkoppling på sitt arbete och en bas för det fortsatta förbättringsarbetet.

    - Utvärderingen ger brukarna möjlighet att se hur deras perspektiv beaktas och öka sin förståelse för miljö- och hälsoskyddsarbetet.

  • 168.
    Hansson, Anna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Landowners’ incentives for constructing wetlands in an agricultural area in south Sweden2012In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 113, p. 271-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eutrophication of the Baltic Sea has in Sweden led to the initiation of government schemes aiming to increase wetland areas in agricultural regions and thereby reduce nutrient transport to the sea. Landowners play a significant role as providers of this ecosystem service and are currently offered subsidies to cover their costs for constructing and maintaining wetlands. We undertook a grounded theory study, in which landowners were interviewed, aiming at identifying landowners’ incentives for constructing wetlands on their land. The study showed that adequate subsidies, additional services that the wetland could provide to the landowner, local environmental benefits, sufficient knowledge, and peers’ good experiences could encourage landowners to construct wetlands. Perceived hindrances were burdensome management, deficient knowledge, time-consuming application procedures and unclear effectiveness of nutrient reduction. The main reason for not creating a wetland, however, was that the land was classified as productive by the landowner, i.e., suitable for food production. Current schemes are directed toward landowners as individuals and based on subsidies to cover costs. We propose that landowners instead are approached as ecosystem service entrepreneurs and contracted after a tendering process based on nutrient reduction effects. This would lead to new definitions of production and may stimulate improved design and placement of wetlands.

  • 169.
    Hansson, Anna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Markägares motiv för att anlägga våtmarker2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att minska näringsläckaget från jordbruksmark via vattendrag till havet ges i Sverige bidrag till privata markägare genom olika åtgärdsprogram. Målet har varit att erhålla 12 000 hektar anlagda våtmarker 2010. Målet kommer dock inte att uppnås. Ett av skälen kan vara att markägarna har andra motiv än ekonomiska när de väljer att anlägga, eller avstå från att anlägga, en våtmark. För att öka förståelsen för markägares syn på miljö, markanvändning och vattenförvaltning och att identifiera motiv för att anlägga våtmarker genomfördes en kvalitativ studie i södra Halland. Femton markägare intervjuades och deras svar analyserades i enlighet med metoden Grundad teori. Viktigast för markägarna var Att förvalta sin mark på bästa sätt vilket innebar att mark som var odlingsbar i första hand skulle användas för det ändamålet. Lågproduktiv mark kunde komma ifråga för våtmarksanläggande, men det var inte självklart. Att ta sitt miljöansvar innebar främst att följa regelverket, men kunde också omfatta frivilliga åtgärder för miljön. Det var dock nödvändigt Att främja företagets ekonomi. Markägarna hade goda Kunskaper och insikter om jordbrukets miljöbelastning, men efterlyste Stöd och bekräftelse. Att vara missgynnad av regelverket som ansågs gynna större jordbruk och jordbruk i andra länder var allmänt. Utifrån resultatet har rekommendationer utformats inför det fortsatta arbetet med att anlägga våtmarker på privat mark.

  • 170.
    Hansson, Anton
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    En kartläggning över magbesvär och livsstilsfaktorer samt skillnader mellan könen bland högskolestudenter.2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Magproblem är ett utbrett besvär bland befolkningen. Detta innebär en stor fysisk men ibland också ekonomisk kostnad för individen. Denna studien sökte att öka förståelsen för hur utbrett magbesvär är bland högskolestudenter och hur de relaterar till olika livsstilsvanor. En enkät delades ut till 150 studenter. Den bestod av 13 frågor rörande magont, svullen mage, förstoppning, diarré och livsstilsvanor så som fysisk träning, rökning, alkohol, koffein, stress och livsmedelskänslighet. Deskriptiv data och skillnader mellan män och kvinnor analyserades. Statistiskt signifikanta skillnader fastslogs med Mann-Whiteys U-test. Resultaten visade att 90% rapporterade att de hade upplevt minst ett av problemen den senaste månaden minst en gång. Några av studenterna upplevde flera av symptom flera gånger i veckan. Kvinnor led av mer problem än männen: magont (p<.0001), svullnad (p<.0001) och förstoppning (p=.005). Kvinnor upplevde också mer stress under dagen än män (p<.0001) och rapporterade högre grad av livsmedelskänslighet (p=.01). Magproblem var utbrett bland högskolestudenter så även stress och livsmedelskänsligheter. Fler studier behöver göras för att fastslå de grundläggande orsakerna till magbesvären.

     

  • 171.
    Hansson, Jessica
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Does the wolf (Canis lupus) affect presence of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Sweden?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vargen (Canis lupus) har ökat stadigt i Sverige under de senaste decennierna. Vargens återkomst och dess påverkan på det svenska djurlivet studeras idag i stor utsträckning, och frågor har uppstått om vargen som toppredator kan komma att orsaka trofiska kaskader i ekosystemet, vilket har observerats i nationalparker i USA. Rödräven (Vulpes vulpes) har i Sverige visat sig dra stor nytta utav vargens återkomst genom den ökade mängden kadaver som vargen lämnar, vilket är en särskilt viktig födokälla under våren.

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om närvaro av varg påverkar förekomst av rödräv. Rävspår räknades i 182 vilttrianglar i Örebro och Värmlands län under åren 2001-2003. Vilttrianglarna klassificerades med avseende på mängd jordbruksmark, avstånd till vargrevir och ålder på vargrevir. Effekt av varg på rävförekomst analyserades genom att jämföra rävspår med distans till vargrevir och hur länge det funnits varg i området samt rävspår i relation till mängd jordbruksmark. Studien kunde inte påvisa någon effekt av vargförekomst på räv.  Resultaten indikerar på att habitatet var nyckelfaktorn för rävförekomst istället för närvaro av varg. I och med att vargstammen ökar stadigt i Sverige är det dock av intresse med fortsatta studier i ämnet då vargen kan komma att spela en större roll i ekosystemet i framtiden.

  • 172.
    Hedström, Ingemar
    et al.
    Boston University, Boston, USA.
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    The dry season governs the reproduction of three pseudostigmatid zygopterans in Costa Rica: (Odonata Pseudostigmatidae)2007In: International Journal of Odonatology, ISSN 1388-7890, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 53-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The large Neotropical zygopterans Megaloprepus caerulatus, Mecistogaster linearis and M. ornata (Pesudostigmatidae) were surveyed during five years, and striking differences in their reproduction patterns were shown: (1) At two study sites in seasonal, tropical semi-dry forests in Pacific Costa Rica, adult M. ornata could be observed throughout the year, occasionally during the dry season up to 24 indivi duals at one time. Larvae were found from the middle to the end of the wet season suggesting a generation time of one year. (2) At two other study sites in aseasonal tropical wet forest in Caribbean Costa Rica, adults of M. caerulatus were observed year round, often in rather low numbers. Larvae of this species as well as M. linearis appeared throughout the year. While dry periods and rainfall certainly are key factors in governing the reproductive patterns of these species in relation to the climatic regimes of their preferred life zones, it is also concluded that competition from other container dwellers, including tadpoles of poison arrow frogs, may be additional factors in explaining their seasonal variation. It is also argued that all three species seem to have a high plasticity in their life cycles and hence are able to adapt to local conditions rather than displaying the same behaviour throughout their range.

  • 173.
    Hegnelius, Maja
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Muscle activity in bilateral and unilateralbody weight squat: An electromyographic study2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hegnelius, M. - Background. It would be beneficial to the society to bring more awareness about the health benefits that comes with physical activity. Resistance training is a form of physical activity that has positive health benefits for athletes as well as for the average person. Squat is a resistance training exercise that can be performed on one (unilateral) or two (bilateral) legs. Both bilateral and unilateral squat are exercises that are similar to a wide range of different athletic as well as everyday movements. Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate if there is a difference in muscle activity, with electromyography (EMG), in gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, rectus femoris and biceps femoris between bilateral and unilateral body weight squat. Method. Fifteen healthy students (8 women and 7 men) volunteered to participate in the study. EMG signals were collected using surface electrodes with a collection frequency of 1000Hz. EMG data was processed through average root mean square. The values were normalized to maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) and expressed as percent (% MVIC). Result. The result of the present study showed that there was statistically significantly higher muscle activity in unilateral compared to the bilateral body weight squat in gluteus medius and rectus femoris (p<0.05), together with a trend for higher muscle activity in unilateral body weight squat in gluteus maximus and biceps femoris (p=0.07). The present study also showed that the highest muscle activity during a bilateral squat was found in rectus femoris which had significantly higher muscle activation compared to the other three muscles. Furthermore, for the unilateral squat, rectus femoris and gluteus medius had the highest muscle activity and had significantly higher muscle activity compared to gluteus maximus and biceps femoris. Conclusion. Practical implications from this study was that more muscle activity was required when performing unilateral body weight squat although the bilateral body weight squat is a more stable exercise. Further practical implication is that gluteus medius works significantly higher in unilateral compared to bilateral body weight squat which strengthen GM and by this develops a more stable lower body.

  • 174.
    Herrmann, B.
    et al.
    Agroscope Reckenholz-Tänikon Research Station ART, Reckenholzstrasse 191, 8046 Zürich, Switzerland.
    Mattsson, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Jones, S.K.
    Scottish Agricultural College, King’s Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK.
    Cellier, P.
    Inst. National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), UMR Environnement et Grandes Cultures, Thiverval-Grignon, France.
    Milford, C.
    Institute of Earth Sciences “Jaume Almera”, CSIC, Lluis Sole ́ I Sabaris, 08028, Barcelona, Spain.
    Sutton, M.A.
    Natural Environmental Research Council, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh Research Station, Penicuik EH26 0QB, Midlothian, UK.
    Schjoerring, J.K.
    Plant and Soil Science Laboratory, University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Life Sciences, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Neftel, A.
    Agroscope Reckenholz-Tänikon Research Station ART, Reckenholzstrasse 191, 8046 Zürich, Switzerland.
    Vertical structure and diurnal variability of ammonia exchange potential within an intensively managed grass canopy2009In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 15-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stomatal ammonia compensation points (χs) of grass species on a mixed fertilized grassland were determined by measurements of apoplastic [NH4+] and [H>+] in the field. Calculated χs values were compared with in-canopy atmospheric NH3 concentration (χa) measurements.

    Leaf apoplastic [NH4+] increased by a factor of two from the lowest level in the canopy to the top level. Bulk leaf [NH4+] and especially [NO3−] slightly increased at the bottom of the canopy and these concentrations were very high in senescent plant litter. Calculated χs values were below atmospheric χs at all canopy levels measured, indicating that the grassland was characterized by NH3 deposition before cutting. This was confirmed by the χa profile, showing the lowest χa close to the ground (15 cm above soil surface) and an increase in χa with canopy height. Neither χs nor χa could be measured close to the soil surface, however, the [NH4+] in the litter material indicated a high potential for NH3 emission.

    A diurnal course in apoplastic [NH4+] was seen in the regrowing grass growing after cutting, with highest concentration around noon. Both apoplastic and tissue [NH4+] increased in young grass compared to tall grass. Following cutting, in-canopy gradients of atmospheric χa showed NH3 emission but since calculated χs values of the cut grass were still lower than atmospheric NH3 concentrations, the emissions could not entirely be explained by stomatal NH3 loss. High tissue [NH4+] in the senescent plant material indicated that this fraction constituted an NH3 source. After fertilization, [NH4+] increased both in apoplast and leaf tissue with the most pronounced increase in the former compared to the latter. The diurnal pattern in apoplastic [NH4+] was even more pronounced after fertilization and calculated χs values were generally higher, but remained below atmospheric [NH3].

  • 175.
    Herö, Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    The effects on knee angular velocity after a 6-weeks training period with the new training device ProPrioPlate- a pilot study2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractBackground: ACL injuries is common and can result in long term disability or even have a career ending outcome for the athlete. Women are more exposed to ACL injuries than men are and several factors increase the risk of ACL injuries for women where one is the knee angle velocity. It seems that prevention programs involving plyometric- and strength training has been most effective on altering these risk factors for knee injuries. But many programs involve several exercises which makes it very time consuming. Since the gluteus muscles is our main hip abductor and hip stabilizer it is of great importance for controlling the knee. The ProPrioPlate (PPP) is a device that has been validated and shown to activate the gluteus medius 40% more in a squat compared to a regular bodyweight squat.Purpose: To investigate if a 6 week long training period, 3 sessions/ week, 5minutes/session with the PPP could decrease the mean abduction angular velocity (°/sec) of the knee joint in a Drop jump (DJ) in women with poor knee stabilityMethod: An experimental study design was used. Twelve female athletes with poor knee stability and signs of knee valgus in a drop jump conducted a 6 weeks training program to investigate any changes in abduction angular velocity in a DJ. 3D motion analyzes were performed before and after the training period. Wilcoxon signed ranked test was used to investigate if there were any changes in results between the different test occasions.Results: Median abduction angular velocity of the test performed before the intervention was -34. 34 (min -70. 65 max -11. 53) deg/sec and after the intervention median -34. 22 deg/sec (min -51. 97 max -3. 28). The P value was 0.24 which indicate that there were no statistical significant differences between the three testing occasions. Compliance to the intervention was low, 15%.Conclusion: A 6 weeks training period with the PPP did not decrease the abduction angular velocity. Due to low compliance rate amongst of subjects no conclusion regarding the effect of the device can be made.

  • 176.
    Houtkamp, Christofer
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Spillvärmeåtervinning2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    SAPA´s resource of waste heat is the basis for this thesis to investigate the possibility of energy assets in their cooling water and possible uses for it. The energy in the waste water is greater than the current need which has three uses which are (1) heating the factory, (2) converting liquid propane to propane gas and (3) local domestic heating. The average energy load that is available is 1, 7 MW and the average temperature in the cooling water is 41°C. The total energy load at dimensioning out side temperature is approximately 1,6 MW for the three current uses. The temperature is currently too low to be used directly in the existing systems so an upgrade is needed. The district heating has the highest temperature requirements at 100°C in the winter. To reach the relatively high temperatures required a hybrid heat pump proves to be a suitable solution due to a good Coefficient of Performance (COP). The disadvantage is that at the moment hybrid heat pumps have to be tailor made and are therefore very expensive. The investment required to extract the most amount of surplus energy is large due to the expensive tailor made hybrid heat pumps and the high cost of laying underground heat transferring pipes which leads to long pay off times as the value of surplus heat from waste water is low.

  • 177.
    Huerta Buitrago, Belinda
    et al.
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Ferrer Munoz, Patricia
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Ribé, Veronica
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Larsson, Maria
    Man-Technology-Environment Research Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Man-Technology-Environment Research Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Wojciechowska, Eva
    Gdańsk University of Technology, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Gdańsk, Poland .
    Waara, Sylvia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS). School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Hazard assessment of sediments from a wetland system for treatment of landfill leachate using bioassays2013In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 97, p. 255-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four bioassays were used in this study for the hazard assessment of sediments from sediment traps and several ponds in a treatment wetland for landfill leachate at Atleverket, Sweden. In the 6-day solid phase microbiotest with the sediment-dwelling crustacean Heterocypris incongruens both acute and chronic effects were observed with a gradual decrease and loss of toxicity with treatment in the wetland system. Some samples showed a low toxicity in porewater and only one sample was weakly toxic in the whole sediment test when assessed with Aliivibrio fischeri (Vibro fischeri). No genotoxicity was detected in the umu test. The toxicity response in the H4IIE- luc test evaluating the presence of dioxin-like compounds was considerably higher in the samples from the sediment traps. The hazard of the sediment therefore appears to be highest in the sediment traps and pond 1 with the methods employed. The result indicates that the wetland system has a design supporting the concentration and sequestration of toxic substances in the first part of the wetland. Based upon the results we suggest that hazard assessment of sediments from other treatment wetlands for landfill leachate should be conducted. (c) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 178.
    Hultquist, Thomas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Vindkraftverk: Inverkan på flyttfåglar över Halmstad kommun2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wind power is a difficult subject to study, since it is both economical and ecological interests involved. Today the society is depending in lots of energy and therefore we are in needs of a less polluting energy-source, and one of the alternatives is wind power. The wind power is developed in a large scale, with all of Sweden included. When there are so huge economical interests involved, it might be a risk that other interests are put a side, for example the ecological ones.

    This study will give a greater knowledge about how wind power plants affect certain bird species. The study is limited to Halmstad municipality and areas with wind power plants. My method was to compile old reports of migrating birds, and to find an adequate location to proceed with the field studies, and then perform field studies close to wind power plants.

    The field study was performed during a limited period which resulted in too less information for making any certain conclusions. The information that was withdrawn from the study shows that the migrating birds flies on a higher elevation than the maximum height of the wind power plants. Birds flying at a lower elevation manage to dodge the plants and fly either around or above them.

    The wind power should be able to develop in Sweden, under the circumstances that more studies and more knowledge, about the effects on birdlife, is obtained. The study does not give an answer if wind power is the optimal energy source but it gives an increased knowledge for future decision.

  • 179.
    Hurtig, Jörgen
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Report-evaluation of a small scale district heating system in Ullared, Sweden2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This evaluation and final report is a part of an EU-project, “Energy in Minds” (EiM). The project is a part of the EU-programme Concerto within the Sixth Framework Programme. EiM has been running from 2005 and is now finalized in May 2010. Within the EiM project, the local energy company, Falkenberg Energi AB (FEAB), has received EU-funding of totally 98 200 Euro for the two local heating systems consist of a completely new small scale district heating system in Ullared and one partly new in Vessigebro, in the north-east part of the municipality of Falkenberg. The system in Ullared, which this report is focusing on, a prefabricated transportable heating plant with a boiler of 1500 kW has been installed. The fuel used is pellets. The pipe network consists now of about 2,5 km of double pipeline. 22 customers have been con-nected so far, representing a heat demand of about 2400 MWh annually. The main customers are the school building, health care centre, elderly housing and the parish. The main pipe network is made up of traditional double district heating pipes of steel with polyurethane insulation and a polythene casing.

    The financial results have improved during 2009, mostly due to greatly reduced depreciations. For 2009 the result was +304 000 SEK. (2008: -146 000 SEK) The heat density of the system in Ullared is, being a small scale district heating system, quite normal with a linear heat density of about 0,8 MWh/m. But the key problem of the district heating system in Ullared is the very low connection rate which is roughly estimated to 22%. This is for the system in Ullared at the same time a well needed future potential for expansion. The Environmental impact is important for many customers when they chose their heating system and it is usually a good argument for the district heating industry as a whole. However, the environmental impact from low density district heating systems is higher than for traditional systems since both heat losses and resource depletion from pipes and components increase with lower heat density. Still research report referred to in this report states that the choice of district heating is a good choice for the environmental impact for those property owners who today uses fossil fuel for heating. One estimation says roughly a reduction of 40 tons of CO2-equivalents per year compared with oil furnace heating. Finally, the small scale district heating system in Ullared has definitely the potential of attracting more customers in the future with a well spread out distribution net with many buildings close situated offering an alternative for change of heating system for potential customers for a future connection when energy prices for oil and electricity increases even more. Anyway it will have a positive impact on the environment both globally and locally.

  • 180.
    Hurtig, Jörgen
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Report-evaluation of multi-storey Low Energy Houses at Hertings Gård, Falkenberg2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The new residential buildings at Hertings Gård in Falkenberg are built and owned by the local municipal housing company, Falkenbergs Bostads AB (FaBo) during 2007-2010. It is a good example of when knowledge of Passive house technology combined with good energy planning and project management can result in multi-storey houses with energy rating under 50kWh/m2. The multi-storey houses at Hertings Gård have innovative solar air heating systems connected to the ventilation system that is quiet unique. The solar air heating system contributes to the buildings energy supply by preheating the ventilation supply air. (The solar air is part of another project in Energy in Minds). This evaluation is based on metered energy used for space heat, domestic hot water, electricity for building service and domestic electricity for two of the multi-storey houses during 2009, House 18 and 19. The result is presented as monthly uses and compared with initial project specifications and some other parameters. The total initial energy specifications set by Concerto/Energy in Minds and FaBo for the houses are almost reached. Results are for House 18 and 19, 76,8 and 77,5 kWh/m2. (Specification 75 kWh/m2) This is total use of purchased energy. (excl. lighting at parking lots, not corrected after Swedish statistical normal year.) If we exclude the domestic energy use, the results looks as follows, House 18 47,8 and House 19 45,9 kWh/m2.(Specification: 50 kWh/m2). The used domestic energy for 2009 is varying a lot (House 18 from about 650 kWh up to 6500 kWh) between the apartments and is in total roughly 20% more than was expected in the project. A conclusion is that domestic energy is most of all a result of the tenant’s individual needs and behavior. Another energy specification that is not fully reached is the electricity for building service which is slightly more than specified in the project. The efficiency of the ventilation system is analyzed (with Specific Fan Power, SFP=2,80) which is relatively high compared to recommendations in National Swedish building code. This is probably a consequence of the chosen ventilation system with functions such as individual indoor temperature control. This function needs a design of the ventilation system that causes more power drops and therefore also more power than a more traditional and centralized ventilation system. The energy used for domestic hot water (DHW) is about 26% lower than specified in the project. (14,75 kWh/m2, year vs 20 kWh/ m2, year). The metered average specific DHW use at Hertings Gård is 0,27 m3/m2 and year. This is just slightly over the average of about 128 000 German apartments with individual metering and charging of DHW (0,25 m3/m2 and year). Hertings Gård has individual metering and charging of DHW use and low-flush water taps which are contributing to this relatively low DHW use. What is also achieved at Hertings Gård is, at least when looking at the tenant’s answers in the completed survey, that it seems to be a valued housing for its comfort as well as in other quality aspects. Many tenants can recommend the housing to other people. In conclusion, Hertings Gård is a good housing for the tenants, most probably a good investment for the housing company and above all a good living for the environment and the climate.

  • 181.
    Häggblom, Jenny
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Is there a sex difference in the bilateral deficit?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The bilateral deficit can be described as when the sum of two unilateral movements exceeds

    the bilateral output. If the sum does not exceed the bilateral output, a bilateral facilitation is

    present. Little research has been done in males and females comparison of the bilateral deficit.

    The purpose of the current study was therefore to compare the bilateral deficit between sexes

    in a 1 repetition maximum (RM) leg press. Twenty participants, ten males and ten females,

    were recruited (23.4±2.1 years, 71.2±13.1 kg, 172.2±8.9 cm) and seventeen of them

    completed the study. The test consisted of two testing sessions (one unilateral with preferred

    leg, and one bilateral session) with seven days in between. The 1 RM was attained within six

    attempts, with a three minutes rest between every attempt. The current study showed a

    bilateral deficit of males (5.6±4.6%) and a bilateral facilitation of females (0.6±5.9%). There

    was a significant difference between sexes of p=0.031 (p<0.05). Previous studies have

    examined males and females separately, with different methods and protocols. This study

    used the same method and protocol in both sexes. Some suggestions of the mechanisms

    behind the deficit have been proposed and may explain the current findings, but further

    studies are needed. Future research needs to continue to explore and explain the sex

    difference in the bilateral strength deficit.

  • 182.
    Högberg, Anton
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Bengtsson, Jens
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Marknaden för Gröna fastigheter: Hur marknaden för Gröna fastigheter expanderar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The World ́s environmental problems have been more widely known and investments in the environment are increasing. A major cause of the environmental problems is the real estate market. The real estate market is about to change. Environmental certifications are beginning to be established on the market and the demand on environmental certifications is starting to grow among the population. The purpose of this report is to describe the market for Green buildings and explain the financial incentives that exist for real estate companies to build and own Green buildings. In this study Green buildings is defined as all commercial buildings that are environmentally certified in accordance with LEED, BREEAM, Green Building and the EU GreenBuilding. The report is based on empirical evidence from several relevant people in the real estate industry. Empirical evidence has been gathered to create a picture of how the market is created. The report will also investigate whether there may be financial incentives for building and owning Green buildings. The content of this report has led to the conclusion that the market for Green buildings has expanded significantly over the past five years and continues to expand. The report has also made the conclusion that it may exist financial incentives for real estate companies to build and own Green buildings. 

  • 183.
    Ivarsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Helgesson, Fredrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Stein, Tobias
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Fotbollsskador hos manliga amatörspelare i Halland säsongen 2009: En jämförelse mellan division två, tre och fyra2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Fotboll är en intressant idrott att utforska ur skadeperspektiv då det är en av de mest skadedrabbade idrotterna. Fotbollsskador uppkommer antingen akut eller över tid och åtskiljs beroende om de inträffar under träning eller match. Tidigare studier av elitspelare visar att skador främst inträffar under match i form av akuta skador. De visar också att överbelastningsskador är mer träningsrelaterade och att flertalet av dem inträffar under försäsongen. Skadeincidensen beskrivs i antalet skador per 1000 tränings- respektive matchtimmar. Elitnivå har högre incidens än amatörnivå, framförallt under match. Sextio till nittio procent av alla skador drabbar nedre extremitet. Studier visar att de mest skadedrabbade kroppsdelarna är knän, lår och fotleder men även att ljumsk- och vadskador ofta förekommer.

    Syftet med studien var att jämföra olika divisioner inom den manliga amatörfotbollen, för att se hur spelnivån kan inverka på skadebilden. Undersökningen avsåg säsongen 2009 och genomfördes i Halland med spelare från division två, tre och fyra involverade. En enkät användes för att samla in information om spelarnas skadehistorik. Totalt inkluderades 79 spelare i undersökningen och av dessa var 39 skadade och tillsammans hade de 49 skador. Vid beräkning av konfidensintervall för samtliga enkätsvar framkom inga signifikanta skillnader mellan divisionerna. Sextioen procent av skadorna var akuta och 39 % överbelastningsskador. De akuta skadorna var vanligast i division två och tre medan överbelastningsskador var vanligast i division fyra. Den totala skadeincidensen var 7,92 per 1000 matchtimmar och 2,92 per 1000 träningstimmar. Division tre hade högst skadeincidens för match med 10,63 skador och division fyra hade högst skadeincidens för träning med 4,09 skador. Av alla skador resulterade 30,6 % i en frånvaro mellan 1-7 dagar, 32,7 % mellan 8-28 dagar och 36,7 % mer än 28 dagar. Skadorna var främst lokaliserade till knä, lår och fot. Mittfältare var mest skadedrabbade följt av försvarare, anfallare och målvakter. I division två och fyra inträffade skadorna främst under för- och vårsäsongen medan det i division tre var vanligast med skador under höstsäsongen.

  • 184.
    Ivarsson, Johanna
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Solceller för flerbostadshus: En teknisk rapport för HFAB2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This examination paper is about the potential for Solar cells on apartment blocks. The technology with using solar cells for manufacturing electricity, has been on the market for a while, but recently the new installations of solar cells has increased. Solar cells are suited for placements on buildings but are expensive to obtain. The municipal real-estate company is interested in solar cells but wants to know more before they invest in the technology. This report contains an account of the solar cell and a guide to how a connection to the grid is accomplished. The report even contains suggestions of where the solar cells can be located and an estimate of annual production of electricity on a building. The outcome of the report is that there are good prerequisites for solar cells on apartment blocks and it shows the real- estate company as an environmental-thinking corporation.

  • 185.
    Ivarsson, Tommy
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    A Comparison Between Foam Rolling and Dynamic Stretch on Throwing Velocity and Accuracy Among Male Handball Players2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The monotonous and strenuous shoulder moving pattern during throwing may result in microtrauma and fibrous adhesions between the layers of fascia among athletes. In the last decade, self myofascial release (SMR) has gained good reputation as a way to treat these adhesions. However, there is limited data demonstrating the effects on upper body performance among athletes. PURPOSE: The purpose was to examine the effects from an acute bout of upper body SMR or from dynamic stretch (DS), on shoulder range of motion (ROM), throwing velocity and throwing accuracy. Also to examine correlations between shoulder ROM and throwing velocity/accuracy and between playing experience (PE) and changes in throwing velocity/accuracy and ROM. METHODS: 20 elite male handball players (age 20 ± 5 years, weight 84 ± 9 kg) were included in the study. The study had an experimental cross-over design in which participants first performed baseline measures. They also performed SMR and DS in two different trials. The trials were supervised and separated by 14 days. During SMR, the athletes performed a series of foam rolling exercises during two minutes for the muscles surrounding the shoulder joint. The same muscles were stretched for two minutes during the DS trial. Directly after foam rolling and DS, shoulder ROM, throwing velocity and throwing accuracy were measured using a gravity reference goniometer, radar gun and a high speed videocamera. ANOVA with repeated measures and t-tests were used to analyze differences between and within groups. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in either shoulder ROM, throwing velocity or throwing accuracy between the three trials. There was a moderate correlation between shoulder extension and mean accuracy (r = 0.62; p = 0.004) after DS. When dividing the group into high and low experienced players, among the players in the PE-low group, the most experienced players elicited the greatest increase in peak throwing velocity after DS (r = 0.58; p = 0.10). Change in peak accuracy showed moderate but conflicting correlations after SMR (r = -0.53; p = 0.09) and DS (r = 0.50; p = 0.11) for the players in the PE-high group, indicating a better result after SMR. CONCLUSION: An acute bout of upperbody SMR does not affect ROM and does not improve throwing velocity or throwing accuracy compared to baseline or DS among elite male handball players. Nor could any correlation between ROM and throwing velocity or throwing accuracy be observed. The associations between PE and throwing performance was inconclusive. Further studies is needed to define if PE should be taken into consideration when using SMR or DS in order to improve throwing performance.

  • 186.
    Jaggwe, Assad
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Effects of Environmental Variables on Four Aquatic Insect Taxa among Smaller Water Bodies of Different Ages on Farmland; A Pilot Study2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    High anthropogenic modification like infrastructural development, drainage, eutrophication, dumping garbage, is a threat to biodiversity of smaller water bodies in agricultural landscapes. However, smaller water bodies have historically been constructed for drainage, waste treatment and other purposes. Further, new small water bodies are now being constructed in agricultural areas in Sweden, mainly to remove nutrients and to improve landscape biodiversity. This creates two different age classes (old and new) of smaller water body habitats. I sampled aquatic insects in 27 smaller water bodies of varying types and ages in Halmstad region and related insect biodiversity, species richness, composition structure to environmental variables. I partitioned the region into two locations (Northern and Southern) for easy data comparison and due to difference in topography. The data was analysed using a Canonical Correspondence (CCA) and regression analysis. The CCA results show a difference in the species composition between old and new sites. The most important variables in explaining species assemblage structure was age of the aquatic water bodies. The species richness decreased with increase in nutrient concentration (total phosphorus) according to regression analysis. Species composition and diversity were related to Vegetation and tree cover in and around the water body. The results of my study shows that the older the water bodies the better for specific species like Aeshna cyanea and the new water bodies tolerate more specimens. My results suggest that, as there is need to facilitate plant growing, protecting vegetation and trees to better mimic natural conditions of water bodies, creating new water bodies while protecting aged water bodies is important for conservation of biodiversity.

  • 187.
    Jakobs, Kristin
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET). Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    ­Hur påverkar dietärt nitrat muskelfunktionen och återhämtningen vid styrketräning?: En pilotstudie i samarbete med Karolinska Institutet och Åstrands laboratoriet.2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research on human physiology and how it is working is updated daily. In the world of sports they are testing new as old, natural as unnatural preparations and different training methods continuously in order to optimize athletic performance. A substance that´s been research on, up till today is nitric oxide and its influence in the body. From being interpreted as a harmful substance in the body, it went to possibly help heart disease patients, and also optimize the physic in sport performance. Nitric oxide is formed in the body naturally by oxygen, but it can also be formed without oxygen through the ingestion of nitrates found in many vegetables. Studies on nitrate in the sport field have concentrated on the effect on endurance sports and the effect has been shown to increase the efficiency and the blood flow to the muscles. Later on they also found that nitrate supplementation seems to give a lower Vo2max together with an increased time to exhaustion. These findings are really interesting because normally a reduction in Vo2max leads us to a decrease in workability. All these studies give an idea on how nitrate works aerobic, that is with oxygen. The research has not yet an explanation on how nitrate affect anaerobic work and maximum performance that occurs in weight training.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how nitrate affects muscle function and endurance in strength training. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial, eight men (age 19-26, 23 (±2, 3)) consumed nitrate or a placebo (0.1 mmol/kg bodyweight/day) for three days. During the fourth day the test persons were tested in four different strength tests to see how they performed. Lactate and glucose concentrations were measured to see how the laktacid system was influenced.

    The study gave no support that dietary nitrate affects weight training. The results from the occasion with nitrate respectively placebo remained essentially unchanged.

    It was concluded that an intake of nitrate not will give any significant effects on the model of strength training. The main reason for this may be that nitrate provides the greatest impact on long-term work-duration and mainly during aerobic work. In this case the main use is mostly stored energy in the body, and the energy systems in which oxygen is required will probably not be of major importance.

  • 188.
    Jalaei, Fatemeh
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Application of a mathematical approach in modeling wind time series: A general survey of the Langevin method2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, the great importance and benefits of renewable energies as a source of endless energy is obvious for all.

    Wind is recognized as one of the most stable and safest type of energy, due to ease of access as well as applying modern technical and scientific methods in order to its extraction.

    In this regard, much effort has been done in the developed societies to obtain knowledge besides getting access to new techniques in the exploitation of this unlimited wealth.

    Apart from the new aspects of the proposed research in wind area, the extraction operation requires specialists to advanced techniques and scientific research.

    The development of societies and their increasing necessity to energy resources have increased the importance of safe and clean renewable energy.

    This study investigates a technique to specify the power performance of the wind turbine directly from measured data which fluctuate with high frequency. This project is a review of a dynamical method for the specification of wind turbines' power curves.

    Considering the power output of a wind turbine in this study, the basic concept is to divide its dynamics into two components; a deterministic(relaxation) and a stochastic(noise) functions which are equivalent to the wind turbines' real behavior itself and the exterior wind turbulence.

    It specifically presents a procedure to estimate the reaction of the wind turbine as a machine to the wind speed dynamically.

    In this method, reconstruction of the coefficients from the measured data and extraction of the specification of the power output have been done. The main focus of this technique is on differential equations which are recognized as Langevin equations.

    As the consequence, it is shown; with this method we will be able to percept the conversion dynamics of wind turbines and get the power curves' results with high precision. The results demonstrate that power performance's specification is accurately reconstructed from the measured data by the quick estimation of the coefficients from data.

    Furthermore, the high accuracy and fast estimation of the power curves would be considered as preferences in this method.

  • 189.
    James, Parker
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Variability of score and golf ball trajectory in elite golfers2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Introduction: Ball trajectory in the golf swing is an important outcome variable for golf performance, however, no direct investigation of ball flight trajectory variability for pre-elite players has been conducted.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine correlations between average score and ball trajectory variability (for carry and lateral displacement) on pre-elite golfers both at and between two different clubs. 

    Methods: Sixteen pre-elite/elite golfers were included in the study, 11 men and 5 women with a mean age of 22 ±2 (SD). An actual average (mean) score was calculated for each player’s first ten competition rounds. Subjects were then instructed to hit 5 balls, with focus on consistency, with their seven iron and then hit 5 balls approximately 70 metres with their preferred wedge. Ball trajectory variables were recorded using a Flightscope® Kudo Doppler radar launch monitor system (EDH South Africa (PTY) Ltd). Statistical calculation of averages, standard deviation (SD), normalised root-mean, coefficient of variance, performance error index (PEI= and Pearson’s correlation.

    Results: The results from the present study showed there was no significant correlation between average score (76.2 ±1.9) and variability of ball trajectory, for the seven iron or wedge. Results also showed average seven iron CV for carry and lateral PEIdisplacement was 5% and 3% respectively, whilst average wedge carry CV for carry and lateral PEIdisplacement was 9% and 2% respectively.  Carry CV and Lateral CV PEI were moderately correlated (r=0.61, p=0.012) with each other for the wedge.

    Conclusion: : Our findings show no correlation between shot variability and golf score, however we found weak correlation between carry and lateral variability for the wedge. In order for effective coaching more understanding into the importance of biomechanical variability and golf performance is required, further research is needed to better understand the implication of our findings

  • 190.
    Janssen, S.A.
    et al.
    Department of Urban Environment and Safety, Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, P.O. Box 49, 2600 AA Delft, Netherlands.
    Vos, H.
    Department of Urban Environment and Safety, Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, P.O. Box 49, 2600 AA Delft, Netherlands.
    Eisses, A.R.
    Department of Acoustics and Sonar, Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, P.O. Box 96864, 2509 JG The Hague, Netherlands.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    A comparison between exposure-response relationships for wind turbine annoyance and annoyance due to other sources2011In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 130, no 6, p. 3746-3753Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surveys have shown that noise from wind turbines is perceived as annoying by a proportion of residents living in their vicinity, apparently at much lower noise levels than those inducing annoyance due to other environmental sources. The aim of the present study was to derive the exposure-response relationship between wind turbine noise exposure in L(den) and the expected percentage annoyed residents and to compare it to previously established relationships for industrial noise and transportation noise. In addition, the influence of several individual and situational factors was assessed. On the basis of available data from two surveys in Sweden (N=341, N=754) and one survey in the Netherlands (N=725), a relationship was derived for annoyance indoors and for annoyance outdoors at the dwelling. In comparison to other sources of environmental noise, annoyance due to wind turbine noise was found at relatively low noise exposure levels. Furthermore, annoyance was lower among residents who received economical benefit from wind turbines and higher among residents for whom the wind turbine was visible from the dwelling. Age and noise sensitivity had similar effects on annoyance to those found in research on annoyance by other sources

  • 191.
    Janssen, Sabine A.
    et al.
    TNO Department of Environment and Health, P.O. Box 49, 2600 AA Delft, Netherlands.
    Vos, Henk
    TNO Department of Environment and Health, P.O. Box 49, 2600 AA Delft, Netherlands.
    Eisses, Arno R.
    TNO Monitoring Systems - Acoustics, P.O. Box 55, 2600 AD Delft, Netherlands.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Exposure-response relationships for annoyance by wind turbine noise: a comparison with other stationary sources2009In: 8th European Conference on Noise Control 2009 (EURONOISE 2009): Proceedings of the Institute of Acoustics, Volume 31, Pt 3, St. Albans Hertfordshire, UK: Institute of Acoustics , 2009, p. 1472-1478Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are indications that, given a certain level of noise exposure, the expected annoyance by wind turbine noise is higher than that by noise from other sources such as industrial noise or transportation noise. The aim of the present study was to establish the exposure-response relationship between wind turbine noise exposure and the expected percentage annoyed residents on the basis of available data. Data from two surveys in Sweden (N=341, N=754) and one survey in the Netherlands (N=725) were combined to achieve relationships between Lden and annoyance indoors as well as annoyance outdoors at the dwelling. In addition, the influence of several individual and situational factors was assessed. In particular, annoyance was lower in residents who received economical benefit from wind turbines, and higher in residents for whom the wind turbine was visible from the dwelling. Age and noise sensitivity had similar effects on annoyance to those found in research on annoyance by other sources. The exposure-response relationship for wind turbine noise is compared to previously established relationships for industrial noise.

  • 192.
    Janssen, Sabine
    et al.
    TNO Department of Environment and Health.
    Vos, Henk
    TNO Department of Environment and Health.
    Eisses, Arno R.
    TNO Department of Environment and Health.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Predicting annoyance by wind turbine noise2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While wind turbines have beneficial effects for the environment, they inevitably generate environmental noise. In order to protect residents against unacceptable levels of noise, exposure-response relationships are needed to predict the expected percentage of people annoyed or highly annoyed at a given level of wind turbine noise. Exposure-response relationships for wind turbine noise were derived on the basis of available data, using the same method that was previously used to derive relationships for transportation noise and industrial noise. Data from surveys in Sweden and the Netherlands were used to achieve relationships between Lden and annoyance, both indoors and outdoors at the dwelling. It is shown that a given percentage of annoyance by wind turbine noise is expected at much lower levels of Lden than the same percentage of annoyance by for instance road traffic noise. Results were used to guide new noise regulation for wind turbines in the Netherlands.

  • 193.
    Jensen, Henrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Solcellsanläggningars kostnadseffektivitet för elkrävande verksamhet: Lönsamhet, miljöavtryck och självförsörjningsgrad för solcellssystem med olika orientering2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The primary aim of this thesis was to use the calculation instrument for the solar energy potential map of Landskrona to simulate several PV systems to a sanitation company. The calculation tool is designed to calculate the profitability and environmental benefits of installing solar panels. The calculation tool was adapted in order to compare cost efficiency, environmental benefit and degree of self-sufficiency and self- consumption for the solutions. The PV system was planned to a company, Landskrona Svalöv Renhållning (LSR).

    Furthermore, four different ways to construct the PV system were investigated; flat against the roof, tilted with respect to the roof, tilted with respect to the roof and oriented (azimuth angle), as well as an installation with a string of tilted PV modules together with PV modules mounted flat against the roof. Variation of the system configurations was achieved by changing the parameters tilt and azimuth angle. The capacity was adjusted so that the annual production would be 83 500 kWh for all the studied systems. The different systems were optimized in two ways; first for the most output per module, and secondly for the greatest self-sufficiency in order to minimize the losses of excess production.

    PV modules optimally oriented for production per module provides the highest profitability and lowest payback period. The study suggests that photovoltaic systems are a competitive installation for LSR even without subsidies.

    The degree of self-consumption was 11 %. Simulation results showed that the degree of self-sufficiency could only be increased marginally by simply changing the orientation of solar cells (with power adapted to maintained production level). There was no significant benefit from tilting the solar cells by 90 ° to increase self-sufficiency in the winter.

    The simulations showed that almost all of the produced electricity was used to LSR 's internal load. This high degree of self-consumption showed very little excess electricity was produced. LSR is connected to the medium voltage power grid via two transformers. The surplus production covered only part of the no-load losses in transformers. Surplus electricity could therefore not be sold, but the high self-consumption rate limited this loss of revenue.

    The solar electricity from crystalline silicon cells, results in slightly higher greenhouse gas emissions than wind power but much lower than the production mix of electricity available in the market. The self-produced solar electricity contributed to the environment because LSR did not have to buy the contracted wind electricity, which then became available for others.

    The study's conclusions are that a PV system is likely to be profitable for LSR. Self-sufficiency would be about 11%, and the self-consumption rate of 98%. The environmental benefit consisted of the contribution of renewable energy in the mix of electricity generation on the market.

  • 194.
    Joelsson, Arne
    et al.
    County Administrative Board of Halland, Sweden.
    Erlandsson, Gert
    Regional Development Council, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Feuerbach, Peter
    Rural Economy and Agricultural Society of Halland, Eldsberga, Sweden.
    Hansson, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Henriksson, Annika
    County Administrative Board of Halland, Sweden.
    Kindt, Torsten
    Municipality of Laholm, Sweden.
    Kling, Johan
    County Administrative Board of Halland, Sweden.
    Strand, John A.
    Rural Economy and Agricultural Society of Halland, Eldsberga, Sweden.
    Svensson, Jonas
    County Administrative Board of Halland, Sweden.
    Tollebäck, Erika
    County Administrative Board of Halland, Sweden.
    Vartia, Katarina
    County Administrative Board of Halland, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    The Aquarius approach on mitigation of phosphorus losses2010In: 6th International Phosphorus Workshop (IPW6): Towards a sustainable control of diffuse P loss: risk, monitoring, modelling, and mitigation options, 2010, p. 164-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 195.
    Johannesson, K.
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Tonderski, K.S.
    Linköping University.
    Wedding, B.
    Ekologgruppen i Landskrona AB.
    Weisner, S.E.B.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Phosphorus dynamics and retention in non-point source wetlands in southern Sweden2010In: Proceedings of the 12th International Water Association International Conference on Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control: October 4-8, 2010 Venice, Italy. Volume 1 / [ed] Fabio Masi and J. Nivala, San Giovanni Valdarno: Palombi Editori , 2010, p. 493-494Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seven constructed wetlands receiving diffuse pollution from agricultural land in the south of Sweden were investigated with respect to water flow patterns and phosphorus (P) dynamics. P retention was positive, and correlated to P load in all wetlands. However, there was a large variation in both specific and relative retention, both between wetlands and between years. Thus, the phosphorus retention in a specific wetland is difficult to predict using simple loadretention models. The water flow was correlated to P concentrations in most wetlands; however, there were some exceptions. For instance, one wetland showed a negative relationship between water flow and P concentration during summer, which indicated that other factors than the water flow determined the dynamics of P during this season. This investigation will provide a better understanding of factors affecting phosphorus retention in constructed wetlands, with further implications for wetland research and monitoring. Furthermore, the results can assist when formulating models for phosphorus removal in wetlands receiving nonpoint source runoff.

  • 196.
    Johannesson, Karin M.
    et al.
    IFM Ecology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kynkäänniemi, Pia
    Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ulén, Barbro
    Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan E.B.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Tonderski, Karin S.
    IFM Ecology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Clay-bound phosphorus retention in wetlands: a catchment comparison2010In: 6th International Phosphorus Workshop (IPW6): Towards a sustainable control of diffuse P loss: risk, monitoring, modelling, and mitigation options : Book of Abstracts, 2010, p. 127-127Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ten constructed wetlands, situated in agricultural areas in the south of Sweden, are investigated for phosphorus (P) retention and factors affecting the efficiency. These wetlands are situated in areas dominated by clay or heavy clay soils. National monitoring and estimations have shown that agricultural areas dominated by such clay soils have among the highest phosphorus losses. It has also been shown that a large proportion of P is transported in particulate form; hence, it is expected that sedimentation is the predominant P retention process in the selected wetlands. Sedimentation of clay may, however, be difficult to achieve in wetlands, and the aim of the study is to quantify the function of wetlands as sinks for the P lost from the catchments. Sedimentation and accumulation of particles are measured once a year using sedimentation plates (40×40 cm) placed on the bottom of the wetlands. Additional sedimentation traps (estimating gross sedimentation) have been placed in three of the wetlands, and those are emptied two times per year. This paper presents results for P and soil retention after the first year (in kg P ha-1 year-1), estimated by extrapolating the amount of sediment accumulated on the plates, and the content of total phosphorus (TP), to the whole wetland area. Furthermore, one wetland was selected for a detailed investigation of the effect of a vegetation filter, which in a previous study has been shown to have a positive effect on particle retention. Here, estimates of net and gross sedimentation are measured before, within and after the vegetation filter. To identify some factors of significant importance for wetland P load and retention efficiency, the statistical relationship with different wetland and catchment characteristics is analyzed. The factors included are the ratio wetland area to catchment area, average hydraulic load, and various catchment characteristics, e.g. soil type, topography, fertilization history, and soil P fractions. Since there is some uncertainty regarding sedimentation of fine clay particles (< 0.2 m), the size fractions of the accumulated sediment is determined to see whether or not the finest clay particles from the catchments settle in the wetlands. Previous studies have shown a correlation between particle size and bioavailability, where finer clay particles contain larger proportion of easily available P. Trapping the finest clay particles is therefore of particular ecological importance and needs to be further investigated.

  • 197.
    Johannesson, Karin M.
    et al.
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kynkäänniemi, Pia
    Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ulén, Barbro
    Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Tonderski, Karin S.
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Phosphorus and particle retention in constructed wetlands—A catchment comparison2015In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 80, p. 20-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Seven constructed wetlands (0.05–0.69 ha), situated in agricultural catchments (22–267 ha) in the south of Sweden, were studied for two years with two aims: to (i) quantify their function as sinks for particles and phosphorus (P) lost from the catchments, and (ii) investigate to what degree catchment and wetland characteristics and modeled loads (using hydrochemical catchment models) could be used to explain differences in retention between the wetlands. The wetland areas ranged from 0.04 to 0.8% of the respective catchment area, and they were situated in areas dominated by fine-textured soils with relatively high P losses and the main proportion of P transported in particulate form. Net P and particle retention were estimated during two years from annual accumulation of particles on sedimentation plates (40 × 40 cm) on the bottom of the wetlands.

    There was an annual net retention of particles and P, but with a large variation (for particles 13–108 t ha−1 yr−1 and for P 11–175 kg ha−1 yr−1), both between wetlands and between years. The difference between the two years was larger than the difference in mean P retention between the seven wetlands. There was a positive relationship between P and particle retention and three catchment factors, i.e. P status (P-AL) of agricultural soils, average slope in the catchments and the livestock density, and a negative relationship with the agricultural soil clay content. In addition, there was a positive relationship with the wetland length:width ratio. Contrary to expectations, neither the modeled hydraulic load nor P load was significantly correlated with the measured particle and P retention. There was also a positive relationship between P concentration in the sediment and soil P status in the catchment. The results imply that considerable errors are introduced when down-scaling modeled regional nutrient losses to estimate the P loads to small wetlands in agriculturally dominated catchments. A more qualitative approach, using catchment characteristics for identification of hot-spot fields, may be equally good to identify suitable locations for constructed wetlands to reduce diffuse P loads. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  • 198.
    Johannesson, Karin
    et al.
    Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sverige.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sverige.
    Wedding, Bengt
    Ekologgruppen i Landskrona AB, Landskrona, Sverige.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Phosphorus load variations and retention in non-point source wetlands in southern Sweden2011Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Data from seven constructed wetlands receiving runoff from agricultural catchments in the south of Sweden were investigated with respect to phosphorus (P) retention. The seven wetlands differed in size (0.22-2 ha), design, land use and catchment characteristics. The hydraulic load varied between 7 and 725 m yr-1, which reflect the different geographical and hydrological conditions. The overall aim of this study was to increase the understanding of how water flow and inflow P concentration varations affect the P retention in constructed wetlands receiving runoff from arable land. Water flow was measured continuously, and time or flow proportional water samples were taken. Grab samples were taken during high flow periods and also to supplement the automatic water sampling. P retention varied between wetlands, from 1 to 58 kg ha-1 yr-1, and was correlated to the P load (R2=0.9, p<0.05). P retention in the wetlands varied strongly between years, and negative retention was recorded for some years and wetlands. When investigating monthly retention for each wetland, release of P corresponded to either high flow or possible anoxic conditions during low-flow periods in summer or during winter when ice covered the wetlands. Analyses of grab samples revealed a relationship between TP concentration and water flow for most wetlands. In some wetlands, P was transported mainly as particulate P (PP), but in other wetlands, soluble P was the dominating form in both inflow and outflow. Incoming concentrations varied greatly between wetlands (1-2000 μg l-1) which reflected the different catchment characteristics, e.g. land use, soil type and topography.

  • 199.
    Johannesson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm.
    Blomgren, Bo
    AstraZeneca, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Hilliges, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Rylander, Eva
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm.
    Bohm-Starke, Nina
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm.
    The vulval vestibular mucosa - morphological effects of oral contraceptives and menstrual cycle2007In: British Journal of Dermatology, ISSN 0007-0963, E-ISSN 1365-2133, Vol. 157, no 3, p. 487-493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    An erythematous and hypersensitive vestibular mucosa has been observed during the use of combined oral contraceptives (COC). Hormonal effects on the vestibular morphology have not been studied.

    Objectives

    Our aim was to evaluate the morphology of the vulval vestibular mucosa during the influence of COC and during the menstrual cycle.

    Methods

    Forty-five healthy women (20 using COC and 25 not using COC) were included. A 6-mm punch biopsy was obtained from the right posterior vestibule on days 7-11 of the menstrual cycle. A corresponding biopsy was taken 2 weeks later in 16 women without COC. The epithelial morphology was estimated by measuring interdermal papilla distance, dermal papilla to surface, from basal layer to surface and width of dermal papillae. A histopathological assessment was made.

    Results

    The vulval vestibular mucosa of women using COC displayed a larger distance between the dermal papillae (P = 0·04) and a larger space from the dermal papillae to the epithelial surface (P = 0·03) compared with controls in the follicular phase. Women without COC displayed a larger interdermal papilla distance in the luteal phase compared with the follicular phase, P = 0·02. Histopathology showed more superficial blood vessels in the COC users (P < 0·01).

    Conclusions

    The vulval vestibular mucosa of women with COC display an altered morphological pattern with shallow and sparse dermal papillae compared with the follicular phase. Similar findings are seen in women without COC during the luteal phase which indicate a gestagenic effect on the mucosa. Associations between the morphological pattern and changes in mucosal mechanical sensitivity require further studies.

  • 200.
    Johannesson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm.
    Sahlin, Lena
    Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Woman and Child Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Masironi, Britt
    Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Woman and Child Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Hilliges, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Blomgren, Bo
    AstraZeneca Safety Assessment, Södertälje.
    Rylander, Eva
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm.
    Bohm-Starke, Nina
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm.
    Steroid receptor expression and morphology in provoked vestibulodynia2008In: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 0002-9378, E-ISSN 1097-6868, Vol. 198, no 3, p. 311.e1-311.e6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study was undertaken to survey the steroid receptor expression and morphology in the vulvar vestibular mucosa in women with provoked vestibulodynia.

    Study Design: Fourteen patients and 25 controls without oral contraceptives were included. Vestibular biopsy specimens were obtained and analyzed by using immunohistochemistry, followed by computerized image analysis of estrogen receptors greek small letter alpha and β, progesterone receptors A and B, glucocorticoid receptor, androgen receptor, and the proliferation marker Ki67. The morphology was estimated by measuring 4 parameters in the epithelium.

    Results: There was a significantly higher expression of estrogen receptor greek small letter alpha in both the epithelium (P = .04) and the stroma (P = .02) in the patient specimens compared with the controls. There were no significant differences in the other analyses performed.

    Conclusion: There is an increased expression of estrogen receptor greek small letter alpha in the vestibular mucosa but the epithelial morphology seems unaffected in women with provoked vestibulodynia. Further studies regarding plausible associations to neurogenic inflammation are needed.

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