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  • 151.
    Kristén, Lars
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Klingvall-Arvidsson, Bodil
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Ring, Mikael
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Centrum för lärande, kultur och samhälle (CLKS), Lärande, Profession och Samhällsutveckling.
    Ericsson, Anders
    Eleiko Sport AB, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Schough, Camilla
    Eleiko Sport AB, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bohman, Anders
    Rantzows Sport AB, Hjärnarp, Sweden.
    Havdrup, Lotta
    Rantzows Sport AB, Hjärnarp, Sweden.
    Open norm critical innovation for relational inclusion (ONCIRI).- “New Sports material for children with and without disabilities”2017In: Proceedings of the Nordic Sport Science Conference – ‘The Double-Edged Sword of Sport: Health Promotion Versus Unhealthy Environments’: Halmstad University, 22-23 November / [ed] Krister Hertting & Urban Johnson, Halmstad: Halmstad University Press, 2017, p. 26-26Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 152.
    Kristén, Lars
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Lydell, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Nyholm, Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Physical activity for children in need of support: views from coaches from local sports clubs2017In: Proceedings of the Nordic Sport Science Conference – ‘The Double-Edged Sword of Sport: Health Promotion Versus Unhealthy Environments’ / [ed] Krister Hertting & Urban Johnson, Halmstad: Halmstad University Press, 2017, p. 29-29Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 153.
    Kristén, Lars
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Patriksson, Göran
    Göteborgs Universitet: Idrottshögskolan: Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Linnéuniversitetet: Institutionen för vårdvetenskap och socialt arbete.
    Benefits of sport activities for disabled children and youth. / Die Bedeutung des Sports fuer behinderte Kinder und Jugendliche2003In: Towards a society for all through adapted physical activity: Proceedings. Kongressbericht Wien 3-7 juli 2001 / [ed] Maria Dinold ... et.al., Wien: Institut für Sportwissenschaft , 2003, p. 394-398Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Describes a phenomenography-based study that attempted to show how children and adolescents with disabilities felt about the consequences of taking part in sports activities. Provides information about the sports program involved, informants, interviews, and results.

  • 154.
    Kristén, Lars
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Luleå, University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Patriksson, Göran
    Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Conceptions of Children and Adolescents with Physical Disabilities about Their Participation in a Sports Programme2002In: European Physical Education Review, ISSN 1356-336X, E-ISSN 1741-2749, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 139-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sport and leisure can be of significant importance for the well-being and social support of children and adolescents with physical disabilities. However, it has been established that organized sport sometimes has a social construction, in that those without disabilities are favoured at the expense of others. The aim of this study was, therefore, to describe conceptions of children and adolescents with physical disabilities about their participation in a sports programme. Using questions based on a holistic view of the human being, 20 children and adolescents were interviewed. The method of analysis used was inspired by phenomenography. Six categories emerged: Getting new friends, learning, strengthening one’s physique, becoming someone, experiencing nature and having a good time. The findings show the great diversity of sports participation. Further, the conceptions mirror the difficulty of dividing people into groups and of delimiting important areas. The findings highlight the importance of programmes where actors from different sections of society cooperate. Even if the findings cannot be generalized, they nevertheless demonstrate that physical activity involves many positive factors both at the individual and at the society level. © 2002, North West Counties Physical Education Association and SAGE Publications. All rights reserved.

  • 155.
    Kvick, Annica
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    A corelation study between step length, step frequency and the length of the leg: A study of running2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Running is one of the most popular branches of athletics. Running has several physiological benefits, such as a higher maximal oxygen consumption, increased muscle mass and reduced blood pressure. There have been plenty of discussions about what the most efficient running technique might be, should you use a short step length and a high step frequency or vice versa. It is generally known that you can increase your running speed by increasing your step frequency or your step length, and also both. However, maximal speed is achieved by increasing your step frequency rather than your step length. For endurance runners it is important to have a good running economy, because runners with a good running economy use less energy while running, and therefore require less oxygen than a runner with poor running economy. Previous research have not found any correlations between the length of the leg with step frequency or step length. 

    Aim: The aim of this study was to examine whether there are any significant correlations between the length of the leg in relation to the step frequency or the step length while running in different speeds. 

    Method: 15 trained males participated in this correlation study. All participants’ leg length were measured with a measuring tape. Three running trials, with the speeds of 12, 16 and 20 km/h were performed on a treadmill during 1 minute each. Between each trial the participants rested for 3 minutes. The trials were recorded with a video camera, and the participants individual step frequency, step length and heel or fore foot strike were collected. Persons coefficient of correlation test was used to analyze if there were any significant correlations between the length of the leg with step frequency and step length. Also a paired samples T test was performed to see if there was a significant increase between step frequency and step length with the speeds. 

    Result: There were no significant correlations (p>0,05) found between the length of the leg and the step frequency or the length of the leg and step length in any of the different speeds. The paired samples t-test showed a significant (p<0,001) increase in step frequency and step length with the different speeds. 

    Conclusion: In conclusion, according to the present study, there were no significant correlations found between the length of the leg with step frequency or step length, which is in consensus with previous research.  Therefore, it is not advisable to predict an individual’s step length based on their leg length. There are various factors involved in determining a person’s step length and step frequency, and this study showed that running speed is one important factor. This information may be useful for runners and their coaches to apply, so they avoid making interventions involving alternations in the runners step length based on their body dimensions, such as leg length. 

  • 156.
    Larson, Anders
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Visualisering inom idrott och dess effekter på idrottslig prestation2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 157.
    Larsson, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    A correlation study between vertical jump height and sprint in young female teamgymnasts2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Teamgym is a relatively new and emerging sport that originating comes from Scandinavia. Teamgym differs a lot from the most known form of gymnastics, artistic gymnastic. For example artistic gymnastics is an individual sport, while teamgym is performed by 6-12 members in each team. In general gymnasts have to acquire many skills at a very young age like jumping, bouncing and twisting in different directions. A good jumping ability has been linked to a successful performance for gymnasts and is defined by a gymnast’s capacity to jump upwards and then perform series of forward and backward rotations in a successful way. Plyometric is a type of training based on the stretch- shortening cycle (SSC) and is often used to improve an athletes sprint and vertical jump ability. Studies indicate that these two components have been linked to a successful performance in gymnastics but there are no studies that are looking at this correlation in teamgym. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate how strong the correlation is between the vertical jump height in counter movement jump with arm swing, drop-jump and 20, 25- meters sprint in young female teamgymnasts. Methods: Seventeen (17) female teamgymnasts participated to test their vertical jump ability by using countermovement jump with arm swing (CMJa) and drop-jump (DJ). Their sprint ability was tested through 20 and 25 meter sprint. The highest CMJa and DJ were correlated with the fastest time on 20 and 25 meter sprint. To study the relationship between the vertical jumps and the sprints, Spearman’s rank order correlation (rs) was used in SPSS version 20.0. If the correlation is between 0.30 to 0.49 (-0.30 to -0.49) it is considered as a medium correlation. Anything under these values is a weak correlation and everything above it is strong correlation. Result: CMJa showed a strong significant correlation with both 20 and 25 meter sprint and DJ showed a moderate non-significant correlation with both 20 and 25 meter sprint. When the weight was set as a control variable the CMJa showed a moderate non-significant correlation with both the sprints but DJ showed a strong significant correlation with both 20 and 25 meter sprint. Conclusion: No other studies have looked at the relationship between vertical jump and sprint ability in teamgym but the result of this study somehow reflects findings in studies looking at the same variables. The findings in this study can be useful for gymnastic coaches when they create training programs for their athletes. Coaches and gymnasts will know the value of a good jumping- and sprinting ability and that plyometric- and sprint training can improve the gymnasts skills. More research is needed on this type of gymnastics and future studies should look at these variables in a larger sample size and with more experienced test subjects.

  • 158.
    Larsson, jonas
    Halmstad University.
    Physical training in Swedish elite soccer from the coaches´perspective2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: Soccer (football) is an area which concerns many people, elite soccer becomes more systematic at the highest levels regarding training. The clubs optimize the training program for their players so they can cope with the demands of physiological training and matches. It has been shown that teams which end at the top have higher maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) compared to teams at the bottom of the table. How do Swedish elite soccer teams train to enhance physical capabilities? Do they measure the training load of the players? How do elite coaches increase their knowledge?

    Aim: The aim of this study was to explore and describe the coaches’ perception of physical training in Swedish male elite soccer.

    Method: The design of the study was explorative and was based on a qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach. The coaches (n=13) were strategically chosen dependent on their education, age, number of years as a coach, previous experience as a player in order to be as broad as possible.  The interviews were semi-structured and lasted between 30 and 75 minutes. They took the form of dialogue and looked a lot like the conversations of everyday life. The interviews were transcribed exactly and the data was analyzed by a qualitative content analysis focusing on both the manifest content (what the text says) and the latent content (the interpreted meaning).

    Result: The result showed that “physical training in Swedish soccer is a cyclic process constantly ongoing” and contain four different categories: plan (lack of resources, teamwork, seasonal training and basic knowledge), execute (individual training, weekly rotation and training methods), evaluate (measure training load and physiological testing in soccer players) and improve (influences from others, long-term development and search for knowledge).

    Conclusion: Physical training in Swedish male elite soccer is developed by the constantly ongoing cyclic process including planning, execution, evaluation and improving. The coaches try to follow the development in sports science with a criticism attitude. After careful consideration the coaches try to absorb new knowledge and improve their training methods although lack of resources sometimes does not allow them to introduce new training methods.  The work with individual training and position based training is important and needs to continue and improve. It is important to measure the players training load for two reasons, both to avoid over-training and to enhance endurance.

    Key words:  elite soccer, experience, physical training, qualitative study, coaches´ perception, Sweden.

  • 159.
    Larsson, Oliver
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Correlations of force, velocity and power in a golf specific rotational test and total driving in young elite golfers2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 160.
    Li, Chunxiao
    et al.
    The Education University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Umeå Universitet, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wu, Yandan
    Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, China.
    The dynamic interplay between burnout and sleep among elite blind soccer players2018In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 37, p. 164-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamic pattern between burnout and sleep among athletes is unknown. This longitudinal survey examined the interplay between burnout and sleep among blind elite soccer players. China national blind soccer team players (n = 10) completed measures on burnout and sleep quality through interview at baseline (month 1), and followed at months 2, 3, 4, and 5. The results of dynamic p-technique analysis, using Bayesian estimation, showed a credible relationship between burnout and sleep quality. Also, burnout had a credible lagged effect on subsequent sleep quality whereas sleep quality did not have a credible lagged effect on burnout. The results suggest that burnout and sleep are not reciprocally related and burnout may be a risk factor of sleep problems among athletes. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 161.
    Lideberg, Frida
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Teacher Education (LUT).
    Pinot, David
    Halmstad University, School of Teacher Education (LUT).
    Feedback ur ett lärarperspektiv: En studie om fyra lärare i idrott och hälsa och deras användning av feedback2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under åren på lärarutbildningen har vi via personliga iakttagelser kunnat skönja en diskrepans mellan vad lärare anser sig sända ut för feedback och hur de beskriver sin feedback. Luke och Sinclair (1991) menar att det är lärarens beteende som är den starkaste faktorn till hur elever uppfattar Idrott och hälsa i skolan. I relation till det som Hattie och Timperley (2007) samt Stensmo (2008) skriver om hur felaktig feedback kan ge omvänd effekt riskerar feedback att motarbeta Skolverkets (2011) ambition att främja varje elevs utveckling. Det är av denna anledning av vikt att undersöka vår upplevda diskrepans hur lärare ger feedback och vad de tänker om hur de ger feedback.

    Syftet med detta examensarbete har därmed mynnat ut i att undersöka vad lärare i Idrott och hälsa säger om sin feedback och vad de gör i praktiken. Fyra högstadielärare deltog i studien och som metod har observation och intervju använts. Varje lärare observerades vid ett tillfälle och intervjuades vid ett tillfälle. Intervjun utfördes för att se om lärarnas utförda feedback stämde överens med vad vi såg under observationstillfället.

    Intervjuresultaten visade att lärarna anser att feedback är en form av återkoppling i bästa fall på lärande, men med olika fokus på antingen individ och/eller prestation. Observationsresultaten visade på att beröm och teknisk instruktion var de mest förekommande typerna av feedback som delades ut från lärarna, vilket överensstämde väl med lärarnas ord om feedback och dess syfte. Kritik var den minst förekommande typen av feedback och detta var också något som stämde med lärarnas ord.

    Vår slutsats visar att majoriteten av de undersökta lärarna ger den feedback som de uttrycker sig att göra. 

  • 162.
    Lilja, Henric
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Hagen, Kjetil
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    ELITFOTBOLLSSPELARE OCH VISUALISERING:                                                                                           EN STUDIE OM VISUALISERINGSUPPLEVELSER, MEDVETENHET OCH FÖRÄNDRINGAR I VISUALISERINGSMÖNSTREN2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine 2 elite soccer’s players’ general imagery experiences; (2) examine the elite soccer players’ specific imagery experiences in relation to trainings; (3) how soccer players’ imagery experiences changed between the different investigations and (4) how the soccer players’ awareness about their imagery experiences changed during the study period. Two elite soccer players (both men), 22 and 24 years, old participated in this study. The Individual Profile of Imagery Experiences in Sport (IPIES; Weibull 2008a) was used as an instrument. The results showed that it was major differences between the players’ general and specific imagery experiences. The results showed a big dynamic in the players’ imagery patterns. The changes can be explained using the Action Theory (Nitch, 1985). Furthermore the players’ awareness increased during the study period. In future research it is recommended to consider both the role of the memory and the athletes’ awareness.

  • 163.
    Liljedahl, Viktor
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Lövgren, Karin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Relationen mellan behovsfrustration, motivation, motion och psykisk hälsa hos gymnasieungdomar.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det senaste decenniet har visat en tydlig trend av ökad psykisk ohälsa, samt fysisk inaktivitet hos ungdomar i Sverige. Syftet med studien var att undersöka relationen mellan grundläggande psykologiska behov och psykisk hälsa genom de mellanliggande variablerna motivation och motionsbeteende hos gymnasieungdomar baserat på Självbestämmandeteorin. En kvantitativ undersökning genomfördes med 160 deltagare, varav 106 kvinnor och 54 män, i åldrarna 16 till 19 år (M=17,04, SD=0,93). Följande mätinstrument användes: Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire, Psychological Need Thwarting Scale och Self-Rated Mental Health. Resultatet från medieringsanalyserna visade ett tydligt negativt samband mellan behovsfrustration och psykisk hälsa. Hela medieringsmodellen visade även att kontrollerad motivation och motionsbeteende kunde mediera relationen mellan tillhörighetsfrustration och psykisk hälsa. Behovsfrustration är ett relativt nytt och understuderat begrepp, vilket gör att studiens resultat kan bidra till ökad kunskap kring de faktorer som påverkar ungdomars psykiska hälsa. Till framtida forskning föreslås att inkludera variabler som rör autonomistöd samt fortsatt fördjupning i tillhörighetsbehovet i motion- och skolmiljöer. Detta skulle kunna ge mer kunskap och förståelse för ungdomars psykiska hälsa och motivationsorientering, vilket i sin tur skulle kunna gynna hälsoinsatser och promotion för ökad hälsa bland ungdomar. 

  • 164.
    Lindborg, Anton
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    The correlation between two unilateral jumps and change of direction in young soccer players2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A lot of previous research have studied the correlation between bilateral jumps with performance in change of direction (COD) even though COD occurs unilateral. Only a few researches have studied the relationship between COD and unilateral jumps but the results are conflicting. Neither of these have studied the correlation between COD, measured with the Zigzag agility test, and both unilateral horizontal jumps (UHJ) and unilateral lateral jumps (ULJ) among young soccer players.  Aim: The aim was to study the magnitude of the correlation between UHJ and the Zigzag agility test and between ULJ and the Zigzag agility test among young male soccer players.  Method: Thirty young male soccer players between 17-19 years were tested in a Zigzag agility test and two different jumps (UHJ and ULJ). The time of the Zigzag agility test was measured in seconds and the length of the two jumps in meters. Everything were tested during one test session. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to calculate the relationships between UHJ, ULJ and the Zigzag agility test. Following guidelines were used to determine the magnitude of the correlation: r below -0.29 for a small correlation, r= -0.30 to -0.49 for a medium correlation and r -0.50 to -1.0 for a strong correlation.    Results: Small correlation were found between UHJ and the Zigzag agility test (r= -0.028) and as well as between ULJ the Zigzag agility test (r= -0.27). The mean value (SD±) was 6.41s (0.18) for the Zigzag agility test, 1.87m (0.15) for UHJ and 1.65m (0.13) for ULJ.  Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that both UHJ and ULJ had small correlations with the Zigzag agility test as a measurement of COD performance, with a slightly higher correlation for the ULJ. This means that unilateral jumps and COD performance probably are two different skills and should be trained in different ways. Not much research has been done in this area and the results concerning the correlation between COD and unilateral jumps are still mixed. More research is needed to declare the relationship with unilateral jumps and COD performance. Interesting for the further research would also be to involve other factors such as running technique and straight sprinting to determine the importance of each factor. 

  • 165.
    Lindgren, Eva-Carin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Department of Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Haraldsson, Katarina
    Department of Research and Development within Education, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden & Department of Public Health and Community Medicine/Primary Health Care, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Håman, Linn
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    ‘Pulse for learning and health [PuLH]’ in primary school; pupil’s experiences2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve academic performance and health in schoolchildren, the program Pulse for learning and health [PuLH] in Sweden has introduced moderate to vigorous physical activities [MVPA] three times a week (á 30 minutes). The teachers used a child-centered coaching approach, which has the child’s best interests in mind and focused on having fun. The objective of this contribution is to describe what Swedish pupils convey, using their own voices, about their experiences of participating in the school-based program PuLH. We have taken on children’s perspectives in order to be able to understand the children’s own culture. Eight schools in the Region of Jönköping, Sweden, have implemented PuLH. In total, 73 pupils (34 girls, 39 boys, grades 4-9) were recruited through purposive sampling. Thirteen focus group interviews (n=71) and individual interviews (n=2) were carried out. An explorative design was employed, in which data were categorized using qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in four major themes, which we classify as ‘promotes academic performance’, ‘promotes a learning school environment’, ‘promotes health and well-being’, and ‘individual and structural barriers’. The pupils stated that they increased their working capacity, the classroom environment became more calm and peaceful, they got more cohesion and new friends, their needs and interest were in focus, they felt more alert and got in a better mood, they increased their physical competence, their habits became healthier and illness decreased. However, some of the pupils revealed individual and structural barriers, which reduced pleasure and motivation to participate in MVPA due to; poor planning and that they felt time pressure, felt uncomfortable showing their bodies and digital challenges. We recommend that schools take pupils’ interests and needs into consideration when planning for and implementing MVPA activities and not use MVPA as a 'quick fix' i.e. to solve complex problems regarding pupil's learning.

  • 166.
    Lindgren, Eva-Carin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Hinic, Hansi
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    "Toppningsstudien": en kvalitativ analys av barn och ledares uppfattningar av hur lag konstitueras inom barnidrott2005Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 167.
    Lindgren, Fredrik
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Koncentration inom golf och dess relation till prestation2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 168.
    Lindqvist, Erik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Holm, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Effekten av betainsupplementering på prestationsförmågan hos vältränade cykelatleter2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of betaine supplementation on counter movement jumps and sprint performance among male bicycle athletes

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a seven days supplementation regimen with betaine (2,5 grams per day) on counter movement jumps and sprint performance in trained male bicyclists.

    Method: Six (n=6) male subjects (mean ± standard deviation age, 31,7 ± 10,2 years; height, 188,2 ± 3,6 cm; bodyweight, 82,5 ± 7,6 kg; lean body mass, 71,6 ± 7,6 kg) completed a 21 day study involving five counter movement jumps (no arm swing) followed by 4 consecutive modified 12 second Wingate sprints on a bicycle ergometer with active rest (2,5 minutes) followed by another set of five counter movement jumps. A double blind, controlled randomized cross over design was used and there was a 1 week washout between the supplementation startup for each group. Following pre-testing (baseline) the participants were randomly divided into groups by choosing one of the following supplements: “12” Placebo –2,5 grams of maltodextrine plus 12,5 mg riboflavin or “11” – Active 2,5 grams of trimethylglycine plus 12,5 mg riboflavin. Riboflavin was used so mask the “fishy odor syndrome” effect of high intakes of trimethylglycine that may cause trimethyluria. Daily consumption of capsules was divided into two doses of two capsules each with meals. One dose (two capsules) was consumed in the morning and one dose in the evening. The following variables were analyzed: Maximum Peak Power, Average Peak Power, Maximum Mean Power, Average Mean Power, Maximum Relative Power Drop, Average Relative Power Drop, Mean CMJ-Pre + Post sprints and Maximal CMJ-Pre + Post sprints.

    Results: None of the parameters showed statistical significance.

    Conclusion: Our study indicates that seven days of betaine ingestion does not seem significantly improve counter movement jump or sprint capacity in male trained bicyclists. Larger studies are needed to investigate the performance enhancing effects of betaine, especially among high performance athletes.

  • 169.
    Lindström, Sandra
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Bergander, Cecilia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Effekter av att kombinera kondition, styrka och rörlighet i ett och samma träningspass2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Regular physical activity has great benefits for health and well-being and can prevent injuries and diseases. Cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure, osteoporoses, type 2 diabetes and obesity are all examples of common diseases which physical activity can reduce the risk of. Endurance, strength and flexibility training have all different parts in health, well-being and sports performance capacity. It is important to develop a training program that includes all components. Far from everyone prioritize their health and training in todays stressed society.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of combining endurance, strength and flexibility training in one program. The authors wanted to design an all-round training program. Eight women in the ages 18-35 participated in the study that lasted for eight weeks. They performed the training sessions twice every week and the training program included endurance alternated with strength training. Flexibility training were placed first and last in every session. Endurance, strength and flexibility tests were performed before and after the training period to determine the effects. The results showed significance (p < 0,05) in the endurance and strength tests, which indicate that it can be effective to combine endurance and strength training in one training program. The flexibility tests did not show any significance (p > 0,05) and by that it can be assumed that flexibility training should have been done more, to get a greater effect.

  • 170.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Palmeira, Antonio
    Study Center in Exercise and Health, Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Lisboa, Portugal.
    Factorial validity and invariance testing of the exercise dependence scale-revised in Swedish and Portuguese exercisers2009In: Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, ISSN 1091-367X, E-ISSN 1532-7841, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 166-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated the factorial validity and factorial invariance of the 21-item Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised using 162 Swedish and 269 Portuguese exercisers. In addition, the prevalence of exercise dependence symptoms and links to exercise behavior, gender, and age in the two samples was also studied. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that the hypothesized 7-factor model made a good fit to data in both samples. Multi-sample analyses supported partial measurement invariance across the samples; only factor loadings involving items 3 and 19 were noninvariant. The "Reduction in Other Activities" and "Lack of Control" factors were the most problematic scales in terms of average variance explained and reliability measures of weighted omega and Cronbach’s alpha. In total, 9.2% of the Swedish sample and 5.2% of the Portuguese sample were classified as at risk for exercise dependence. Overall, the results support the factorial validity of the translated Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised in samples outside North-America, although more research is needed. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  • 171.
    Linke, Mats
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Saarela, Tobias
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    EFFEKTEN AV VIKTMANIPULERAD UTRUSTNING PÅ DRAGSKOTTSHASTIGHET OCH GREPPSTYRKA I INNEBANDY: EN SEX VECKORS STUDIE PÅ MANLIGA 17-ÅRIGA INNEBANDYSPELARE2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Floorball is a sport with increasing number of participants, which has not been studied extensively according to the literature. Previous studies on ice hockey and baseball have shown that training with weight manipulated equipment improved grip strength and swing speed. Other research has shown that the increased performance with dynamic resistance training rather occurs from the improvements in the neuromuscular facilitation than an increase in muscle mass. In floorball shooting velocity is considered to be an important factor of the performance. Since it has been shown in baseball that training with weight manipulated equipment can improve the bat velocity, it would be interesting to see if the same results can be found in floorball. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of grip strength and drag shot velocity in floorball training with a weight manipulated floorball stick. The study also investigated the relationship between grip strength and drag shot velocity. The test subjects’ subjective perception about the training method was also investigated. Thirteen 17-year-old male floorball players participated in the study. During a six weeks period the subjects used the weight manipulated equipment during 30 minutes, three times per week during their regular team practice. 40 grams lead tape was attached to the player's equipment to increase the resistance. The drag shots were filmed with a high speed camera (Casio Exilim EX-FH25) at 250 fps. The drag shot velocity was analyzed in Dartfish. To assess grip strength a hand dynamometer (Jamar - Baseline Hydraulic Hand Dynamometer)was used. The training resulted in a significant increase for the subjects’ grip strength in the lower hand on the stick (p <0,05). The study found no significant difference for the upper hand grip strength or drag shot velocity. No correlation between drag shot velocity and handgripstrength among the subjects were found. Conclusion: The results found in this study indicate that training with weight manipulated equipment can significantly improve the player’s lower hand grip strength. The results can eventually be explained by more effective fiber recruitment in the muscles. Studying floorball can contribute to increase the interest in research on floorball and increase the understanding for how dynamic resistance training can be incorporated in daily floorball practice.

  • 172.
    Linné, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Eliasson, Camilla
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Motivationsreglering inom idrott: ett självbestämmande perspektiv.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka människors motivation till deltagande inom lagidrott, vilken motivationsreglering som påverkar en idrottare till deltagande inom idrott samt hur uppfattat självbestämmande stöd från tränaren påverkar motivationsreglering, beroende på kön och spelarposition. Undersökningsdeltagarna var 146 idrottare, 59 kvinnor och 87 män, som var medlemmar i olika idrottsföreningar. Insamling av data gjordes i form av personlig kontakt med en enkät som innehöll mätinstrumenten Sport Motivation Scale och Sport Climate Questionnaire. Resultatet visade att det fanns en skillnad mellan könen i yttre reglering. De inre motivations-regleringarna i studien hade positiva korrelationer med yttre motivationsreglering, alltså om den inre motivationen höjs hos en idrottare så blir även den yttre motivationen förhöjd. Vidare visade också resultaten att idrottare med hög amotivation upplevde sin tränare som mindre stödjande till självbestämmande. Då motivation är en bidragande faktor till idrottsutövande är det speciellt uppbyggnad av en inre motivationsprofil som är av vikt eftersom det kan leda till fortsatt deltagande i idrottsutövande.

  • 173.
    Linnér, Lukas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Lindahl, Kent
    Riksidrottsförbundet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Eriksson, Pernilla
    Umeå Universitet, Umeå, Sverige.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Idrottares dubbla karriärer2018In: Specialidrott: tränings- och tävlingslära / [ed] Avdelningen Elitidrottsstöd, Riksidrottsförbundet, Stockholm: SISU Idrottsböcker , 2018, p. 237-251Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 174.
    Lundblad, Joel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Assessment of Soldiers’ Physical Fitness: A comparison between the Swedish Armed Forces MULTI-test and tests of five physical fitness factors2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 175.
    Lundgren, Lina
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    System analysis of kitesurfing: Understanding performance and injury risk for on-water board sports2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Board sports are examples of sports where the interaction of the task, environment and the athlete are essential. As for other sports, there are injuries and other issues associated with these sports, which affect performance and that can be avoided by proper preparation and well- designed equipment. By focusing on kitesurfing as a system structure the complex interactions between factors can help reveal which variables that are of interest to study to increase the level of performance and safety. Lack of research on the board sport kitesurfing makes this area interesting to study regarding performance and musculoskeletal problems. The purpose of this licentiate thesis was to further the understanding of on-water board sports, and specifically study kitesurfing by using a system analysis to structure factors that influence performance and injury risk for this board sport. The specific aims were:

    To reveal the most common self-reported injuries related to kitesurfing and their causes (Paper I).

    To evaluate in which body parts participants perceive musculoskeletal stress, pain and discomfort related to the performance of kitesurfing (Paper II).

    To identify usability problems related to the preparation of kitesurfing equipment (Paper III).

    To provide a system analysis to describe the relations between and identify characteristics that influence performance and injury risk of kitesurfing.

    Methods used for these studies were hierarchical task analysis, observations (n=8), web- questionnaires (n=206), interviews (n=17) and a focus group (n=7). The system analysis was executed in six steps and based on ideas adopted from general systems theory, dynamical systems and ecological task analysis. Tasks performed in freestyle kitesurfing consist of riding a board and performing jumps and tricks, whereof the latter have sub-tasks involving take-off, acrobatic air movements and landings. Within the system of kitesurfing, there are the sub-systems athlete, kite system, board system and harness/protection. There are also external factors acting upon the system. All sub- systems have characteristics that are less changeable during execution of the task and which effect on the athlete can be represented by identified output measures, i.e. harness line force, board reaction force, steering force, pressure distribution, movement patterns, body temperature, fatigue level, comfort and pain, choice of sub-task, mood, stress level, concentration, motivation, experience and usability. The results show that the most frequent locations for injury are in the lower extremities, i.e. knee and ankle, and that about 50% of the injuries reported were associated with jumps and tricks. Equipment and environmental factors also contribute to injuries, as well as to musculoskeletal stress, pain and discomfort. The abdominal muscles were most frequently reported as exposed to high musculoskeletal stress, but also thighs and lower back were perceived as highly stressed throughout the tasks. Knees and feet were areas described as sometimes painful, especially in combination with landings from tricks or strong winds.

    Furthermore, the lower back was reported painful when kitesurfing in strong winds. When hooking out from the harness for performing tricks, the shoulders were perceived as highly stressed. Before the execution of on-water kitesurfing starts, the preparation of the kite system must be accomplished. The results from Study III showed that there are usability problems related to this kitesurfing task, meaning risk for use error to arise. If use errors occur, serious consequences can follow later in the process. The results emphasize improvement of the products from a usability perspective. Some of the identified output measures were partly answered from the results of Papers I-III, where numbers of injuries, perceived musculoskeletal stress, pain and discomfort, and usability issues were evaluated for kitesurfing. The structure motives the need for further research within the area of on-water board sports and reveals variables that are affecting the system.

  • 176.
    Lundgren, Lina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Hilliges, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS). Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sport performance and perceived musculoskeletal stress, pain and discomfort in kitesurfing2011In: International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, ISSN 1474-8185, E-ISSN 1474-8185, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 142-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to obtain an overview of the specific movement patterns in kitesurfing, and the participants' perceptions of musculoskeletal stress, pain and discomfort. Task analysis and survey studies were used to provide an overview of the sport, and to identify problematic issues associated with the performance of the tasks. Three different methods were complimentary used for data collection: observations (n=8), a web questionnaire (n=206) and interviews (n=17). Participants were contacted through kitesurfing events and online forums. Their ages ranged from 16-62 years. The results showed that participants experienced high musculoskeletal stress for short times during a session (jumps, tricks and strong winds), and lower, static musculoskeletal stress over a longer time (crossing). High stress was most frequently perceived in abdominal muscles. Knees and feet were the sites most frequently experienced as painful, followed by the shoulders and elbows. This study provides additional information on the performance of kitesurfing and perceived musculoskeletal stress, pain and discomfort. The results can be used as input data to develop training methods and equipment for safe and comfortable performance. © 2017, Routledge. All rights reserved.

  • 177.
    Lundgren, Lina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Injuries related to kitesurfing2011In: World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, ISSN 2010-3778, no 77, p. 1132-1136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Participation in sporting activities can lead to injury. Sport injuries have been widely studied in many sports including the more extreme categories of aquatic board sports. Kitesurfing is a relatively new water surface action sport, and has not yet been widely studied in terms of injuries and stress on the body. The aim of this study was to get information about which injuries that are most common among kitesurfing practitioners, where they occur, and their causes. Injuries were studied using an international open web questionnaire (n=206). The results showed that many respondents reported injuries, in total 251 injuries to knee (24%), ankle (17%), trunk (16%) and shoulders (10%), often sustained while doing jumps and tricks (40%). Among the reported injuries were joint injuries (n=101), muscle/tendon damages (n=47), wounds and cuts (n=36) and bone fractures (n=28). Also environmental factors and equipment can influence the risk of injury, or the extent of injury in a hazardous situation. Conclusively, the information from this retrospective study supports earlier studies in terms of prevalence and site of injuries. Suggestively, this information should be used for to build a foundation of knowledge about the sport for development of applications for physical training and product development.

  • 178.
    Löfström, Joakim
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Effektiva ledarskapsstilar och ledares beteendemönster inom idrott2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 179.
    Löfström, Joakim
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Porss, Mikael
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    ATTRIBUTIONER HOS GOLFSPELARE PÅ ELITNIVÅ2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur golfspelare på elitnivå förklarar (attribuerar) medgång respektive motgång samt att undersöka om det förekommer självtjänande tankemönster hos respondenterna. Studien byggde på följande frågeställningar: (1) Vilka attributioner förekommer bland golfspelare på elitnivå för framgång respektive motgång? (2) Till vilken grad stämmer dessa attributioner in på Weiners (1985a) attributionsteori som består av de fyra aspekterna ansträngning, tur, förmåga och uppgiftens svårighetsgrad? (3) Förekommer fenomenet självtjänande tankemönster hos respondenterna? Semistrukturerade intervjuer utfördes med fem manliga och fem kvinnliga golfspelare på elitnivå (M=20.6; SD= ± 0.8). En innehållsanalys enligt Graneheim och Lundman (2004) utfördes där relevant material bröts ned till meningsenheter som sedan kategoriserades. Utöver detta analyserades även respondenternas subjektiva uppfattning om attributionernas dimensionella tillhörighet. Resultaten visade att de attributioner som gavs endast till viss del stämmer in på Weiners teori (1985a). Exempelvis angavs tankar och känslor till stor del som förklaring till både medgång och motgång. Vad gäller självtjänande tankemönster fanns inga tecken på att detta förekom bland deltagarna. Resultaten diskuteras utifrån teoretiskt ramverk och tidigare forskning. Förslag på framtida forskning samt implikationer ges.

  • 180.
    Magnusson, Stefan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Johansson, Fredrik
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Fotboll <3 Pengar = Sant: - Fotbollstränares tal om avlönade amatörspelare och hur det påverkar konstruktionen av laget2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Pengar får allt mer betydelse inom idrottsvärlden. Sponsorintäkter, publikintäkter samt merchandise ar viktiga inkomstkällor for föreningar. Pengarna används sedan till att bland annat betala sportchefer, tränare spelare, etc. Detta gäller framförallt större föreningar som håller till på elitnivå och i den har studien ska vi som författare försöka att belysa vad som kommer till uttryck bland fotbollstränare nar de talar om vad det innebär att ha avlönade spelare i ett amatörlag, samt hur det påverkar konstruktionen av laget. Urvalet i studien är från fotbollsföreningar från västra Sverige där sex stycken tränare har valts ut.

    Tillvägagångssättet vid datainsamlingen var intervjuer där vi som författare hade en ”face to face”- intervju med deltagarna. I studien visar det sig att tränarna ställer sig positivt till att avlöna vissa spelare i ett fotbollslag dock att det däremot kan missgynna de övriga spelarnas utveckling som fotbollsspelare.

  • 181.
    Malmborg, Julia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Olsson, Charlotte M.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bergman, Stefan
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Daily Musculoskeletal Pain Affects Health And Sports Performance Negatively In Youth Athletes2017In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 49, p. 972-972Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In sports, musculoskeletal pain (MSP) is often studied from the perspective of sport specific injuries, why little is known about the prevalence of daily or multisite MSP that does not affect participation in sports. It is also unclear if daily or multisite MSP is a risk factor for worse health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and worse sports performance in youth athletes.

    PURPOSE: To study how HRQoL and sports performance is affected by daily MSP in youth athletes that are able to participate in sports.

    METHODS: 136 Swedish youth athletes attending a sport school (13 to 14 years, boys n=83, girls n=53) completed the EQ-5D measuring HRQoL (range 0 to 1, worst to best), a pain questionnaire including current pain (yes/no), pain in 18 body regions (never to rarely/monthly to weekly/more than once a week to almost daily), and pain intensity in the last week (0 to 10, best to worst), anthropometric measures to estimate biological age, and sports performance tests (grip strength, 20 meter sprint, and countermovement jump(CMJ)).

    RESULTS: 109 to 117 of the 136 students answered the different pain questions. 53 of 113 (47%) reported current MSP, and 28 of 109 (26%) experienced MSP ‘more than once a week to almost daily’ from one or more body regions (frequent MSP group), while 28% (n=30) stated ‘never to rarely’ in MSP (no MSP group). Boys in the frequent MSP group reported worse HRQoL, higher pain intensity, performed worse in all sports performance tests, and had a younger biological age than boys in the no MSP group. Girls in the frequent MSP group reported worse HRQoL and higher pain intensity than the girls in the no MSP group. No other differences were found (table).

    CONCLUSIONS: Every other youth athlete attending a sport school reported current MSP and one out of four reported almost daily MSP. MSP affects HRQoL negatively in both boys and girls, and sports performance negatively in boys. The prevalence of MSP in youth athletes is concerning since pain in younger ages may predict pain in adult ages.

    © 2017 American College of Sports Medicine

  • 182.
    Malmborg, Julia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Malmö Sports Academy, Malmö, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Musculoskeletal pain and its association with maturity and sports performance in 14-year-old sport school students2018In: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine, ISSN 2055-7647, Vol. 4, no 1, article id e000395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: In youth sports, musculoskeletal pain is often studied from the standpoint of sports injuries, but little is known about pain conditions in which athletes still participate. The aim was to study the frequency of pain and associations with maturity offset, health status and sports performance in 14-year-old sport school students.

    Methods: Cross-sectional design. One hundred and seventy-eight students (108 boys and 70 girls) completed anthropometric measures for maturity offset (height, weight and sitting height), questionnaires (pain mannequin and EQ-5D for health status) and sports performance tests (sprint, agility, counter-movement jump and grip strength). Differences between groups were analysed with Student’s t-test and analysis of covariance.

    Results: Thirty-one students (18.6%) reported infrequent pain, 85 (50.9%) frequent pain and 51 (30.5%) constant pain. Students in the constant pain group had worse health status than those in the infrequent pain group. Boys with constant pain (n=27) had a lower mean maturity offset (–0.38 vs 0.07 years; p=0.03) than boys with infrequent pain (n=22), and pain was associated with worse sports performance. There was no difference in maturity or sports performance between girls with constant pain (n=24) and girls with infrequent pain (n=9).

    Conclusion: Musculoskeletal pain is common in sport school students and coincides with worse health status and with a younger biological age in boys. The high prevalence of pain should be acknowledged by coaches and student healthcare workers in order to promote a healthy and sustainable development in young athletes. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2018.

  • 183.
    Malmborg, Julia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Årneby, Henrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Korrelationer mellan agility och unilateral och bilateral effektutveckling hos kvinnliga fotbollsspelare2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Unilateral training is considered to be a new field of interest within the science of sports. Traditionally most of the strength and conditioning training is performed bilaterally even though the majority of motions in sports are carried out unilaterally. Previous studies have examined the correlations between agility and power output but few of them investigated the difference between unilateral and bilateral power output and agility.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine whether the correlation between unilateral power output and agility is stronger than the correlation between bilateral power output and agility in female division 2 soccer players.

    Method: Female soccer players (n=13, age 23 ± 4 years) performed loaded counter movement jumps with 20 kg, 30 kg and 40 kg for both legs, left leg and right leg and with 50 kg for both legs and T-test and Pro agility test. Power output, in relation to body weight for both legs (PBbw), left leg (PVbw) and right leg (PHbw) was analyzed and correlated against T-test (Ttest) and Pro agility test (Proagility).

    Results: Significant correlations were found between agility and both left unilateral (PVbw-Ttest, r = -0,578) and bilateral (PBbw-Ttest, r = -0,741; PBbw-Proagility, r = -0,555) power output, where the bilateral correlation was the strongest. No significant correlation was found between the right leg and agility.

    Conclusion: Bilateral power output had a stronger correlation with agility than unilateral power output and agility in female division 2 soccer players.

  • 184.
    Martin, Ebba
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Fotledsdistorsioner hos svenska kvinnliga truppgymnaster på juniornivå - incidens och tillfälle: Betydelsen av uppvärmning/styrketräning för fot/fotled2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Truppgymnastik (eng. teamgymnastics) är en mycket populär form av gymnastik vars ursprung finns i Skandinavien. Idag finns det runt 20,000 tävlingslicensierade trupp-gymnaster i Sverige. Fot/fotled är de kroppsdelar som är mest utsatta för skador inom idrotten. Syftet var att undersöka skadeincidens och skadetillfälle av fotledsdistorsioner de tre månaderna innan och under en svensk juniortävling 2011 i kvinnlig truppgymnastik. Ytterligare syfte var att undersöka om uppvärmning och/eller styrketräning för fot/fotled minskar skadeincidensen.

    Uppsatsen var en retrospektiv deskriptiv studie, där nitton kvinnliga juniorlag inom truppgymnastik blev tillfrågade att delta i studien. Huvudledarna fick svara på ett frågeformulär om idrottsskador samt fotledsdistorsioner. Antal inkluderande lag var nio.

    Undersökningen resulterade i en låg skadeincidens (3,5 %) för fotledsdistorsioner i jämförelse med tidigare forskning inom svensk truppgymnastik. Fem (n = 146) truppgymnaster drabbades av fotledsdistorsioner de tre månaderna innan Junior-SM 2011 (september-november), varav två fotledsdistorsioner var återskador. Under Junior-SM 2011 var det en (n = 95) truppgymnast som drabbades av en fotledsdistorsion, en förstagångsskada. Majoriteten av huvudledarna ansåg att flest skador, oavsett lokalisering, uppstod under träning, samt vid moment på tumbling. Sju av nio lag utförde uppvärmning för fot/fotled med syftet att förebygga skador och alla nio lag utförde styrketräning för fot/fotled med syftet att förebygga skador.

    Kvinnliga truppgymnaster på juniornivå utförde en generell uppvärmning samt uppvärmning och/eller styrketräning för fot/fotled, som en del av eller enskilt från den generella uppvärmningen, med syftet att förebygga skador. Det preventiva arbetet som lagen utförde kan ha betydelse för den låga skadeincidensen i undersökningen. Det var dock truppgymnaster som drabbades av fotledsdistorsioner, vilket kan bero på att fotledsdistorsioner inte går att undvika helt och hållet, på grund av de krafter som gymnastens kropp utsätts för. Det är dock oklart om antalet fotledsdistorsioner hade varit fler och mer allvarliga utan dessa åtgärder. Ytterligare forskning om preventiva metoder, framförallt uppvärmning

  • 185.
    Martin Ginis, Kathleen A.
    et al.
    Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Prapavessis, Harry
    School of Kinesiology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.
    Who cares what other people think?: Self-presentation in exercise and sport2007In: Handbook of sport psychology / [ed] Gershon Tenenbaum, Robert C. Eklund, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2007, 3, p. 136-157Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 186.
    Mattsson, Emil
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Dispositionell mindfulness, ältande och idrottspsykologiska färdigheter2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The problem with dysfunctional thoughts among athletes is well known. In recent years midfulness has been examined and discussed as a strategy to solve this problem (Gardner & Moore, 2012; Birrer, Morgan & Röthlin, 2012).

    The aim of this study was to examine parts of Birrer et al.‘s (2012) model by measure dispositional mindfulness, one mechanism of action (rumination) and two psychological skills (self-efficacy and recovery).

    As a foundation for the study a survey was used which were answered by 65 athletes, 33 women and 32 men. The average age was 22,78 years (SD=4,66).

    The result of the path analysis showed that dispositionell mindfulness was a significant predictor for rumination and rumination was a significant predictor for recovery. A correlation analysis also showed that recovery had a significant correlation with performance at competition.

    From the result of this study it can be concluded that the part of Birrer et al.’s (2012) model which refers to dispositional mindfulness, rumination and recovery is valid. Athlete’s self-efficacy doesn’t seem to be effected by their rumination. 

  • 187.
    Mavropalias, Georgios
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    CHANGES IN MUSCLE ACTIVATIONDURING 72 HOURS FOLLOWING AN ACUTEPLYOMETRIC BOUT2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 188.
    Mavropalias, Georgios
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Changes in muscle activation during 72 hours following an acute plyometric bout2014In: Book of Abstracts of the 19th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science – 2nd - 5th July 2014, Amsterdam – The Netherlands / [ed] De Haan, A., De Ruiter, C. J., Tsolakidis, E., European College of Sport Science , 2014, p. 71-71Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Plyometric training (PT) has been used widely in sport training to improve characteristics such as power, strength and to induce beneficial neuromuscular improvements. Previous evidence has demonstrated a significant impact of this training method on muscle activation patterns during training, however there is a lack in research literature of studies examining its follow up effects in the recovery period. The purpose of this study was to examine any possible changes in the muscle activation of the lower extremities up to 72 hours after high intensity PT.

    Methods

    An experimental study design with repeated measures was used. Twelve (n=12) male subjects (mean age 24.33 ± 2.6) executed a high intensity PT protocol for the lower extremities. Countermovement jump test (CMJ) was performed pre, immediately post, 24, 48 and 72 hours after the PT. Surface electromyography (sEMG) evaluation examined the activation of Gluteus Maximus (GM), Vastus Lateralis (VL), Biceps Femoris (BF) and Gastrocnemius (GAS) during the CMJ in all the time points of the recovery. A one way ANOVA with repeated measures was used to analyze differences between the five time points (p≤0.05).

    Results

    The results indicated a statistical significant decrease in CMJ performance at 24 and 48 hours, compared with the baseline, that peaked at 24 hours (-7.16%), and recovered at 72 hours. Muscle activation levels for GM, VL and BF followed the same pattern, decreasing significantly post training compared to the baseline, recovering at 72 hours post. Muscle activation decrease peaked immediately post training for GM (-21.8%), VL (-14.04%) and BF (-19.82%). Muscle activation for GAS decreased significantly post training (-6.77%), recovering faster than the other muscle groups, at 48 hours.

    Discussion

    CMJ jump performance impairment was in accordance with previous research, peaking at 24-48 hours and recovering at 72 hours after the bout (Chatzinikolaou et al., 2010). The impairment pattern observed in the sEMG values peaked immediately post training, recovering at 72 hours; however the magnitude of the decrease was not as extended as observed after eccentric training (Hortobágyi et al, 1998). GAS activation recovered 24 hours faster than the rest of the tested muscle groups probably due to the higher percentage of slow twitch fibers which are less susceptible to muscle damage than fast twitch. In conclusion PT significantly decreases muscle activation and jump performance up to 72 hours after the bout in GM, VL and BF, while GAS recovered in 48 hours.

    References

    Chatzinikolaou A, Fatouros IG, Gourgoulis V, Avloniti A, Jamurtas AZ, Nikolaidis MG, et al.. (2010). J Strength Cond Res, 24, 1389–98.

    Hortobágyi T, Houmard J, Fraser D, Dudek R, Lambert J, Tracy J. (1998). J Appl Physiol, 84, 492–8.

    Contact georgios.mavropalias@gmail.com

  • 189.
    Moberg, Evelina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Tovstedt, Ebba
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Ett aktivit företag: Undersökning av motivationsfaktorer och barriärer samt underlag till utveckling för fler fysiskt aktiva anställda2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the employees physical activity level and to identify the motivators and barriers they experienced to physical activity. The purpose included investigating if the motives and barriers differed depending on activity level, age and gender. It also examined the activity the company’s offer of physical activity concerning. The participants (n=139) responded to a revised form of Motivation for Maintenance of Exercise Habits (MTUAM), a Swedish version of the Physical Activity Stages of Change and a few background questions. The results showed that 55 percent were sufficiently physically active according to the recommendations of the Swedish Institute of Public Health. The results also showed that the main motivation factors were improved fitness, improved health and greater physical strength. The main barriers were a lot to do at home, stress/lack of time and lack of motivation. The results also showed that there were significant differences in motivations and barriers depending on activity level and gender. There also was a significant difference between age and motives. It was discovered that 28 percent used the company’s offer of physical activity. The main reasons why it was not used were lack of time, lack of goals and that they train on their own. The results were then discussed in relation to the research.

  • 190.
    Möller, Malin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Sander, Erik
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Effekt av olika stretchmetoder på agility och rörlighet hos elitinnebandyspelare2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In many sports such as floor ball static stretching (SS) is commonly used as part of the warm up to increase performance even though SS has shown to have a negative impact on activities involving strength, power, sprint and agility.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate if different stretching methods SS, dynamic stretching (DS) and no stretching (IS) as a part of the warm up affected agility and/or flexibility (ROM) of the hamstring in male elite floor ball players and if the possible effect lasted up to 10 minutes in the test occasion.

    Methods: At three different days the different stretching methods (SS, DS and IS) were tested after warm up. The three stretching methods were performed at every test occasion in a randomized order on three different test groups. Agility and flexibility were tested with T-test (s) and passive straight leg raise (o) at 0 min, 5 min and 10 min after warm up. A total of 9 subjects completed the study.

    Results: At both 0 min and 5 min after completed stretching the best time on T-test (s) was performed after DS (10,20 ± 0,98 and 9,92 ± 0,49). At 10 min the best time was performed after IS (9,68 ± 0,16). No significant difference between the different stretching methods and T-test was found at neither 0 min (p = 0,93), 5 min (p = 0,90) nor 10 min (p = 0,29). At both 0 min and 5 min after completed stretching the highest values on ROM (o) was measured after SS (73,56 ± 5,79 and 71,67 ± 7,12). At 10 min highest value was measured after DS (73,44 ± 8,75 ). No significant difference between the different stretching methods and ROM was found at neither 0 min 0 min (p = 0,92), 5 min (p = 0,94) nor 10 min (p = 0,71).

    Conclusion: The results of this study lack significance but show a weak trend that SS possibly could impair agility but increase flexibility in hamstring and that the performance impairment gradually stagnates. However both DS and IS gave equal or better results on T-test in comparison to SS and with that in mind SS should be performed at a separate occasion or adjacent to the end of the activity.

  • 191.
    Niklasson, Emma
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Sundström Karlsson, Tina
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Analys av försäsongsträningen hos ett svenskt damfotbollslag på elitnivå2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to analyze which part of the pre-season trainings two cycles that affected strength and power in lower extremities, acceleration, agility and anaerobic endurance by compiling these abilities of a female elite soccer player team, and then evaluate whether the pre-season training improved these abilities.

    Tests that could prove important and crucial physical qualities in elite soccer players were selected and then performed on three occasions; before, during and after the pre-seasontraining. The selected tests were; squat, vertical jump, 15 m sprint, T-test and YO-YO Intermittent Recovery Test (YO-YO IR). The study included 24 female elite soccer playersfrom all playing positions.

    A significant improvement in strength, agility and anaerobic endurance were measured in the second test round. In the other tests there were no difference observed.

    The first cycle of the pre-season training partly developed the players in the right direction, which the significant improvement in strength revealed. The significant improvement in the agility and anaerobic endurance occurred a little too early, it would have been more beneficial after the second cycle. This means that other important qualities might have been neglected.

  • 192.
    Nilsson, Sara
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Zetterholm, Ylva
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Kan sex veckors plyometrisk träning förbättra maxhastighet, hopphöjd i vertikalhopp samt maxstyrka i knäböj  hos unga män?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Maxhastighet är en viktig faktor inom många idrotter. Olika faktorer som påverkar maxhastighet är anaerob kapacitet, anaeroba energikällor, muskelstyrka samt förmåga att utveckla power. Plyometrisk träning, där explosiva hopp utförs, har som mål att förbättra stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) och power, vilka är viktiga faktorer vid sprint.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur sex veckors plyometrisk träning påverkade maxhastighet, hopphöjd i vertikalhopp samt maxstyrka i knäböj. Studien undersökte även sambandet mellan maxhastighet och hopphöjd samt maxhastighet och maxstyrka. Den här studien är viktig då ingen tidigare studie till vår vetskap har undersökt hur plyometrisk träning påverkar maxhastighet, hopphöjd och maxstyrka.

    Metod: Tre test användes för att mäta maxhastighet, hopphöjd samt maxstyrka. Testen som genomfördes var flygande 30 meter, vertikalt hopptest (CMJ) samt maxstyrketest i knäböj. Från start deltog 19 unga män, vilka delades in i kontroll- och träningsgrupp. Testpersonernas ålder, längd och vikt var 23,4±3,5 år, 180±8,1 centimeter och 75,6±9,8 kilogram. Deltagarna utförde i genomsnitt 4,4±1,4.träningpass (minst 30 minuter) per vecka. Träningsgruppen genomförde plyometrisk träning två till tre gånger i veckan under en period av sex veckor. Övningarna som utfördes var squat jump (SJ), splitthopp, mångstegshopp och drop-jump (DJ)

    Resultat: Resultatet visade en signifikant förbättring (p=0,001) vid utförandet av 1RM i knäböj hos träningsgruppen. Vid maxhastighetstest och vertikalt hopptest påträffades ingen signifikant förbättring. Det fanns ett samband mellan maxhastighet och hopphöjd men samband mellan maxhastighet och maxstyrka saknades.

    Slutsats: Sex veckors plyometrisk träning gav en signifikant förbättring vid utförandet av 1RM (p=0,001) i knäböj. Ytterligare studier krävs för att se hur plyometrisk träning påverkar maxhastighet, hopphöjd och maxstyrka.

     

     

     

  • 193.
    Nordin, Michelle
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Does Static stretching and/or Muscle fatigue create a Cross-over effect?: An experimental study2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Extensive literature has described a decrease in force output performance in the local muscle groups after static stretching, and static stretching has therefore been recommended not to be performed during warm-ups. A recent study showed evidence of a cross-over effect in regard to static stretching, i.e. non-local muscles were also affected by static stretching. This result could however be due to fatigue in the muscle groups stretched, and a fatigued condition has previously shown cross-over effects in several studies.

    Aim: The aim of the study was to (1) examine if upper-limb static stretching and muscle fatigue display a cross-over effect that show changes in force output in the lower limbs, and (2) if there was a difference between the effects of the static stretch protocol and the muscle fatigue protocol for the purpose of examining if fatigue is the larger factor for cross-over.

    Methods: Concentric maximal jump height of 15 subjects with previous strength training experience of at least one year was measured and the subjects subsequently performed both intervention protocols in a random order. After each protocol concentric jump height was measured again. The static stretch protocol consisted of a static stretch for the shoulder at an intensity of “Very hard”, 10 repetitions of 30 second stretches with 15 seconds rest in between repetitions. The muscle fatigue protocol consisted of 10 repetitions of 30 seconds isometric muscle contraction in the same position with 15 seconds rest between repetitions at an intensity of “Very hard”. The data was collected on an infra-red contact mat and differences between the mean jump heights pre- and post each protocol and between the different protocols were analyzed with pair sample t-test.  

    Result: Mean concentric jump height (± standard deviation, SD) was 25.31 (±9.4) cm for the baseline jumps, 23.66 (±8.89) cm post static stretch intervention jumps and 24.13 (±8.90) cm post muscle fatigue intervention jumps. This indicates a cross-over effect on force output in the legs post static stretching with a mean reduction of 1.65 cm (p=0.001). Upper-limb muscle fatigue indicated a cross-over effect on force output in the legs with a mean reduction of 1.18 cm (p=0.032). There was no statistical significance between the two protocols (p=0.146).

    Conclusion: The results presented a cross-over effect on both conditions. This is in line with previous research in the area. The results implicate that static stretching and muscle fatigue effects the central nervous system, which can lead to impairments in performance in non-local muscles. This can be considered in warm-up and exercise program design when force output is of great importance for performance

  • 194.
    Nordström, Evelina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Teacher Education (LUT).
    Wetterling, Frida
    Halmstad University, School of Teacher Education (LUT).
    Rörelse och matematik: En studie om lärares uppfattningar av sambandet mellan rörelse och matematik.2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med vår uppsats är att undersöka lärares uppfattningar av på vilket sätt rörelse har någon påverkan på lärandet i matematik. Vårt empiriska material har vi fått fram genom kvalitativa intervjuer med sju lärare, som arbetar på tre olika skolor, om deras uppfattningar. Alla intervjuer spelades in på band och blev därefter transkriberade. Transkriberingarna har sedan legat till grund för vår analys och vårt resultat. Många av våra intervjudeltagare menar att rörelsen är viktig för att elevernas motorik ska utvecklas. Detta leder till att eleverna får en annan drivkraft och förbättrad koncentration i klassrumssituationer. Vidare anser deltagarna att matematiken förekommer naturligt på idrottslektionerna, den sorts matematik som äger rum är begrepp och enheter. Intervjudeltagarna nämner även att självförtroendet är viktigt för elevernas lärande, i alla ämnen. Det har även visat sig att individualisering är viktig, då elever har olika lärstilar. Vår slutsats är att rörelsen påverkar lärandet i matematik och stärker självförtroendet.

  • 195.
    Nyberg, Linnea
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Differences in lower extremity kinematics in barefoot running: A study done on habituated shod runners in two age groups2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Ageing affects human body with decreased muscle mass, decreased range of motion (ROM) and decreases flexibility in lower extremity. Previous research has found differences in the relationship between age and shod running kinematics such as decreased step length, decreased ROM in the knee and ankle, changes in knee angles and decreased muscle strength in plantar flexors with age. Barefoot running is a current subject in the training world and many people today converts to barefoot running. This study aims to evaluate if barefoot running kinematics in an older group of runners are different compared to a younger group.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether there are any differences in lower extremity kinematics; foot strike pattern, step length, and angles in knee and ankle at foot strike, midstance and toe-off between two age groups running without shoes.

    Method:!The method used were a 2D-video analysis with a cross-sectional study design. Twelve participants in the older group, mean age 26.6 years (48-58) and thirteen in the younger group, mean age 52.3 years (23-31) fulfilled the study. The participants ran five minutes barefoot on a treadmill whilst video recording in sagittal and lateral plane of motion. Foot strike pattern (heel/mid-forefoot strike), step length (meters) and angles (degrees) were analyzed in the Dartfish software. Independent t-tests, Mann Whitney u-tests and chi-square tests were used to study significant differences between the two groups. 

    Results: No significant differences were seen in foot strike pattern (p=0.54), step length (p=0.90) or in the angles of the knee, though a slight trend of increased flexion for the older runners could be seen in the phase of toe-off (p=0.13). No significant difference was seen in the angles of the ankle in frontal and sagittal plane.

    Conclusion: No significant differences were seen in foot strike pattern, step length or angles in knee and ankle between the older and the younger group while running barefoot for a short period of time. A slight trend of increased flexion at toe-off for the older runners in barefoot running has been observed. The results of the study could indicate that an older group of well-trained runners could keep their running style whilst running barefoot for a short period of time, but further research in the area is needed, with a broader age- range and extended running interval to make any further conclusions. 

  • 196.
    Olausson, David
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Emotion and concentration regulation training in Swedish female handball players: A short-term IZOF-based intervention.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of this mixed-method intervention study were: (1) To examine idiosyncratic profiles of emotions and performance of 3-4 leading handball team players in successful and less successful games and identify their strengths and limitations in emotion-concentration regulation; (2) To develop, implement, and evaluate an intervention program aimed at optimizing the players' emotion-concentration regulation and performance. The participants (n= 4, age= 24,5) consisted of four female elite handball players from the same team. An emotion-performance profiling process was conducted to facilitate objective one. To facilitate objective two, a small group IZOF based short term intervention was developed and implemented. The participants’ emotion-performance profiles are presented. The evaluation of the intervention indicated that the intervention increased the participants’ awareness and knowledge, and stimulated psychological skills development (i.e., emotion regulation and concentration). Methodological issues,future directions, and implications are discussed.

  • 197.
    Olsson, Charlotte M.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bernhardsson, Lina
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Electromyographic Analysis of Left and Right Side Gluteus Medius in Unilateral and Bilateral Bodyweight Exercises2017In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 49, no 5S, p. 464-465Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 198.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Frandsen, Björn
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Lower body electromyography muscle activity differences between unilateral and bilateral squats with relative loads2014In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 46, no 5S, p. 962-963Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 199.
    Papachristou, Georgios
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    The effects of an active re-warm-up protocol during the half time of a competitive soccer game on sprint, agility & jump performance of male amateur soccer players.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 60 credits / 90 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Pre-game warm-up routines are a common component of soccer. Warm-up prior to a high-demand sport as soccer, has demonstrated positive effects in the physiological responses of athletes, as well as their performance. The rise of muscle and core temperature stimulates a number of physical mechanisms, responsible for many proposed benefits in performance. The lower activity pattern of soccer players observed during the initial phase of the second half, is attributed- among other possible reasons- to remaining passive during the 15 min half time, as re-warm-up is not usually implemented before the beginning of the second half of a soccer game. Objectives. The purpose of this study was to investigate if an active re-warm-up protocol is more beneficial than no warm-up during half time on the physiological soccer-specific performance indicators; sprint, agility and vertical jump. Methods. 11 male amateur soccer players participated in a 3-occasion test, conducted in a lab setting and an indoor sports hall. Participants were submitted in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (level 1), to estimate their maximum aerobic capacity. For the other 2 test occasions, participants performed a cross-over design test, which included remaining passive (PS) and performing a 5 min active re-warm-up (RW), during half time. Identical experimental procedures were used for the other 2 occasions, including a regular pre-game warm-up, a 46.11 min simulation of one half of a competitive soccer game on a motorized treadmill, as well as sprint (10 m-20 m-30 m), agility and counter movement jump (CMJ) tests, before (baseline values) and 15 min after the simulation (second half values). Blood lactate, rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and weight loss after the simulation, as well as heart rate (HR) during the simulation, were also measured. Results. Participants’ estimated maximum aerobic capacity was 52.8±2.9 (ml· kg-1 ·min-1). Subjects’ performance decreased (p<0.01) after PS in all the performance tests. However, performance was maintained to baseline levels with the exception of agility which was improved after RW (p=0.047). Moreover, subjects performed better in all the tests after RW compared to PS (PSdiff  and RWdiff) (p<0.01). Similar was the effect of the treadmill simulation on the subjects on both occasions, since there were no differences between PS and RW in blood lactate (p=0.61), RPE (p=0.50), weight loss (p=0.26) and HR (p=0.80). Conclusion. Our results demonstrate that an active re-warm-up of 5 min during the half time of a competitive soccer game has beneficial effects on the sprint, agility, and jump performance of soccer players in the initial phase of the second half compared to no warm-up.

  • 200.
    Parker, James
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    A multi-disciplinary approach to studying performance among high-level golfers: physiological and biomechanical aspects2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In competitive golf, the player’s ability to hit the ball a long distance affects the score in a positive way. Swing kinematics is considered an important factor in driver performance; one way of improving swing kinematics is through strength and power training. Subsequently, high-level golfers and their coaches often explore novel ways of increasing the distance of a shot, in particular driver carry distance (CD). This licentiate thesis presents two studies with the overall aim of studying how swing kinematic and physical characteristics are associated with driver performance among intercollegiate golf players. The studies report swing kinematics associated with driver performance (study 1) and the impact of isokinetic rotational training on driver performance and swing kinematic variables (study 2).

    The methods used were (1) a cross-sectional correlation study (n=15) and (2) an open trial intervention study (n=20). The studies investigated (1) the relationship between golf swing kinematics and driver performance, and (2) the impact of strength training on swing kinematics and driver performance variable.

    The results show variables that were distinctive for the club head speed (CHS) were mainly during the downswing: greater X-factor stretch; and higher pelvis peak speed. Whilst, factors distinctive to the regression model for CD were mainly at impact: reduced thorax rotation; and greater thorax lateral bend. Nine weeks of isokinetic training increased seated rotational force and power, peak arm speed and arm acceleration, ball speed, and CD more compared to isotonic training. Even though isokinetic training did not increase CHS, it did result in greater CD.

    This licentiate thesis contributes to the understanding of which variables influence driver performance, in particular CD, among high-level golfers. Segmental interactions (pelvis-thorax), lead arm speed and acceleration, isokinetic and isotonic training. These results may guide training interventions aiming to improve driver and golf performance among high-level golfers, particularly those with a background of strength training. Future studies could investigate how the interaction between swing kinematics, clubhead trajectory, and driver performance variables differ between male and female golfers.

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