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  • 151.
    Andersson, Martina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Petersson, Magdalena
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Får jag leva eller dö?: Upplevelser av att vara patient i samband med en organtransplantation2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Organ transplantation is offered to patients with a life-threatening illness when there is no other medical or surgical treatment that can improve their condition. To receive an organ is a life changing experience for a patient. Patients and their families need guidance, compassion and support from nurses. Since a transplantation is a large surgery, patients need nursing care before, under and after the surgery. In order to support patients in this process it is important for nurses to study how a transplant is experienced. The aim of the study was to describe experiences of being an organ transplant patient. The method was a literature study consisting ten articles. Four categories appeared in the result, Experiences of information, Experiences of support, Experiences of loss of control and Experiences of getting a second chance. To go through an organ transplantation is a life changing experience for a patient in many different ways. To be able to manage this, patients need help from healthcare teams. Nurses need to understand this patient group better in order to improve their care. 

  • 152.
    Andersson, Mathilda
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Persson, Amanda
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Bakomliggande faktorer till övervikt och fetma2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Overweight and obesity is a major problem worldwide. Every year 2.8 million adult dies in the disease. In order to work preventively against overweight and obesity and to help patients who suffer from the disease, nurses need more knowledge and education about the underlying factors. The purpose of this study was to illustrate the underlying factors for overweight and obesity. 12 scientific papers were selected and examined and the result emerged in four categories; lifestyle factors, feelings and relationships, socioeconomic factors and genetic factors. Several studies showed that the lack of physical activity was a major contributing factor to gaining weight. Stress and lack of time were the triggering factors that physical activity did not occurred. Pregnancy and motherhood was seen as an underlying factor to why women gained weight. Relationships and a difficult childhood could also contribute to weight gain in both men and woman. Work environment, education and socioeconomic status had a role related to high BMI, however, those factors showed differences regarding gender. It was found that there are gender ideals and that they are primarily of importance regarding the men’s weight gain. Further qualitative researches focusing on patients’ experiences are relevant. Similarly, the nurse’s preventive work should be addressed during nursing school.

  • 153.
    Andersson, Matilda
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Analysis of Changes in Running Technique Between a Shod and Barefoot Running Condition.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Lately, barefoot running has become popular and there is a debate on the pros and cons of barefoot running with regards to running injuries. Many factors are causing injuries and one of the factors discussed is the fact that we run in shoes. When we run in shoes the biomechanics of the running technique may and therefore be a possible cause to injury. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess how the foot strike pattern, angle of the knee and ankle joint at time of initial contact, as well as the step length changes between a shod and barefoot running condition in habitually shod runners when running in a pace equivalent to their running pace over ten kilometers. Method: Twenty-seven healthy runners (18 male, 9 female) were included in the study. The study took place at the fitness center of Halmstad University. Subjects ran on a treadmill, in an individual pace equivalent to their running pace over ten km, both in a shod and barefoot running condition. Two-dimensional analysis of the sagittal plane kinematics of the knee joint, ankle joint and foot position to horizontal, foot strike pattern and step length was done. Participants ran for ten minutes with shoes and for five minutes barefoot. Running technique was videotaped using an Iphone 6 camera and landmarks were marked with white tape to ease the analysis. Results: Changes in foot strike pattern was observed. When running barefoot 63% of the subjects adopted a non-heel strike pattern compared to 18.5% when shod (p=0.001). Knee flexion was increased at IC for the barefoot condition, with 164°±6 relative knee angle compared to 167°±6 when shod (p=0.001). Ankle angle at IC did not show a statistical significant difference between conditions (p=0.657). When barefoot the angle was 117°±8 compared to 115°±8 when shod. Foot angle to horizontal showed a flatter foot placement at IC with a less dorsiflexed foot for the barefoot condition (-4°±8) compared to shod (-12°±8), (p=0.001). Step length was decreased for the barefoot condition (0.82m ±0.15)   compared to shod (0.85m ±0.13), (p=0.008). Conclusion: Results are consistent with previous findings that barefoot running in some cases change the running technique with a flatter foot placement, an increased knee flexion at IC and a decreased step length. However, caution must be taken when habitually shod runners transition to barefoot running in regards to the biomechanical changes that may occur. To benefit from barefoot running a non-heel strike pattern is required. Further, the running technique may be the more important factor, regardless of wearing shoes or not.

  • 154.
    Andersson, Matilda
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Tyler, Hannah
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Avvikelserapportering: Faktorer som påverkar sjuksköterskans beslut att inte rapportera avvikelser2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Incident reporting is essential to identify risks that can lead to health damage. Despite this many nurses fail to report incidents. The aim of this study was to describe factors influencing nurse’s decision not to report incidents. The study was conducted as literature review in which 13 scientific articles were the basis for the result. The result indicated that time constraint were an impediment to incident reporting. Lack of knowledge and experience about incident reporting and lack of feedback are also reported as barriers to reporting incidents. Many nurses experienced fear of reprisals admitting to mistakes. They also felt guilty about writing an incident report on mistakes committed by a colleague. Work culture and organizational factors also affect the decision to make an incident report. Discussing incident reporting during nursing school might reduce feelings of guilt and incompetence by nursing students understanding the purpose of making incident reports. Research on Swedish conditions are necessary to highlight nurses attitudes on incident reporting as a mean to enhance patient safety.

  • 155.
    Andersson, Mattias
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Perelius, Louise
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Kommunicera professionellt: Kommunikationens betydelse för patienter med diabetes typ 22013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Type 2 diabetes is one of the most common diseases in Sweden. Since the disease brings great demands on self-care, it´s important that the patient understands the disease. The communication between the nurse and the patient therefore is important. The aim of the study was to illuminate the importance of communication in the interaction between nurse and patient with type 2 diabetes. The study is a literature review based on 12 scientific articles. Insufficient communication could lead to poor self-care as it could cause uncertainty and poor motivation among patients. Good communication could help a patient to feel confidence in the care system, feel supported, understood and feel unique as a person, which could lead to better self-care. It´s important that the nurse is aware of how communication can affect the patient. Nurse students need more feedback of the way they communicate with patients in clinical training. More research and experience about the importance of communication in type 2 diabetes and how it can be performed more efficiently is needed. 

  • 156.
    Andersson, Moa
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Annervi, Susanne
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Larsson, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Leken läker alla sår: En litteraturstudie om lekens betydelse i omvårdnad.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Varje år befinner sig cirka 95 000 barn på sjukhus i Sverige. För att kunna möta dessa barn på en adekvat nivå samt att kunna vara korrekt i sin profession krävs det att sjuksköterskor besitter stor kunskap och respekt inom sitt område. Barn kan uppleva att de har en minskad kontroll över sin verklighet när de har blivit sjuka och hamnar i en ny miljö. Avsaknaden av kontroll och osäkerhet kan leda till ovisshet samt oförutsägbarhet. Osäkerheten bidrar till en känsla av att mista greppet om situationen barnen befinner sig i. Syftet var att belysa lekens psykologiska effekter i samband med omvårdnad för barn. Metoden som användes var en litteraturstudie vilken var uppbyggd av fjorton vetenskapliga artiklar vilka analyserades och sammanställdes. Resultatet visade att leken i omvårdnad påvisade olika effekter hos barnen. Fyra övergripande kategorier valdes ut efter noggrant genomförd granskning och redovisas i litteraturstudiens resultatdel. Kategorierna som redovisas är: leken som distraktionsmoment, leken som informationsverktyg, leken som ångestreducering och leken som bearbetningsfas. Då befintlig forskning generellt inriktas på lekens effekter relaterat till ångest- och stressymtom hos barnen och deras föräldrar, behövs mer specifik forskning där upplevelsen av leken i omvårdnad belyses.

  • 157.
    Andersson, Natalie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Lundgren, Josefin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Att hantera sitt livsöde: Copingstrategier hos personer med ALS2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Amyotrofisk lateralskleros (ALS) är en obotlig neurodegenerativ sjukdom som leder till muskelförtvining och förlamning. Syftet med studien var att beskriva copingstrategier hos personer med ALS. Studien genomfördes som en systematisk litteraturstudie med deduktiv riktad innehållsanalys. Tolv resultatartiklar analyserades och sammanställdes. Två kategorier beskrivs enligt befintlig teori: problemfokuserad coping och känslofokuserad coping. Den problemfokuserade copingstrategin självständighet och den känslofokuserade copingstrategin användande av stöd visades ge personer med ALS ett bättre välbefinnande genom att minska oro och ångest. Användandet av copinstrategier sågs variera beroende på individen och sjukdomsprogressionen. Den känslofokuserade copingstrategin undvikande sågs föredras i ett tidigare skede av sjukdomen medan den omdefinierande copingstrategin jag är filosofisk mot min sjukdom det som kommer må komma, som är en annan form av känslofokuserad copingstrategi, användes mer i slutskedet av sjukdomen ALS. Personer med ALS ökade hanteringen av sin sjukdom genom att använda rätt copingstrategier vid rätt tidpunkt i sjukdomsförloppet. För att personer med ALS ska kunna uppleva trygghet trots sin sjukdom bör sjuksköterskan ha god kunskap om copingstrategier. 

  • 158.
    Andersson, Niklas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    The Effects of a New ACL-Injury Prevention Device on Knee Kinematics and Hamstring and Quadriceps Co-Contraction: A Pilot Study2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) –injury is 3-5 times greater in female athletes compared to male athletes. This may be partially attributed to lower levels of hamstring-quadriceps co-contraction in females with subsequent knee kinematics that increases risk of ACL-injury. Finding training methods that improves co-contraction and increases knee stability is important.

    Objectives: To evaluate the effects of a new device on hamstring-quadriceps co-contraction and to investigate if training with the device can alter knee kinematics in female athletes.

    Study design: Controlled experimental study design with repeated measures.

    Method: Twenty soccer and floor ball athletes were measured with electromyography (EMG) for hamstring-quadriceps co-contraction while performing squats with and without the device. Thirteen athletes also underwent three-dimensional kinematic analyses, measuring knee abduction angles (at initial ground contact and peak angle) during a drop jump, before and after a six week intervention period with the device. Friedman’s test and Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to assess differences and effect sizes (ES) were calculated.

    Results: Co-contraction was consistently larger on the device (medial side: p<0.001, ES=0.88; lateral side: p<0.001, ES=0.80) and the ratio of medial-to-lateral co-contraction increased (p=0.001, ES=0.79). In the kinematic analysis low adherence rates amongst our subjects meant that the effects of the device on kinematics could not be measured.

    Conclusion: Performing squats with the new training device stimulates increased hamstring-quadriceps co-contraction and increases the ratio of medial-to-lateral co-contraction. The effects of the device on knee kinematics have yet to be determined.

     

  • 159.
    Andersson, Patrik
    et al.
    AstraZeneca R&D, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Kenne, Kerstin
    AstraZeneca R&D, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Glinghammar, Björn
    AstraZeneca R&D, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Pointon, Amy V.
    Global Safety Assessment AstraZeneca, Macclesfield, United Kingdom.
    Åkerblad, Peter
    CVGI iMed AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Lutz, Mareike
    CVGI iMed AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Hovdal, Daniel
    CVGI iMed AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Maxvall, Ingela
    CVGI iMed AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Lindstedt, Eva-Lotte
    CVGI iMed AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Toxicity with LXR agonists – Problem solving activities for mechanistic understanding2012In: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 211, no Suppl. (S), p. S39-S39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several lines of evidence points toward the potential positive effects of LXR (Liver X Receptor) modulators for effective and safe therapy of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). LXR is a dimeric nuclear hormone receptor that exists as a combination of RXR and one of two subtypes LXR alpha or beta, which act as cholesterol sensors. LXR alpha is highly expressed in the liver, intestine and adipose tissue while LXR beta is ubiquitously expressed. Activation of LXR up-regulates several genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), including ABC transporters. This results in increased efflux of cholesterol from macrophages in atherosclerotic vascular lesions to the circulation and further on to other tissues to ultimately be excreted into the faeces. These effects together with systemic and local anti-inflammatory properties of LXR modulation are likely to contribute to decreased atherosclerosis. The positive effects of LXR activation on RCT and cholesterol balance must be obtained without negative lipid effects, since LXR also activates lipogenic genes. Other types of toxicity and approaches to better understand the mechanism(s) behind these will be presented. Copyright © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  • 160.
    Andersson, Petra Lilja
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Lund, Sweden..
    Ahlner-Elmqvist, Marianne
    Lund Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Lund, Sweden..
    Johansson, Unn-Britt
    Sophiahemmet Univ Coll, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci, Danderyd Hosp, Div Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Larsson, Maria
    Karlstad Univ, Dept Nursing, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Ziegert, Kristina
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Nursing students' experiences of assessment by the Swedish National Clinical Final Examination2013In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 536-540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish National Clinical Final Examination (NCFE) was established in 2007 in order to examine nursing students' clinical competence upon completing their Bachelor's degree in nursing. The NCFE constitutes an innovative method of examination, divided into two parts: a written and bedside test. The aim of this study was to evaluate nursing students' experiences of being assessed by means of the NCFE, in order to obtain information that could be used to improve the examination. A survey was conducted using a questionnaire with open-ended questions concerning the written and the bedside part of the NCFE. The answers from 577 third-year nursing students were analysed using content analysis. The nursing students regarded the NCFE as promoting further learning and as an important means of quality assurance. Its comprehensive nature was perceived to tie the education together and contributed to the students' awareness of their own clinical competence. The strengths of the NCFE especially highlighted were its high degree of objectivity and the fact that it took place in a natural setting. However, the students felt that the NCFE did not cover the entire nursing programme and that it caused stress. It thus appears to be important to reconsider the written theoretical part of the examination and to standardise the bedside part. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 161.
    Andersson, Rosanna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Örtengren, Kajsa
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Effekter av motiverande samtal vid prevention av hjärt- och kärlsjukdom2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in Sweden. The majority of all CVDs can be prevented with the help of a lifestyle change, but to do so it requires motivation. An evidence-based approach used to promote motivation and lifestyle changes is motivational interviewing (MI). The aim of this literature review was to explore the effects that MI may have in the nurse’s preventive work against CVD. The results showed that MI had a varied but mainly positive effect in improving lifestyles that are associated with CVD. Among the patients who had participated in MI improvements were shown mainly in physical activity, body size and blood pressure. Dietary habits had improved in the short term, but in the long term it varied how long the good habits could be maintained. The health related quality of life had improved, but the patients also experienced an increase in anxiety. The results showed that MI is an effective method in promoting lifestyle changes, however, it is unclear which design of MI should be chosen, in combination with other methods, and what patient group would benefit the most, which implies further research on the subject.

  • 162.
    Andersson, S.
    et al.
    Länssjukhuset, Halmstad.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    The aphasic person's views of the encounter with other people: a grounded theory analysis2002In: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1351-0126, E-ISSN 1365-2850, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 285-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Notes that being affected by aphasia influences the total life experience. The aim of this study was to generate a theoretical model, from a nursing perspective, of what 12 aphasic persons (aged 28-92 yrs old) experience in encounters with other people. Data were collected through interviews which adopted a biophysical, socio-cultural and psychological approach and then analyzed using grounded theory method. Two main categories emerged, namely: interaction and support. Encountered experiences led to (1) a feeling of having ability, (2) a feeling of being an outsider, and (3) a feeling of dejection or uncertainty. The feeling state was dependent on whether the interaction was obstructed or secure and on whether the support resulted in strengthened or impaired self-esteem. Therefore, nurses need to give support that enhances patients self-esteem and which results in them gaining a positive and realistic view of their aphasia, as well as involving those around them in this perspective. This then will give the possibility for the patient to turn the interaction process from an obstructed into a secure one.

  • 163.
    Andersson, Sabine
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Nyhlén, Mari
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Barns upplevelser av att leva med synnedsättning2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Children with disabilities experience more problems and difficulties with their health and decreased quality-of-life conditions than other children. An integrative litteraturestudy was used to describe the experiences of children with visual impairment and their everyday-life. This study includes an anlysis of 13 articles. The children described scenarios in which social settings were avoided due to problems or concerns that may arise involving the visual impairment. Many of the children with visual impairment and their families attended leisure services that were arranged by different childrens organisations. The children described both positive and negative experiences when meeting with their caregivers. Some of the children described a frustration of having to explain their medcial and health condition to caregivers who were not familiarwith their medical and personal history. A recurring theme in several studies was physical activity and school and how self-esteem and confidence of the children often depended on opportunities to participate in these subjects. Children experienced disappointments and frustrations over the stigmatisation that visual impairment involved. The study encompasses a topic that is relatively unexplored and in need of further research to provide greater understanding. Research that focuses on evaluating the well being of children and youth living with vision loss is sparingly both in Sweden and abroad. By summarizing the existing research, increased knowledge could lead to a more individualized nursing care for these children.

  • 164.
    Andersson, Sara
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Cramér, Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Att leva med ett organ från en avliden donator -  en humanbecoming2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The need for organ transplants has risen considerably, that is why there are more organ transplants carried out each year. To acquire a new organ means for many that somebody has to die during circumstances that an organ can be donated and the donor or their relatives must have a will to donate their organ. The transplant process is long and doesn't end when the new organ is transplanted, in addition to lifelong medication there can be many thoughts and questions that can arise. The purpose of this study was to describe the patients experience to live with an organ from a deceased donor. The study was carried out like a general literature study. The ten resulting articles were assessed, compiled and resulted in the following five themes: Experience of gratefulness, Experience of responsibility to the donator, Experience of a changed self, Experience of guilt and Experience of grief. The main findings from the study is that the recipient experiences a change in their self and experience of gratefulness. A wider understanding around the recipient experiences after a transplant with an organ from a deceased donor, where personal treatment is needed to support the requirements.

  • 165.
    Andersson, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Damm, Cecilia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Johansson, Elin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    ”Har glasögon” -  Omvårdnad och dokumentation av patienters synförmåga inom geriatrisk vård2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 166.
    Andersson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Helin, Ann-Sofi
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Ögonsjuksköterskors upplevelser av att använda sin specifika omvårdnadskunskap vid telefonrådgivning2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Telephone counseling is a common form of care. In an increasing medical and technical development in ophthalmological care is ophthalmic nurses skills demanded by both patients, relatives and colleagues in other areas of health care. The purpose of this study was to examine the eye nurses experiences of telephone counseling in ophthalmology. The study was conducted using a qualitative approach and data were collected through semi-structured interview. The material was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The results showed that eye nurses were confident and proud of their professional role. They experienced the work as fun, stimulating and challenging. They saw themselves as a pilot in the care of a large advisory role related to their specific knowledge. They also described some difficulties in triagera by phone. They wanted better assessment documentation but was confident in their assessments and any fear of notifications to the regulator were not revealed. They also expressed a need for training in counseling skills. Ophthalmic nurses lacked the time for collegial reflection to develop their professional attitude in the work of telephone counseling.

  • 167.
    Andersson, Veronica
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Karlsson, Amanda
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Upplevelser vid förlossningsdepression: Ur kvinnans perspektiv2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Förlossningsdepression drabbar 10-15% av allanyblivna mammor.Relationen mellan mammanoch barnet kan påverkas negativt om behandling inte sätts in i tid och denegativa effekterna kan bli bestående.Syftet var att beskriva kvinnors upplevelser vid förlossningsdepression. Ensystematisk litteraturstudie genomfördes där elva artiklar granskades,kategoriserades och sammanställdes. Resultatet visade att sjukdomen är starkt förknippad med skam, vilket gör attmånga kvinnor lider i det fördolda då de inte vågar söka hjälp av rädsla föratt bli sedd som dåliga mödrar. De rubriker som framträdde var att inte uppleva den förväntade lyckan, att förlora sig själv, att vara ensam och att behöva stöd.Kvinnor som tog kontakt med vården för att få behandling saknade ett empatisktbemötande av vårdpersonalen och upplevde att deras känslor normaliserades, defick inte adekvat hjälp och skickades hem utan behandling. En depression kan tasig många uttryck och därmed kan kvinnorna tänkas söka vård på olikavårdinstanser. Alla sjuksköterskor behöver därför ha god kunskap omförlossningsdepressionens olika uttryckssätt och kvinnans upplevelser avdepressionen för att kunna ge god omvårdnad och bemöta på ett lyhört, empatisktoch respektfullt sätt. För att minska stigmatiseringen i samhället och ökakunskaper om sjukdomen bör informationsåtgärder vidtas. Vidare forskning ommäns upplevelser vid förlossningsdepression, samt samkönade parförhållandenspåverkan är önskvärt för att främja familjehälsan.

  • 168.
    Andersson, Viveca
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Förekomst och behandling av smärta hos patienter inneliggande på sjukhus2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Pain is a commonly symptom among inpatients at hospital. Studies have shown that pain doesn´t have sufficient high priority, and the compliance for pain management guidelines are weak.

    Aim: The aim with the study was to investigate the prevalence of pain among inpatients in two hospital and highlight how guidelines concerning pain-management where adopted in practice.  

    Method: Descriptive, quantitative cross-sectional study. Data was collected from 356 patients. Data was collected by using an interview questionnaire. Pain vas measured with the pain assessment tool; Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) or Verbal Rating Scale (VRS). 

    Results: Thirty-one percent of the patients reported that they experienced a pain level > VAS/NRS 3 while resting, 44 % reported the pain level as VAS/NRS > 4 when doing activities. Thirty-nine percent experienced disturbed sleep at night depending on the pain. Only 17 % of the patients had been using a valid pain measurement-tool in the hospital. Numerous patients who reported severe to worst possible pain showed a lack of individually tested analgesic-treatment, in order with the guidelines.

     Conclusions: Too many patients reported their pain level as being moderate to worst possible, which indicating insufficient nursecaring for pain-assessment and also inadequate prescriptions for analgesic-treatment. Further studies are needed concerning the introducing of guidelines for pain management, which could be of importance for improving pain management among inpatients at hospital.

  • 169.
    Andersson, Åsa
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Köpenhamns universitet, Köpenhamn, Danmark.
    Abl-tyrosinkinaser och multipel skleros2018In: BestPractice, Vol. 6, no 24, p. 14-16Article, review/survey (Other academic)
  • 170.
    Andersson, Åsa
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Aksel Jacobsen, Freja
    Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    B-cells and Inflammation in the Absence of the Abelson Related Gene (Arg)2016In: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology, ISSN 2155-9899, E-ISSN 2155-9899, Vol. 7, no 6, article id 1000470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Abelson non-receptor tyrosine kinases, c-Abl and Arg, are important regulators of cellular processes in cancer, inflammation, infection, and neuronal dynamics. Recent research on the role for these kinases in processes involving interactions with the cytoskeleton or signaling molecules, may lead to further insight into the pathogenesis of a variety of disorders, including chronic inflammatory diseases. In a mouse model for multiple sclerosis, we recently reported that Arg deficient mice develop T-cell mediated autoimmune neuro-inflammation with the same severity as littermate controls, but display a different B-cell phenotype upon immunization. Here we comment on these results and discuss the role for Arg in B-cell activation and homeostasis.

  • 171.
    Andersson, Åsa
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Lundberg, Frida
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Sårbarhet: En emotionell anknytning mellan sjuksköterska och patient2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vulnerability is a phenomenon that with life changing events becomes more apparent. The nurse’s approach to their own and the patient’s vulnerability affects the caring relationship where all the feelings the patient is experiencing is considered. For the patient to dare express the feelings that vulnerability induces it is important not to disregard it. Caring tradition implies a deeper emotional connection between the patient and nurse, it fills an important and central part in caring for vulnerable patients. The aim of the study was to illuminate what vulnerability is within caring. The method was a literature study where systematical searches in different databases with care focus resulted in ten scientific result articles. With inspiration from content analysis the result articles were processed and analysed. The result clarifies experiences of vulnerability within caring through the categories: feelings, courage, alleviation, and burden-resource. It emerged that vulnerability occurs because of different reasons for the patient and nurse and how vulnerability is considered has impact on the emotional connection that is needed in a caring relationship. The conclusion from the literature study is that vulnerability is an important phenomenon to have knowledge of. It is relatively unexplored and demands further research with the purpose of exploring vulnerability in a caring context and thereby give the nurse better tools to be able to give best possible care based in scientific evidence.

  • 172.
    Andersson, Åsa
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Sardar, Samra
    Nordic Bioscience, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    A transcriptional regulator controlling severity in experimental arthritis2019In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 78, no Suppl. 2, p. 667-667, article id FRI0011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Susceptibility to Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is dependent on complex interactions among genetic and environmental factors. Protein candidates and their role in pathways leading to chronic inflammation of the joints, in addition to their potential as drug targets, can be revealed with the help of experimental models for disease (1). From the results of functional genetic studies, we have recently shown that the T-box gene, TBX3, is a candidate gene in Collagen Induced Arthritis (CIA), an experimental model for RA (2). TBX3 encodes a transcriptional regulator involved in differentiation of several organs, including bone, during embryonic development. It has, in addition, been demonstrated important in oncogenesis (3). Our studies suggest that TBX3 has a role in B-cell activation and is important for the severity of disease in the CIA model (2). Objectives: The objective of this project is to understand the role for the transcriptional regulator TBX3 in development of RA. Methods: Bioinformatics based comparative studies of mouse and human alleles in the regulatory region of TBX3. CRISPR/Cas9-introduced deletions and base modifications in human B-cell lines. Activation of genetically modified B-cells in vitro, followed by analyses of proliferative response and antibody production. Results: Studies of CIA development in mice with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the regulatory region of Tbx3 revealed a significant difference in severity of arthritis. In line with this, the anti-collagen type II antibody titers were shown substantially higher in mice with more severe arthritis, even before onset of disease. In addition, preliminary data shows that the proliferative response to Type II collagen upon re-challenge of lymph node cells in vitro is higher in these mice, suggesting a more active response to the disease-inducing antigen. Because the TBX3 gene is conserved between mouse and human, we are investigating whether similar genetic variations are found in the regulatory region of the human TBX3 gene and whether the putative genetic variation would lead to a distinct B-cell phenotype upon activation in vitro. Conclusion: We suggest that the oncoprotein TBX3 is a novel candidate contributing to disease severity in experimental arthritis. Investigations of genetic variation in the TBX3 gene and its role in the activation of human B-cells will reveal whether this protein is a candidate for influencing also development of RA.

  • 173.
    Anderzon, Emilie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Claesson, Jenny
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenhet av att administrera intravitreala injektioner2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 174.
    Andreas, Plate
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Hemtjänstpersonals uppfattning om äldre personers barriärer mot och möjligheter till fysisk aktivitet: En intervjustudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physical activity contributes to increased longevity and quality of life, and plays an important role for older people when it comes to maintaining their health. There was a lot of barriers against being physically active. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe home care staff´s views on elderly peoples opportunities and barriers to be physically active – an interviewstudy.Method: A sample of five women from the home care service was selected and semi-structured interviews were conducted. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using tema analysis. Results: The results were divided into two main headings, barriers and opportunities. The results showed that the home care staffs were working hard to try to get the older motivated to be physically active and they also used personal training programs. It also emerged that there are barriers such as lack of motivation and barriers in the home in the form of sills and carpets that made it difficult for older people being physically active. Implication: It is important to have knowledge about elderly people’s opportunities and barriers to be physically active. This study provides an insight of the problem and can be used in future public health work among elderly people. Suggestion for further research would be to do a larger study of both women and men involved working in the home care sector to get a broader perspective about physical activity among elderly people.

  • 175.
    Andreasson, E.
    et al.
    The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Faculty of Health and Caring Sciences, Institute of Nursing, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Psychiatry Sahlgrenska, Sweden.
    Skärsäter, Ingela
    The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Faculty of Health and Caring Sciences, Institute of Nursing, Sweden.
    Patients treated for psychosis and their perceptions of care in compulsory treatment: basis for an action plan2012In: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1351-0126, E-ISSN 1365-2850, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 15-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to describe patients' conceptions and experiences of care in compulsory treatment for acute onset of psychosis. Twelve patients with experience of compulsory treatment were interviewed in 2008-2009, and phenomenographic analysis was used to analyse the data. Two descriptive categories emerged in the results: receiving needed support and perceiving respectful care. Patients perceived that coercive interventions were positive if they were given good care, if they were given the shelter they needed, if they got help with understanding and if the setting was healing. Patients felt respected if they were treated like human beings, if they were allowed to retain as much of their autonomy as possible and if they were invited to participate even though they were under compulsory treatment. The results show that it is important to prevent patients from being traumatized during compulsory treatment and to take advantage of patients' inner resources. Patients' experiences of compulsory treatment can form the basis for preparing an individual action plan for future compulsory treatment. Individual action plans could empower patients during compulsory treatment and improve their experience of care.

  • 176.
    Andreasson, Maria
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Ekstav Lilja, Lena
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Förebyggande av anestesirelaterad atelektasbildning.2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Atelektaser uppstår inom tio minuter hos 90 % av alla patienter som sövs och leder till försämrad syresättning men kan även leda till postoperativa lungkomplikationer. Syftet med studien var att beskriva hur anestesisjuksköterskan med olika ventilationsstrategier kan förebygga atelektasbildning under generell anestesi. Studien genomfördes som en litteraturstudie där 19 vetenskapliga artiklar granskades och analyserades. Resultatet visar att när 100 % syrgas ges under induktionen av anestesi ökar uppkomsten av atelektaser. Om positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) 6-10 cmH2O används tillsammans med 100 % syrgas motverkas detta. Det är mer oklart vilken effekt PEEP har efter induktionen av anestesi. PEEP bör kombineras med rekryteringsmanöver för att effektivt motverka atelektasbildning. Olika metoder för att genomföra rekryteringsmanöver finns beskrivna men gemensamt är att topptrycket ska nå upp till cirka 40 cmH2O. Efter induktionen kan anestesisjuksköterskan även förebygga uppkomst av atelektaser genom använda 40 % syrgas. I den kliniska verksamheten saknas ofta riktlinjer för vilken ventilationsstrategi som ska användas. För att kunna arbeta preventivt med att förebygga atelektasbildning måste anestesisjuksköterskan diskutera ventilationsstrategi med anestesiläkaren innan problem med syresättningen uppstår. För framtida forskning skulle det kunna vara av intresse att undersöka hur olika ventilationsinställningar påverkar patientens upplevelse under preoxygenering.

  • 177.
    Andreasson, Marie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Bjerså, Caroline
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Att opereras och vara vaken: Upplevelser utifrån patientperspektivet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A common procedure in surgery is local or regional anesthesia in contrast to general anesthesia. These forms of anesthesia demand a lot from the patient in terms of collaboration. During the surgical procedure, the perioperative nursing care needs to be adapted to each patient’s individual needs. Therefore, this study is a literature review with the aim to describe patients’ experiences during awake surgery. The results were categorised from three themes, experiences of pain and discomfort, experiences of anxiety and fear, experiences of vulnerability or participation. Patients undergoing awake surgery experience pain, discomfort, anxiety and fear of hearing, seeing and feeling anything during the surgical procedure. The feeling of not having control of your own body results in experiences of feeling vulnerable. To be close to the patient and have a good communication between the nurse anesthetist and the patient create experiences of participation. The role of the nurse anesthetist is to find nursing interventions which relieve and help the patient in these situations. The results are discussed according to the Comfort Theory’s context; physical, psychospiritual, sociocultural and environmental. The skills for the nurse anesthetist are to find nursing interventions which relief and ease the situation for the patient. Furthermore, there is a need to investigate effects of different nursing interventions on patients’ satisfaction and comfort in the perioperative setting.

  • 178.
    Andréasson, Kristina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Wallentin, Ida
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Ett livsavgörande arbete: Mötet med unga suicidala patienter2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most common causes of death among adolescents in Sweden is suicide. The increased mental illness is a common underlying cause of suicidality. Nurses often experience the meeting with young suicidal patients as difficult, because of the ignorance about how to handle the situation. Knowledge and predictability are of importance for finding out the elements behind a suicidal behavior. The aim of this study was to illustrate important elements to administrate in the meeting with young suicidal patients. The study was conducted as a literature study and the result was based on 16 well processed research articles. The result showed that knowledge about suicide was an important element to help nurses in their meeting with young suicidal patients. The nurse can work through different strategies which all are based in acceptance, understanding and respect. The nurse can contribute the patient with different kinds of support, for example emotional, practical and social support and further promote spirituality. When this is contributed patients more easily regain their inner locus of control and move from a death-oriented to a life-oriented view of life. In the education for nurses, knowledge about suicidility and mental illness among adolescents should be increased. Knowledge about young suicidal patients and assessment of suicide should be applied in health care services.

  • 179.
    Andréasson, Marielle
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Mårtensson, Frida
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Kommunikation vid livets slut: att skräddarsy stödet2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Palliative care is something nurses will encounter during their professional life. Nurses may find it hard to communicate with patients at the end of life [EOL]. It is vital for the patient’s well-being to have a good communication with the nurse when receiving palliative care. The purpose of this study was to describe nurses’ and patients’ communication in palliative care. The study is a literature review, based on 14 scientific articles. From the results of the articles, three themes emerged; nurses’ and patients’ experiences of communication at EOL, communication in teams and its effect on the patients care and honesty in the communication and the preservation of hope. The studies showed that there was a willingness among nurses to communicate with patients at EOL but there were different obstacles which made the task difficult. For example, nurses’ emotional barriers, patients’ ambivalence about discussions regarding EOL, time constraints and cultural differences. Many nurses requested more education regarding communication at EOL and more research in this area is needed.

  • 180.
    Andrén, Linn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Erlandsson, Mathilda
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Sjuksköterskestudenters erfarenheter av vårdande i livets slutskede: En allmän litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: End-of-life care strives to improve the quality of life for patients with a life-threatening illness and their relatives. One of the nurses’ most important tasks are to provide care for patients at the end of their lives and for their relatives. Nursing students are tomorrows nurses, therefore they need to have knowledge about caring in end-of-life. Purpose: The purpose was to describe nursing student’s experiences of caring in end-of-life. Method: A general literature study based on 11 scientific articles. The data process resulted in four categories: insufficiency about caring in end-of-life, handling difficult situations in end-of-life, cooperation in caring in end-of- life and lack of knowledge about caring in end-of-life. Results: Nursing students became emotionally engaged when they met patients in end-of-life and their relatives. They experienced different ways to cope with the difficult situations that arose when caring in end-of-life. Nursing students also felt that it was important to establish relationships with patients as well as include the relatives in the care, they also described that communication with patients and their relatives could be challenging. However, it was also found that nursing students experienced insufficient skills and knowledge about caring in end-of-life. Conclusion: Caring in end-of-life caused feelings of insufficiency, loneliness and anxiety for the nursing students. Coping strategies included both total involvement in the care, and distancing one’s self from it. Nursing students experienced cooperation with both patients and relatives through communication as meaningful. However, nursing students experienced that the education in end-of-life care are inadequate. 

  • 181. Anjert, Paulina
    Flerfamiljsbostäder och hälsorisker: tänkbara åtgärder och rollen som miljö- och hälsoskyddsinspektör2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 182.
    Anjou, Marie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Hedqvist, Johanna
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Komplementära behandlingsmetoder mot illamående2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Patienter med illamående finns överallt i hälso- och sjukvården. Illamående är vanligt efter kirurgi och anestesi, liksom vid cytostatika- och strålbehandling. Även vid graviditet är illamående ett känt faktum. Komplementär medicin kan användas som komplement till den traditionella skolmedicinen. Sjuksköterskan ska bidra med sin kunskap i det specifika omvårdnadsarbetet för att kunna lindra det lidande som illamåendet innebär. Syftet med litteraturstudien var att beskriva komplementära behandlingsmetoder mot illamående hos vuxna. Studien är gjord som en systematisk litteraturstudie. De komplementära behandlingsmetoder som identifierades och utgör kategorier i resultatet var Non-invasiv akustimulering, Invasiv akustimulering och Behandling med ingefära. Invasiv akustimulering har god effekt på illamående medan effekten av non-invasiv stimulering har tveksam effekt. Akustimulering med elektricitet, oavsett om den är invasiv eller non-invasiv, har effekt på illamående. Även behandling med ingefära lindrar olika typer av illamående. Komplementära behandlingsmetoder mot illamående har i stor utsträckning effekt men placeboeffekten kan i vissa fall inte uteslutas. Komplementära behandlingsmetoder mot illamående vid vård i livets slutskede är inte undersökt i någon större omfattning och därför skulle det vara ett angeläget område att forska vidare inom.

  • 183.
    Anna, Andersson
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Lisa, Phan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Att inte kunna få barn: Mäns upplevelser av infertilitet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Infertility is a diagnosis that can effect both men and women but the man’s experiences are far less explored than the woman’s experiences. A literature study was done, where the aim of the study was to highlight men's experiences of living with infertility. The result is based on 11 scientific articles and shows four categories; Emotional aspects, Experiences of life impact, Social aspects and Experiences of support and information outside the relationship and family. The result shows that infertility can mean many different mixed emotions, such as frustration, guilt, helplessness, disappointment and isolation. One option for achieving pregnancy was to undergo fertility treatment, which could be perceived as very trying. During the treatment process many men felt that their main role was to be there to support their partner. Infertility was also perceived as difficult to talk about outside the relationship with the partner. For some of the men internet forums for infertile became a meeting place, where they could exchange information and experiences regarding their life situation. The men’s experiences regarding health professionals varied. Some of the men thought they were given a lot of support while others experienced that information from the health professionals was insufficient and this could have been given more attention to. The men dealt with their situation differently, the majority sought support from their partner while other men instead went to their family. Isolation was a common consequence of infertility because the men did not want to burden their family and friends.

  • 184.
    Anthin, Katarzyna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Trygg, Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Moralisk stress hos intensivvårdssjuksköterskor2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Intensivvårdssjuksköterskor uttrycker upplevelser av moralisk stress i det dagliga arbetet och detta kan leda till utbrändhet eller behov av att byta yrke då de inte lyckas bemästra sin situation. Studiens syfte var att kartlägga moralisk stress hos intensivvårdssjuksköterskor med hjälp av Moral Distress Scale(MDS). Studien utfördes med en deskreptiv metod av tvärsnittsdesign där 45 sjusköterskor med intensivvårdsutbildning i västsverige tillfrågades att vid ett tillfälle besvara en enkät med en validerad svensköversatt MDS. Resultatet påvisade att det finns signifikant höga nivåer av moralisk stress hos intensivvårdssjuksköterskor yngre än 45 år(p=0,044) och även i gruppen med kandidat/-magisterexamen(p=0,003). De högsta nivåerna av moralisk stress kunde uppmätas när intensivvårdssjuksköterskorna ställdes inför situationer där de upplevde att ingen var beredd att fatta beslut om att avsluta livsuppehållande behandling. Bristande kompetens, "onödiga" behandlingar och resursbrist medförde också hög moralisk stress. För att motverka moralisk stress behövs enligt studier; debriefing, etiska vårdkonferenser och stöd från arbetsledningen. Denna studie kan bidra till att åskådliggöra moralisk stress och intesnifiera diskussionen samt skapa ett gemesnamt språk kring moralisk atress bland intensivvårdssjuksköterskor.

  • 185.
    Antonsson, Jesper
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    Johansson, Robin
    Halmstad University.
    Att leva med ofrivilliga ljud och rörelser: - upplevelser av Tourettes syndrom2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by ticks, which is involuntary movements and verbal sounds. Tourette syndrome affects 1% of the world population. The syndrome has it´s onset usually between 3-10 years of age and disappears or is reduced usually before the age of 18. The purpose of the study was to illuminate people's experiences of living with Tourette syndrome. The essay was carried out as a literature study where eleven scientific articles were analyzed and summarized. The following main categories emerged in the result: experiences of being in social situations and experiences of handling life. The results showed that people with Tourette syndrome experienced difficulties in social contexts, stigma and that peers were important in everyday life. Then there is scant research about what it's like to live with Tourette syndrome, it is important that the nurse gain a greater understanding about the syndrome to be able to give person-centered care.

  • 186.
    Antonsson, Maria
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Ving, Angelica
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Fri från cancer?: Patienters upplevelser av att leva med en rädsla för recidiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fear of recurrence is a common issue among patients who have had cancer. It is important that the nurse has knowledge of how the fear of recurrence can affect healthin order to be able to support these patients in a satisfactory manner. The purpose of the literature study was to describe patients' experiences of the fear of recurrence after having cancer.Ten articles that matched the purpose of the study were reviewed and compiled. By condensing the content, the data processing revealed three categories that formed the result: Fear of recurrence is maintained by recurring reminders, fear of recurrence creates emotional and existential vulnerability andfear of recurrence affects the quality of life. In the results of the literature study, several factors were identified that triggered patients' fear of recurrence. These factors were follow-up visits, media, stories of other people's cancer and bodily changes. The result also showed patients' thoughts and feelings that gave them an emotional and existential vulnerability. The fear of recurrence greatly affected the patients' quality of life and had a negative impact on their health. It is of great importance that the nurse draws attention to factors in patients who can be associated with fear of recurrence and more research is needed on how the nurse can adequately support these patients.

  • 187.
    Antonsson, Victoria
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Böhlin, Josefine
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Patienters erfarenheter av omvårdnad vid kataraktoperationen2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cataract accounts for about half of all blindness in the world, which represents several million people. Patients who come to the surgery department may have good, none or less good experiences of care. The aim of the pilot study's was to describe patients' experiences of care in the cataract surgery. The pilot study was conducted as an interview with a descriptive qualitative design with an inductive approach. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The results revealed three categories: Experiencing security, Experiencing strategies to deal with physical and psychological symptoms and Experiencing deficiency. The response from health care professionals created trust through their expertise, information, and their approach. It did not matter in what form the information was given according to the informants, the main thing was that it showed what would be done. All informants used various strategies to cope with the surgery. It was revealed gaps in information about the operation. Further research with a full-scale study should focus on how the information is clearly given to patients before cataract surgery. One conclusion of the pilot study is the importance of the patients´ involvement in care around a cataract surgery and the patients´ experience of the surgery which in turn generate relevant knowledge for ophthalmic nurses who can develop a better eye care. In the education of ophthalmic nurses a patient perspective should be used as a basis.

  • 188.
    Anving, Nicole
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    Svensson, Angelica
    Halmstad University.
    Teittinen, Caroline
    Halmstad University.
    Vikten av vikten: Hur kan sjuksköterskan stödja barn till viktnedgång?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Overweight and obesity among children are a widespread and growing problem in the world and in Sweden today and it can lead to serious health problems in adulthood such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Since nurses often are in contact with children who have problems with overweight or obesity, it´s important that they are properly equipped to support and guide children and families. The aim of the study was to illuminate nurses’ opportunities and barriers to support children with overweight or obesity, based on children's, parents 'and nurses' perspectives. The study is designed as a literature review. Three categories are presented in the results; support through intervention programs, support through communication and sharing of knowledge and support through motivation and engagement. There are factors that hinder the nurse's ability to support children, such as child's lack of motivation. Guidelines and action plans for nurses, according to parents and nurses is important to convey support. The families’ involvement plays a significant role in succeeding to support overweight and obese children. Nurses should work in collaboration with the entire family in the work with overweight and obesity among children. Further research should be done on how children can be motivated and how the whole family can be involved in the weight loss process.

  • 189.
    Apelqvist, Annie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Hoverberg, Isabelle
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    När benen inte längre kan stötta dig: En litteraturstudie om betydelsen av stöd efter en planerad benamputation2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Losing a body part is life changing. An amputation involved a physical change and a mental change in patients' lives. Purpose: To describe the importance of support for patients following a planned leg amputation. Method: A literature study conducted in three different databases. The study resulted in nine articles that are presented in four themes; the importance of support at physical changes, the importance of support at psychological changes, the importance of support at existential changes and the importance of social support. Result: The study resulted in four themes; (I) illustrated how physical changes affected patients and patients' ADL. (II) describes the psychological impact on patients after amputation, and that the support must focus on the mental as well as the physical. (III) describes the support of healthcare professionals and that patients must master new skills. (IIII) highlights the importance of social support from close relatives, friends and people around. Conclusion: In the result it emerged that an amputated patient needs several different orientations of support after amputation. The need for support and seeing the whole person needs to be included in the nursing profession. It is therefore of significant importance that the study results need to be highlighted.

  • 190.
    Aptich, Nursen
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Azaric, Mirjana
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenhet av arbete med flyktingbarn och deras föräldrar på barnavårdscentralen2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     Nurses working in Child Health Centers (CHC-nurses) face daily refugee children and their parents in their work and these meetings vary depending on various factors.The aim of this study was to describe CHC-nurses experience of working with refugee children and their parents. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. From the result three categories emerged; to create security, to be responsive and to provide support. In the category to create security the CHC-nurses described how they worked to create equal care, increase accessibility, and highlight the importance of the continuity in the health care of refugee children. Category to be responsive comprised nurses' approach to the individual child's needs which was applied with respect, understanding and acceptance of cultural differences. Providing support through helpfulness with language and communication difficulties, the right customized information and collaboration with other professions gave refugee children safer and faster integration into the Swedish society. Difficulties described by the CHC-nurses were communication through interpreters, lack of resources and lack of continuity in the work with refugee children. Continued research is needed to increase knowledge and understanding of refugee children’s needs. Further studies in development, organization and coordination of activities engaged in health care for refugee children are needed.

  • 191.
    Aradottir, Louis
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Möllgård, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Att explodera i handling: Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av hjärt- och lungräddning2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Between 2005-2014 a total of 15959 cardiac arrests were registered at Swedish hospitals. Nurses’ are often the first people on the scene of a cardiac arrest and it is required of them to be educated in CPR and CPR-D. In CPR many elements that must be performed during a short period of time and under high pressure are included. It is important that nurses’ get the opportunity to process the situation to progress in their profession and deal with potential feelings that might occur. The aim was to explore nurses’ experiences during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in hospitals. The study was a literature review where 11 articles were used for the result. The articles generated three major themes; nurses’ experiences before CPR, nurses’ experiences during CPR and nurses’ experiences after CPR. Continuous CPR- training was as a positive experience that prepared nurses’ for real situations. However, the simulations were viewed as being too simplistic and not realistic enough. The CPR- situation was often experienced as stressful with high levels of anxiety that made the nurses’ adrenaline flow which could have both a positive and negative impact on cognitive function. The nurses’ experienced that they after the event felt a need to process emotions and a good instrument for that was considered debriefing. Further research on nurses' experiences of CPR is required to determine why some nurses’ are more affected than others by the event despite similar training.

  • 192.
    Archer, Trevor
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Josefsson, Torbjörn
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Effects of physical exercise on depressive symptoms and biomarkers in depression2014In: CNS & Neurological Disorders: Drug Targets, ISSN 1871-5273, E-ISSN 1996-3181, Vol. 13, no 10, p. 1640-1653Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regular physical exercise/activity has been shown repeatedly to promote positive benefits in cognitive, emotional and motor domains concomitant with reductions in distress and negative affect. It exerts a preventative role in anxiety and depressive states and facilitates psychological well-being in both adolescents and adults. Not least, several meta-analyses attest to improvements brought about by exercise. In the present treatise, the beneficial effects of exercise upon cognitive, executive function and working memory, emotional, self-esteem and depressed mood, motivational, anhedonia and psychomotor retardation, and somatic/physical, sleep disturbances and chronic aches and pains, categories of depression are discussed. Concurrently, the amelioration of several biomarkers associated with depressive states: hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis homeostasis, anti-neurodegenerative effects, monoamine metabolism regulation and neuroimmune functioning. The notion that physical exercise may function as "scaffolding" that buttresses available network circuits, anti-inflammatory defences and neuroreparative processes, e.g. brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), holds a certain appeal. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.

  • 193.
    Arifaj, Qendrese
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    Grundström, Maria
    Halmstad University.
    Betydelsen av mjuk massage i omvårdnaden: ur mottagarens perspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the daily care of the patient, touch is used as an intervention. Therefore, the touch becomes a central part for both the patient and the nurse. In case of illness, the need of touch may increase, and the nurse's touch becomes more important. When soft massage is a complement, it can satisfy this need. Soft massage is a collective term for different but similar techniques, among other tactile massage, tactile stimulation, soft tissue massage and touch massage. The aim of the study was to find out the importance of soft massage in nursing from the recipient's perspective. A general literature study was made based on nine scientific articles. The analysis of the articles emerged two categories and seven subcategories that were: Safety: The importance of the massage therapist, feelings of being seen, and feeling togetherness. Rest: The importance of the surroundings, Experience the body as a whole, To experience relief from suffering, as well as to experience bodily energy. The result showed that several factors influenced the experience of the soft massage and helped in different situations. With further research, based on the recipient's perspective, it can lead to increased understanding and increased interest in how the soft massage can be used in the best possible way in the daily care.

  • 194.
    Arlegui, Leigh
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Changes in Anaerobic Sprint Performance, Perceived Muscle Soreness and Sleep Quality after Wearing Compression Garments during Recovery from a Strength Training Workout2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Compression garments are elastic, body-tight pieces of clothing with different pressure gradients used as a recovery method after exercise, such as strength training. Compression garments have increased in popularity within recreational and elite athletes as it is believed that they promote a reduction of muscle soreness and inflammation, which in turn may enhance performance. However, the exact physiological, psychological and performance enhancing effects of compression garments after recovery still remain unknown. Aim: To investigate whether female and male recreational athletes wearing full leg customised compression garments for at least 15 hours following a personalised strength training workout leads to an improvement in anaerobic sprint cycling performance as well as a reduction of perceived muscle soreness. Additionally a sleep quality assessment was conducted to assess the effects of the garments during sleep. Methods: Thirteen male and female subjects took part of a cross-over, randomised, controlled study. Subjects performed the first set of tests including Wingate anaerobic sprint test followed by their personalised strength training workout, after which they recovered with Compression Garments (CGS) or without compression garments (CON). They then returned 24hrs later to perform the second set of tests. Ten days later the same procedure was conducted however the other recovery method was used. Results: No significantdifferences were found between CGS and CON for the Wingate anaerobic test performance. Perceived muscle soreness was lower when subjects wore the garments and they felt better recovered 24hrs post-intervention compared to the CON condition. Some aspects of sleep were affected by wearing the compression garments during sleep however it was unclear whether this had an impact on performance. Conclusion: Recovering with customised full leg compression garments did not promote an improvement of physiological power performance 24 hours after a personalised strength training workout session. However perceived muscle soreness was reduced and the perception of recovery improved. The compression garments caused some sleep disturbances as subjects rated that they were too warm, suggesting a possible drawback of recovering with garments if worn during sleep.

  • 195.
    Arlid, Jonas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Nilja, Nicklas
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Olofsson, Nina
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Fysisk aktivitet som hälsofrämjande åtgärd för barn och ungdomar med särskilda behov: En intervjustudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund/Syfte: Ett av Folkhälsoinstitutets 11 målområden är fysisk aktivitet, målområdet innefattar att främja fysisk aktivitet bland befolkningen. Ett steg i detta arbete är att rekommendera fysisk aktivitet 30-60 minuter om dagen. Hallands Idrottsförbund bedriver olika projekt för att kunna erbjuda barn med särskilda behov möjlighet att bli fysiskt aktiv i en idrottsförening i samarbete med bland annat Barn och ungdoms psykiatri, Region Halland och habiliteringen. Syftet med studien var att beskriva erfarenheter av fysisk aktivitet som hälsofrämjande metod för barn och ungdomar med särskilda behov.

    Metod: En kvalitativ metod användes och 6 intervjuer genomfördes på olika arbetsplatser bland personer som jobbar med hälsofrämjande åtgärder och insatser för barn och ungdomar. Intervjuerna transkriberades från ljudfil till text och analyserades till en temaanalys.

    Resultat: Temaanalysen resulterade i tre olika teman. Det första temat var betydelsen av barn och ungdomars hälsofrämjande arenor, här visade det sig att skolan och föreningslivet är de två viktigaste arenorna för att nå ut till barn och ungdomar med hälsofrämjande arbete. Det andra temat var motivation och stöd till barn och ungdomar där det framkom att motiverande samtal är en tänkbar metod för att motivera äldre barn till fysisk aktivitet. Stöd från omgivningen är även en viktig komponent för att motivera barn och ungdomar till fysisk aktivitet. Det tredje temat var hinder och behov i arbetet. Här beskrevs fördelar och nackdelar inom det aktuella området exempelvis hur ekonomin kan vara ett hinder både för föräldrar och föreningar. Det framkom även att kompetensen hos de ledare som arbetar med barn och ungdomar behövs utvecklas.

    Implikation: Vi vill med hjälp av denna studie belysa olika hinder och behov samt vad som är viktigt att tänka på inom det hälsofrämjande arbetet med barn och ungdomar exempelvis utökade resurser inom föreningslivet och stöd från omgivningen. Ett steg i att hitta tänkbara lösningar för att gagna fortsatt arbete inom det aktuella området är att underlätta för föräldrar att erbjuda sina barn fysisk aktivitet genom ekonomiskt och praktiskt stöd.

  • 196.
    Arnarsson, Arsaell
    et al.
    University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Nygren, Jens
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Nyholm, Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Torsheim, Torbjorn
    University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Augustine, Lilly
    University of Kristianstad, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Bjereld, Ylva
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Markkanen, Ilona
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Schnohr, Christina w.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Rasmussen, Mette
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Line
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Bendtsen, Pernille
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Cyberbullying and traditional bullying among Nordic adolescents and their impact on life satisfaction2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of cybervictimization in the six Nordic countries and to assess its overlap with traditional bullying. A further aim was to examine potential associations between life satisfaction, on the one hand, and traditional bullying and cyberbullying on the other. Methods: Analyses were based on data from the 2013⁄2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. It included 32,210 boys and girls, aged 11, 13, and 15, living in the six Nordic countries. Results: The prevalence of cyberbullying by both pictures and by messages was around 2% in all the Nordic countries except Greenland. There it was considerably higher. The prevalence of being bullied in a traditional manner varied widely by country. For boys, this type of bullying was most frequent in the youngest age group and then decreased steadily in the older age groups. Girls were on average more likely to be cyberbullied. Cyberbullying was more common among 13- and 15-year-olds than 11-year-olds. Higher family affluence was unrelated to the risk of cyberbullying. However, it was related to traditional bullying and combined forms of bullying. Compared with intact families, cybervictimization was commoner among single-parent families and stepfamilies. Adjusting for age, gender, family affluence, and family structure, those subjected to cyberbullying had lower life satisfaction than those who were not bullied. Conclusions: We found relatively little overlap between cyberbullying and traditional bullying, indicating that the two may be separate phenomena stemming from different mechanisms, at least in the Nordic context.

  • 197.
    Arnell, Erika
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Höjskeld, Lena
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Diagnosen få känner till: Erfarenheter av Myalgisk encefalomyelit/kroniskt trötthetssyndrom2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is a complex disease of unknown etiology. Although ME/CFS is not visible on the outside, it leads to disability in varying degrees. There is a lack of knowledge regarding the disease, which often leads to a delayed or incorrect diagnosis. ME/CFS represents an ethical challenge for research, society and especially for healthcare professionals since no evidence-based nursing or treatment are available. The aim was to investigate people’s experiences with ME/CFS. Three categories emerged in the data analysis: meeting with the health care, impact on daily life and adaption to the new life situation. The result shows experiences of people with ME/CFS and how they feel they are treated by the healthcare system and the lack of knowledge that exists. It appears that the disease affects identity, relationships and abilities in physical activity. The result also shows how life changes and what strategies are required to manage everyday life when the conditions in life change. To meet the nursing needs of people with ME/CFS, more research on the subject, as well as education for healthcare professionals, are necessary.

  • 198.
    Aronsen-Torp, Jenny
    et al.
    School of Health and Society, Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Berggren, Vanja
    School of Health and Society, Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Erlandsson, Lena-Karin
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Somali Women's Experiences of Cooking and Meals after Immigration to Sweden2013In: Journal of Occupational Science, ISSN 1442-7591, E-ISSN 2158-1576, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 146-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article elucidates Somali women's experiences of cooking and meals after immigration to Sweden. Six Somali women participated in repeated focus group interviews. Content analysis of the interviews resulted in four themes: change in routines and content of the daily meals, changed experiences related to cooking and shopping for groceries, the social dimensions in food-related occupations, and change of identity and roles. According to the women, variety of factors related to their life in Sweden had led to changes in their food occupations and meals: environmental changes, societal factors and the fact that the women secured employment. Although their new focus on employment led to altered responsibility and time for the cooking, foodrelated occupations remained important for the creation of identity and the maintenance of the family. This study may inform the development of strategies to restrict the negative impacts of immigration on Somali women's health. Future research will increase understandings of the relationships between food-related occupations and women's roles, identity and health. © 2013 The Journal of Occupational Science Incorporated.

  • 199.
    Aronsohn, Tove
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Nevland, Cathrine
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Acceptera och förneka: Copingstrategier vid långvarig muskuloskeletal smärta2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain is a big problem among the Swedish population today. To enable the management of the chronic musculoskeletal pain there is a need of coping strategies. What strategies an individual uses is depending on the individual’s story of life. It is important that nurses have a holistic approach to support individuals in the selection of coping strategies. The purpose of the literature study was to identify coping strategies in individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain. In this study 12 research articles were included, of which 9 were qualitative and 3 were quantitative. The result showed that individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain used many different coping strategies that were included in denial and acceptance, which could lead to failed adaptation or adaptation. Strategies for acceptance and denial functioned as coping tools for individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Nurses’ care should act as a support for individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain in the choice of coping strategies and perception of the human being should be holistic. No studies revealed the importance of the nurse's care work in the choice of coping strategies. More research is desirable on what nurses need to do, to enable individuals to cope and develop coping strategies.

  • 200.
    Aronsson, Desirée
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Prado, Karen
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Faktorer som påverkar egenvården vid diabetes mellitus typ 22010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sjuksköterskor möter ofta patienter med diabetes typ 2 som av flera olika anledningar har problem med följsamheten till egenvården. Därför är det viktigt att känna till de olika faktorer som hindrar samt främjar patienter i deras egenvård. Syftet med studien var att belysa de faktorer som påverkar egenvården hos patienter med diabetes mellitus typ 2. Studien är genomförd som en litteraturstudie. Majoriteten av patienterna upplevde att de saknade kunskap i behandling om diabetes typ 2, en av anledningarna till detta var att de fick olika information från vårdpersonal om hur de skulle sköta sin egenvård. Vidare visar studien hur brist på motivation och rädsla för senkomplikationer påverkar egenvården. Många patienter hade även svårt att identifiera sig som diabetiker. Mer forskning kring hur kunskapsinlärningen om diabetes typ 2 sjukdomen skiljer sig mellan olika patienter vore av intresse.

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