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  • 101.
    Hurtig, Jörgen
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Report-evaluation of multi-storey Low Energy Houses at Hertings Gård, Falkenberg2010Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The new residential buildings at Hertings Gård in Falkenberg are built and owned by the local municipal housing company, Falkenbergs Bostads AB (FaBo) during 2007-2010. It is a good example of when knowledge of Passive house technology combined with good energy planning and project management can result in multi-storey houses with energy rating under 50kWh/m2. The multi-storey houses at Hertings Gård have innovative solar air heating systems connected to the ventilation system that is quiet unique. The solar air heating system contributes to the buildings energy supply by preheating the ventilation supply air. (The solar air is part of another project in Energy in Minds). This evaluation is based on metered energy used for space heat, domestic hot water, electricity for building service and domestic electricity for two of the multi-storey houses during 2009, House 18 and 19. The result is presented as monthly uses and compared with initial project specifications and some other parameters. The total initial energy specifications set by Concerto/Energy in Minds and FaBo for the houses are almost reached. Results are for House 18 and 19, 76,8 and 77,5 kWh/m2. (Specification 75 kWh/m2) This is total use of purchased energy. (excl. lighting at parking lots, not corrected after Swedish statistical normal year.) If we exclude the domestic energy use, the results looks as follows, House 18 47,8 and House 19 45,9 kWh/m2.(Specification: 50 kWh/m2). The used domestic energy for 2009 is varying a lot (House 18 from about 650 kWh up to 6500 kWh) between the apartments and is in total roughly 20% more than was expected in the project. A conclusion is that domestic energy is most of all a result of the tenant’s individual needs and behavior. Another energy specification that is not fully reached is the electricity for building service which is slightly more than specified in the project. The efficiency of the ventilation system is analyzed (with Specific Fan Power, SFP=2,80) which is relatively high compared to recommendations in National Swedish building code. This is probably a consequence of the chosen ventilation system with functions such as individual indoor temperature control. This function needs a design of the ventilation system that causes more power drops and therefore also more power than a more traditional and centralized ventilation system. The energy used for domestic hot water (DHW) is about 26% lower than specified in the project. (14,75 kWh/m2, year vs 20 kWh/ m2, year). The metered average specific DHW use at Hertings Gård is 0,27 m3/m2 and year. This is just slightly over the average of about 128 000 German apartments with individual metering and charging of DHW (0,25 m3/m2 and year). Hertings Gård has individual metering and charging of DHW use and low-flush water taps which are contributing to this relatively low DHW use. What is also achieved at Hertings Gård is, at least when looking at the tenant’s answers in the completed survey, that it seems to be a valued housing for its comfort as well as in other quality aspects. Many tenants can recommend the housing to other people. In conclusion, Hertings Gård is a good housing for the tenants, most probably a good investment for the housing company and above all a good living for the environment and the climate.

  • 102.
    Hussein, Lavin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Ikzer, Rami
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    "En kvinna kan inte utföra en mans arbete": En studie om hur kvinnor och mäns normer & värderingar påverkar jämställdhet inom hantverkaryrkena2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The construction business is one of the most male-dominant industries in Sweden, where the majority of the workers are men. Since the industry is associated with dirt, provocative jokes and heavy lifting many tend to picture a man as a construction worker. This unfortunate picture has set a tone on the society and in the minds of young girls who believe that they don't belong in the construction business. Those who are affected the most are the craftsmen, which is the part the authors have decided to focus on. Previous studies has shown that women who works in a male-dominant work environment tends to be exposed to sexual assault, stress, less development opportunities and different standards than their male coworkers. This inspired the authors to examine if this applies to the craftsmen and if so, how can one make the craftsman profession more appealing to women?

    The purpose of the study is to examine any possible problems attached to the low amount of female craftsman and the benefits that would occur if the amount got higher. To execute this study the authors have chosen a qualitative methodology. Previous studies have helped to form eventual problem formulations and questions asked in the semi-structured interviews that where conducted by the authors. The discussion and analysis results in a list of changes that must happen in order to appeal more women to the craftsman profession. In conclusion, changes that must happen will take time and one can only hope that the next generation will grow up without the stigma the craftsmen suffers from today.

  • 103.
    Högström, Johan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Johansson, David
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Tillämpning av kolfiberförstärkning i bärande betongkonstruktioner: Jämförelse med stål som förstärkningsmaterial2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Strengthening of existing structures with Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) is a method that has been more common in the building sector during the last decades. The materials strength in relation to its weight is a huge advantage but the lack of knowledge in the building sector results that professionals uses more proven materials such as steel to strength structures. In this report five minor projects in which steel was the strengthening material has been analysed to see if CFRP could be a competitive strengthening material considering mainly practical and economical aspects. The main purpose of this report was to evaluate when CFRP is the most suitable option for strengthening of concrete structures. The results showed that CFRP was applicable in every project but the total cost were higher comparing to the steel solution in four out of five projects. The results indicate that it is difficult to motivate CFRP regarding the economical aspect in relation to minor project that were evaluated in this report. Nevertheless, the tendency is that the advantages with CFRP is more useful when there are more comprehensive projects such as advanced steel works and when it is necessary to save room volumes. 

  • 104.
    Ingheden, Felix
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Gabrielsson, Jonathan
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    LV Filter: Ett partikelfilter för hushåll i mindre gynnsamma levnadsförhållanden2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    LV Filter is a product designed to provide drinkable tap water to households around the world. With a power source, the system manages itself with automatic cleaning. A safe and easy source of particle-free water. The product is intended as a complement to the client's product portfolio in order to offer a complete solution for water purification.

    LV Filter is developed in such a way that it can be manufactured in the country in which it is to be sold. This helps the product not only provide drinking water for households but also contributes to economic growth and job creation. In this way, one can contribute to a long-term change for both users and those who manufacture the product. Manufacturing is adapted in such a way that expensive and complicated methods will not be required to facilitate manufacturing in less developed places.

    The need that the product satisfies is imminent to a large number of people. The poor countries in the world are growing rapidly, so LV Filter can eventually increase the living standards of these people because they demand the absolute cheapest solutions and can not afford systems from the western world.

  • 105.
    Jelec, Nino
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Drivkrafter för byggnadsarbetare i Halmstad: Med fokus på Maslows behovstrappa2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Titel - Drivkrafter för byggnadsarbetare- Med fokus på Maslows behovstrappa

    Kurs - Examensarbete 15hp

    Utgivningsår - 2015

    Författare - Nino Jelec

    Handledare - Kristian Widén

    Nyckelord - Motivation, Produktivitet, Maslows Behovstrappa,byggnadsarbetare

    Syfte - Syftet med mitt arbete är att undersöka vad sommotiverar byggnadsarbetare och om man kananvända sig av Maslows behovstrappa på enbyggarbetsplats.

    Metod - Jag har använt mig av en kvantitativ metod i formav enkätundersökningar som jag har delat ut till byggnadsarbetare.

    Teori - Min teori kommer från Abraham Maslow somsammanställde en behovstrappa för att se vad som motiverade människor.

    Empiri - Min empiriska data var sammanställd genom attdela ut undersökningsenkäter till byggnadsarbetare i Halmstad.

    Slutsats - Min undersökning visade att Maslows behovstrappagår att användas fram till steg 3 men att arbetarna sedan inte fann steg 4 som är behovet av uppskattning särskilt viktigt för deras motivation och att de istället ansåg det sista steget i behovstrappan vara av vikt som är behovet av självförverkligande

  • 106.
    Jivsäter, Rickard
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Energieffektiva värmesystem: Lösningen till att nå energimålen i byggbranschen?2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has an environmental goal to achieve until the year 2020. To achieve this goal the construction business has to take an initiative to use the modern techniques that are available to lower the energy consumption I buildings. There’s also a debate going on today regarding the energy demands set by the Swedish government through Boverket, some communities throughout Sweden thinks that the demands are to low and have therefore set up own demands regarding energy in buildings.

    The possibility to construct energy-saving buildings is today very great, with energy-efficient heating-systems and dense climate envelope. The interest to raise energy-efficient buildings have also increased as a consequence that the population have become more aware about their impact on the environment. To meet the highest energy-demands you have to take certain measures and investments and it might be more suitable for the most energy demanding community buildings such as pre-schools. To better understand how you reach the ranks of the highest energy-demands I’ve in this report analyzed two pre-schools, one that is designed to meet the highest energy-demands set by the local community and the other that designed to fulfill the demands by the Swedish Boverket.

  • 107. Jodin, Anna
    Självkompakterande betong: Kvalitetspåverkande faktorer inom anläggningsbranschen2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Self-compacting concrete is still considered a relatively new product in the construction industry. This type of concrete is rarely used within cast in place concrete. The industry is rather conservative towards new technology and few are willing to take the economic consequences if the casting fails.

    During the years self-compacting concrete has been used in Sweden, many failures occurred which has led to a fear of using the product. Manufactures and contractors have not understood how sensitive the concrete is and that you have to be very careful during manufacture and handling.

    The aim with this work was to find out what makes self-compacting concrete a sensitive product and what affects it.

    Self-compacting concrete is at the limit towards separation which requires great care during manufacture and casting. Even at very small changes of the available amount of water the concrete’s flowing properties, distribution and stability can be affected relatively strongly.

    The quality of the fresh concrete has large impact on the final results. As the mixing operator it is important to get the right information and be careful during production. The transport affects the concrete consistency but how much we do not know at present. Since several factors such as air temperature, humidity and wind conditions vary constantly it is hard to determine the impact of the transport alone.

    It is important to create experience of handling of self compacting concrete in order to solve the problems and to change the setting within the industry to self-compacting concrete.

  • 108.
    Johannesson, Joakim
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Apelquist, Mikael
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Arbetsmiljö och säkerhet: På mindre företag inom byggindustrin2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The accident frequency in the construction industry has shown a downward trend every year but this trend was broken 2010th. It is often lack of precautionary measures within work environment and safety that is the cause of accidents. The big construction companies understand the importance of precautionary measures within work environment and safety, as they spend a lot of money and time on that matter. By examining the work environment and the safety of the small construction companies you can see how they work. The report will presents how these small companies work with work environment and safety, and also how they follow the safety instructions that are available and how they make use of safety equipment. By making use of interviews with staff in small construction companies, information has been collected about how they work with work environment and safety, and how they experience them. An interview with inspector at Swedish Work Environment Authority has been done to get their point of view of the small construction companies. The results show that small construction companies can get better at planning the work environment before construction begins. The constructions sites were kept clean to avoid falls. It appeared that they sometimes didn’t use harness at small jobs on the roof, but on larger work on the roof they used scaffolds. The reason to the sloppiness of not following the safety rules were time pressure and fast pace.

  • 109.
    Johansson, Angelica
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Larsson, Anna
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Riskbedömning för mikrobiell påväxt i ett välisolerat parallelltak2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Nine out of ten small houses in Sweden are today constructed with cold ventilated roofs with attics. In a study made in Sweden, 72 % of these have shown high moisture conditions which have led to moisture related damages. To avoid these problems, and also get a larger volume inside, it has become more usual to build parallel roofs.

    Because of the parallel roofs sealed construction an inspection is not accomplishable. Some studies have been made by computer programs to investigate the risk of moisture damages and mould growth in this kind of roof.

    The purpose with this study was, with practical measurements, to examine if moisture problems occur in parallel roofs. The practical measurements were processed in the airgap and wood and registered relative humidity and temperature to give information about the condition of the wood and possible mould growth.To compare the results from the practical measurements, simulations were made in Wufi Pro 5.3 and Wufi Bio 3.2.

    The simulations showed lower relative humidity than the practical measurements, which can be explained by the limits of the programs and also misleading settings. The practical measurements showed very high relative humidity throughout the roof. By this reason the parallel roof cannot be considered risk-free from a moisture point of view.

  • 110.
    Johansson, David
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Dahlström, Alexandra
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Riskanalys med avseende på arbetssättet K12017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is in third place concerning the number of yearly accidents and in secondplace concerning accidents with deadly outcomes in Sweden according to statistics (Arbetsmiljöverket2017a). This is an issue that Skanska, NCC, PEAB, Sveriges Byggindustrier and Byggnads isdetermined to work on to improve. A work procedure to identify and address safety risks during theplanning- and projection phase of a construction project has been developed with support from SBUF(Holm, Lidgren, Montecinos 2013). The work procedure is designed to first identify the safety risksthat is present for the current project with the help from a checklist. Then if the risks can’t beeliminated in the projection phase the risk will be highlighted on the construction drawings. A problemthat was discovered during the implementation of the work procedure in a construction project wasthat too many and not relevant risks was highlighted on the construction drawings. The purpose ofthis report is to produce underlying instructions to the planners of the construction project so thatthey can make use of the work procedure in the most appropriate manner. This report is written bystudents from Högskolan I Halmstad in co-operation with Skanska Teknik in Gothenburg. This reportis limited to new office and housing construction projects.To produce a result, we have conducted two comprehensive interviews as well as surveys answered byproduction managers. These interviews and surveys led to the conclusion that for the work procedureto succeed it’s important to have a good composition in the group that will work together with thechecklist and the identification of safety risks. The group is recommended to be composed of planners,project managers, safety representatives and if possible experienced workers. Another important aspectto make the work procedure successful is to make the checklist reflect the conditions of theconstruction projects that are being processed. Two construction project is almost never the sameconditions which doesn’t lend itself well to making a work procedure that handles all different casesof projects. The results also reveal that construction engineers and planners lack knowledge andeducation concerning work environment on construction sites. The results we have produced will alsohelp planners of construction projects that will use this specific work procedure to know which of thesafety risks are relevant to be highlighted on the construction drawings. We have also proposed someareas that needs more researched to make the work procedure more complete.

  • 111.
    Johansson, David
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Martin, Nilsson
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Passivhus: Särkostnader vid produktion2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    En av orsakerna till att det inte byggs fler passivhus i Sverige är de ökade kostnaderna. I detta examensarbete genomförs en grundlig jämförelse mellan fyra olika passivhusprojekt och konventionella projekt. Jämförelsen görs kring de olika processerna i projektet: projektering, byggande och förvaltning. Den största vikten är lagd kring byggandet där byggnadsdelarna, grund, vägg och tak, jämförs med konventionellt byggande, för att få fram särkostnader för passivhus. Denna information ska förhoppningsvis underlätta för beställaren.

    I den teorietiska bakgrunden ges en grundläggande presentation av litteraturstudierna om passivhus, dess historia, krav, kostnader, m.m. Den största delen av examensarbetet bygger på intervjuer med plastchefer och arbetsledare från fyra olika passivhusprojekt. Detta presenteras i fyra olika praktikfall där informationen från intervjun indelas i projektering, byggande och förvaltning samt en kostnadsdel som har stor vikt i examensarbetet. Programmet BidCon användes för att få fram uppgifter om tid, material- och totalkostnader kring klimatskalet i praktikfallen. Detta sammanställdes i en modell som skapades för att ge en överskådlig bild över praktikfallen.

    Dessa praktikfall analyserades och sammanställdes till en modell med samma syfte som de övriga i varje praktikfall. Resultatet blev att ett antal slutsatser kunde dras utifrån särkostnader kring projektering och byggande men några rimliga slutsatser kunde inte dras vid förvaltning.

  • 112.
    Johansson, Henrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Fyhrlund, Emil
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Ordning och reda på byggarbetsplatsen2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 113.
    Johansson, Ohlsson, Nilsson, Andreas, Johan, Arvid
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    PlusTak2010Student paper other, 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Today´s roofing of dwelling houses is a very time consuming procedure, which includes a lot of different steps on the construction site. Not only does it cost a lot of money, but often do problems with rot and mold occur in the attics of houses today.

     

    The use of prefabricated modules has seen a great breakthrough in the field of construction of dwelling houses; at least when it comes to foundations and walls, where this type of approach makes the construction process way more efficient. What no one previous has succeeded to develop is a corresponding system for roofs that meets the demands of a dwelling house. Accordingly the goal of PlusTak has been to come up with a proper module system for roofing of dwelling houses, where the roofing is completed to meet the demands of the Scandinavian market.

     

    During the project a lot of effort has been put into customer contacts and the usability of the product, as well in the manufacturing process as on the construction site. This development has gone hand in hand with several practical tests and tryouts. The project group has also participated in the use of PlusTak at various construction sites this spring, to get a better view of what could be further developed with the product. The outcome is a complete roofing system which is almost entirely prefabricated, and only requires a few hours on the construction site for completion of a fully weather protected roof. PlusTak is a very flexible system which is perfectly suitable for different house and roof types, and fits almost any roof pitch. The visible layer of the roof is available both as a classic seamed tin roof and with traditional tiles. Thanks to the great capability of insulation within the PlusTak system it suits the modern energy efficient houses perfectly. Moreover the insulation layer of the roof is placed in the outer roof, which eliminates the problems concerning condensation that occurs in weather and temperature changes, which has been a growing issue lately.

    Thus, PlusTak offers a cost-effective roof system of the as well as it provides a totally carefree ownership.

     

    An intense marketing campaign has been conducted through several channels during the development of the product. PlusTak was presented with great success at Nordbyggmässan in Stockholm, the biggest construction fair in Scandinavia, in March 2010. This was right after the product became patent pending. PlusTak has currently sold for over one million SEK and has been quoted on request for over 40 million SEK.  The annual market in Sweden corresponds to over two billion, despite the current recession. The project group is counting on taking over 2-10% of that market within a period of five years.

  • 114.
    Johansson, Tony
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Lundqvist, Pontus
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Tillgänglighetsproblematik inom Byggsektorn2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report was to investigate the problems experienced by a variety of professions in the construction sector regarding the requirements that exist today and is set to accessibility during construction.

    The study was conducted in the form of semi structured interviews, to find out the problems experienced by different professions. Interview respondents consist of those working as local manager, project developers, landscape architect, land planner, constructor, fire engineer and architect.

    The result obtained shows that there are a variety of problem areas. Some unique to a profession, while others are commonly experienced and supported out of several different groups. Generally, it has been shown that there is no great understanding of each other and the problems experienced. The result mainly points out the problem that arises or will occur is affecting moisture. Regarding ground but also building technical details such as connections between the building and the balcony. Another large part of the result is of lack of space and the influence of the terrain and existing buildings. The economy has as always a strong impact.

    Shown by the result, moisture tend to be sidelined and often suffer from other requirements, this could lead to big problems in the future when many moisture related problems is hard to see right away but might be causing problems later on, such as mold growth. The requirements are spread across many different regulations and often make the project stage difficult. We believe that accessibility requirements are very important and are something we in Sweden can be proud of, but the pressure that has come in recent years has made it difficult for the construction industry to keep up with and acclimatize. To create a sustainable development all requirements should be considered.

  • 115.
    Johnsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Nilsson, Viktor
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Fel i produktionen: En studie om uppkomna fel i två anläggningsprojekt2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to identify problems that may occur in the execution of a civil engineering project and suggest measures to reduce the risk of errors. The study was conducted in cooperation with a civil engineering company in the Gothenburg area. During two weeks in February 2012, a field study took place on two construction sites where disruption and problems that took more than 15 minutes to correct were noted. During the field study we identified 39 such occurrences in the projects and then these were classified into different categories according to their cause.

    The two largest categories were "Design" and "Planning", which accounted for half of the errors that were discovered.

    In the study results were evaluated to decide whether it was possible to detect discrepancies at an earlier stage. The cost to fix an error in the design stage may be significantly less than to correct the problem in production.

    According to the evaluation, 55% of the errors could have been detected earlier if there was a greater degree of observation for such issues by everyone involved in the project. The conclusion for this study was that there was potential to reduce time-consuming and costly errors occurring in production through an increased involvement from all involved in both investigated projects and improved communication between all those involved.

  • 116.
    Josefsson, Oscar
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Hagström, Dan
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Optimering av fackverksmodellering: Ett makro för Tekla Structures2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This project is the result of a cooperation between HalmstadUniversity and EABAB. The aim of the project was to create a macro that would help EABAB automate the process of designing steel trusses. When run in Microsoft Excel, the macro imports and processes coordinates from a calculator program. The data is then imported into the Building Information Modelling software Tekla Structures, which creates a 3D structural model of the steel truss.

    The macro saves much time in the project planning process and also helps minimize the risk of design flaws caused by human error. 

  • 117.
    Kagevik, Tom
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Bohlin, Niklas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Materiallogistik vid innerstadsprojekt: En fallstudie av ett innerstadsprojekt i förbättringssyfte av materialflödet2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is always looking for ways to make the work more efficient aswell as minimize the waste of money in general. At the same time the industry is showing alow awareness of logistics which has to increase in order to improve the industry in thesekind of questions. Projects located in the inner city have high demands on the logistic andthe handling of material due to the so often limited space for storages of the material. Dueto this the purpose of this report is true a case, study and analyze what kind of factors thereis to take into consideration during the materials way from the supplier to the workstationin a project located in the inner city. The data for the report was collected with the help of acase study, and in three different ways. Partly through observations, but mostly with thehelp of surveys and interviews with workers and managers. The case study was made atthe project “Barometern 8” located in the inner city of Halmstad, Sweden. The project hasfrom the very beginning struggled with the lack of areas to store material due of thecramped construction site. Problems that were observed were both related to thedeliveries from the distributers and the difficulties to access the construction site. Theconclusions that were made from this report are that the managers have to put demandson the distributers as well as communicate the conditions of the receptions. It´s alsoimportant to make sure that the work site is as easy as possible to be accessed bydistributers.

  • 118.
    Kaldner, Johan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Nagenius, Olof
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Industriellt byggande: En analys av olika system och framgångsfaktorer inom industriellt flerbostadsbyggande2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten är ett examensarbete i byggingenjörsutbildningen på högskolan i Halmstad och belyser området för industriellt flerbostadsbyggande. Flera aktörer har försökt sig på att bemästra denna konst att bygga industriellt men inte lyckats. I denna rapport har vi gett oss på att ta reda på framgångsfaktorer. När det industriella byggandet jämförs med det traditionella byggandet finns det många olikheter som måste redas ut och göras om för att få en fungerande byggindustri.

    I rapporten ger vi er en allmän bild, och definition, av industriellt byggande. Vi jämför de olika aktörerna och försöker peka på vad som skiljer dessa åt. Genom intervjuer och litterära studier har vi också fått insatta personers syn på industriellt byggande och dess framtid. Vårt huvudsakliga mål var att identifiera framgångsfaktorer.

    Då detta är ett relativt nytt och outforskat område så omfattar rapportens resultat främst saker som är utvecklingsbara. Logistiken och dess planering är ett exempel på en utvecklingsbar faktor. Andra saker som vi kom fram till var, tidigt och väl styrt ledarskap, kundmedvetenhet med flera.

  • 119.
    Kangethe, Sammy
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Lendowski, Oliver
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Styrd borrning eller konventionell schaktning: en jämförelse av två rörläggningsmetoder2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    This is a diploma thesis executed as a part of the examination of the educationalprogram Building engineer – Construction management at Halmstad University. The aim of the thesis is to compare and evaluate conventional open-cut pipe-laying withhorizontal directional drilling. The thesis includes a comparison of the economic,environmental and time-based aspects of both methods and discusses which factorsthat determine the optimal choice of method.The study is mainly based on previous studies regarding the subject and oninterviews with professionals from the industry.A fictional project with five realistic cases of pipe-laying scenarios was compiled,sent to different companies for calculation, evaluated and compared. Our conclusionregarding when it’s suitable to use which method is entirely dependent on thespecific project. The different methods each have specific pros and cons and shouldbe evaluated regarding the projects economic, temporal and environmental demands.In bigger projects we see that a combination of the two methods can be suitable.

    Keywords: Horizontal directional drilling, trenches, open-cut trench methods,excavation, conventional trenches, pipe-laying, economic analysis, environmentalanalysis, time-based analysis

  • 120.
    Karlsson, Elsa
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Wallentinsson, Ewelina
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Identifiering av avgörande faktorer för optimal intern bygglogistik: En fallstudie av tre byggarbetsplatser2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Unlike the manufacturing industry, the construction industry is always in motion. Each new construction project brings new opportunities, and it requires a new plan, new organisation, and new suppliers. All construction projects are very different from each other and in terms of a logistical perspective, this is very weak as it makes it difficult to get a flow in the production and to make flawless routines. The way the external and internal logistics are managed, can effect the final product in the time taken to produce it, the quality of the product and the profit made from it. When internal logistics are handled poorly, it could result in materials not being at the right place at the right time, or information not going through to the right person. Small details such as these, can make the production time increase continuously with the price. Logistics is all about efficiency; to make things quickly and in a well organised manner. Although making things right is vastly important, it is also important to make things correctly as doing things quickly and efficiently becomes meaningless if there are activities that are unnecessary. The purpose of this report is to identify factors that are central to an efficient logistic on the construction site and which factors can be influenced by the construction site. However, the study does not include any concrete suggestions for improvement, but there will be some discussion around it.

    There are already some concepts and tools that can improve the logistics, for example, the use of Lean Construction and BIM. Logistics work should be included in all stages of the construction process: design, planning, production and managing of the actual building. This report mainly relates to the design- and production phase.

    There are different approaches and objectives when planning projects. A primary objective is to reduce costs. The main goal in logistics planning is to achieve short lead times, short set-up times, short transport distances, and eliminate waste.

    The result of the report is based on literature studies, observations, but mostly interviews. Three interviews were held with the management, i.e. the supervisors and site managers. The implementation has compiled information from interviews, observations and literature studies. It was discovered that there were many similarities, but also differences that separated the various projects. For example, it was found that a crane is an important asset for a smooth operation as it moves material around the site, but there is a lot of time wasting when unloading, partly due to the lack of communication. It also revealed that it is hard to know what operations to begin with at the construction of the framework.

    Conclusions drawn after work designing is planning and communication are two of the most important building blocks to get a smooth production both for functioning internal and external logistics. What has also emerged is the importance of accessibility and that doing the right things should come easy. An external factor that effect logistics a lot on the construction site is the demand, for example, of materials from their suppliers. The final conclusion raised is ultimately an improvement suggestion: apply a logistics manager to all types of construction projects, from the beginning and throughout the project. 

  • 121.
    Khagebahri, Armin
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Säkrare arbetsmiljö på byggarbetsplatser: Hur brister på arbetsplatser borde åtgärdas för att kunna arbeta på en mer hälsosam arbetsmiljö2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Work Environment problems on construction work sites are very extensive and discussed. The construction industry is one of the most dangerous industries in Sweden. The construction industry occupies about 290 000 employment (2009), and the investment was 250 billion SEK. This report will investigate the issues of the work environment and offer advice on how these can be measured and imporved. The study includes review and analyses of occupational injury statistics, interviews, inspections and audit and review of the literature. It is also includes review of work responsibilities and what the participant have the responsibilities and functions in the work environment. The results show that the construction work sites are one of the most dangerous workplaces. The statistics do not reflect reality and important factors are excluded. Work from height and managing in connection with tools are the most dangerous type of work. Work responsibilities are clear: the employer has the main responsibility for the work environment.

    The Work Environment act is the basis for the regulations that Swedish work environment authority gives out. Breaking the law or regualtion may not lead to seriously consequences, because it's a long process before punishment can be divided. The issues in work environment are more extensive in small companies and human error is much due to accidents. To edge the law and give the inspectors more eligibility than they now have to improve a better working environment and safer construction sites

  • 122.
    Kuddat, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Nilsson, Ebba
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Expanderande fogband: Fogutformning mellan prefabricerade betongelement2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 123.
    Lago, Simon
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Höier, Johan
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Numerical Analysis of Point-Fixed Glass Balustrades2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The design approach is currently very diverse for glass. It differs greatly between European countries and there is not one definite method for the design of glass components. Research in this field has a potential for better design optimization and industry professionals express a limitation of tools and knowledge about glass structure design.The purpose of this study is to analyze glass balustrades with point-fixings and to test a structural verification approach using a Finite Element (FE) software. The theory provides insight of glass as a structural material, different interlayers used for laminated glass, joints and connections, as well as design standards, concepts and regulations. Different models of varying configurations and geometries are created from the evaluation of balustrades with point-fixings available on the Swedish market and the theory. The models represent a glass balustrade with 4- or 6-point-fixings and is regarded as a fully toughened laminated glass component with different stiff and standard interlayers. The structural analysis of point-fixed glass balustrades on the Swedish market indicated a lower stress and deflection resistance capacity than the pre-normative Eurocode criterion. Based on the FE calculations, some guidelines for fulfilling the criterion are proposed.To make glass more generally applicable as a load-bearing material, the limitations of the FE-software, and how the parameters affect the calculation results needs to be taken into consideration. In order to evaluate the interlayers used for the model, a parametric study using FE-analysiswas carried out, in which the maximum stresses and deflections for several variations were calculated. A sensitivity analysis of the balustrade was conducted to evaluate various geometric and material parameters and how they affect the FE software-based model. Comparisons of guidelines and national codes for simplified hand-calculation and the FE-approach were made to obtain some understanding of calculation methods used in the glass industry and to evaluate the results of the structural analysis. The study suggests that the FE approach is an effective method for a relatively quick and easy verification of glass balustrades.

  • 124.
    Larsson, Bengt
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Weather Protection Systems: Experiences from Three Construction Projects2006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrialization is a well-known concept in the Swedish building industry, just as “weather protection systems” (WPS) is; however, WPS is seldom explicitly connected with industrialization. Perhaps this is because of the limited amount of experience that the building industry has so far had with WPS. This paper presents the results of an evaluation of the real advantages and disadvantages of WPS use. To this end, we studied three Swedish construction projects that employed WPS.

    The results indicate that the studied WPS did function well: benefits such as shorter construction schedules, more precise time of material delivery, and the use of different and more effective construction methods were demonstrated. It is indeed profitable to use a WPS, especially if soft factors are taken into account.

  • 125.
    Larsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Mortin, Lizette
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Internal Logistics at the Building Site2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A construction project demands large quantities of material, and material therefore endures a big portion of the projects budget. The focus on short-term profitability is therefore a set-back in the effort of the construction industry’s attempt to develop the industry. Construction logistics consists of many processes and activities which are related to each other by complex relationships. Materials are received, moved, etc. creating a pattern of movement on the construction site. Reflecting the reality on site, a study was performed studying the movement of materials connected to activities on site, with the purpose to display the costs of the internal material logistics. The three cases indicate that planning is a key-factor when reducing costs connected to site-logistics. Where to put material, to which activity the material belong, and for what it should be used, are aspects which form the foundation for material-flow and material-cost-flow

  • 126.
    Larsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Sundqvist, Jan
    How to Collect Ideas for the Development of Product and Process Innovations in the Building Process2003Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Construction companies can be described as intermediate companies that use many production methods and building materials/components to produce a variety of products. Since construction companies are also very decentralised and project oriented, they are not adapted to developing new process or product technologies. Manufacturers of construction machinery, building materials, and building components must thus be responsible for this task. Construction companies must develop the ability to communicate their technology-development needs to manufacturers and to adopt new technology. There are, however, many indications that communication between manufacturers and construction companies as to what should be developed needs to be improved. This paper describes and analyses two case studies of building-material manufacturers and how they collect product-development ideas; we then present an innovation process model. We conclude that there is a need to improve communication pertaining to technology needs between intermediate and basic-technology companies.

  • 127.
    Larsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Sundqvist, Jan
    Örebro University, ESI, Örebro, Sweden.
    Key Business Processes in Building Supply Companies: A Comparison with other Manufacturing Companies2003Inngår i: Construction Economics and Organization: Proceedings of the 3rd Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organization, 23-24 April 2003, Lund, Sweden, Lund: Division of Construction Management, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund University , 2003, s. 257-263Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The province of Örebro approximately 260 000 inhabitants and 280 manufacturing companies with more than 10 employees. Eleven of these companies are suppliers to the building industry. A survey concerning key business processes in these 280 companies was carried out in the beginning of 2002. The purpose of the survey was to analyse key processes such as customer focus, information & benchmarking, quality & supplier focus and innovation processes. One basic finding is that the manufacturing companies score top levels in “Leader­ship and planning” but low in ”Information & Benchmarking”. Another finding is that “Innovation” also scores low. This combination of low information and low innovation might have negative effects on the Swedish construction contractors because of their dependence on active suppliers. In this paper we compare those companies which are suppliers to the building companies with the total group of companies in the survey. One result from this study is that the building material suppliers as a group score poorer than other lines of business on innovation

  • 128.
    Larsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Wallström, Ulrica
    Lokalsekretariatet, Göteborgs stad.
    From Vision to Sustainability: Can the Environmental program Facilitate to Convey the Message?2005Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Programmes for sustainability are important normative tools for the development of sustainable building. However, environmental visions must be made much more concrete and they must be conveyed to all parties in the building process so that they all receive the same message on how to build and rebuild housing areas. It is obvious that the local authorities are important actors in this conveying process as they are responsible for the city-planning process. One way to facilitate this process is to produce environmental programs for new housing areas – programs to which the developers have to commit in order to get the permission to launch their new housing projects.

    The aim of this paper is to scrutinise two recent environmental programmes in Sweden and to describe and analyse how the programme writers have tried to transform the visions into more concrete goals and how to put demands on the developers. Much attention has been paid to the housing projects and both have been evaluated in research projects. The housing projects are: Bo01 in Malmo and Hammarby Sjostad in Stockholm. This paper will compare the two programs on issues such as energy optimisation, use of environmentally adjusted material and waste management. The programmes have different ways to describe the environmental goals and to put demands on the different actors in the building process. Some issues are hard facts and easy to make precise but other are soft facts that have been very vaguely described in the programs. The paper will also give some conclusions on the how the programs performed in the real situations and why a well written environmental programme will have a positive environmental impact on future housing projects.

  • 129.
    Larsson, Julia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Söderberg, Sabina
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Emballage för väggelement i trä: Paketering, hantering, lager och transport2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    As a company it is required to work with strategies to minimize costs such as packaging and logistic costs. The increased market of industrial produced wooden buildings results that the time and the cost which the packaging of prefabricated building elements consume, is experienced to be in greater need of development than before and demands a better solution. The aim with this dissertation was to discover how the development of the handling of the packaging can improve the packaging process. The goal was to present improvement proposals for a simplified and thereby a more efficient production in time and cost perspective.

    The packaging process which includes packaging, handling, storage and transport were studied. Interviews were made with participants from the market for manufacturers of wooden houses and a case study was made at the company A-hus. The production management at A-hus considered that the packaging process needed to be developed and the study investigates where in the supply chain the problems are. In the case study people were interviewed about the company’s packaging process. Observations were made to discover problems that did not emerge by the interviews, but also to confirm the problems which were expressed by the respondents.

    Several conclusions of improvement proposals for the packaging process could be drawn from the results:

    • The documentation of damages needs to be developed to fulfill its function.
    • The handling stage is where most damage occurs and therefore the equipment for handling is in need of development.
    • The communication is in need of improvement to increase the knowledge management within the factory and between the factory and the building site.
    • A specific improvement proposal for A-hus is to remove the plastic packaging and to implement an indoor storage.
  • 130.
    Larsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Engdahl, Peter
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Byggnadsarbetarens syn på att bli involverad i projekteringen: En intervjustudie i byggprojekt2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Title

     Becoming involved in the planning process - from the construction workers perspective.

    University/Institution

     Halmstad University

    Keywords

    Empowerment through participation, construction workers involvement in decision making in the planning process, knowledge management and communication in the planning process, partnering, human resource management

    Aim

    The aim of this bachelor thesis is to provide knowledge and examine how construction workers perceive involvement in the planning process of partnering projects, what they can contribute and what they get out of the planning process.

    Methodology

     The study was conducted with a qualitative approach in the form of semi-structured interviews.          The interview studie consist of 10 interviews with construction workers who are specially educated in participating in the planning process at the company ByggDialog AB.

    Conclusion

    All respondents are positive to be involved in the planning process. The main advantages they can see is that they are able to influence technical solutions and methods that will be used later on in the production. Therefore it is important to consider when construction workers should be involved in the planning process so that they get the chance to influence in this decisions.

    When it comes to the decision making the construction workers should be involved in the decisions that are related to their tasks in the production such as technical solutions, choice of methods and materials. Their main duties and working hours should be in the production.

    Involvement in planning does not automatically mean that the construction workers are involved in the decision making, it is up to them how much they participate. Therefore it is important to give the construction workers space and opportunities to express their opinions.

  • 131.
    Lind, Johan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Lovén, Jimmy
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Böj- och böjvridknäckning av stålpelare enligt Eurokod 3: Beräkningshjälpmedel2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Metoden för att dimensionera stålpelare med avseende på böj- och böjvridknäckning enligt Eurokod 3 är omständlig och tidskrävande. Syftet med arbetet var att skapa beräkningshjälpmedel som underlättar dimensionering för hand enligt Eurokod 3. Först studerades bakgrunden till de befintliga dimensioneringsformlerna, hur de uppkommit och varför de ser ut som de gör. Sedan kunde hjälpmedel i form av interaktionsdiagram och tabeller tas fram. Interaktionsdiagrammen visar t.ex. olika kombinationer av tillåten normalkraft och moment för olika pelarprofiler och längder. För att göra det möjligt att konstruera interaktionsdiagram har tre specifika lastfall behandlats. Dessutom har arbetet begränsats till de vanligaste varmvalsade stålprofilerna. Resultatet har redovisats i en handbok med interaktionsdiagram för de olika fallen och profilerna. Dimensioneringshjälpmedlen förkortar beräkningstiden avsevärt vid handberäkningar.

  • 132.
    Lind, Linus
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Typhas inverkan på reningsgraden av TKN, BOD5 och COD i en anlagd rotzonsvåtmark i pilotskala.2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete är utfört på plats i Lajaedo, Brasilien och i anslutning till Sanitário de Lajeado – RS, Brasilien, mellan januari till maj 2010. I samband med denna rapport utfördes två andra examensarbeten inom samma områden. Det är menat att denna rapport skall ligga till grund för framtida projekt och beslut om utökad lakvattenrening.Lajeado ligger i södra Brasilien ca 100 km från atlantkusten. 10 km utanför Lajeado ligger en ung avfallsdeponi på ca 15 000 m2 till ytan med tillhörande lakvattenrening med ett utjämningsmagasin, en syrsättningsbassäng samt sedimentering. Deponin tar emot 42 ton fast kommunalt avfall per dag och har ett lakvattenflöde på genomsnitt 0,5 – 1,0 m3/h.Syftet med denna rapport är att undersöka vilken inverkan vegetation har på reningen av lakvatten inom parametrarna TKN, BOD5 och COD, i småskaliga våtmarker av typen rotzonsanläggning. Då den befintliga reningen på plats har svårt att uppfylla vissa uppsatta lagkrav.Sammansättningen på och mängden av lakvatten beror främst på faktorerna, nederbörd, Temperatur och nedbrytningen i deponin.Vegetationens har många olika betydelser i en rotzonsanläggning. Plantan transporter ner syre till dess rotsystem där syremolekyler diffunderar ut. Vegetation fungerar även som en extern kolkälla vid denitrifikationsteget. Det är viktigt att vegetationen trivs och rotsystemet är välutvecklat, för att få en maximal reduktion av föroreningar i våtmarken.Åtta småskaliga våtmarker byggdes upp i anslutning till lakvattenreningen, i avkapade plasttunnor. Alla våtmarker byggdes upp med unika förutsättningar för att kunna jämföra resultatet. Två olika substrat användes och jämfördes, i fyra kar planterades vegetation och fyra utan, fyra hade kontinuerligt flöde som jämfördes med fyra kar med batch flow.Resultaten visar att växterna inte har någon större inverkan på reningsgraden av BOD5, COD och TKN. Men såg tydliga tecken på högre vattenavdunstning i våtmarkerna med biomassa och generellt högre halter av BOD5, COD och TKN i jämförelse med våtmarkerna utan biomassa. Vegetationen hann inte acklimatisera sig till miljön i våtmarkerna, men det var på god väg. För att få ett bättre resultat och en mer signifikant skillnad mellan våtmarkerna skulle försöken ha pågått under en längre tid. Det behövs mer forskning och projekt under en längre period.Detta examensarbete är utfört på plats i Lajaedo, Brasilien och i anslutning till Sanitário de Lajeado – RS, Brasilien, mellan januari till maj 2010. I samband med denna rapport utfördes två andra examensarbeten inom samma områden. Det är menat att denna rapport skall ligga till grund för framtida projekt och beslut om utökad lakvattenrening.Lajeado ligger i södra Brasilien ca 100 km från atlantkusten. 10 km utanför Lajeado ligger en ung avfallsdeponi på ca 15 000 m2 till ytan med tillhörande lakvattenrening med ett utjämningsmagasin, en syrsättningsbassäng samt sedimentering. Deponin tar emot 42 ton fast kommunalt avfall per dag och har ett lakvattenflöde på genomsnitt 0,5 – 1,0 m3/h.Syftet med denna rapport är att undersöka vilken inverkan vegetation har på reningen av lakvatten inom parametrarna TKN, BOD5 och COD, i småskaliga våtmarker av typen rotzonsanläggning. Då den befintliga reningen på plats har svårt att uppfylla vissa uppsatta lagkrav.Sammansättningen på och mängden av lakvatten beror främst på faktorerna, nederbörd, Temperatur och nedbrytningen i deponin.Vegetationens har många olika betydelser i en rotzonsanläggning. Plantan transporter ner syre till dess rotsystem där syremolekyler diffunderar ut. Vegetation fungerar även som en extern kolkälla vid denitrifikationsteget. Det är viktigt att vegetationen trivs och rotsystemet är välutvecklat, för att få en maximal reduktion av föroreningar i våtmarken.Åtta småskaliga våtmarker byggdes upp i anslutning till lakvattenreningen, i avkapade plasttunnor. Alla våtmarker byggdes upp med unika förutsättningar för att kunna jämföra resultatet. Två olika substrat användes och jämfördes, i fyra kar planterades vegetation och fyra utan, fyra hade kontinuerligt flöde som jämfördes med fyra kar med batch flow.Resultaten visar att växterna inte har någon större inverkan på reningsgraden av BOD5, COD och TKN. Men såg tydliga tecken på högre vattenavdunstning i våtmarkerna med biomassa och generellt högre halter av BOD5, COD och TKN i jämförelse med våtmarkerna utan biomassa. Vegetationen hann inte acklimatisera sig till miljön i våtmarkerna, men det var på god väg. För att få ett bättre resultat och en mer signifikant skillnad mellan våtmarkerna skulle försöken ha pågått under en längre tid. Det behövs mer forskning och projekt under en längre period.

  • 133.
    Lindberg, Mattias
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Axelsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Industrialiserat byggande: Fältfabrikens användning, utveckling och framtid2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is currently receiving much criticism for inefficiency and slow development while demands for reduced built in moisture and efficiency increases. This report examines whether the use of field factories can meet these requirements and what factors that will be critical for future use of field factories. Industrialized construction with field factory is compared with traditional loose timber construction and industrial construction in the fields of execution, logistics and working environment. The aim of this report is to provide a basis for field factories current and future use and development. To achieve the aim of the report, people with experience in the use of the various methods was interviewed and literature studies in the various fields done. The construction industry is like many other industries based on economy and this is a big factor when using field factories. The report has identified key elements that should be met for the use of field factories and that the economy is the biggest issue for future use.

  • 134.
    Lindelöf, Camilla
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Ljungdahl, Anna
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Tillsatsmaterial i betong: hur påverkas den tidiga hållfasthetsutvecklingen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 135.
    Lindgren, John
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Diffusing systemic innovations: Influencing factors, approaches and further research2016Inngår i: Architectural Engineering and Design Management, ISSN 1745-2007, E-ISSN 1752-7589, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 19-28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research about innovation diffusion in construction has considered systemic innovations to a minor extent. Systemic innovations are inter-organizational, relational and require a coordinated change in processes. Systemic innovations like Building Information Modeling and industrialized housing are on the move forward and systemic innovations can be considered important to diffuse within the construction sector. Most likely, they provide great impact on productivity in construction. The aim of this paper is to discuss factors influencing the diffusion of systemic innovations, approaches and areas for future studies. Previous research on systemic innovations is complemented with inter-organizational research in construction and research using the Industrial Network Approach. Of the many factors influencing the diffusion a key seems to relate to long-term relationships since they enable development and learning necessary for diffusion. The main complexities are also related to the project-based work method in combination with different degrees of interdependencies: in projects, between projects and within the construction chain. In turn this has effects on interaction between individuals. Further research should preferably be conducted with broad approaches that validate and nuance current constructs, capture the dynamics in the diffusion process and thereby add understanding for the diffusion of systemic innovations. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

  • 136.
    Lindgren, John
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Diffusion of systemic innovations in the construction sector2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of research dealing with innovation has increased dramatically, construction management research included. This thesis focuses on innovations with inter-organizational effects, systemic innovations, which may radically change and improve the construction process. The overall aim of the thesis is to contribute understanding of diffusion of systemic innovations in the construction sector through the study of two different types of systemic innovations, Building Information Management and Multi-Story Housing in Timber (MSHT). It explores what facilitates and hinders innovation diffusion, with a special focus on knowledge integration and mechanisms used in the diffusion process and their effects on knowledge development. The studies conducted were made in a Swedish context related to two separate companies work with diffusing the innovations, using a broad approach with different data collection methods.

    The research departures in the interplay between the innovation content, context and process through which diffusion take place, displaying differences in how diffusion precedes and is affected. Where organizations are situated in the construction process and their ability to control the diffusion process is influential and diffusion is affected by established traditions and work procedures. For MSHT other structural materials form obstacles, while for BIM it is established work procedures and methods. Environmental pressure drives diffusion of MSHT and both innovations are supported by active clients. Diffusion also requires financial resources depending on the size of investment and associated risks. The cases show advantages with moving activities from projects into a continuous business that delivers to projects, where simplifying implementation is central. Mainly due to complexity, developing in steps enables simplifications and adjustments towards users in a controlled manner. MSHT to a higher degree depends on performing real projects for development and diffusion than BIM, which can be tested to a larger extent before diffusing into the real environment. MSHT in particular show a difference in relation to many traditional models of innovation and innovation diffusion where tests are assumed possible.

    The research relates to and has emphasized interaction and dynamics in the diffusion process and has provided additional understanding for managing complexity in the diffusion process. Projects are the most crucial knowledge integration mechanism with many underlying mechanisms, since they are a result of the development and show consequences of work performed. The applicability of codified knowledge in combination with more interactionintensive mechanisms has been shown and the introduction of the knowledge type’s domain-specific, procedural and general knowledge, complementing the current use of tacit and explicit knowledge, has provided additional understanding for diffusion and related knowledge flows. There are however differences in how knowledge types develop for the innovations. General knowledge is more influencing for BIM, while MSHT is about developing domain-specific knowledge. MSHT is about learning something new, while for BIM it is about re-learning. Findings show relevance in both using and developing the framework of innovation in organizations by Rogers (2003) for future diffusion studies in construction management research as well as the necessity of developing knowledge concerning implementation.

  • 137.
    Lindgren, John
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Exploring effects of the interplay of context, content and process for supplier innovation diffusionManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This research explores the interplay between innovation content, innovation context and the innovation diffusion process in a reinforcement supplier's work with diffusing different types of innovations. An important part is to gain understanding of what facilitates and complicates innovation diffusion in the construction industry context from a supplier perspective. The interpretative research presented builds on 28 semistructured interviews with the supplier and its customers and document studies. Three types of innovations were studied to explore how the dimensions innovation content, innovation context and the innovation process interacts in the diffusion process. The findings provide details concerning how the dimensions interact, influencing factors and how the diffusion process may unfold over time. It provides an example of how dynamics and detail in the diffusion process can be captured and the approach can be with additional concepts and frameworks. Besides the supplier perspective and the inter-organizational setting, it also emphasizes the necessity of researching the innovation process and how it may differ depending on the impact on affected parties.

  • 138.
    Lindgren, John
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Emmitt, Stephen
    Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdom.
    Diffusion of a systemic innovation: A longitudinal case study of a Swedish multi-storey timber housebuilding system2017Inngår i: Construction Innovation, ISSN 1471-4175, E-ISSN 1477-0857, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 25-44Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to identify factors that influence the diffusion of a systemic innovation in the Swedish construction sector. The focus is on high-rise multi-storey timber housing; the development of which was enabled by a change in building regulations. This allowed building higher than two stories in timber.

    Design/methodology/approach - A longitudinal case study was used with multiple data collection methods to study the development and diffusion of a multi-storey timber house system by a case study organisation.

    Findings - The findings contribute to understanding for a number of interacting factors influencing the diffusion of a systemic innovation related to the case study organisation.

    Originality/value - The research provides a holistic view of interacting factors influencing the diffusion of a systemic innovation. The results have value to the Swedish construction sector and to the global community of construction researchers, as it provides empirical findings that further increase the understanding for diffusion of systemic innovations in a specific context. 

    © Emerald Publishing Limited

  • 139.
    Lindgren, John
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Emmitt, Stephen
    Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdom.
    Widén, Kristian
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Construction projects as mechanisms for knowledge integration: mechanisms and effects when diffusing a systemic innovation2018Inngår i: Engineering Construction and Architectural Management, ISSN 0969-9988, E-ISSN 1365-232X, Vol. 25, nr 11, s. 1516-1533Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The aim of this research is to study knowledge integration (KI) when diffusing a systemic innovation. The objectives are to understand what mechanisms are used, and when and what their effects are in terms of knowledge development.

    Design/Methodology/Approach - The method comprised a longitudinal case study which followed a firm’s attempts to develop and diffuse a timber multi-storey building system (the systemic innovation) over a number of projects.

    Findings - The findings emphasize actual projects as the most crucial activity for KI and when and why soft personalization mechanisms and codified knowledge should be mixed.  Furthermore, it shows how different types of knowledge is built up including construction process effects over a series of projects.

    Research limitations/implications -  The research contributes with knowledge about mechanisms for the diffusion of a specific systemic innovation type and provides input regarding mechanisms to use. The introduction of the concepts ‘domain-specific’, ‘procedural’ and ‘general knowledge’ into construction has increased understanding of innovation diffusion and knowledge flows and where and how they are integrated.

    Practical Implications – The research shows how knowledge develops and through which mechanisms, and where problems occur. Construction organisations can learn from this to avoid mistakes and potentially better understand how to manage knowledge to diffuse a systemic innovation.

    Originality/value - The research provides insight into systemic innovation diffusion over a series of projects and focuses on both projects and the construction process. © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited.

  • 140.
    Lindgren, John
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Widén, Kristian
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Diffusing BIM – knowledge integration mechanisms and their effects2016Inngår i: Proceedings of the CIB World Building Congress 2016: Volume V - Advancing products and services / [ed] Nebil Achour, Tampere: Tampere University of Technology , 2016, Vol. 5, s. 832-843Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Building Information Modelling (BIM) has for a number of years been seen as a systemic inter-organizational innovation that will have great impact on the efficiency of the construction process as a whole. In this study both successful and unsuccessful attempts to diffuse a BIM-service in the construction sector by a building material manufacturer has been studied through multiple data collection methods. Of special interest has been in what ways knowledge has been integrated, i.e. what mechanisms has been used in the case, since it is a key area for diffusion, and this is described and discussed.  Furthermore, the contextual characteristics of the construction sector have been highlighted as influential on diffusion, especially when it comes to areas such as learning, flow of knowledge and feedback loops. Therefore, the context of the different cases and in what ways this affects the knowledge integration process is also described and discussed.

  • 141.
    Lindgren, John
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Widén, Kristian
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Diffusing building information management: knowledge integration, mechanisms and knowledge development2017Inngår i: Architectural Engineering and Design Management, ISSN 1745-2007, E-ISSN 1752-7589, Vol. 14, nr 5, s. 347-362Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Building Information Management (BIM) is a systemic inter-organizational innovation predicted to have a great impact on the efficiency of the construction process. An enabler for its diffusion is knowledge integration (KI). This research investigates KI mechanisms used by a Concrete Reinforcement Supplier and its customers in the diffusion of BIM and BIM-related solutions. The research employs a qualitative approach with multiple data-collection methods at two different points in time. BIM diffusion and KI are viewed here as emergent and iterative processes, understood from a supplier perspective. The research examines the interaction between context, content of the diffusing innovation and the diffusion process. Knowledge development from the KI process has been assessed by exploring the interaction between (1) domain-specific knowledge, (2) procedural knowledge and (3) general knowledge, complementing the established emphasis on tacit and explicit knowledge found in relevant construction management research. The findings indicate that general knowledge needs to be high for increased BIM diffusion and the research raises the need to develop procedural knowledge both from a practical and research perspective. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

  • 142.
    Lindgren, John
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Widén, Kristian
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Exploring the dynamics of supplier innovation diffusion2019Inngår i: 10th Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organization / [ed] Lill, I. & Witt, E., Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2019, Vol. 2, s. 221-228Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This study aims to focus on a reinforcement supplier’s efforts to diffuse solutions, more or less innovative, in the construction sector to gain understanding of what facilitates and complicates innovation diffusion from a supplier perspective.

    Design/Methodology/Approach – The interpretative research presented builds on 28 semi-structured interviews with the supplier and its customers and document studies. The research emphasizes dynamics in the diffusion process and rests on the assumption that the innovation content, innovation context and the innovation process interacts in the diffusion process.

    Findings – The findings and the contribution from the study provide significant details concerning how the dimensions interact and how the diffusion process may unfold over time, but also that different solutions interact to push diffusion forward.

    Research Limitations/Implications – The study relates to one supplier’s work and the interplay implies uniqueness in different cases. Studies in other contexts could, therefore, also be suitable to develop findings and their transferability.

    Practical Implications – The study provides understanding for suppliers diffusing innovations in construction on how to act.

    Originality/Value – A major contribution from the study is that it puts emphasis on how the diffusion process proceeds in interaction with its content and context and problematizes this dimension. Furthermore, the importance of nuancing sub-contexts to display decisive factors in the diffusion process is emphasized. © John Lindgren and Kristian Widén.

  • 143.
    Lindmark, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Jonsson, Victoria
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Inneklimatutreding av Fanan 272014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 144.
    Lindén, Niklas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Pålsson, Isabelle
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Flervåningshus med trästomme: Uppfattningar från projektering, byggproduktion, boende och förvaltning2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to illustrate the perception on multi-storey construction with structural timber of four categories of respondents connected to three specific case studies in Sweden. A qualitative approach was implemented with interviews of the respondents in order to investigate perceptions of mainly problems and attitudes. Results from the study showed a positive attitude towards wood as a general building material as well as a structural frame-work material for multi-storey buildings from all categories of respondents. Problems were mostly mentioned from respondents in phases of planning and production. The most commonly mentioned problems were the lack in experience and knowledge, the costs, the weather protection and the strictness regarding moisture. The end-users stated commonly that they did not experience any issues. Although the most commonly mentioned perception of problems was the flutter in the structure from wind. From the perception of estate managing, the frame-work material did not matter too much. The estate managing had to adapt to given condition no matter what type of material. Wood in the framework did not present more problems than any other material. Additional findings showed that a majority of respondents in all groups of stakeholders shared the perception that the method will have a positive growth and development for the future. When considering sustainability aspects it was a common perception that wood frames offer benefits in environmental sustainability and social sustainability for both work and living environment. Research limitations from this study constituted of the small selection and limited range of case studies and, derived from this, the small amount of interview respondents. Practical implications from the study showed that focus on problem solving should be about increasing experience and knowledge in the building sector and increasing cost effectiveness. The study presented perceptions from informed respondents from different categories involved in three different case studies. The results of this study can be used to present, confirm and invalidate current perceptions of problems with multi-storey buildings with structural timber. This in order to establish future measures for development.

  • 145.
    Ljajic, Tarik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Darouiche, Khaled
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Internationell studie om stålfiberarmering2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 hpOppgave
  • 146.
    Ljungberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Andersson, John Henry Alexander
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Styrning av formrivningstider2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 147.
    Loire Olaverri, Marta
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Cultural Center2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A construction project including planning, cost estimation and design of a ” Cultural Center” on a property in the city of Halmstad.

  • 148.
    LOPEZ, CLARA
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    JUNQUERAS, MARTA
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    NAVARRO, INIGO
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    OLD PEOPLE'S HOME2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    After studying the city and the localization of the land, we decided our idea. At first we thought to make a student accommodation, but there is one so near of the land, then we changed our way of think making something less typical.Therefore, we decided to make an old people ́s home there because it is a quite and peaceful place next to city centre. The building ́s views are oriented to the Nissan river.The principal object of this project is to provide a place where old people can live with all the cares and where have the necessary personal to take care them.The building has only one floor, there are: dining room, laundry, bathrooms geriatric, gym, common toilets, staff areas, medical office, kitchen, storage area. The hall has very high roof with a big window, with view to the river, to get light in a very big area.Inside the buiding It have 8 double rooms and 6 single rooms, with bathroom included in each. Are also included geriatric bathrooms that satisface the needs of its users. There are two interior courtyard that give light to the corridor which serve to communicate all the rooms and the medical center area and gym. Also exists various free-use bathrooms and entertainment areas for the costumers.

  • 149.
    Lopez Lopez, Mikel
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    FINAL PROJECT-Public Library, Halmstad, Sweden 20112011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 30 poäng / 45 hpOppgave
  • 150. Lu, Qi
    et al.
    Liu, Kai
    Diffusion of the green innovation within the construction industry: The case of European Passive House in China2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
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