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  • 101.
    Evers, Natasha
    et al.
    J.E. Cairnes School of Business and Economics, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Hannibal, Martin
    Department of Marketing and Management, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Stakeholders and Marketing Capabilities in International New Ventures: Evidence from Ireland, Sweden and Denmark2012In: Journal of International Marketing, ISSN 1069-031X, E-ISSN 1547-7215, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 46-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have examined the dynamic capabilities perspective in the context of international new ventures (INVs) and, in particular, toward their marketing activities. Using a cross-country case approach, this article explores the role of stakeholders in the marketing capability–building processes of INVs in Ireland, Sweden, and Denmark. The study reveals that different stakeholders play a critical role in influencing how INVs build their marketing capabilities to respond effectively to the dynamic nature of international markets in which they operate. The results show that different stakeholder groups (allied, cooperative, neutral, and entrepreneur) can influence the learning processes (single-, double-, and triple-loop) of the firm and can determine the nature of dynamic marketing capabilities (incremental,renewing, and regenerative) needed to create and sustain international competitive advantage. Furthermore, “effectuation logic” can explain how entrepreneurs manage and leverage stakeholder relationships in marketing capability processes to cocreate value for the firm. By incorporating dynamic capabilities, stakeholder, and learning theories, this study offers a dynamic, process-oriented model for INV research and provides much-needed qualitative insights into the dynamic capabilities theory of the firm. © 2012, American Marketing Association.

  • 102.
    Evers, Natasha
    et al.
    National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Hannibal, Martin
    South Denmark University, Odense, Denmark.
    Stakeholders and Marketing Capabilities in International New Ventures: Evidence from Ireland, Sweden and Denmark2012In: Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Academy of International Business, East Lansing MI: Academy of International Business: Rethinking the Roles of Business, Government and NGOs in the Global Economy / [ed] S. Feinberg & T. Kiyak, Michigan: Academy of International Business , 2012, p. 233-233Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have examined dynamic capabilities perspective in the context of INVs and particularly toward their marketing activities. This paper aims to extend the concept of dynamic capabilities in relation to the marketing function of the organization, with particular focus on the role of stakeholders in marketing capability-building processes to deliver competitive advantage in international new ventures (INVs). Using a cross-country case approach of firms in Ireland, Sweden and Denmark, we explore the role of stakeholder groups in developing market-relating capabilities that enable INVs to effectively respond to the dynamic nature of international market they operate in. This study finds that various stakeholders play a critical role in influencing how INVs build their marketing capabilities for their international development. The nature of stakeholder groups can influence the learning processes of the firm and thus can determine the type of marketing capabilities the firm develops for international competitive advantage. In particular, we find that capabilities of entrepreneur/manager stakeholder are central in managing and leveraging the relationships between the firm and stakeholder relationships for dynamically modifying, renewing and regenerating marketing capabilities.

  • 103.
    Evers, Natasha
    et al.
    National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Kuivalainen, Olli
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta, Finland.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Industry Factors Influencing International New Ventures’ Internationalisation Processes2015In: The Rise of Multinationals from Emerging Economies: Achieving a New Balance / [ed] Palitha Konara, Yoo Jung Ha, Frank McDonald & Yingqi Wei, Houndmills, Basingstoke Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, 1, p. 226-242Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nature of the industry, or the environment in which the firm operates, can have a significant impact on the internationalisation of the new venture. The impact of industry factors has received limited attention in the context of international entrepreneurship. This chapter builds on extant studies on International New ventures (INVs) operating in different industrial contexts. Particular attention is given to the role of industry influences in the processes of new venture internationalisation, in terms of geographical scope (number of target markets the firm enters), entry strategy (entry mode in foreign markets, e g distributers or subsidiaries) and internationalisation speed (the time span between the legal creation of a firm and its first international sale and the speed of a firm’s continued international growth). The goals of this chapter are the following: First, we present some insights into the industry idiosyncrasies and INVs and present a conceptual framework identifying key industry variables to aid further examination of the role industry factors on new venture internationalisation processes and strategies. Such key influencing factors are (1) knowledge intensity and product 2) industry life cycle, 3) degree of global industry integration [A1] (4) industry network dynamics, (5) business model and 6) local industry cluster internationalisation. Second, we build up propositions how industry affects the internationalisation process of the INVs. In this we provide a platform for further studies in the domain of international entrepreneurship.

  • 104.
    Floriani, Dinora Eilete
    et al.
    Universidade do Vale do Itajaí (UNIVALI), Brasil.
    Morandi, Carini
    Universidade do Vale do Itajaí (UNIVALI), Brasil.
    Vasconcellos, Silvio
    Universidade Regional de Blumenau, (FURB), Brasil.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Speed and Permanence: Elements of Internationalization of Technology-Based Firms2019In: AIB UKI 2019 CONFERENCE, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes the speed of internationalization and the permanence of the international operations of technology-based firms. We evaluated two types of technology-based companies: the creative ones, which are those whodevelopand sell software for digital entertainment, education, andgames; and the traditional ones, that is, those that develop and sell software for financial, legal, industrial sectors, among others. The speed with which these firms enter the international market after their foundation was analyzed, as well as the length of time these companies stay operating abroad, thus identifying sustainability over time. The search for results of this research used a qualitative, multiple case study with four internationalized technology-based firms, divided into two groups: creative and traditional. The contribution of this research is to explore which factors that influence the speed and permanence consider the potential of the intangible resource of creativity as a competitive advantage for rapid access to international markets, which, in turn, generates the knowledge that reflects in technological innovation to adapt and compete globally, making international operations sustainable over time.

  • 105.
    Freeman, Joanne
    et al.
    University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, Australia.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Lawley, Meredith
    University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, Australia.
    Export Performance: Regional verses Metropolitan SMEs2006In: McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference Series 2006, Conference Proceedings, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the largely unresearched area of export performance of SMEs located in regional areas. In many countries like Australia exporting is fundamental to sustaining regional communities. In addition the contribution of SMEs is increasingly important in many economies as they play a critical role in economic development. However, in general the literature fails to take into account the environmental context where SMEs are located and much research combines regional and metropolitan SMEs, thus not allowing a clear distinction to be made.

  • 106.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Role of Strategic Orientations for International Performance in Smaller Firms2006In: McGill Conference on international Entrepreneurship, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 107.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Division of Entrepreneurship and Industrial Management, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    The overestimated role of strategic orientations for international performance in smaller firms2009In: Journal of International Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1570-7385, E-ISSN 1573-7349, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 57-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines how market orientation (MO) and entrepreneurial orientation (EO) relate to international performance in small firms. Empirically, the article draws on survey data from 188 Swedish SMEs. Results show that strategic orientations have a very limited influence on international performance in these firms. Proactiveness and, to some extent, a market orientation proved positively associated with international performance, while innovativeness and risk taking show no such relationship. Our findings highlight the problems associated with using “traditional” MO and EO constructs in an SME setting and point to the need of developing more appropriate constructs tailored to this context. We also note that the MO construct was developed from a “causal view” of marketing, while successful small international firms rely more on effectuation logic. The article also contributes to the debate between the two dominant perspectives that address firms’ early internationalization processes: the process theory of internationalization and the international new venture perspective, where our results are in favor of the latter.

  • 108.
    Ghannad, Navid
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The Influence of Entrepreneur’s background on the behaviour and development of Born Global´s Internationalization Processes2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While much of the research on small firm internationalization has concentrated on export strategies, little attention has been paid to understand the process and conditions under which the entrepreneur identify and exploit an opportunity and subsequently creating value in the newly-borned small and medium-sized firm. As a result of the above, the new research domain of International Entrepreneurship was introduced in mid 1990s and has steadily been growing in terms of number of journals, conferences and scholars associated to this field.

     

    Still, we believe that the dynamics involved in the role of entrepreneurial manager during the internationalization process does remain in a black box. This gap has also been identified by several researchers within the field. In fact, in order to fill this gap Autio, Sapienza and Almeida (2000, p. 921) suggests: ”It would be useful to have case studies or other fine-grained approaches that can follow individual firms from inception through maturity to examine such issues as how internal and external conditions affect not only the timing of internationalization but the processes and outcomes of variations in choice”.

     

    Although we agree with Autio, Sapienza and Almeida’s quote above we do believe an expanded approach that not start with the firms inception bit also include entrepreneurs’ experiences already from childhood will further expand the understanding of firms internationalization. Previous research (e.g. Hisrich, 1990; De Vries & Florent-Treacy, 2003; Drennan, Kennedy & Renfrow, 2005) has shown that individual’s childhood do affect the mindset of the entrepreneurs and eventually reflects their outlook on life and business. Reviewing prior research in the field of International business or International entrepreneurship one gets stroked by the fact a majority of the articles focus on the interception of the company and it´s behaviour forward, without looking at the prior story of the entrepreneur. Within the field of International business there has been attempts made to correlate various variables (i.e education, prior work experience, prior international experience etc) to the speed or success (i.e turnover, amount of foreign sales, number of markets, etc) of the company.

     

    We do propose that in order to understand a company’s establishment and especially the international development and behaviour, one must look at the entrepreneur’s background as far back as possible. 

     

    Following the above discussion the aim of this article is to explore the relationship between the entrepreneur’s prior life story and the development and behaviour of their Born Global firm.

     

    Methodology

    Six years of intense qualitative field research, including 108 personal interviews, from three entrepreneurial “Born-Globals” firms are compared and contrasted with our theoretical framework in mind. Data are retrospectively, chronologically collected staring from entrepreneur’s childhood friends until today´s employees and business partners in order to gain an understanding of the individual and his role in the organizational competence development and expansion. The method of snowball technique was used in order to identify respondents and to secure the reliability in the data received.

     

    Findings

     

    This study show that earlier models and theories are not enough to understand the variation of internationalization processes that different Born global firms are carrying out. For example, none of the traditional models can explain the speed or behaviour of the Internationalization. In fact, empirical evidence do suggest that a person’s childhood and prior life story does directly influence the behaviour of the entrepreneur and thus shed some light on the irregularities in speed, market choice, and modes of entry of the Born global firm.

     

    This study provides evidence that the entrepreneur’s mental models are shaped already in child-hood and do not have to be created through earlier professional experience. Further, it is also shown, that internationalization per se is not a main objective for the entrepreneurs but a consequence of broader mental models including the entrepreneur’s view of life and view of business development. These mental models are changed over time, which also have consequences for the firm´s international development. We also showed that different types of entrepreneurs could be identified that developed their companies in different directions. A good understanding of the firm’s behavior and development could be reached by studying the entrepreneur’s background.

  • 109.
    Ghannad, Navid
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The influence of the entrepreneur’s background on the behaviour and development of born globals’ internationalisation processes2012In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 136-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While much of the research on small firm internationalisation has concentrated on export strategies, little attention has been paid to understanding the process and conditions under which the entrepreneur identifies and exploits an opportunity. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between the entrepreneur's prior life story and the development and behaviour of his or her born global firm. Six years of intense qualitative field research, including 108 interviews from three entrepreneurial 'born global' firms are compared and contrasted within our theoretical framework. In this study empirical evidence suggests that a person's childhood and prior life story directly influences the behaviour of the entrepreneur. We propose that different types of entrepreneurs are important factors to understand firms' different internationalization patterns. Depending on the backgrounds of the entrepreneurs, they developed preferences, skills, and especially desires that will affect the total behaviour of their future organisations. Copyright © 2012 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  • 110.
    Ghannad, Navid
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    The role of the entrepreneur in firm’s internationalization process2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 111.
    Hoeltgebaum, Marianne
    et al.
    Regional University of Blumenau (FURB), Blumenau, Brazil.
    Amal, Mohamed
    Regional University of Blumenau (FURB), Blumenau, Brazil.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Interdependence between Corporative Entrepreneurship and International Performance: Theoretical Essay2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the theoretical relationships between corporate entrepreneurship dimensions and international performance. To achieve our purpose, we will address specifically two main research questions: How different dimensions of Corporative Entrepreneurship (CE) influence International Performance (IP)? And In which extent institutional context of the host country affects the relationships between CE and IP? Our study contributes to the literature in several ways. First, although corporative entrepreneurship generally has been found to have a positive impact on organizational performance, no research to date has explicitly focused on the impact of the different components of corporative entrepreneurship on international performance. Thus, this study complements and adds to earlier studies on entrepreneurial orientation and international performance. Second, we look specifically at how different contexts shape the strategic orientation of firms, where research on corporate entrepreneurship and international performance is to a large extent lacking. Finally, the link between CE and IP represents a theoretical opportunity to handle the differences and hierarchies among the variables in the way how they affect strategies and performance of multinational subsidiaries operating in different national contexts.

  • 112.
    Hoeltgebaum, Marianne
    et al.
    Universidade Regional de Blumenau (FURB), Blumenau, Brazil.
    Andreassi, Tales
    Fundação Getúlio Vargas (FGV-EAESP), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Amal, Mohammed
    Universidade Regional de Blumenau (FURB), Blumenau, Brazil.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Hensbergen, Marleen
    Universidade Regional de Blumenau (FURB), Blumenau, Brazil.
    Corporate Entrepreneurship and International Performance: a Cross-Country Study2017In: Revista de Negócios, ISSN 1980-4431, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 47-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this article is to examine the theoretical connections between Corporate Entrepreneurship-CE and International Performance-IP. More specifically, we address two main research questions: (1) How do different dimensions of CE influence IP and (2) To what extent the context of host country matters? Using a two-case study approach, we employ hybrid qualitative–quantitative analyses to address the effects of different dimensions of CE on IP. We adopted four statistical techniques: descriptive statistics, decision tree, cluster analysis, and principal components (factorial maps). The results show that country matters for the perception of the relationship between CE and IP. They show that it is meaningful to separate the different dimensions of CE (innovative behavior, new business ventures, competitive aggressiveness, product/service and process innovation, self-renewal, proactiveness, and risk taking) when examining their influence on IP. The paper focuses on three level of the organization: the production sector (staff), middle management (managers), and top management (CEO and directors). Such perspective allows to explore the role of first-level managers in a “bottom-up” process of corporate entrepreneurship. Furthermore, we distinguished between two levels of corporate entrepreneurship: results and entrepreneurial behavior.

  • 113.
    Hoeltgebaum, Marianne
    et al.
    Regional University of Blumenau (FURB), Blumenau, Brazil.
    Andreassi, Tales
    Escola de Administração de Empresas de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Hensbergen, Marleen
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Amal, Mohamed
    Regional University of Blumenau (FURB), Blumenau, Brazil.
    Corporate Entrepreneurship and International Performance: Evidences of a Cross Countries Comparative Study2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between corporate entrepreneurship dimensions focused on international performance. More specifically, we investigated the differences between the companies, countries, employee’s perception at different levels of the organization, the dimensions of corporate entrepreneurship, and their correlation with the international performance of the organization. Our study contributes to the literature in several ways. First, although corporate entrepreneurship generally has been found to have a positive impact on organizational performance, no research in the best of our knowledge has explicitly focused on the impact of the different components of corporate entrepreneurship on international performance. Second, we look specifically at how different contexts shape the strategic orientation of firms. In order to capture the context effect, we selected Brazil as a developing country and host of the studied multinational subsidiaries, and two developed countries as high internationalized economies (Sweden and Netherlands) as the origins of multinationals. The two groups of countries present significant differences in terms of institutional environment, openness of the economy, and last but not least different level of firms´ internationalization Finally, in order to capture how corporate entrepreneurship affect the international performance of firms operating in different contexts, we investigated two top high tech companies, operating in three different countries: two developed countries (Sweden and Netherlands), and one emerging economy (Brazil). Two top high tech companies were researched, and at least one representing all levels at the pyramid of the companies was interviewed from the 3 different countries. Marco Teórico Literatures of entrepreneurship and international business have shown that the international performance of firms is highly correlated to their capabilities to develop unique strategies to enter and grow into foreign markets. On the other hand, it shows that pro-activeness and innovativeness affect the performance of the firms in domestic and foreign market (Zahra and Covin, 1995). Two main streams in the literature can be pointed out when we discuss the corporate entrepreneurship. The first one is more to establish the different dimensions that feature entrepreneurial behaviour by firms. Most part of the authors that studies corporate entrepreneurship uses 3 dimensions; pro-activeness, innovativeness, and risk taking. However, several authors have pointed to the high complexity of the entrepreneurial phenomena, which means that to capture complex entrepreneurial behaviour, there is a need to adopt diverse and multiple variables. We will adopt mainly the Goosen; De Coning; Smit (2002), Ireland, Kuratko; Morris (2006), and Antoncic and Hisrich (2001) to identify the dimensions of corporate entrepreneurship. This multidimensional approach of corporate entrepreneurship will be more effective particularly in cross countries comparative studies. Furthermore, the restrictive theory of the three corporate entrepreneurship dimensions approach may limit our understanding of the differences between entrepreneurial behaviour and entrepreneurial results. Drawing upon the contributions of the above cited authors, we distinguished between dimensions related to entrepreneurial behaviour, and entrepreneurial results. While the former corporate entrepreneurial dimensions are related to Pro-activeness, Innovative behaviour, and Self-renewal, the entrepreneurial results focused mainly on the following dimensions: Risk-taking, Competitive aggressiveness, Product/service innovation and process innovation, and New business ventures. Based on this we derived the following hypothesis: H1. There is a positive association between pro-activeness and international performance. H2: There is a positive association between innovative behaviour and international performance. H3. There is a positive association between a self-renewal and international performance. H4. There is a positive association between risk taking and international performance. H5. There is a positive association between a competitive aggressiveness and international performance. H6. There is a positive association between innovativeness and international performance. H7. There is a positive association between a New Business and Ventures and international performance. H8. There is a positive association between a country’s context that is characterized as entrepreneurial and international performance. In order to achieve our objectives, we opted to investigate companies that operate in different countries. In order to capture the perceptions of different levels of management, we interviewed employees in the production department, middle management, and top management. To analyze the relationships between international performance and the 7 corporate entrepreneurship dimensions, this study opted, considering the data obtained, to use 4 statistical techniques: descriptive statistics, decision tree, cluster analysis (Dendrogram) and principal components (factorial maps). The four methods help in the convergence of the data analysis. The adopted techniques are more suitable for small samples, with limited case studies. Método de investigação se pertinente We examine the relationship between Corporate Entrepreneurship (CE) focused on international performance. Using a two case study, with more than one employee from the three countries and in three different levels of the organization, we used hybrid qualitativequantitative analyses to present and estimate the effects of different dimensions of CE. Two companies were selected, that operate in high tech industries, and have continuous involvement in foreign markets, they are Alpha and Beta, respectively with headquarters in Sweden and the Netherlands; that are from Developed Countries and operate as well in developing Countries. We will focus on investigating Brazil, Sweden and the Netherlands. In order to assure the pertinence of the information derived from the data collection, we selected the companies according to the following criteria: (i) being engaged in international activities using different modes of entry; (ii) being operating in different foreign markets; (iii) being operating in high tech industries; (iv) and presenting strong evidences of CE. In total we interviewed 16 employees from the two companies that are acting in 3 countries. The responses were wrote directly into a internet platform, and imported into Excel, SPSS and LHStat. To calculate the dimensions, a categorical variable was created from the number (that are the average of the group), were defined how many classes (categories), which names the class boundaries (by default, equally spaced divisions) and the variable name was created. By default, three classes were created equally spaced (low, middle and high). To analyze the relationships between International Performance and the 7 CE dimensions, this study opted, considering the data obtained, to use 4 statistical techniques: descriptive statistics, decision tree, cluster analysis (dendrogram) and principal components (factorial maps). The four methods help in the convergence of the data analysis. The adopted techniques are more suitable for small samples, with limited case studies. Resultados e contribuições do trabalho para a área The results of the present study suggest when we disaggregate the three traditional dimension of corporate entrepreneurship in 8 dimensions, that there are strong specific correlations between international performance and entrepreneurial characteristics, as entrepreneurial results or behaviour. Those can be seen particularly well in the decision three results and multi-factorial maps. This study contributes in several ways to the literature on corporate entrepreneurship and international performance. First, the study identifies and shows that it is meaningful to separate the different dimensions of corporate entrepreneurship (innovative behaviour, new enterprise, competitive aggressiveness, products and process innovations, self-renewal, pro activeness and risk taking), when studying the influence of corporate entrepreneurship on international performance. It was concluded that pro-activeness, innovative behaviour and self-renewal have direct relationship with international performance. However, the study shows that pro-activeness was the dimension that showed the most clear positive connection to international performance. The results of the present study point to some important and relevant theoretical implications for the study of the determinants of international performance. First, the distinction between entrepreneurial behaviour and entrepreneurial results can be seen as a fundamental perspective for the understanding of the relationships between corporate entrepreneurship and international performance. Second, it seems that the dimensions related to entrepreneurial behaviour (proactivity, innovative behaviour, self-renewal) have higher impacts on the international performance than organization dimensions (risk taking, product, service and process innovation, competitive aggressiveness, and new ventures). This finding is not in line with the literature, and may suggest new research perspectives. The dimensions risk taking, competitive aggressiveness are less sensitive to entrepreneurial attitudes, and are more likely to express organizational behaviour than individual involvement. Their effects are particularly significant for the managerial and strategic positioning of the firms in the markets, while proactivity and innovative behaviour and self-renewal are correlated with individual experience and engagement. The study shows that the international context has an influence on corporate entrepreneurship in the same organization. Brazil was the country that has presented a higher perception of corporate entrepreneurship, which was significantly higher than Sweden and Netherlands in corporate entrepreneurship. This contradicts earlier findings that have seen developing countries as a low cost production alternative. This may suggest that the institutional environment of the host country will have a strong influence on the behaviour of the top management. In countries where there is some institutional uncertainties, and high market imperfections, pro-activeness and aggressive market approaches will shape significantly the performance of the firm and its commitment in the host market.

  • 114.
    Karlsson, Niklas P.E.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL). Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Laurell, Hélène
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Lindgren, John
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Pehrsson, Tobias
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Svensson, Göran
    Kristiania University College, Oslo, Norway.
    A cross-country comparison and validation of firms’ stakeholder considerations in sustainable business practices2018In: Corporate Governance : The International Journal of Effective Board Performance, ISSN 1472-0701, E-ISSN 1758-6054, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 408-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare and validate firms’ internal and external stakeholder considerations in sustainable business practices across business settings. It aims to assess the validity and reliability of a stakeholder framework appearing in previous studies.

    Design/methodology/approach: The study uses a questionnaire survey and a cross-industry sample consisting of the largest firms in corporate Sweden. Multivariate analysis tests the stakeholder framework. Each of the 294 key informants was initially identified and contacted by telephone, generating a response rate of 36.5 per cent.

    Findings: The tested stakeholder framework appears valid and reliable across countries to assess the internal stakeholders of focal firms, as well as their up- and downstream, market and societal stakeholders. This study provides additional empirical support to categorize firms’ stakeholder considerations in sustainable business practices.

    Research limitations/implications: This study validates previous findings in terms of Swedish firms’ considerations of internal and external stakeholders in sustainable business practices in relation to one similar country (Norway) and one different country (Spain). The study also shows how the three countries perceive the focal company and societal stakeholders differently. Practical implications: The tested framework sheds light on focal firms’ stakeholder considerations in sustainable business practices and elucidates the extent to which firms’ account for their internal and external stakeholders in sustainable business practices.

    Originality/value: This study contributes to the development of valid and reliable stakeholder theory across contexts and through time. In particular, it contributes to the development of a valid and reliable framework to categorize firms’ stakeholder considerations in sustainable business practices. © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited.

  • 115.
    Kormann, Gerhard
    et al.
    IMC University of Applied Science Krems, Krems an der Donau, Austria.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Moser, Reinhard
    University of Economics and Business, Wien, Austria.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Will the Digital Transformation become a Game Changer in the Field of Internationalisation Research?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims at investigating the way in which digital technologies affect the internationalisation of businesses and how digital transformation can be incorporated into current theories of internationalisation and international entrepreneurship (IE).

    In order to define how digitalisation has been treated in the academic literature on Internationalisation, we will attempt to examine the range of existing research in the field. The Uppsala Model will be used as a tool to assess whether the impact of digital technologies can be integrated into current “stage” theories of internationalisation. This will eventually allow us to determine to what extent these models are valid in the context of our research.

    We will need to consider the evolution of digitalisation, which in the context of internationalisation has normally been understood as to mean merely internet-based communication technologies. The concept of digitalisation used in this paper goes beyond communication technologies and includes such aspects as industrial technologies and the “Internet of Things”, often referred to as emerging digital economies or “digital revolution”.

    Our goal is to identify aspects which have so far not been satisfactorily investigated. These may call for adjustments to current theories of internationalisation or, alternatively, require the emergence of totally new theories.

    The paper will be organised as follows. We will first define a contextual framework of the phenomenon we call digital transformation based on a meta-analysis through a comprehensive literature review. We will then integrate this digital framework into the Uppsala Model (UM) in order to assess whether it is sufficient to explain a “digitalised establishment chain”, and finally discuss whether “stage” theories are still useful. The paper will close closes with major findings followed by considerations of limitations and implications for further research.

    The work on this paper is part of an Austrian-Swedish research project called “Enterprise 4.0”, which aims at investigating digital transformation processes in international entrepreneurial firms, with special emphasis on internationalisation processes.

  • 116.
    Laurell, Hélène
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Achenhhagen, Leona
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The role of networks during different epochs of the early internationalization journey in a medical technology firm2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of different types (i.e. both social and economic) of networks for the internationalization of new ventures is increasingly acknowledged in academic research (e.g. Coviello, 2006). Despite this increasing attention, few studies have in detail studied the role of networks and the link between networks and internationalization journeys over time (cf. Slotte-KockandCoviello, 2010). Instead, a rather descriptive, snap-shot approach to studying networks is still common. In addition, network dynamics are likely to be different in different industries. For life-science industries such as medical-technology Stremersch and Van Dyck (2009) demand that due to the specific industry characteristics new concepts would be needed to adequately understand the dynamics of this industry.In this paper, we attempt to contribute to filling gaps in current research by reconstructing the emergence and following the development of the network ties of an international new venture during different critical epochs of its internationalization journey. We present an in-depth case study of a Swedish SME from the medical-technology industry and the development of its network relations over time. By providing a detailed account of this development, we hope to improve the understanding of how different network constellations are related to the internationalization process over time.

  • 117.
    Laurell, Hélène
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Achtenhagen, Leona
    International Business School, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    The changing role of network ties and critical capabilities in an international new venture’s early development2017In: The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, ISSN 1554-7191, E-ISSN 1555-1938, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 113-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of networks for firm internationalization has been pointed out for several decades. Especially for small and new firms, networks have been found to be an important tool to gain access to resources and to overcome liabilities of newness, smallness and foreignness. Yet, there is a lack of understanding regarding which types of capabilities are developed through networking and how and when networks are used. The aim of this article is to explore how and when different networking activities develop critical capabilities during different phases of an international new venture’s early development. The article is based on a longitudinal, in-depth case study of a Swedish international new venture from the medical-technology industry. We find that the development process is greatly affected by how the individual key actors leverage their network ties to develop critical capabilities – they use existing network ties and different indirect ties during the pre-founding, start-up and establishment of production phases. During the commercialization and sales growth phases, however, many new network ties are developed. The heterogeneity of the individual actors’ backgrounds plays an important role during the different developmental phases. We conclude by advancing a number of propositions in relation to how critical capabilities are developed through networking during different developmental phases. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  • 118.
    Laurell, Hélène
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Achtenhagen, Leona
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The internationalization challenge - Enabling and constraining factors in the medical-technology sector2010In: Strategic Entrepreneurship - The Promise for Future Entrepreneurship, Family Business and SME Research: Rencontres de St-Gall 2010 / [ed] Fueglistaller, Urs, Volery, Thierry and Weber, Walter, St. Gallen: KMU Verlag HSG , 2010, p. 327-345Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SMEs in high-technology industries, such as life-sciences, face a fundamental challenge. On theone hand, high product development costs push companies into early internationalization to increaseturnover and recover investments. On the other hand, internationalization is constrained, e.g. by financialand managerial resource limitations or the demand to follow local regulations. To date, little isknown about how high-tech SMEs actually manage this challenge. This paper presents an in-depthcase study of the internationalization process of a Swedish high-tech SME, to develop a better understandingof how the trade-offs related to internationalization are handled in practice. Combining insightsfrom the process theory of internationalization with international new venture theory, our findingsoutline factors affecting the internationalization process specific to the medical-technology industry,the company and the founding team.

  • 119.
    Laurell, Hélène
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Achtenhagen, Leona
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The internationalization challenge- managed by a new venture from the medical technology sector2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SMEs in the life sciences industries face a fundamental challenge. On the one hand, high product development costs push companies into early internationalization to increase turnover and recover investments. On the other hand, they face tough hinders towards internationalization, such as financial and managerial resource limitations as well as the demand to follow local regulations. To date, little is known about how SMEs manage this challenge in practice. This paper presents an in-depth case study of the internationalization process of a Swedish SME from the medical technology industry, to develop a better understanding of how this challenge is handled in practice. Our findings outline some industry-specific characteristics affecting the internationalization process, such as the regulatory burden, complex buying patterns and lengthy lead times. These determinants lead to financial vulnerability, which has an impact on how (further) internationalization can be pursued. Being able to conduct business in English as well as the structure of the foreign country’s healthcare organization are important factors when entering new geographical markets. International congresses and fairs are important events for developing new network links and building brand recognition. Existing international contacts also play a crucial role in the choice of the international distribution channels. Local network ties are important for developing the initial business idea development as well as to secure financing.

  • 120.
    Laurell, Hélène
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Achtenhagen, Leona
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping, Sweden.
    The importance of industry context for new venture internationalisation: A case study from the life sciences2013In: Journal of International Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1570-7385, E-ISSN 1573-7349, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 297-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During internationalisation, international new ventures in the life sciences industry face distinct challenges. For example, high product development costs push companies into early internationalisation to increase sales turnover and recover investments. At the same time, financial and managerial resource limitations and the demand to adjust to local regulations render internationalisation difficult. To date, relatively little is known about how different industry contexts influence new venture internationalisation processes. This paper presents an in-depth case study of the internationalisation process of a Swedish new venture from the life sciences industry to fill this gap. The findings outline factors in the industry context that affect the internationalisation process, with specific emphasis on entrepreneurs and their networks, leading to several propositions and a model of life sciences new venture internationalisation.

  • 121.
    Laurell, Hélène
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Karlsson, Niklas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Lindgren, John
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Svensson, Göran
    Kristiania University College, Oslo, Norway.
    Re-testing and validating a triple bottom line dominant logic for business sustainability2019In: Management of environmental quality, ISSN 1477-7835, E-ISSN 1758-6119, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 518-537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The triple bottom line (TBL) is still commonly explored in research without joint consideration of economic, social and environmental elements of business sustainability (BS). The purpose of this paper is to re-test and validate a BS framework based on the TBL approach.This study is based on a questionnaire survey consisting of the largestfirms in corporate Sweden. A total of 107 usable questionnaires were ultimately received, for a response rate of 36.5 percent. The findings validate and extend a framework of a TBL-dominant logic for BS. A total of 19 dimensions indicating satisfactory validity and reliability of the BS framework were identified. The BS framework offers relevant insights to monitor and assess a TBL-dominant logic for BS. It also provides opportunities for further research. Managers can use the BS framework as a tool to map firm priorities in connection with BS. Each dimension of the BS framework offers insights into how to monitor and assess firms’ efforts in the TBL.This study contributes to validate and extend the TBL-dominant logic for BS. The BS framework also offers a timely and relevant contribution to both scholars and practitioners engaging in business sustainability. © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited.

  • 122.
    Laurell, Marie Hélène
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Achtenhagen, Leona
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The Role of the Founding Team and its Network Ties During Different Phases of the Early Internationalization Journey2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of different types (i.e. both social and economic) of networks for the internationalization of new ventures is increasingly acknowledged in academic research (e.g. Coviello, 2006). Despite this increasing attention, few studies have in detail studied the role of networks and the link between networks and internationalization journeys over time (cf. Slotte-KockandCoviello, 2010). Instead, a rather descriptive, snap-shot approach to studying networks is still common. In addition, network dynamics are likely to be different in different industries. For life-science industries such as medical-technology Stremersch and Van Dyck (2009) demand that due to the specific industry characteristics new concepts would be needed to adequately understand the dynamics of this industry. 

    In this paper, we attempt to contribute to filling gaps in current research by reconstructing the emergence and following the development of the network ties of an international new venture during different critical epochs of its internationalization journey. We present an in-depth case study of a Swedish SME from the medical-technology industry and the development of its network relations over time. By providing a detailed account of this development, we hope to improve the understanding of how different network constellations are related to the internationalization process over time.

  • 123.
    Paul, Ryan
    et al.
    Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland.
    Evers, Natasha
    National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway, Ireland.
    Smith, Adele
    Galway Business School, Salthill, Galway, Ireland.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Communities of Practice - A Creator and Accelerator of Born Global Ventures2017In: / [ed] Natasha Evers, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 124.
    Payan, Janice
    et al.
    University of Northern Colorado.
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Svensson, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Interorganizational Cooperation and Coordination: A comparison of US and Swedish Distributor Relationships2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperation/coordination is related to positive interorganizational outcomes.  Because Sweden is more collectivist/feminine than the U.S. (Hofstede 2001), stronger effects in Swedish distributor cooperative/coordinative relationships are expected compared to the U.S.

  • 125.
    Payan, Janice
    et al.
    University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, Colorado, USA.
    Hair, Joe
    Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, Georgia, USA.
    Svensson, Göran
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Modeling Antecedents in Trust-Commitment Vendor Relationships2015In: Rediscovering the Essentiality of Marketing: Proceedings of the 2015 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) World Marketing Congress, Cham: Springer, 2015, p. 321-321Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary purpose of this study is to examine the importance of selected antecedents (i.e., cooperation, coordination, and relationship investments) in a commitment-trust vendor relationship model. Collaboration in organizations often is not effective in relationships between purchasers and vendors because cooperation, coordination and relationship investment are lacking. Research on these constructs is very limited in interorganizational research, so this study is unique, therefore, in examining antecedents in a trust-commitment relationship model. Following examination of both first and second order modeling approaches, findings show the influence of these antecedents on trust and commitment, and ultimately vendor relationship satisfaction. All three antecedents are positively related to the higher order management factors construct, and in turn to both trust and commitment, with the stronger relationship being to commitment. Commitment and trust are both positively related to relationship satisfaction. The direct relationship from trust to satisfaction is strongest, but there is evidence of partial mediation through the indirect relationship from trust to commitment and then to satisfaction.

  • 126.
    Payan, Janice M.
    et al.
    University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, Colorado, USA.
    Hair, Joe
    Marketing and Professional Sales, Cole College of Business, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, Georgia, USA.
    Svensson, Göran
    Management, Kristiania University College, Oslo, Norway.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    The Precursor Role of Cooperation, Coordination, and Relationship Assets in a Relationship Model2016In: Journal of Business-to-Business Marketing, ISSN 1051-712X, E-ISSN 1547-0628, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 63-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study is to test the importance of activity-oriented precursors in a relationship model. This study supports the theoretical view that firms create trust and knowledge through activities and these activities make a commitment decision less risky (Johanson & Vahlne, 2009). The secondary purpose of this study is to collect and examine data from interorganizational relationships in both Sweden and the United States. By including data from two countries, results will be more generalizable. Results can also lead to several managerial implications.

    Methodology/approach: This study focuses on a sample of distributors from both the United States and Sweden. One hundred sixty-one usable surveys were returned from the U.S. survey, for a response rate of 27%. One hundred twenty-four usable surveys were returned from the Swedish survey, for a response rate of 21%. The PLS-SEM method was used to examine the model’s constructs.

    Findings: Similar to past research results show that trust and commitment have a direct positive influence on satisfaction, and that trust also has a direct positive influence on commitment. However, this study uniquely supports four out of six newly tested hypotheses. Both cooperation and relationship assets have a direct positive influence on commitment. Cooperation has a direct positive influence on trust and commitment. Relationship assets have a direct negative influence on trust but a direct positive influence on commitment. Surprisingly, two hypotheses were not supported: Coordination did not have a significant relationship with either trust or commitment.

    Research implications: Managers who want to achieve a satisfactory relationship based on trust and commitment need to prioritize their attention toward cooperation. They should also be aware that participation in joint activities (i.e., coordination and relationship investments) does not guarantee higher levels of trust or commitment in the relationship. It is the quality of the joint activities and the how dependent firms are on each other and not just participation in joint activities that are likely to create higher levels of trust or commitment. The quality of coordination and manageable levels of dependence may counteract the higher costs associated with joint activities compared to the costs associated with cooperation. Managers may  be wise to not make major commitments to other firms unless high quality joint activities have created knowledge and trust between firms.

    Originality/value/contribution: The model adds the joint activity-oriented antecedents associated with collaboration which is essential to a successful relationship. Because of the high failure rate of collaboration may be due to cooperation and coordination failures and because these two constructs are underspecified in interorganizational research, this study is unique in examining activity-oriented antecedents in a trust/commitment model of relationship satisfaction in a crosscultural context (i.e., with U.S. and Swedish samples). © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  • 127.
    Payan, Janice M.
    et al.
    University of Northern Colorado.
    Svensson, Göran
    Oslo School of Management, Norway.
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Relationship Quality in Interorganizational Contexts2009In: Proceedings of the 14th biennial world marketing congress (preliminary release): Marketing in transition: scarcity, globalism, & sustainability / [ed] Colin L. Campbell, Academy of Marketing Science , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study provides support for the dimensional distinctiveness of cooperation, specific assets, satisfaction, trust, and commitment. Based on the results, it is suggested that four of these dimensions are reflective of relationship quality or the "Cross-Cultural RELQUAL-scale" (cooperation, coordination, trust, and commitment) and that relationship quality impacts satisfaction with the relationship. Data was used to test the cross-cultural RELQUAL-scale in supplier-distributor relationships in Sweden and USA.

  • 128.
    Payan, Janice M.
    et al.
    University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, USA.
    Svensson, Göran
    Oslo School of Management, Norway.
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Hair, Joe
    Kennesaw State University, USA.
    A  "cross-cultural RELQUAL-scale" in supplier-distributor relationships of Sweden and USA2010In: International Marketing Review, ISSN 0265-1335, E-ISSN 1758-6763, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 541-561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a cross-cultural RELQUAL-scale in supplier-distributor relationships in Sweden and the USA. 

    Design/methodology/approach: The Swedish and US sampling frames consisted each of a random sample of 600 owners and managers of distribution firms of specialty tools and fasteners. A total of 161 usable surveys were returned from the US-survey, for a response rate of 27 percent, while 121 usable surveys were returned from the Swedish survey, for a response rate of 20 percent. An overall response rate of 24 percent was achieved across both countries. 

    Findings: The paper provides support for the dimensional distinctiveness of cooperation, coordination, specific assets, satisfaction, trust, and commitment. Four of the dimensions are reflective of relationship quality or the "cross-cultural RELQUAL-scale" (cooperation, coordination, trust, and commitment) and relationship quality was found to be associated with relationship-satisfaction with suppliers. A test of metric invariance confirmed the RELQUAL-scale is appropriate for cross-cultural research. 

    Research limitations/implications: Examining the tested in other industrial and cultural contexts and countries in other inter-organizational settings could help establish the generality of findings beyond Sweden and the USA and that beyond the context of the distributor-supplier relationship of fasteners and specialty tools. Practical implications The "cross-cultural RELQUAL-scale" is of interest to business practice as it provides a structure of dimensions to be considered in the organizational effort of maintaining satisfactory levels of relationship quality with suppliers. 

    Originality/value: The paper focuses on two different cultural contexts, which is an approach rarely seen in inter-organizational research. The focal constructs are frequently included in inter-organizational research, but have previously not been included in the same empirical study of RELQUAL.

  • 129.
    Reinert, Venilton
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER). Universidade Regional de Blumenau, Blumenau, Brazil.
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    da Silva, Nathalia Virginia
    Universidade Regional de Blumenau, Blumenau, Brazil.
    The Usage of Social Media by the Agri-Business Companies in Brazil2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the usage of social media by companies. The gathered information was related to the objective of using it, the criteria when selecting the tools and to find out the type of activities which the companies have done. The methodology is a qualitative approach with exploratory study. The results show that the main objective of the company was to strengthen the brand´s name. The criteria to select the online tools were the huge presence of their stakeholders in the selected tool. Besides the use of Twitter, the company has not done any other activities using social media tools.

  • 130.
    Reinert, Venilton
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER). Universidade Regional de Bumenau, Blumenau, Brazil.
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    da Silva, Nathalia Virginia
    Universidade Regional de Blumenau, Blumenau, Brazil.
    The Usage of Social Media by the Agri-Business Companies in Brazil2014In: Journal of Academy for Advancement of Business Research, ISSN 2332-0311, E-ISSN 2332-032X, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 89-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the usage of social media by companies. The gathered information was related to the objective of using it, the criteria when selecting the tools and to find out the type of activities which the companies have done. The methodology is a qualitative approach with exploratory study. The results show that the main objective of the company was to strengthen the brand´s name. The criteria to select the online tools were the huge presence of their stakeholders in the selected tool. Besides the use of Twitter, the company has not done any other activities using social media tools.

  • 131.
    Ryan, Paul
    et al.
    Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland.
    Evers, Natasha
    National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Smith, Adele
    National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Cartoon Network: Rapid Internationalisation for Born Global Members of a Community of Practice2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 132.
    Ryan, Paul
    et al.
    Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland.
    Evers, Natasha
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER). National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Smith, Adele
    Galway Business School, Galway, Ireland.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Cartoon Network: Rapid Internationalisation for Born Global Members of a Community of Practice2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper demonstrates how active membership of a particular form of social horizontal network, in the form of a Community of Practice (CoPs) can bring about the creation and accelerated international development of born global ventures serving the global digital animation industry. Community of Practice has been well established as a form of social network and a component of social learning theory (Lave & Wenger 1991). In this study we use a ‘novel’ highly globalized research context - the Irish indigenous digital animation production industry. Through shared passion and interest for cartoon animation, this paper explores the role of community of practice in the creation and international development of Irish Born Global digital animation ventures.

  • 133.
    Ryan, Paul
    et al.
    Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland.
    Evers, Natasha
    National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Smith, Adele
    Maynooth University, Maynooth, Ireland.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Local horizontal network membership for accelerated global market reach2019In: International Marketing Review, ISSN 0265-1335, E-ISSN 1758-6763, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 6-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explain how some born global firms can leverage the rich social capital in their local (home country) horizontal network for accelerated international market entry and growth. Horizontal networks warrant separate attention from their vertical counterparts, which, along with those focussed on external international contexts, dominate most network studies in the realm of born global research.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study utilises a multi-level qualitative approach in the study of a multi-firm population of animators in Ireland that, due to the small domestic market for their product, needed to pursue global customers from inception. The case study domain was purposely selected as a critical exemplar of a local horizontal network operating in a highly globalised industry. The authors collected data through in-depth interviews with 16 company founders. This primary interview data were complemented by interviews with staff at the apposite industry association and triangulated with secondary data on the local and global industry conditions, members’ international successes and awards.

    Findings – The results demonstrate how active membership of a local horizontal network can be leveraged for the acquisition of international market knowledge and customers for born global ventures. This arises from the sharing of collective market knowledge and communal global customer information within the network to mutual benefit.

    Originality/value – Although limited by the specific conditions in this highly globalised, non-competitiveindustry context, this study is unique in that it finds that cooperative interpersonal and inter-firm relationships embedded in a local horizontal social network, and mediated in part by an institutional support actor, emerge as important levers for a born global’s accelerated acquisition of foreign market knowledge and of global customers. © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited.

  • 134.
    Singh, Jang B.
    et al.
    University of Windsor, Windsor, Canada.
    Wood, Greg
    Kristiania University College, Oslo, Norway.
    Callaghan, Michael
    Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Svensson, Göran
    Kristiania University College, Oslo, Norway.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Operationalizing business ethics in organizations: The views of executives in Australia, Canada and Sweden2018In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 494-510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Codes of ethics have become the mainstay of the ethics programs of corporations. Many studies have explored their contents, but few have examined what makes them effective. This international study aims to identify the measures viewed as being important by top executives in determining the worth to their organizations of corporate codes of ethics. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected by questionnaires sent to the top 500 companies ranked by revenue operating in the private sectors in Australia, Canada and Sweden. By analyzing the survey results from the top corporate executives in these countries, the research team was able to test for a number of determinants of effectiveness for codes of ethics. Findings: In a statistically significant model, it was found that four factors related to the internal management of the corporation are positively correlated to executives’ perceptions of the value of their corporate codes of ethics. Research limitations/implications: Future research may seek to address features of this study that limit its generalizability, as it was conducted on the largest of companies in each country and thus this sample may not reflect the way that business ethics are managed in smaller organizations in those countries. Originality/value: If executives see particular items as important to their business ethics success, one could postulate that this has arisen from a perception that implementing these measures has been effective for their organizations. This provides guidance to other organizations on what items could enhance the effectiveness of their codes of ethics. © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited.

  • 135.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Mysen, Tore
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    A comparison of perceived quality in business relationships in Norway and Sweden: Similarities and differences2009In: Baltic Journal of Management, ISSN 1746-5265, E-ISSN 1746-5273, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 7-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to compare similarities and differences in perceived quality of business relationships in Norway and Sweden. Design/methodology/approach – The Norwegian and Swedish sampling frames consisted of 600 small- and medium-sized firms in each country. A response rate of 36.5 percent was achieved in Norway and 21 percent in Sweden. Leading executives from both countries were used as key informants because they are the primary decision-makers most knowledgeable about their firm's interactions with suppliers. Findings – The findings indicate that there are a series of significant differences and associations between the perceived quality of business relationships in small and medium-sized firms in Norway and Sweden, though both countries resemble each other in both socio-economic indicators and cultural dimensions. Research limitations/implications – One suggestion for further research is to replicate the study in other industries, business relationships, and countries. Another is to undertake a longitudinal approach of the focal areas of “perceived quality” and “supplier criteria”. Practical implications – This study is of managerial interest, as the framework may be applied by firms to monitor and evaluate ongoing supplier relationships and, in extension, their current customer relationships. It would be of interest to see if similarities exist amongst other cultures of the focal areas, and/or if there are differences across other countries that are decidedly different from those in Norway and Sweden. Originality/value – This paper makes a contribution to inter-organizational theory since it outlines a conceptual framework of focal areas of “perceived quality” and “supplier criteria” for examining business relationships across industries and countries for the benefit of other researchers.

  • 136.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Charismatic leadership and empowerment in born globals2010In: McGill International Entreprenurship Conferences Series / [ed] Hamid Etemad, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 137.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The Importance of Leadership and Vision in Born Globals2012In: Business and Management Research, ISSN 1927-6001, E-ISSN 1927-601X, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 13-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the beginning of the 1990s studies of Born Global companies has become a major topic in internationalizationliterature. Earlier research has pointed out the importance of the entrepreneur in the born global firm’s internationaldevelopment. Even if many studies have been done which identify the impact of entrepreneurs and management onfirms’ internationalisation and behaviour few studies have focused on leadership in Born Global Companies. Followingearlier research, the aim of this paper is to investigate how the entrepreneur uses his/her vision in Born Globalcompanies. The main findings and conclusions are that the entrepreneur and his/ her vision have an important role inthese companies. The vision is like an umbrella and affects many important parts of the company, such as organisation,communication, recruitment, knowledge transfer and other parts that will form the company’s culture. The born globalentrepreneurs create the company values and motivate the employees in the organisation. The Born Global leaders sharethe power with subordinates. It is crucial to delegate operational decisions to subordinates so the entrepreneur can workwith strategic issues fostering the firms’ international expansion. Communication is open and straight with an openatmosphere in the culture. Good communication is important when building goals, values and conveying the leader’svision. Even if the entrepreneurs motivate their employees in a positive way the entrepreneurs still have a tight control ofthe company. The main implications from this study are that the entrepreneurs in The Born Global firms have been ableto create an innovative culture in the firm that creates international growth.

  • 138.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The Importance of vision in born global companies2011In: Research on Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management 2009‐2011: Introducing the Research Area of Innovation Science / [ed] Sven-Åke Hörte, Halmstad: Högskolan i Halmstad , 2011, p. 37-53Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the entrepreneur uses his vision in Born Global companies. Design/methodology/approach – In this qualitative study, data has been collected by carrying out case studies of three companies. The main approach has been to study the role ofvision, leadership and communication in these companies. Findings – The entrepreneur and his vision is very important in a Born Global company. The vision is like an umbrella and affects many important parts of the company, such as communication,r ecruitment, knowledge transfer and other parts that will form the company’s culture. After a few years these items will help to create the company’s handbook, which will form the guidelines for how employees in the company work and act. Even if the entrepreneurs motivate their employees in a positive way, so that they can develop and do a good job, the entrepreneurs still must control the company. Research implications – This is an area where much more research needs to be done. In this study the entrepreneurs have been interviewed. To get more information the employees need to be interviewed. Practical implications – Implications for traditional small to medium‐sized enterprise (SME) companies could help to understand what happens in Born Global companies. Originality/value – This paper uses a view of the visionary perspective to study the three companies. This could be used by more traditional companies to discover new areas of potential.

  • 139.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Mullern, Tomas
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping, Sverige.
    Leadership and organization in born globals2013In: Current Issues in International Entrepreneurship / [ed] Hamid Etemad, Tage Koed Madsen, Erik S. Rasmussen, Per Servais, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013, p. 38-69Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 140.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Müllern, Tomas
    Jönköping International Business School, Sweden .
    Leadership and Organisation in Born Globals2011Conference paper (Refereed)
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