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  • 101.
    Karlsson, Niklas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Doing well by doing good: The business model innovation process for sustainability in farm-based biogas production2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on innovation that leads to change and adaptation in dynamic business environments has increased rapidly in recent decades. This doctoral thesis, which focuses on business model innovation (BMI), contributes to that research with its examination of how businesses can alter their structures to create, deliver, and capture greater economic value as well as environmental and social value. The overarching aim of the thesis is to explore how the business model innovation process for sustainability (BMIpfS) can contribute to profitable biogas production at Swedish farm businesses. Biogas, which is a renewable energy resource produced from microbial decomposition of organic material in an oxygen free environment, can be used to produce heat, electricity, or vehicle fuel. The thesis examines the initiation, implementation, and use of the BMIpfS at biogas-producing farms in ways that support the development of business models for sustainability (BMfS). In addition to economic value, a BMfS enables farm businesses and external stakeholders (e.g., municipalities and local companies) to capture environmental value and social value from biogas production and create business cases for sustainability (BCfS) that can improve biogas profitability.

    Both an inductive and deductive reasoning approach is taken in this research that is presented in a case study, two action research studies, and two survey studies. The case study identifies and describes various success factors for BMI for sustainability in a biogas network. The action research studies explore how BMI process can be modified to address sustainability considerations and the outcomes useful for supporting stakeholder collaboration and facilitating the development of a BMfS. The survey studies investigate how the farm businesses’ corporate sustainability strategies and stakeholder considerations influence the development of BMfS and the creation of BCfS. All studies were conducted at farm businesses in Sweden. The data were collected in interviews, workshops, and questionnaires.

    The results from this research show that BMI for sustainability takes place in three main phases: the pre-phase, the ongoing phase, and the post-phase. Based on these three phases, the BMIpfS Framework is developed. The Framework illustrates how a business model (BM) can be changed and adapted to realize sustainable value creation. Several factors determine the success of the BMIpfS Framework at biogas-producing farm businesses. In the pre-phase, these factors include a long-term perspective on biogas profitability, integration of sustainability considerations into business strategies, promotion of cooperation with customers, and the establishment of interactions with the consumer markets. Use of the Flourishing Business Canvas tool in the ongoing phase can enhance external stakeholders’ understanding of BMs and BMI, and can promote idea generation for the BMfS. Sustainability-oriented BM prototypes are used in the post-phase to support network collaboration in development of BMfS and in the creation of BCfS, both of which are intended to increase biogas profitability by solving sustainability issues.

    This thesis contributes to the literature with its findings on how the BMIpfS Framework can be used in organizational changes. These findings show how an organization can move from its existing BM to a more sustainability-oriented BM. The thesis identifies the internal and external antecedents related to the initiation and implementation of the BMIpfS and offers new insights on the development of BMfS through the integration of sustainabil­ity considerations using business modelling tools that facilitate BM experimentation and stakeholder collaboration. Moreover, the thesis explains how use of the BMIpfS Framework can create sustainability-oriented BM prototypes that enhance network BM collaboration with stakeholders in the value chain (i.e. BMfS development and BCfS creation). As far as practical contributions, the thesis highlights the usefulness of the BMIpfS Framework in farm-based biogas production. With the BMIpfS Framework, the thesis presents a structured approach that practitioners can follow in initiating and implementing sustainability-oriented changes to their existing BMs. Practitioners who want to increase the profitability of their biogas production through sustainability should initially focus their BMI activities on the business infrastructure (key partner identification and interaction) and customer interface (relationships, distribution channels, and segments) of existing BMs.

    This thesis ultimately concludes that biogas-producing farm businesses should initiate and implement a BMIpfS that leads to economic, environmental, and social value creation. Stakeholder considerations and interactions are key factors in all phases of BMIpfS. In this process, sustainable business modelling tools and BM prototype development can be used to facilitate incremental sustainability-oriented changes to existing BMs. The BMIpfS Framework has an important role for the development and implementation of BMfS in the biogas industry as a contributor to the circular economy that features renewable and sustainable energy systems. 

  • 102.
    Karlsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL). Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Halila, Fawzi
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI).
    Mattsson, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Hoveskog, Maya
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI).
    Success factors for agricultural biogas production in Sweden: A case study of business model innovation2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 142, no Part 4, p. 2925-2934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As government officials, policymakers, and the general public increasingly express their concern about global warming caused by greenhouse gas emissions, scientists search for alternative sources of vehicle fuel and electric power. One sustainable energy source that shows considerable promise is biogas produced from organic waste. For various reasons, biogas plants in Sweden struggle with profitability. This is especially true for agricultural biogas plants. Suggestions on how to deal with this problem include the use of business model innovation (BMI) to develop agricultural networks and to implement new strategies for arranging, producing, and marketing farm-produced biogas. This qualitative study, influenced by grounded theory, identifies and examines the success factors in an agricultural network in which biogas is produced at four farms in Sweden with distribution by pipeline to a refinery for purification and conversion to vehicle fuel. Fourteen interviews were conducted with various individuals in this network: farmers, a local politician, municipal employees, and external consultants. Of the six success factors identified in the network for farm-produced biogas, the long-term perspective on profitability was found most important. The six factors were used to create a conceptual business model framework for such networks that adds new value propositions while retaining the original value propositions. We propose that long-term government subsidies and other incentives can make farm-produced biogas profitable, not only in social and environmental terms but also in economic terms. Our main conclusion is that BMI can be used to create public-private networks that invest in farm-based biogas production. Such investments can stimulate rural development and provide new business possibilities for SMEs in the agricultural sector. This study also shows that BMI that takes a long-term perspective can result in high-value environmental and social benefits as well as financial profitability.

  • 103.
    Karlsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Hoveskog, Maya
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Halila, Fawzi
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Mattsson, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Business modelling in farm-based biogas production: towards network-level business models and stakeholder business cases for sustainability2019In: Sustainability Science, ISSN 1862-4065, E-ISSN 1862-4057, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 1071-1090Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Farm-based biogas production is a promising renewable energy technology with the potential for creating sustainable economic, environmental, and social value. However, Swedish farmers engaged in this activity struggle to turn a profit because of high-investment costs and severe price competition with fossil fuels. One way to address this situation is to re-organize the activity by innovating the business model (BM) towards sustainability. In this study, a team of researchers took an action research approach that proposed solutions for the financial difficulties at a farm cooperative that intended to develop its farm-based biogas production. Two participatory workshops (including researchers, producers, students, and consultants) were conducted using the sustainable business-modelling tool called the Flourishing Business Canvas (FBC). Based on the 215 ideas developed in the workshops, five sustainable BM prototypes were created. These five prototypes form the basis of an approach for initiating the development of a network-level BM for sustainability that highlights its superiority over a single-firm BM. The network-level BM’s main advantage in the farm-based biogas context is its strong focus on stakeholder collaboration that supports the development of a stakeholder business case for sustainability. Overall, this study highlights the usefulness of the network concept in the practice of sustainable BM development. Collaborative business modelling for developing network-level BMs that address environmental and social problems for and with stakeholders can be an effective way to increase long-term financial profit and promote the growth of a firm, a network, or an industry. © 2018 The Author(s)

  • 104.
    Karlsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Hoveskog, Maya
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Halila, Fawzi
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI).
    Mattsson, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Early Phases of the Business Model Innovation Process for Sustainability: Addressing the Status Quo of a Swedish Biogas-Producing Farm Cooperative2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 172, p. 2759-2772Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years in Sweden, interest has grown concerning the possibilities of biogas production from organic waste. This interest reflects a general concern over environmental sustainability in society. However, given the lack of financial backing and the competition of other energy producers, few Swedish biogas plants have been profitable. This is particularly the situation with farm-based biogas producers. One response to this problem in the farm-based biogas industry is to engage in business model innovation that can lead to new ways of organizing business structures and activities. This qualitative study, which takes an action research approach, explores the early phases (initiation and ideation) of the business model innovation process for sustainability at a biogas-producing farm cooperative in southern Sweden. The main activities and the actors who are central to the execution of these activities are identified in six sub-phases. The paper describes two Flourishing Business Canvas workshops in which the participants were the researchers, members of the farm cooperative, external consultants, and university students. This study contributes theoretically to the literature with its detailed examination of the early phases of the business model innovation process for sustainability. It also contributes to practice with its conceptual model that demonstrates how biogas producers and farm managers can innovate and transform their current business models towards sustainability in order to improve competitiveness and long-term profitability. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 105.
    Karlsson, Niklas P.E.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL). Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Laurell, Hélène
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Lindgren, John
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Pehrsson, Tobias
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Svensson, Göran
    Kristiania University College, Oslo, Norway.
    A cross-country comparison and validation of firms’ stakeholder considerations in sustainable business practices2018In: Corporate Governance : The International Journal of Effective Board Performance, ISSN 1472-0701, E-ISSN 1758-6054, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 408-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare and validate firms’ internal and external stakeholder considerations in sustainable business practices across business settings. It aims to assess the validity and reliability of a stakeholder framework appearing in previous studies.

    Design/methodology/approach: The study uses a questionnaire survey and a cross-industry sample consisting of the largest firms in corporate Sweden. Multivariate analysis tests the stakeholder framework. Each of the 294 key informants was initially identified and contacted by telephone, generating a response rate of 36.5 per cent.

    Findings: The tested stakeholder framework appears valid and reliable across countries to assess the internal stakeholders of focal firms, as well as their up- and downstream, market and societal stakeholders. This study provides additional empirical support to categorize firms’ stakeholder considerations in sustainable business practices.

    Research limitations/implications: This study validates previous findings in terms of Swedish firms’ considerations of internal and external stakeholders in sustainable business practices in relation to one similar country (Norway) and one different country (Spain). The study also shows how the three countries perceive the focal company and societal stakeholders differently. Practical implications: The tested framework sheds light on focal firms’ stakeholder considerations in sustainable business practices and elucidates the extent to which firms’ account for their internal and external stakeholders in sustainable business practices.

    Originality/value: This study contributes to the development of valid and reliable stakeholder theory across contexts and through time. In particular, it contributes to the development of a valid and reliable framework to categorize firms’ stakeholder considerations in sustainable business practices. © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited.

  • 106.
    Khan, Taha
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Lundgren, Lina
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Anderson, David G.
    Donald Gordon Brain and Mind Centre, Johannesburg, South Africa & School of Electrical and Information Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Novak, Irena
    Aquatic Rehabilitation Center, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Dougherty, Mark
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Verikas, Antanas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Pavel, Misha
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Jimison, Holly
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Nowaczyk, Sławomir
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Aharonson, Vered
    School of Electrical and Information Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Assessing Parkinson's disease severity using speech analysis in non-native speakers2019In: Computer speech & language (Print), ISSN 0885-2308, E-ISSN 1095-8363, article id 101047Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Speech disorder is a common manifestation of Parkinson's disease with two main symptoms, dysprosody and dysphonia. Previous research studying objective measures of speech symptoms involved patients and examiners who were native language speakers. Measures such as cepstral separation difference (CSD) features to quantify dysphonia and dysprosody accurately distinguish the severity of speech impairment. Importantly CSD, together with other speech features, including Mel-frequency coefficients, fundamental-frequency variation, and spectral dynamics, characterize speech intelligibility in PD. However, non-native language speakers transfer phonological rules of their mother language that tamper speech assessment.

    Objectives: This paper explores CSD's capability: first, to quantify dysprosody and dysphonia of non-native language speakers, Parkinson patients and controls, and secondly, to characterize the severity of speech impairment when Parkinson's dysprosody accompanies non-native linguistic dysprosody.

    Methods: CSD features were extracted from 168 speech samples recorded from 19 healthy controls, 15 rehabilitated and 23 not-rehabilitated Parkinson patients in three different clinical speech tests based on Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale motor-speech examination. Statistical analyses were performed to compare groups using analysis of variance, intraclass correlation, and Guttman correlation coefficient µ2. Random forests were trained to classify the severity of speech impairment using CSD and the other speech features. Feature importance in classification was determined using permutation importance score.

    Results: Results showed that the CSD feature describing dysphonia was uninfluenced by non-native accents, strongly correlated with the clinical examination (µ2>0.5), and significantly discriminated between the healthy, rehabilitated, and not-rehabilitated patient groups based on the severity of speech symptoms. However, the feature describing dysprosody did not correlate with the clinical examination but significantly distinguished the groups. The classification model based on random forests and selected features characterized the severity of speech impairment of non-native language speakers with high accuracy. Importantly, the permutation importance score of the CSD feature representing dysphonia was the highest compared to other features. Results showed a strong negative correlation (µ2<-0.5) between L-dopa administration and the CSD features.

    Conclusions: Although non-native accents reduce speech intelligibility, the CSD features can accurately characterize speech impairment, which is not always possible in the clinical examination. Findings support using CSD for monitoring Parkinson's disease.

    © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 107.
    Khan, Taha
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Lundgren, Lina
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research. Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Järpe, Eric
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Wiberg, Pelle
    Raytelligence AB, Halmstad, Sweden.
    A Novel Method for Classification of Running Fatigue Using Change-Point Segmentatio2019In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 19, no 21, article id 4729Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blood lactate accumulation is a crucial fatigue indicator during sports training. Previous studies have predicted cycling fatigue using surface-electromyography (sEMG) to non-invasively estimate lactate concentration in blood. This study used sEMG to predict muscle fatigue while running and proposes a novel method for the automatic classification of running fatigue based on sEMG. Data were acquired from 12 runners during an incremental treadmill running-test using sEMG sensors placed on the vastus-lateralis, vastus-medialis, biceps-femoris, semitendinosus, and gastrocnemius muscles of the right and left legs. Blood lactate samples of each runner were collected every two minutes during the test. A change-point segmentation algorithm labeled each sample with a class of fatigue level as (1) aerobic, (2) anaerobic, or (3) recovery. Three separate random forest models were trained to classify fatigue using 36 frequency, 51 time-domain, and 36 time-event sEMG features. The models were optimized using a forward sequential feature elimination algorithm. Results showed that the random forest trained using distributive power frequency of the sEMG signal of the vastus-lateralis muscle alone could classify fatigue with high accuracy. Importantly for this feature, group-mean ranks were significantly different (p < 0.01) between fatigue classes. Findings support using this model for monitoring fatigue levels during running. © 2019 by the authors.

  • 108.
    Khan, Taha
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Lundgren, Lina
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Järpe, Eric
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Wiberg, Pelle
    Raytelligence AB, Halmstad, Sweden.
    A Novel Method for Classification of Running Fatigue Using Change-Point Segmentation2019In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 19, no 21, article id 4729Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blood lactate accumulation is a crucial fatigue indicator during sports training. Previous studies have predicted cycling fatigue using surface-electromyography (sEMG) to non-invasively estimate lactate concentration in blood. This study used sEMG to predict muscle fatigue while running and proposes a novel method for the automatic classification of running fatigue based on sEMG. Data were acquired from 12 runners during an incremental treadmill running-test using sEMG sensors placed on the vastus-lateralis, vastus-medialis, biceps-femoris, semitendinosus, and gastrocnemius muscles of the right and left legs. Blood lactate samples of each runner were collected every two minutes during the test. A change-point segmentation algorithm labeled each sample with a class of fatigue level as (1) aerobic, (2) anaerobic, or (3) recovery. Three separate random forest models were trained to classify fatigue using 36 frequency, 51 time-domain, and 36 time-event sEMG features. The models were optimized using a forward sequential feature elimination algorithm. Results showed that the random forest trained using distributive power frequency of the sEMG signal of the vastus-lateralis muscle alone could classify fatigue with high accuracy. Importantly for this feature, group-mean ranks were significantly different (p < 0.01) between fatigue classes. Findings support using this model for monitoring fatigue levels during running. © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

  • 109.
    Koch, Kamilla
    et al.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Dept Ecol, D-55128 Mainz, Germany .
    Fuchs, Nadine
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Dept Ecol, D-55128 Mainz, Germany .
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Morphology of follicle cells of Libellulidae (Odonata)2011In: International journal of odonatology, ISSN 1388-7890, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 257-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In libellulids, mature oocyte size varies within and between individual ovaries. The regulating mechanism is not yet understood. Variations in the contents of the follicle cells, and thereby their ability to secrete material into the oocyte, might explain some of the observed differences in oocyte size. We therefore investigated the follicle cell surface, the interstitial space width between follicle cells and between follicle cells and oocytes, the number of nuclei, and the cell compartment proportions using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. In all investigated species, the follicle cells were covered by a basal lamina. We found cytoplasmic microvilli and septate junctions. As we could not find any pores or other structures on the cell surface, endocytosis seems to be the only mechanism transporting material into the follicle cells. Larger follicle cells had larger interstitial gaps between follicle cells and oocytes, larger nuclei and a larger mitochondrial area. Larger interstitial spaces between follicle cells and oocytes may afford more room that can be filled with material from the follicle cell layer. More mitochondria could provide more energy/ATP needed for the transport of the material. The quantity of free ribosomes and the mean number of nuclei seemed to be even more important to the productivity of the follicle cell. All these variations in cell contents cause productivity differences among follicle cells and may explain some of the size differences between oocytes within individual ovaries in libellulids.

  • 110.
    Koch, Kamilla
    et al.
    University of Mainz.
    Quast, Malte
    Waldweg 8, 38176, Wendeburg, Germany.
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Morphological differences in the ovary of Libellulidae (Odonata)2009In: International Journal of Odonatology, ISSN 1388-7890, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 147-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All female Odonata have been assumed to produce oocytes continuously during their mature life span. However, a recent study of ovariole orientation and development led to the suggestion that Libellulidae are divided into two groups of species, one with continuous, the other with stepwise oocyte production. To find more evidence of this division, we compared the size variation and growth within the vitellarium of the ovary, studying oocytes, and follicle cells. We found that morphological characters discriminate between the two ovary types in eight of the 10 investigated species. In both types we found an increase in all measurements from the anterior to the posterior end of the vitellarium. The increase in oocyte width and follicle cell length was significantly higher in species with a continuous oocyte production. We also noted that follicle cells may have more than one nucleus and that their number can vary during vitellogenesis. Our study confirmed the hypotheses that two different ovary types exist in Libellulidae. The two species not fitting into this grouping could be an artefact of small samp le size due to intraspecific phenotypic plasticity, or else there might be more than two ovary groups, or even a continuum. We could not offer an explanation as to how the process of stepwise oocyte production differs from continuous based production on morphological characters.

  • 111.
    Kohli, Manpreet K
    et al.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Rutgers University-Newark, Newark, USA.
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Kuhn, William R.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, USA.
    Ware, Jessica L.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Rutgers University-Newark, Newark, USA.
    Extremely low genetic diversity in a circumpolar dragonfly species, Somatochlora sahlbergi (Insecta: Odonata: Anisoptera)2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, p. 1-10, article id 15114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the first empirical treatment of the northernmost breeding dragonfly, Somatochlora sahlbergi. We sequenced populations from United States, Canada, Finland, Sweden and Norway for cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and D2 region of 28s. We found that, despite geographic barriers across its vast arctic range, S. sahlbergi is a single species. Not only does it appear to interbreed across its entire range, there also seems to be almost no variation among European and North American populations in their COI gene fragment (the barcode gene), which is usually extremely variable. We further found that characters thought to be diagnostic for the larvae of S. sahlbergi were absent in our European samples. We review and re-describe the habitat of this species based on new findings from recent field observations. Finally, we report for the first time the likely presence of this species in Japan. We hope our findings will encourage further study of this species and other under-studied insect taxa that inhabit the remote Arctic.

  • 112.
    Korkeamäki, Esa
    et al.
    Water and Environment Association of the River Kymi, Kouvola, Finland.
    Elo, Merja
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Salmela, Jukka
    Regional Museum of Lapland, Rovaniemi, Finland.
    Suhonen, Jukka
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Regional variations in occupancy frequency distributions patterns between odonate assemblages in Fennoscandia2018In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 9, no 4, article id e02192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Odonate (damselfly and dragonfly) species richness and species occupancy frequency distributions (SOFD) were analysed in relation to geographical location in standing waters (lakes and ponds) in Fennoscandia, from southern Sweden to central Finland. In total, 46 dragonfly and damselfly species were recorded from 292 waterbodies. Species richness decreased to the north and increased with waterbody area in central Finland, but not in southern Finland or in Sweden. Species occupancy ranged from 1 up to 209 lakes and ponds. Over 50% of the species occurred in less than 10% of the waterbodies, although this proportion decreased to the north. In the southern lakes and ponds, none of the species occurred in all lakes, whereas in the north many species were present in all of the studied waterbodies. The dispersal ability of the species did not explain the observed species occupancy frequencies, but generalist species with a large geographical range occurred in a higher percentage of the waterbodies. At Fennoscandian scale, we found that the unimodal satellite pattern was predominant. However, at smaller scale, we found geographical variations in odonate species SOFD patterns. The most southern communities followed the unimodal satellite-dominant pattern, whereas in other regions communities fitted best with the bimodal core - satellite patterns. It seems that the richer species pool in the southern locations, and the larger distribution range of the northern species, skewed the unimodal pattern into a bimodal satellite dominant pattern. © 2018 The Authors.

  • 113.
    Landgren, Ellen
    et al.
    Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Elisabet
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    van der Elst, Kristien
    University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium & KU Leuven, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Patients’ experiences of health in early rheumatoid arthritis – a qualitative study2018In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 77, p. 1802-1803, article id FRI10707-HPRArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The World Health Organization defines health as ”a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”. Health changes dramatically when a person becomes ill in a chronic disease as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA is a disease with great impact on all aspects of life. Living with RA affects patients’ health including physical, emotional, psychological and social aspects. The purpose of a person-centered care is to see patients as experts; sharing decisions with them and helping them manage their health. Therefore it is important to understand how patients in early disease stage of RA experience the concept of health.

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to describe patients’ experiences of health in early RA.

    Methods: The study had a descriptive design with a qualitative content analysis approach. Individual interviews were conducted with 24 patients with early RA. In this study the patients had disease duration less than 12 months. A manifest qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the question: “What does health mean to you?”

    Results: In the early stage of RA, patients experienced health as the most important goal in their life. They described health as well-being, independence, life satisfaction and vitality. Health as well-being meant to feel good, be painless and have a good sleep to feel rested. Health as independence meant to have both physical and financial prerequisites to perform everyday activities, to exercise and being able to travel. Health as life satisfaction meant to feel joy in life, enjoy the family and to believe in the future. Health as vitality meant to have the energy, power and strength to cope with everyday life. The patients expressed that their health had been adversely affected by the RA disease and they had a strong desire for full health including well-being, independence, life satisfaction and vitality.

    Conclusions: Patients in an early stage of RA describe a strong desire to regain health in terms of well-being, independence, life satisfaction and vitality. The concept of health at early RA is similar to health at established RA in terms of well-being, independence and life satisfaction. Unique findings for patients with early RA are the description of health as vitality, and the emphasis of having energy, power and strength to cope with everyday life. Health professionals should have these different ways of experiencing health in mind when providing person-centred care to patients with early RA. Depending on the patients’ perception of health, different support strategies are needed.

  • 114.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Andersson, M. L. E.
    Spenshult Research and Development Center, Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Ajeganova, S.
    Leiden University Medical Center - LUMC, Leiden, Netherlands.
    Bala, V.
    Helsingborgs Lasarett, Department of Medicine, Helsingborg, Sweden.
    Svensson, Björn
    Lunds Universitet, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Häggström, Åsa
    Keller, Catharina
    Helsingborg Lasarett AB, Helsingborg, Sweden.
    Leden, Ido
    Centralsjukhuset, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Teleman, Annika
    Spenshult Hospital, Olofstrom, Sweden.
    Theander, Jan
    Kristianstad Central Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    ֖stenson, Anneli
    Reasons to stop drinking alcohol among patients with rheumatoid arthritis in Sweden: A mixed-methods study2018In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 8, no 12, article id e024367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aims were to identify patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who had stopped drinking alcohol and compare them with patients drinking alcohol, and to explore reasons for stopping drinking alcohol. Design: A sequential explanatory mixed methods design was used. Setting: Six rheumatology clinics in Southern Sweden Better Anti-Rheumatic FarmacOTherapy cohort. Participants: A total of 1509 patients completed the questions about alcohol and were included in the study. 86 of these had stopped drinking alcohol and 72 responded to the open question and their answers were analysed with qualitative content analysis. Outcome measures: The quantitative data were from a cross-sectional survey assessing disease severity, physical function (Health Assessment Questionnaire, HAQ) and health-related quality of life (EuroQol five dimensions, EQ5D), pain, fatigue, patient global assessment (PatGA) and lifestyle factors, for example, alcohol. The questions assessing alcohol included an open question ’Why have you stopped drinking alcohol?’ Results: The patients who stopped drinking alcohol were older (median (min-max) 69 (36-90) vs 66 (23-95), p=0.011), had worse HAQ (1.00 (0-2.75) vs 0.50 (0-3.00), p<0.001), worse EQ5D (0.69 (-0.02-1.00) vs 0.76 (-0.58-1.00), p<0.001) worse PatGA (5 (0-10) vs 3 (0-10), p<0.001), more pain (5 (0-10) vs 3 (0-10), p<0.001) and more fatigue (6 (0-10) vs 4 (0-10), p<0.001 compared with patients drinking alcohol. The qualitative content analysis revealed five categories describing reasons for patients with RA to stop drinking alcohol: illness and treatment; health and well-being; work and family; faith and belief; and dependences and abuse. Conclusions: The patients who had stopped drinking had worse physical functioning and higher levels in pain-related variables. Most stopped drinking due to their illness or a desire to improve health. © 2018 Author(s).

  • 115.
    Larsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Department of Medical Imaging and Physiology, Skåne University Hospital Department of Translational Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Swedish Armed Forces, Eksjö, Sweden.
    Dencker, Magnus
    Department of Medical Imaging and Physiology, Skåne University Hospital Department of Translational Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Development and application of a questionnaire to self-rate physical work demands for ground combat soldiers2020In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 83, article id 103002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to identify the most physically demanding work tasks for Swedish ground combat soldiers through the development and application of a questionnaire survey. This is the first in a series of studies aiming to describe the development process and validation of physical selection standards in the Swedish armed forces.

    Methods: Based on procedural documentation, combat manuals and job analyses, a questionnaire was developed that defined and rated the perceived physical strain of 30 work tasks for ground combat soldiers. To assess validity, an expert focus group was used and psychometric analysis performed. The questionnaire was then distributed to 231 ground combat soldiers, of whom 165 responded (71%).

    Results: The questionnaire was validated in three steps to achieve face and content validity, and internal consistency was acceptable (Chronbach's alpha ≥0.95). Of the 30 work tasks included in the survey, transport of wounded was rated as the most demanding task for both aerobic capacity and strength. Other highly demanding tasks for aerobic capacity included combat movement (low/high crawl), dismounted attack in close country, urban and rough terrain and carrying heavy loads. There were no gender differences for either aerobic or strength demands in the top five most challenging tasks based on proportions.

    Conclusions: This study identified the most physically demanding tasks performed in the Swedish ground combat forces. Almost all the physically demanding tasks found in the present study contain elements of lifting and carrying, which require muscular strength and muscular endurance, with no gender differences. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 116.
    Larsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Department of Medical Imaging and Physiology, Skåne University Hospital Department of Translational medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Engberg, Amanda
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Turnstedt, Max
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Dencker, Magnus
    Department of Medical Imaging and Physiology, Skåne University Hospital Department of Translational medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Cardiovascular Effects of Load Carriage in Soldiers; A Pilot Study2019In: Book of Abstracts of the 24th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science – 3rd - 6th July 2019, Prague – Czech Republic / [ed] Bunc, V. & Tsolakidis, E., European College of Sport Science , 2019, p. 422-423Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Previous studies have shown that risk of physical fatigue increases if prolonged average work intensity exceeds 50% of oxygen uptake (VO2). In order to avoid persistent fatigue in a work setting, it is important to conduct suitable work capacity analyses. In physically demanding jobs where wearing protective gear and/or external load is mandatory, monitoring of cardiovascular demands through heart rate (HR) is one way to track the workers’ relative effort.  There are limited studies examining effects of load carrying on cardiovascular capacity where it appears that VO2peak differ when soldiers and firefighters are tested with work-related equipment/clothing compared to light clothing. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate effects of load (combat gear) on HR, VO2 and muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) compared to no load in soldiers during a graded treadmill protocol.

    Methods: Eight volunteer army soldiers (1 woman, 7 men) performed a graded treadmill test until exhaustion. All soldiers performed the test twice, once with light clothes and no load (NL) and once with added load, their personal combat gear (CG), with at least 48 h between sessions. The treadmill protocol stages included supine and standing positions, followed by marching speeds of 5.4 km/h and 8 km/h at 0 incline (all 5 min) immediately followed by a set marching speed of 8 km/h with a starting incline of 2 % increasing the incline 2 % every third minute until voluntary exhaustion. Measurements of HR, VO2 and SmO2 were collected continuously and the last 30 s of each stage were averaged and used for statistical analyses (paired t-tests).

    Results: The mean added load for all soldiers with CG was 16.8 ± 1.1 kg. All soldiers completed at least 6 stages (range 6-11 stages) with both NL and CG, where time to exhaustion with NL was longer (19.1 ± 3.2 min) compared to CG (9.1 ± 2.9 min; p <0.01). Submaximal HR and VO2 were both significantly higher with CG compared to NL (at absolute intensities) at all marching speeds all soldiers completed (5.4 km/h 0 % grade - 8 km/h 4% grade; all p<0.05). For SmO2, marching with CG compared to NL resulted in increased muscle oxygen utilization, at submaximal stages 8 km/h 0% -4% grade (all p<0.05). For values at maximal effort the CG had a significantly lower VO2peak (3.7 ± 0.5 L/min) compared to NL (4.1 ± 0.6 L/min, p <0.01), whereas there was no difference in HRpeak or the lowest value of SmO2 between CG (193.1 ± 7.2 bpm; 42.4 ± 30.3%) and NL (195.4 ± 8.9 bpm; 47.0 ± 29.2%).

    Conclusions: This pilot study suggests that assessment of aerobic capacity in soldiers should be conducted with combat gear to help determine their actual work capacity during combat and other load carrying tasks. These results suggest that if soldiers’ work performance is determined without added load it overestimates their aerobic capacity (VO2peak) in tasks wearing combat gear, which might lead to added fatigability and deleterious effect on performance.

  • 117.
    Larsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Swedish Armed Forces, Eksjö, Sweden.
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Denker, Magnus
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Self-rated physical work demands for ground combat soldiers2018In: PES 2018 3rd International Conference on Physical Employment Standards, University of Portsmouth, United Kingdom, 17-19 July 2018: Conference Book of Abstracts, 2018, p. 31-31Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Military tasks are physically demanding, and the ability to achieve and maintain the physical capacity required to perform all military tasks are important. Previous studies in other countries have identified the most physically demanding work tasks to be carrying, lifting heavy loads, and digging. The aim of the present study was to identify the most physically demanding work tasks for Swedish ground combat soldiers and to study gender differences in perceived difficulty of the tasks.

    Methods: Based on procedural documentation, field manuals and job analyses, a questionnaire was developed that defined 30 work tasks for ground combat soldiers. To assess face and content validity, an expert focus group was used. The questionnaire was distributed to 231 ground combat soldiers, 165 of whom responded (71.4%), rating the perceived physical strain of the identified work tasks.

    Results: Of the 30 item work tasks included in the survey, five were selected as the most physically demanding. Transport of wounded was rated as the most demanding task both for aerobic endurance and strength. Other highly demanding tasks for aerobic capacity were low/high crawl, dismounted attack in close country, urban and rough terrain, and carrying heavy loads. For muscle strength demands there were a total of 11 different work task ranked for hand-, arm-, leg-, and core strength although many of them only occurred in one of the areas of interest. Carrying heavy loads were ranked in second place except for leg and core strength there it was in third place, instead high and low crawl was ranked very strenuous for leg and core strength. Care of wounded were ranked high for hand strength but not so hard for the rest of the areas.

    Conclusions: Swedish ground combat soldiers rate many tasks as physically demanding. Almost all the identified tasks were physically challenging and contains elements of lifting and carrying, which demand personnel’s muscular strength and muscular endurance capabilities for the soldiers. There were no significant differences in ranked physical requirements between male and female soldiers although they sometimes ranked the tasks in different order. 

  • 118.
    Laurell, Hélène
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Karlsson, Niklas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Lindgren, John
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Svensson, Göran
    Kristiania University College, Oslo, Norway.
    Re-testing and validating a triple bottom line dominant logic for business sustainability2019In: Management of environmental quality, ISSN 1477-7835, E-ISSN 1758-6119, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 518-537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The triple bottom line (TBL) is still commonly explored in research without joint consideration of economic, social and environmental elements of business sustainability (BS). The purpose of this paper is to re-test and validate a BS framework based on the TBL approach.This study is based on a questionnaire survey consisting of the largestfirms in corporate Sweden. A total of 107 usable questionnaires were ultimately received, for a response rate of 36.5 percent. The findings validate and extend a framework of a TBL-dominant logic for BS. A total of 19 dimensions indicating satisfactory validity and reliability of the BS framework were identified. The BS framework offers relevant insights to monitor and assess a TBL-dominant logic for BS. It also provides opportunities for further research. Managers can use the BS framework as a tool to map firm priorities in connection with BS. Each dimension of the BS framework offers insights into how to monitor and assess firms’ efforts in the TBL.This study contributes to validate and extend the TBL-dominant logic for BS. The BS framework also offers a timely and relevant contribution to both scholars and practitioners engaging in business sustainability. © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited.

  • 119.
    Lennermo, Gunnar
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden & Energianalys AB, Alingsås, Sweden.
    Lauenburg, Patrick
    Department of Energy Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Control of decentralised solar district heating2019In: Solar Energy, ISSN 0038-092X, E-ISSN 1471-1257, Vol. 179, p. 307-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of decentralised solar district heating plants is to feed solar heat directly into district heatingnetworks. This decentralised heat supply has to consider two major output conditions: a stable required feed-insupply temperature and a feed-in heat power equal to the heat output from the solar collectors. However, manyinstallations cannot achieve the second output condition, since severe oscillations appear in the feed-in heatpower. This problem can be solved by two different control concepts with either temperature- or flow-control.Detailed measurements from two reference plants are provided for these two different control concepts. Onemain conclusion is that a robust control system is characterized by the ability to provide required flows andtemperatures. The major difference between robust and less robust control is that the supply temperatures and/or flows do not fluctuate even if the input conditions are unfavourable. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 120.
    Leurent, Martin
    et al.
    Université Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
    Da Costa, Pascal
    Université Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
    Jasserand, Frédéric
    Université Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
    Rämä, Miika
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT, Espoo, Finland.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Cost and climate savings through nuclear district heating in a French urban area2018In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 115, p. 616-630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares the socioeconomic potential of heating systems that could be developed in the Lyon urban area (France). The district heating (DH) systems investigated in this paper use low-carbon heat sources: large-scale heat pumps (LSHP) or nuclear combined heat and power plants (NCHP). They are compared with electric boilers and central gas boilers in terms of greenhouse gas emissions and heating costs. The heating systems are dimensioned to supply the projected 2030 heat loads for two different land surface areas (extensive and compact). The key input data is the empirical residential and tertiary heat demand per square kilometre for 2015, extrapolated to 2030 to account for the potential decrease in the heat demand (energy-efficient buildings). Given the assumptions made in this paper, the heating system that obtains the best balance between CO2 emissions and heating cost relies on an NCHP located about 30 km from Lyon. Cases in which the heat has to be transported over longer distances are considered, hence providing insights for metropolitan areas with similar size and density as the Lyon area. Implications for stakeholders and policy makers are discussed, so that to optimize future French energy systems through the most efficient use of available technologies. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 121.
    Leurent, Martin
    et al.
    Université Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
    Da Costa, Pascal
    Université Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
    Rämä, Miika
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT, Espoo, Finland.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Jasserand, Frédéric
    Université Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
    Cost-benefit analysis of district heating systems using heat from nuclear plants in seven European countries2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 149, p. 454-472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to evaluate and compare the potential cost savings and greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction of district heating (DH) systems using heat from nuclear combined heat and power plants (NCHP) in Europe. Fifteen DH + NCHP systems, spread throughout seven countries, are studied. The selection was made in collaboration with ‘the Ad-Hoc Expert Group on the Role and Economics of Nuclear Cogenerationin a Low Carbon Energy Future’ from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Firstly, the linear heat density of the modelled DH networks was determined, including locations with poorly developed DH networks. A large potential for extending DH networks was identified for France and the United Kingdom despite the expected decrease in the heat demand due to building renovation. Secondly, the costs and GHG emissions of DH + NCHP systems were evaluated via a cost benefit analysis. It concluded that 7 of the 15 projects would be cost-effective if 25% of the total urban heat demand was supplied. Implementing NCHP-based systems would reduce GHG emissions by approximately 10 Mt eCO2/a. Four additional DH + NCHP systems could become competitive if a larger share of the total demand was supplied. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the uncertainty affecting the key parameters. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

  • 122.
    Lindholm, Annelie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Almquist-Tangen, Gerd
    Child Health Care Unit, Region Halland, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Alm, Bernt
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Dahlgren, Jovanna
    Roswall, Josefine
    Staland-Nyman, Carin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Bergman, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Early life risk factors for an elevated waist-to-height ratio at 5 years of ageManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine early life risk factors for an elevated waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) at 5 years of age. A second aim was to examine if the same risk factors also were associated with overweight or obesity at the same age.

    Methods: A population-based longitudinal birth cohort study of 1,540 children, from the southwestern part of Sweden, born between October 2007 and December 2008. The children were classified as having ≥ 1 or < 1 in WHtR standard deviation scores (SDS) at five years of age, according to Swedish reference values and as having overweight/obesity or normal weight/underweight according to the IOTF. 

    Results: At five years of age, 15% of the children had WHtRSDS ³ 1 and 11% had overweight or obesity. In multivariable analyses, RWG during 0-6 months (OR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.23, 2.95), maternal pre- pregnancy BMI (1.06, 1.01,1.11) and paternal BMI (1.11, 1.01-1.21) were associated with a WHtRSDS ³ 1 at five years. RWG during 0-6 months (2.53, 1.53, 4,20), during 6-12 months (2.82, 1.37, 5.79) and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (1.12, 1.06,1.17) was associated with overweight or obesity at 5 years of age.

    Conclusions: Risk factors operating early in life are associated with an elevated WHtR and overweight or obesity at 5 years of age. Preventive interventions should especially address early RWG and parental overweight.

  • 123.
    Lindholm, Annelie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Bergman, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Alm, Bernt
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Dahlgren, Jovanna
    Roswall, Josefine
    Staland-Nyman, Carin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Almquist-Tangen, Gerd
    Child Health Care Unit, Region Halland, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Nutrition- and feeding practice-related risk factors for rapid weight gain during the first year of lifeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Rapid weight gain (RWG) during infancy increases the risk of later adiposity and the association between early nutrition and RWG needs to be further studied.

    Objectives: The present study aimed to examine nutrition- and feeding practice-related risk factors for RWG during the first year. 

    Methods: A population-based longitudinal birth cohort study of 1,869 children, classified as having RWG or non-RWG during 0–6 and 6–12 months. RWG was defined as a change > 0.67 in weight standard deviation scores. Associations between nutrition- and feeding practice-related risk factors and RWG were investigated with logistic regression models.

    Results: In the population, 46% had RWG during 0-6 months and 8% during 6-12 months. In the fully adjusted models, bottle feeding at birth, 3-4 and 6 months and nighttime meals containing formula milk at 3-4 months were positively associated with RWG during 0-6 months (p<0.001). Breastfeeding at 3-4 and 6 months was negatively associated with RWG (p<0.01). During 6-12 months, only bottle feeding at 3-4 months was positively associated with RWG (p<0.05).

    Conclusions: RWG was more common during the first 6 months of life, and bottle feeding and formula milk given at night were risk factors for RWG during this period.

  • 124.
    Lindholm, Annelie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Roswall, Josefine
    Department of Pediatrics, The Institute of Clinical Sciences at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Alm, Bernt
    Department of Pediatrics, The Institute of Clinical Sciences at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Almquist-Tangen, Gerd
    Department of Pediatrics, The Institute of Clinical Sciences at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Dahlgren, Jovanna
    Department of Pediatrics, The Institute of Clinical Sciences at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Staland Nyman, Carin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Bergman, Stefan
    Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, The Primary Health Care Unit at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Body mass index classification misses to identify children with an elevated waist-to-height ratio at 5 years of age2019In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 85, no 1, p. 30-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:  Abdominal adiposity is an important risk factor in the metabolic syndrome. Since BMI does not reveal fat distribution, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) has been suggested as a better measure of abdominal adiposity in children, but only a few studies cover the preschool population. The aim of the present study was to examine BMI and WHtR growth patterns and their association regarding their ability to identify children with an elevated WHtR at 5 years of age.

    Methods: A population-based longitudinal birth cohort study of 1540 children, followed from 0 to 5 years with nine measurement points. The children were classified as having WHtR standard deviation scores (WHtRSDS) <1 or ≥1 at 5 years. Student’s t-tests and Chi-squared tests were used in the analyses.

    Results: Association between BMISDS and WHtRSDS at 5 years showed that 55% of children with WHtRSDS ≥1 at 5 years had normal BMISDS (p < 0.001). Children with WHtRSDS ≥1 at 5 years had from an early age significantly higher mean BMISDS and WHtRSDS than children with values <1.

    Conclusions: BMI classification misses every second child with WHtRSDS ≥1 at 5 years, suggesting that WHtR adds value in identifying children with abdominal adiposity who may need further investigation regarding cardiometabolic risk factors.

    © 2018, International Pediatric Research Foundation, Inc.

  • 125.
    Lindholm, Annelie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Roswall, Josefine
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Alm, Bernt
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Tangen, Gerd Almquist
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Dahlgren, Jovanna
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nyman, Carin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Bergman, Stefan
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Children with Normal Body Mass Index may have an Increased Waist to Height Ratio2017In: Hormone Research in Paediatrics, ISSN 1663-2818, E-ISSN 1663-2826, Vol. 88, p. 525-526Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 126.
    Lund, Henrik
    et al.
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Østergaard, Poul Alberg
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Chang, Miguel
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Svendsen, Svend
    DTU, Denmark Technical University, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Sorknæs, Peter
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Thorsen, Jan Eric
    Danfoss Heating Segment, Nordborg, Denmark.
    Hvelplund, Frede
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Mortensen, Bent Ole Gram
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Mathiesen, Brian Vad
    Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bojesen, Carsten
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Duic, Neven
    University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Zhang, Xiliang
    Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Möller, Bernd
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    The status of 4th generation district heating: Research and results2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 164, p. 147-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review article presents a description of contemporary developments and findings related to the different elements needed in future 4th generation district heating systems (4GDH). Unlike the first three generations of district heating, the development of 4GDH involves meeting the challenge of more energy efficient buildings as well as the integration of district heating into a future smart energy system based on renewable energy sources. Following a review of recent 4GDH research, the article quantifies the costs and benefits of 4GDH in future sustainable energy systems. Costs involve an upgrade of heating systems and of the operation of the distribution grids, while benefits are lower grid losses, a better utilization of low-temperature heat sources and improved efficiency in the production compared to previous district heating systems. It is quantified how benefits exceed costs by a safe margin with the benefits of systems integration being the most important. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

  • 127.
    Lundgren, Lina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Zügner, Roland
    Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Tranberg, Roy
    Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Effect of stance width on kinematics of laboratory landings with fixed feet on a kiteboard2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 128.
    Lygnerud, Kristina
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Challenges for business change in district heating2018In: Energy, Sustainability and Society, ISSN 2192-0567, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Swedish district heating sector is successfully transitioning to a low-carbon energy system. The industry has expanded since the 1950s and currently meets more than half the Swedish heat demand. The heat market was deregulated in 1996, and thereafter, companies have been exposed to an increasing number of challenges related to technology, institutional factors and market. Since municipal ownership dominates, municipal companies must manage these challenges to ensure future competitiveness. However, theory suggests that business change is difficult when the current model is still working. To date, Swedish district heating companies have revisited their price models and customer perceptions. There is limited knowledge on how the business challenges are managed and on the management strategy’s impact on the business. In this paper, new knowledge is generated regarding how the customer and resource-oriented sides of the municipally owned district heating business in Sweden are changing. Methods: A case study approach was adopted. Data were collected by interviews and by review of the national research programme on district heating (Fjärrsyn). The programme served as a proxy for frontline research on Swedish district heating. The data were analyzed through the business model canvas framework. Results: Changes to meet external pressures are identified on the customer side of the business model, but changes are also spreading to other parts of it. However, the key resource component (distribution networks and production unit) and its logic of economics of scale are unchanged and dominate. The logic is not compatible with shrinking heat demand; nevertheless, it is preferred. Conclusions: It is concluded that external challenges have resulted in changes in the customer side of the business model. However, the largest challenge is the transformation of key resources. Accounting for external challenges extends the life of the current business model, but it is not increasing competitiveness. The prolonged life creates a window of opportunity for the companies to begin the needed transformation of their key resources. If the transformation is successful, district heating will have a role in the future energy system. If the transformation is not undertaken, the future is less certain. © 2018, The Author(s).

  • 129.
    Lygnerud, Kristina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Risk assessment of industrial excess heat recovery in district heating systems2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 151, p. 430-441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recovery of industrial excess heat for use in district heating systems can be characterised by great political interest, high potential, low utilisation and often high profitability. These characteristics reveal that barriers are present for its greater utilisation. One identified barrier is the risk that industries with excess heat can terminate their activities, resulting in the loss of heat recovery. Excess heat recovery investments are therefore sometimes rejected, despite them being viable investments. The risk of termination of industrial activities has been assessed by a study of 107 excess heat recoveries in Sweden. The analysis verified that terminated industrial activities are one of two major explanations for terminated heat delivery. The other major reason is substitution by another heat supply. These two explanations correspond to approximately 6% of all annual average heat recoveries. The identified risk factors are small annual heat recovery and the use of heat pumps when low-temperature heat was recovered. The main conclusion is that a small proportion of industrial heat recovery has been lost in Sweden because of terminated industrial activities. The risk premium of losing industrial heat recovery for this specific reason should be considered to be lower than often presumed in feasibility studies. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

  • 130.
    Lygnerud, Kristina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Risk of industrial heat recovery in district heating systems2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 116, p. 152-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial heat recovery can be used in district heating systems. It is a possibility to make use of heat that is otherwise lost. Increased usage of industrial heat recovery reduces the need for fuel combustion lowering green-house gas (GHG) emissions, such as CO2. Industrial companies can, however, move or close down industrial activities. This is apprehended as a risk and lowers the interest of district heating companies to invest in industrial heat recovery.

    In Swedish district heating systems, industrial heat recoveries have been undertaken since 1974. Today, the heat recovery is active in about seventy systems. This leads to the question of how risky it is, for district heating companies, to engage in industrial heat recovery.

    Over forty years of operation statistics have been collected and analyzed in order to estimate the risk of industrial heat recovery to district heating companies. Key results show that the risk is not linked to different industrial branches. Recommendations include suggestions to management on how to consider risk and consequence when assessing potential industrial heat recovery investments. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 131.
    Löfgren, Hans
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    A first order friction model for lubricated sheet metal forming2018In: Theoretical and Applied Mechanics Letters, ISSN 2095-0349, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 57-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the derivation of a first order friction model for lubricated sheet metal forming. Assuming purely plastic real contacts, Newton's law of viscosity, and a square root behavior of the hydrodynamic coefficient of friction with respect to the hydrodynamic Hersey parameter an analytic model is found. The model predicts the coefficient of friction as a function of the relative pressure, the relative Hersey parameter and the real contact coefficient of friction. Questions about local and global friction are raised in the validation of the model against flat tool sheet experiments. For some flat tool sheet experiments reasonable agreements are obtained assuming a rigid punch pressure distribution. The restricted number of user inputs makes the model useful in early tool design simulations. © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of The Chinese Society of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics

  • 132.
    Lööf, Pär-Johan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Dambreville, Lucas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). École Nationale d’Ingénieurs de Saint-Étienne, Saint-Étienne, France.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Nilsson, Per H.
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Evaluation of Surface Changes under Twin Disc Tests2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to choose the right manufacturing process in terms of costs and component performance, three differently manufactured surfaces were investigated: brushed, multiple shot-peened and phosphated surfaces. In-house twin disc tribometer was used to test the wear and fatigue performance of the different surfaces. The evoution of the surface topography has been evaluated by in-line stylus and microscope image measurements as well as interference measurements of replicas taken at various test intervals. The form changes has been assessed by stylus measurements. The results have shown that the surface roughness played the major role to wear and fatigue performance.

  • 133.
    Lööf, Pär-Johan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Cabanettes, Frederic
    ENISE, Saint-Étienne, France.
    Nilsson, Per H.
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology, ATR, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Virtual Evaluation of Gear Manufacture – To Use 3D Surface Data to Predict Performance2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturing and finishing of gears include several processes such as grinding, hobbing, shaving, honing, shot peening and phosphating. For the automotive industry it is a constant challenge to improve the durability and reduce the fuel consumption in a cost effective way by using robust processes for mass manufacturing. A better knowledge of the properties of the manufactured surfaces in gears, and especially how they interact in different combinations is an important knowledge when designing gearboxes for the future. The following paper proposes an efficient way for choosing the better manufacturing and predicting the behavior of new combinations of process parameters in the early stage of the design process based on simulations of 3D surface measurements. The simulation model uses two rough surfaces of counterpart gear teeth contacting and deforming elastically under a typically critical load during operation. Outputs from the simulations are the pressure distribution and real contact area later used for ranking the differently manufactured surfaces. Four different types of surfaces were taken from manufacturing; samples were extracted and measured on a coherence scanning interferometer. Two surface types were ground differently and two were shot-peened with different process parameters. The results show the shot-peened surfaces, especially the double shot-peened type B1, performed better than the ground ones manifested in larger real contact areas and lower/fewer pressure spikes. Based on the correlations of the 3D roughness parameters with the simulation outputs, some roughness parameters are suggested for more robust quality control.

  • 134.
    Lööf, Pär-Johan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Rosén, Bengt Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Nilsson, Per
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Measuring Technique for Characterization of Micropitting2017In: Mets&Props 2017: 16th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces: Conference abstracts, 2017, p. 185-186Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 135.
    Maaroufi, Nadia
    et al.
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden & Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden.
    Palmqvist, Kristin
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science (EMG), Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Bach, Lisbeth H.
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science (EMG), Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Bokhorst, Stef
    Department of Ecological Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Liess, Antonia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Department of Ecology and Environmental Science (EMG), Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Gundale, Michael J.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden.
    Kardol, Paul
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden.
    Nordin, Annika
    Umeå Plant Science Center (UPSC), Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden.
    Meunier, Cédric L.
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science (EMG), Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden & Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung (AWI), Biologische Anstalt Helgoland, Helgoland, Germany.
    Nutrient optimization of tree growth alters structure and function of boreal soil food webs2018In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 428, p. 46-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutrient optimization has been proposed as a way to increase boreal forest production, and involves chronic additions of liquid fertilizer with amounts of micro- and macro-nutrients adjusted annually to match tree nutritional requirements. We used a short-term (maintained since 2007) and a long-term (maintained since 1987) fertilization experiment in northern Sweden, in order to understand nutrient optimization effects on soil microbiota and mesofauna, and to explore the relationships between plant litter and microbial elemental stoichiometry. Soil microbes, soil fauna, and aboveground litter were collected from the control plots, and short- and long-term nutrient optimization plots. Correlation analyses revealed no relationships between microbial biomass and litter nutrient ratios. Litter C:N, C:P and N:P ratios declined in response to both optimization treatments; while only microbial C:P ratios declined in response to long-term nutrient optimization. Further, we found that both short- and long-term optimization treatments decreased total microbial, fungal, and bacterial PLFA biomass and shifted the microbial community structure towards a lower fungi:bacterial ratio. In contrast, abundances of most fungal- and bacterial-feeding soil biota were little affected by the nutrient optimization treatments. However, abundance of hemi-edaphic Collembola declined in response to the long-term nutrient optimization treatment. The relative abundances (%) of fungal-feeding and plant-feeding nematodes, respectively, declined and increased in response to both short-term and long-term treatments; bacterial-feeding nematodes increased relative to fungal feeders. Overall, our results demonstrate that long-term nutrient optimization aiming to increase forest production decreases litter C:N, C:P and N:P ratios, microbial C:P ratios and fungal biomass, whereas higher trophic levels are less affected. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.

  • 136.
    Malm, Karina
    et al.
    Research and Development Centre, Spenshult, Oskarström.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Research and Development Centre, Spenshult, Oskarström & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Andersson, Maria
    Research and Development Centre, Spenshult, Oskarström & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Research and Development Centre, Spenshult, Oskarström.
    BARFOT Study Group,
    Worse physical function at disease onset predicts a worse outcome in physical function, but not in meeting who physical activity recommendations, nine years later2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Long term disease impact on physical functioning in the most affected patients with RA is not well described. Impaired function and inability to be physically active are associated features and it is well known that people with RA are less physically active compared with the general population.

    Objectives: To study predictive variables for a worse outcome in physical function and physical activity measures in a long time follow-up study.

    Methods: Between 1992 and 2005 all patients with newly diagnosed RA according to criteria of the American College of Rheumatology were asked to participate in the BARFOT study, a collaboration between six Swedish rheumatology departments. In 2010 all patients (n=2114) included in the study received a follow-up questionnaire 5-18 years after disease onset. Using logistic regression analyses, the dependent variables physical function (dichotomized by their mean value) were measured with the HAQ (scores 0 to 3, best to worst), the RAOS (Rheumatoid Arthritis Outcome Score) subscales ADL and sport/rec (0-100, worst to best) and meeting vs. not meeting WHO recommendations of physical activity (WHOrec) for a healthy life style (moderate intensity ≥150 min/week or higher intensity for at least 30 minutes 2-3 times/week). Possible predictive variables at baseline were function (HAQ and SOFI, Signals of Functional Impairment, 0-44, best to worse), disease activity (CRP, swollen and tender joints), pain (VAS 0-100, best to worst) and age. We also controlled for sex and disease duration in 2010.

    Results: Questionnaire response was 72% (n=1525), mean (m) age 65 years (SD 14), m follow-up time 9 years (SD 3.7) and 70% (n=1069) were women.

    At inclusion the patients reported a disease duration of m 8 (SD 9) months, HAQ m 1.0 (SD 0.6), VAS pain m 46 (SD24), SOFI m 8.0 (SD6.0). Disease activity was CRP m 30.2 (SD 35.9), swollen joints m 10.2 (SD 5.7) and tender joints m 8.2 (SD 6.2).

    In the 2010 survey, time from inclusion was m 9.4 (SD 3.8) years, the HAQ m 0.6 (SD 0.6), and VAS pain m 35.5 (SD 25.6) had decreased (p<0.001). RAOS ADL was m 71,1 (SD 22.0), RAOS sport/rec m 40.0 (SD 30.0) and 61% (N=894) met the WHOrec.

    Worse scores in the HAQ, VAS pain and SOFI at baseline increased the risk for worse physical function in the 2010 survey measured with the HAQ (VAS pain OR 1.02, SOFI OR 1.09 and HAQ OR 3.98, p<0.000), the RAOS ADL scale (VAS pain OR 1.02, SOFI OR 1,09 and HAQ OR 2.66, p<0.000) and the RAOS sport/rec scale (VAS pain OR 1.02, SOFI OR 1.11 and HAQ OR 2.57, p<0.000). Being a woman, higher age at inclusion and longer disease duration at follow-up also predicted a worse function in the HAQ and both RAOS subscales while none of the studied variables could predict who did/did not meet the WHOrec in 2010.

    Conclusions: Worse physical function and worse pain at disease onset can predict a worse physical function several years later. However, it does not predict the amount of physical activity actually being performed. It is of importance to already at disease onset recognize patients with impaired function and higher pain levels who are in need of multidisciplinary treatments. It is also important to early in the disease recommend a healthy life style according to the WHOrec since measures of function and being physically active are different entities.

    Disclosure of Interest: None Declared

  • 137.
    Malm, Karina
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden; Rheumatology, Capio Movement, Halmstad, Sweden & FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden & The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson, Maria LE
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing. Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Quality of life in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis: A phenomenographic study2017In: SAGE Open Medicine, E-ISSN 2050-3121, Vol. 5, article id 2050312117713647Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis perceive reduced quality of life in several domains, such as physical health, level of independence, environment and personal beliefs, compared with the healthy population. There is an increasing interest in quality of life in clinical and medical interventions. Few studies have explored patients' individual conceptions of quality of life, and interviews can thus complement quantitative studies. There is a need for a deeper understanding of the patients' experiences of quality of life, with regard to living with a long-term condition such as rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of this study was to explore the variation of ways in which patients with established rheumatoid arthritis understand the concept of quality of life.

    METHODS: The study had a qualitative design with a phenomenographic approach, which was used to describe variations in how individuals experience their quality of life. The study is based on interviews with 22 patients with established rheumatoid arthritis enrolled in the BARFOT (better anti-rheumatic pharmacotherapy) study.

    RESULTS: The concept of quality of life could be understood in three different ways: (1) independence in terms of physical functioning and personal finances, (2) empowerment in how to manage life and (3) participation as an experience of belonging in a social context.

    CONCLUSION: The different conceptions of quality of life reflect the complexity in the concept, including physical, psychological and social aspects. This complexity is important to have in mind when health professionals support patients in enhancing their quality of life. © The Author(s) 2017

  • 138.
    Malm, Karina
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Centre, Halmstad, Sweden & Rheumatology, Capio Movement, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Centre, Halmstad, Sweden & Primary Health Care Unit, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Centre, Halmstad, Sweden & Department of Regional Health Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark & Danish Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, University Hospital of Southern Denmark, Sønderborg, Denmark.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Spenshult Research and Development Centre, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Andersson, Maria L. E.
    Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Centre, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Discussions of lifestyle habits as an integral part of care management: a cross-sectional cohort study in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis in Sweden2019In: Rheumatology Advances in Practice, E-ISSN 2514-1775, Vol. 3, no 2, article id rkz039Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The primary aim was to determine whether patients with RA recalled having discussions concerning lifestyle habits during their health-care visits. The secondary aim was to study the association between patients' reported lifestyle and their wish to discuss it.

    Methods: A postal questionnaire sent to 1542 eligible patients from the Better Anti-Rheumatic Pharmacotherapy (BARFOT) study included questions on lifestyle habits (physical activity, diet, smoking and alcohol), on whether these were discussed during health-care visits and on whether there was an interest in such discussions.

    Results: A total of 1061 patients (68%) responded [mean age 67 (s.d. 13) years, 73% women]. Half of the patients (49%) recalled discussions on physical activity, and 23% recalled discussions about diet. Those who reported health-enhancing levels of physical activity were more likely to discuss physical activity with their health professionals. Likewise, patients who reported having a non-traditional mixed diet were more likely to discuss diet. Smoking was discussed with 25% of the patients, more often with current smokers than with non-smokers (32 vs 17%; P < 0.001). Alcohol was discussed with 17% of the patients. Of those patients who reported having hazardous drinking habits, 77% had not discussed alcohol use with any health professional.

    Conclusion: Discussions about lifestyle were recalled by half of the patients with established RA. There is a need for improvement, because lifestyle habits may affect the long-term outcome in a chronic disease, such as RA. Patient education concerning lifestyle habits should be an integral part of care management and an interactive process. © Malm et al. 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology.

  • 139.
    Malmborg, Julia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Olsson, Charlotte M.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Pain and its association to health, orthorexia nervosa, sports performance, and physical maturity in sport school adolescents2017In: Proceedings of the Nordic Sport Science Conference – ‘The Double-Edged Sword of Sport: Health Promotion Versus Unhealthy Environments’ / [ed] Hertting, K. & Johnson, U., Halmstad: Halmstad University Press, 2017, p. 56-57Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 140.
    Malmborg, Julia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Olsson, Charlotte M.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bergman, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Health status, physical activity, and orthorexia nervosa: A comparison between exercise science students and business students2017In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 109, p. 137-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Orthorexia nervosa is described as an exaggerated fixation on healthy food. It is unclear whether students in health-oriented academic programs, highly focused on physical exercise, are more prone to develop orthorexia nervosa than students in other educational areas. The aim was to compare health status, physical activity, and frequency of orthorexia nervosa between university students enrolled in an exercise science program (n = 118) or a business program (n = 89). The students completed the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and ORTO-15, which defines orthorexia nervosa as a sensitive and obsessive behavior towards healthy nutrition. The SF-36 showed that exercise science students scored worse than business students regarding bodily pain (72.8 vs. 82.5; p = 0.001), but better regarding general health (83.1 vs. 77.1; p = 0.006). Of 188 students, 144 (76.6%) had an ORTO-15 score indicating orthorexia nervosa, with a higher proportion in exercise science students than in business students (84.5% vs. 65.4%; p = 0.002). Orthorexia nervosa in combination with a high level of physical activity was most often seen in men in exercise science studies and less often in women in business studies (45.1% vs. 8.3%; p < 0.000). A high degree of self-reporting of pain and orthorexia nervosa in exercise science students may cause problems in the future, since they are expected to coach others in healthy living. Our findings may be valuable in the development of health-oriented academic programs and within student healthcare services. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  • 141.
    Malmborg, Julia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bergman, A.-C.
    Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Primary Health Care Unit, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sleeping Problems and Anxiety is Associated to Chronic Multisite Musculoskeletal Pain in Swedish High School Students2018In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 77, no Suppl. 2, p. 226-226, article id OP0361-HPRArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The relationship between chronic multisite musculoskeletal pain (CMP) and sleep is complex, where pain can lead to sleeping problems and lack of sleep can intensify the pain perception. Most previous studies relates to adults, but adolescents may also suffer from CMP, and there is a need for more knowledge regarding the relationships between CMP and sleeping problems, stress, anxiety, depression, and health status.

    Objectives: To study background factors associated to CMP in first year Swedish high school students.

    Methods: First year Swedish high school students (n=296) were invited to complete questionnaires on chronic pain (mannequin with 18 body regions), sleeping problems (Uppsala Sleep Inventory, four items scored from 1–5), stress (ELO questions, scored from 1–5), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, scored from 0–21), health status (EQ-5D, scored from 0 to 1, worst to best) and physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire, categorised into low, moderate and high levels). Stress and sleeping items were dichotomized into 1–3 points (best) vs 4–5 points (worst). Individuals scoring at least severe problems (4 points) at one or more sleeping items were classified as having severe sleeping problems. HADS were categorised as non-cases (0–7), possible7–10 and probable cases (11–21 points). Students were grouped as having CMP (pain present in ≥3 regions) or not (no chronic pain or chronic pain in 1–2 regions). Multiple logistic regression analyses (adjusted for sex) with CMP as dependent variable were performed in SPSS, version 24.

    Results: 254 students (86% of total sample, 87 boys and 167 girls) with a mean age of 16.1 (SD 0.6) years participated in the study. CMP was present in 25 (9.8%) students with no differences between boys and girls (8.0% vs 10.8%; p=0.488). Having CMP was associated with reporting severe sleeping problems (OR 2.49, 95% CI: 1.06 to 5.81, p=0.035) with initiating sleep, maintaining sleep, early morning awakenings and/or not feeling restored after sleep in comparison to the other students. Students with CMP were more likely to be categorised as probable cases for anxiety (OR 3.06, 95% CI: 1.09 to 8.61, p=0.034), but there were no associations for possible cases for anxiety (OR 1.15, 95% CI: 0.38 to 3.51, p=0.800), possible cases (OR 2.03, 95% CI: 0.63 to 6.54), or probable cases for depression (OR 3.35, 95% CI: 0.33 to 33.83). There was a nearly significant association between stress and belonging to the CMP group (OR 2.31, 95% CI: 0.97 to 5.53, p=0.059). A higher self-reported health status was associated to a lower likelihood for CMP (OR 0.04, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.27, p=0.001). Distribution of physical activity levels of low, moderate and high was not significantly associated to having CMP in comparison with not having it.

    Conclusions: One in ten high school students fulfilled criteria for having chronic multisite musculoskeletal pain. CMP was associated to sleeping problems, anxiety, and a worse health status. The results from this study may be used by school health-care professionals in their preventive work to promote student’s health.

    Disclosure of Interest: None declared

  • 142.
    Malmborg, Julia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Olsson, Charlotte M.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bergman, Stefan
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Daily Musculoskeletal Pain Affects Health And Sports Performance Negatively In Youth Athletes2017In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 49, p. 972-972Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In sports, musculoskeletal pain (MSP) is often studied from the perspective of sport specific injuries, why little is known about the prevalence of daily or multisite MSP that does not affect participation in sports. It is also unclear if daily or multisite MSP is a risk factor for worse health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and worse sports performance in youth athletes.

    PURPOSE: To study how HRQoL and sports performance is affected by daily MSP in youth athletes that are able to participate in sports.

    METHODS: 136 Swedish youth athletes attending a sport school (13 to 14 years, boys n=83, girls n=53) completed the EQ-5D measuring HRQoL (range 0 to 1, worst to best), a pain questionnaire including current pain (yes/no), pain in 18 body regions (never to rarely/monthly to weekly/more than once a week to almost daily), and pain intensity in the last week (0 to 10, best to worst), anthropometric measures to estimate biological age, and sports performance tests (grip strength, 20 meter sprint, and countermovement jump(CMJ)).

    RESULTS: 109 to 117 of the 136 students answered the different pain questions. 53 of 113 (47%) reported current MSP, and 28 of 109 (26%) experienced MSP ‘more than once a week to almost daily’ from one or more body regions (frequent MSP group), while 28% (n=30) stated ‘never to rarely’ in MSP (no MSP group). Boys in the frequent MSP group reported worse HRQoL, higher pain intensity, performed worse in all sports performance tests, and had a younger biological age than boys in the no MSP group. Girls in the frequent MSP group reported worse HRQoL and higher pain intensity than the girls in the no MSP group. No other differences were found (table).

    CONCLUSIONS: Every other youth athlete attending a sport school reported current MSP and one out of four reported almost daily MSP. MSP affects HRQoL negatively in both boys and girls, and sports performance negatively in boys. The prevalence of MSP in youth athletes is concerning since pain in younger ages may predict pain in adult ages.

    © 2017 American College of Sports Medicine

  • 143.
    Malmborg, Julia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Malmö Sports Academy, Malmö, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Musculoskeletal pain and its association with maturity and sports performance in 14-year-old sport school students2018In: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine, ISSN 2055-7647, Vol. 4, no 1, article id e000395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: In youth sports, musculoskeletal pain is often studied from the standpoint of sports injuries, but little is known about pain conditions in which athletes still participate. The aim was to study the frequency of pain and associations with maturity offset, health status and sports performance in 14-year-old sport school students.

    Methods: Cross-sectional design. One hundred and seventy-eight students (108 boys and 70 girls) completed anthropometric measures for maturity offset (height, weight and sitting height), questionnaires (pain mannequin and EQ-5D for health status) and sports performance tests (sprint, agility, counter-movement jump and grip strength). Differences between groups were analysed with Student’s t-test and analysis of covariance.

    Results: Thirty-one students (18.6%) reported infrequent pain, 85 (50.9%) frequent pain and 51 (30.5%) constant pain. Students in the constant pain group had worse health status than those in the infrequent pain group. Boys with constant pain (n=27) had a lower mean maturity offset (–0.38 vs 0.07 years; p=0.03) than boys with infrequent pain (n=22), and pain was associated with worse sports performance. There was no difference in maturity or sports performance between girls with constant pain (n=24) and girls with infrequent pain (n=9).

    Conclusion: Musculoskeletal pain is common in sport school students and coincides with worse health status and with a younger biological age in boys. The high prevalence of pain should be acknowledged by coaches and student healthcare workers in order to promote a healthy and sustainable development in young athletes. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2018.

  • 144.
    Malmborg, Julia S
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark & University Hospital of Southern Denmark, Sønderborg, Denmark & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bergman, Anna-Carin
    Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Brorsson, A Sofia
    Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden & The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Worse health status, sleeping problems, and anxiety in 16-year-old students are associated with chronic musculoskeletal pain at three-year follow-up2019In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 1565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Chronic musculoskeletal pain is common in adolescents, and it has been shown that adolescents with pain may become young adults with pain. Pain often coincides with psychosomatic symptoms in adults, but little is known about longitudinal associations and predictors of pain in adolescents. The aim was to investigate chronic musculoskeletal pain and its associations with health status, sleeping problems, stress, anxiety, depression, and physical activity in 16-year-old students at baseline, and to identify risk factors using a three-year follow-up.

    METHODS: This was a longitudinal study of 256 students attending a Swedish upper secondary school. Questionnaires regarding chronic musculoskeletal pain and distribution of pain (mannequin), health status (EQ-5D-3 L), sleeping problems (Uppsala Sleep Inventory), stress symptoms (single-item question), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire) were issued at baseline and follow-up. Student's t-test and chi2 test were used for descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were used to study associations between chronic pain and independent variables.

    RESULTS: Fifty-two out of 221 students at baseline (23.5%) and 39 out of 154 students at follow-up (25.3%) were categorized as having chronic musculoskeletal pain. Chronic musculoskeletal pain at follow-up was separately associated with reporting of an EQ-5D value below median (OR 4.06, 95% CI 1.83-9.01), severe sleeping problems (OR 3.63, 95% CI 1.69-7.82), and possible anxiety (OR 4.19, 95% CI 1.74-10.11) or probable anxiety (OR 3.82, 95% CI 1.17-12.48) at baseline. Similar results were found for associations between chronic musculoskeletal pain and independent variables at baseline. In multiple logistic regression analysis, chronic musculoskeletal pain at baseline was a predictor of chronic musculoskeletal pain at follow-up (OR 2.99, 95% CI 1.09-8.24, R2 = 0.240).

    CONCLUSION: Chronic musculoskeletal pain at baseline was the most important predictor for reporting chronic musculoskeletal pain at the three-year follow-up, but a worse health status, severe sleeping problems, and anxiety also predicted persistence or development of chronic musculoskeletal pain over time. Interventions should be introduced early on by the school health services to promote student health.

  • 145.
    Mattsson, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Landsbygdsutveckling kan bidra till att uppnå klimatmålen2017In: Så här ligger landet - tankar om landsbygdsprogram och landsbygdsutveckling / [ed] Utvärderingssekretariatet vid Jordbruksverket, Jönköping: Jordbruksverket , 2017, p. 72-76Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 146.
    Mattsson, Marie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Karlsson, Niklas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Hansson, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Hoveskog, Maya
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Halila, Fawzi
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Circular Economy in the Agricultural Sector. Farm based biogas production as a way forward2019In: 4th International Conference on New Business Models. New Business Models for Sustainable Entrepreneurship, Innovation, and Transformation: Full Conference Proceedings. 1-3 July 2019, ESCP Europe Berlin, Germany / [ed] Lüdeke-Freund, F. & Froese, T., 2019, p. 44-48Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 147.
    Matveenko, L.I.
    et al.
    Space Research Institute, Profsojuznaja 84/32, Moscow 117810, Russian Federation.
    Pauliny-Toth, L.I.K.
    Max-Planck-Inst. F. Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn, Germany.
    Bååth, Lars
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Graham, D.A.
    Max-Planck-Inst. F. Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn, Germany.
    Sherwood, W.A.
    Max-Planck-Inst. F. Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn, Germany.
    Kus, A.J.
    Torun Radio Astronomy Observatory, Gagarina 11, PL-87100 Torun, Poland.
    The structure of the quasar 3C345 at lambda 49cm and its relation to low-frequency variability1996In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 312, p. 738-744Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The structure of the quasar 3C345 has been studied at lambda 49cm with a global VLBI network. The core has a low-freuqncy cut off in its spectrum, and is very weak at this wavelength. The most compact bright knot is the part of the jet nearest to the nucleus, with a size of about 5x4 mas and a brightness temperature of Tb about 0.6 10^12 K. Its flux density and solid angle increased by a factor of about 2 during the period 1983.9 to 1990.8, but the birghtness temperature did not change significantly. The emission at millimeter wavelengths decreased by a factor of about 2 during the same period, while the UV emission from the nucleus also dcreased. We suggest that variations in the low-frequency emissions are caused by changes in the absorption by a cocoon - the thermal plasma surrounding the jet. The electron density in the region is Ne about 10^5 cm^-3and the longitudal field is about 40 microG. The emission measure and the rotation measure vary with r, the distance from the nucleus as r^-3. The data at lamda 49cm indi´cate several components in and near the "hotspot" at the end of the arcsec jet.

  • 148.
    Meesters, Jorit J.L.
    et al.
    1ERC Syd, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden & Department of Orthopaedics, Rehabilitation and Physical Therapy, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands & Research and Development, Sophia Rehabilitation Center, The Hague, The Netherlands.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Section of Rheumatology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Primary Health Care Unit, Institute of Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Lennart Th
    Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Petersson, Ingemar F.
    Section of Orthopedics, Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Section of Rheumatology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Prognostic factors for change in self-reported anxiety and depression in spondyloarthritis patients: data from the population-based SpAScania cohort from southern Sweden2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0300-9742, E-ISSN 1502-7732, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 185-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Anxiety and depression symptoms are more common in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA) than in the general population. This study describes prognostic factors for change in self-reported anxiety and depression over 2 years in a well-defined SpA cohort.

    METHOD: In 2009, 3716 adult patients from the SpAScania cohort received a postal questionnaire to assess quality of life (QoL) and physical and mental functioning. A follow-up survey was performed in 2011. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale indicated 'no', 'possible', and 'probable' cases of anxiety and depression. Transitions between the three different categories were analysed and logistic regression analysis determined prognostic factors (patient-reported outcomes and characteristics) for improvement or deterioration.

    RESULTS: In total, 1629 SpA patients responded to both surveys (44%) (mean ± SD age 55.8 ± 13.1 years, disease duration 14.6 ± 11.7 years); 27% had ankylosing spondylitis, 55% psoriatic arthritis, and 18% undifferentiated SpA. The proportion of patients reporting possible/probable anxiety decreased from 31% to 25% over 2 years, while no changes in depression were seen. Factors associated with deterioration or improvement were largely the same for anxiety as for depression: fatigue, general health, QoL, level of functioning, disease activity, and self-efficacy. However, reporting chronic widespread pain (CWP) at baseline increased the risk of becoming depressed and decreased the probability of recovering from anxiety.

    CONCLUSION: Self-reported anxiety and depression is common and fairly stable over time in SpA patients. The association between mental health and CWP indicates that both comorbidities need to be acknowledged and treated in the clinic. © 2018 The Author(s).

  • 149.
    Meunier, Cédric L.
    et al.
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Liess, Antonia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden & Umeå Marine Sciences Centre, Norrbyn, Hörnefors, Sweden.
    Brugel, Sonia
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden & Umeå Marine Sciences Centre, Norrbyn, Hörnefors, Sweden.
    Paczkowska, Joanna
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden & Umeå Marine Sciences Centre, Norrbyn, Hörnefors, Sweden.
    Rahman, Habib
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Skoglund, Björn
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Rowe, Owen F.
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden & Umeå Marine Sciences Centre, Norrbyn, Hörnefors, Sweden.
    Allochthonous carbon is a major driver of the microbial food web - A mesocosm study simulating elevated terrestrial matter runoff2017In: Marine Environmental Research, ISSN 0141-1136, E-ISSN 1879-0291, Vol. 129, p. 236-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change predictions indicate that coastal and estuarine environments will receive increased terrestrial runoff via increased river discharge. This discharge transports allochthonous material, containing bioavailable nutrients and light attenuating matter. Since light and nutrients are important drivers ofbasal production, their relative and absolute availability have important consequences for the base of the aquatic food web, with potential ramifications for higher trophic levels. Here, we investigated the effects of shifts in terrestrial organic matter and light availability on basal producers and their grazers. In twelve Baltic Sea mesocosms, we simulated the effects of increased river runoff alone and in combination. We manipulated light (clear/shade) and carbon (added/not added) in a fully factorial design, with three replicates. We assessed microzooplankton grazing preferences in each treatment to assess whether increased terrestrial organic matter input would: (1) decrease the phytoplankton to bacterial biomass ratio, (2) shift microzooplanlcton diet from phytoplankton to bacteria, and (3) affect microzooplankton biomass. We found that carbon addition, but not reduced light levels per se resulted in lower phytoplanlcton to bacteria biomass ratios. Microzooplankton generally showed a strong feeding preference for phytoplanlcton over bacteria, but, in carbon-amended mesocosms which favored bacteria, microzooplankton shifted their diet towards bacteria. Furthermore, low total prey availability corresponded with low microzooplankton biomass and the highest bacteria/phytoplankton ratio. Overall our results suggest that in shallow coastal waters, modified with allochthonous matter from river discharge, light attenuation may be inconsequential for the basal producer balance, whereas increased allochthonous carbon, especially if readily bioavailable, favors bacteria over phytoplankton. We conclude that climate change induced shifts at the base of the food web may alter energy mobilization to and thebiomass of microzooplankton grazers. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 150.
    Mogard, E.
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, E.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Risk factors for development and persistence of chronic widespread pain, in ankylosing spondylitis and undifferentiated spondyloarthritis2017In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 76, no Suppl. 2, p. 922-922Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Chronic back pain is a prominent symptom in Spondyloarthritis (SpA), and an important contributor to diminished quality of life (1,2). Chronic pain can develop in intensity, become more spread, and progress to chronic widespread pain (2). Mechanisms for this are yet inconsistent (3), and in SpA, knowledge of progression to chronic widespread pain (CWP) is lacking.

    Objectives To study the development of CWP in patients with SpA, and to identify risk factors for development and persistence of CWP.

    Methods A cohort study with baseline and 2.5-year follow-up postal surveys. 644 patients (47% women) with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and undifferentiated spondyloarthritis (SpA) answered both surveys, and were categorized as no chronic pain (NCP), chronic regional pain (CRP), and CWP. Logistic regression analyses, with CWP as the main outcome were performed. Due to multicollinearity, each risk factor candidate (disease duration, BMI, smoking, and different patient-reported outcome measures; PROMs) were analysed in separate logistic regression models together with a base model (age, sex, and SpA-subgroup).

    Results At follow-up, prevalence estimates for NCP, CRP and CWP were similar to those at baseline, but 38% of the patients had transitioned between the groups. A large group, 72% of the patients with initial CWP, also reported persistent CWP at follow-up (Figure). Risk factors (OR and 95% CI) for development of CWP from initial NCP/CRP were more pain regions (1.36; 1.20–1.53), pain intensity (1.35; 1.20–1.52), fatigue (1.25; 1.13–1.38), global health (1.35; 1.19–1.54), EQ-5D (0.05; 0.01 – 0.19), BASDAI (1.25; 1.07 – 1.45), BASFI (1.32; 1.16 – 1.50), ASES pain (0.97; 0.96 – 0.99), ASES symtom (0.98; 0.97 – 0.99), and HADb (1.10; 1.02 – 1.19). The risk factors for persistent CWP, compared to patients transitioning to NCP or CRP, were similar to those predicting development of CWP, but in addition, also higher age (1.02; 1.00–1.04), and female sex (1.82; 1.06–3.10), predicted the outcome. © 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Limited.

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