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  • 101.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    The influence of vegetation on nitrogen retention in a long-term experimental wetland study2009In: Proceedings of the 3rd Wetland Polluntat Dynamics and Control - WETPOL 2009 - Barcelona / [ed] Josep M. Bayona & Joan García, 2009, p. 197-198Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 102.
    Ekholm, Emy
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Bottensubstrat och dess inverkan på reducering av BOD5, COD och TKN i lakvatten genom konstruerade rotzonsanläggningar: En pilotstudie vid Univates, Lajeado – RS Brasilien2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Treatment wetlands been showed efficient for reducing pollutant in waste water. In Lajeado – RS, Brazil the landfill has poor leachate water treatment. It is necessary to supplement the treatment plant because they need to reduce BOD, COD and nitrate of the water going to recipient. A subsurface flow wetland (SSF) can be a good choice.  In order to be able to design an efficient SSF it is important to understand how the grain sizes of a substrate affect the reducing of pollutants in waste water. This study focus on two substrate, sand with grain size of 0 - 3 mm and gravel with the grain size of 10 - 20 mm. To see the grain size reduces BOD, COD and nitrate best, the experiment used eight pilot scales SSF for leachate water treatment, four filled with sand and four filled with gravel. Two different flows, four with batch and four used continuous flow; two of each was planted with Thypa angustifolia L. Samples were taken from each wetland every week during a four week period. The results showed that the wetlands with the fine- grained substrate; sand gave the better reduction of BOD, COD and TKN (total kjeldahl kväve). It also showed great reduction in color. Important to notice in this study is the lack of time; more samples are required to be able to establish a pattern.

  • 103.
    Emanuelsson, Eric
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    The relationship between power output in different squats and sprint performance in young male soccer players2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research has displayed a strong relationship between lower body strength and power, both in eccentric-concentric and concentric only exercises, in male soccer players. However the relationship between different types of squats and sprint performance has not been studied thoroughly in young male soccer players. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between sprint performance and power output in different squat variations in young male soccer players. Methods: Eleven young male soccer players, 17-19 years old, were tested in 1 repetition maximum (1RM) squat (S), 1RM concentric squat (CS) and in 5m, 10m, 15m and 30m sprint performance. Power testing in S and CS were performed at 30%, 50% and 70% of 1RM and registered as absolute power (W) and as power relative to body weight (W/kg). Results of the power output in S and CS were correlated with sprint performances. Correlations of rs ≥0.6 were considered to indicate a strong relationship. Results: There were strong correlations (rs = -0.61 to -0.68) between CS power output at 50% of 1RM, relative to body weight (W/kg), and all the sprint distances. S power output at 50% of 1RM, relative to body weight (W/kg), showed strong correlations (rs = -0.64 to -0.67) to 5m, 10m and 15m sprint. The only absolute power output (W) value to strongly correlate (rs = -0.62) with sprint performance was S at 50% of 1RM and 5m sprint. Conclusion: Both S and CS performance showed strong correlations with sprint start performance in young male soccer players. In conflict with previous research, this study showed a stronger correlation between CS and 30m sprint performance than S did. The results support previous findings that strength and power divided by body weight are stronger associated with sprint performance than absolute measures are. Both S and CS should be performed in the general strength training program to improve maximal strength and power, and thereby enhance soccer performance.

  • 104.
    Engdahl, Sheila
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Aronsson, Henrik
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sundqvist, Christer
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Timko, Michael P.
    University of Virginia, Charlottesville, USA.
    Dahlin, Clas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Association of the NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) with isolated etioplast inner membranes from wheat2001In: The Plant Journal, ISSN 0960-7412, E-ISSN 1365-313X, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 297-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Membrane association of NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR, EC: 1.6.99.1) with isolated prolamellar bodies (PLBs) and prothylakoids (PTs) from wheat etioplasts was investigated. in vitro-expressed radiolabelled POR, with or without transit peptide, was used to characterize membrane association conditions. Proper association of POR with PLBs and PTs did not require the presequence, whereas NADPH and hydrolysable ATP were vital for the process. After treating the membranes with thermolysin, sodium hydroxide or carbonate, a firm attachment of the POR protein to the membrane was found. Although the PLBs and PTs differ significantly in their relative amount of POR in vivo, no major differences in POR association capacity could be observed between the two membrane systems when exogenous NADPH was added, Experiments run with only an endogenous NADPH source almost abolished association of POR with both PLBs and PTs. In addition, POR protein carrying a mutation in the putative nucleotide-binding site (ALA06) was unable to bind to the inner membranes in the presence of NADPH, which further demonstrates that the co-factor is essential for proper membrane association. POR protein carrying a mutation in the substrate-binding site (ALA24) showed less binding to the membranes as compared to the wild type. The results presented here introduce studies of a novel area of protein-membrane interaction, namely the association of proteins with a paracrystalline membrane structure, the PLB.

  • 105.
    Enqvist, Louise
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Lövqvist, Robin
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    En studie av muskelaktivitet i dominant jämfört med icke dominant sida vid bänkpress med fri stång och i Smithmaskin2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A common question for many strength trainers is whether exercise with free weights or with machines is best. The advantage with free weights and machines is a popular debate among both athletes, coaches and scientists, but there is still no definite answer. Therefore, the purpose with this study was to examine the differences in muscle activity in the dominant and the non dominant side of Pectoralis major and Deltoideus anterior, in bench press with barbell and in a Smith machine.

    Participants consisted of 13 male students at Halmstad University with a mean age of 25,2 ± 3,0 years. All participants had at least 1 year experience from bench press. They performed three tests. At first one test to get their 1 repetition maximum (1RM), then two tests with 6 repetitions on 60 % of their 1RM, one with barbell and the other one in a Smith machine. The muscle activity was measured with surface electromyography (sEMG).

    All participants turned out to be right handed. The result shows that Deltoideus anterior had a significant higher muscle activity bilateral when using a barbell then a Smith machine (p≤0,05). Deltoideus anterior had higher muscle activity than Pectoralis major, both with a barbell (p≤0,05) and in the Smith machine. Pectoralis major had higher muscle activity bilateral in the Smith machine than with a barbell. The dominant side of Pectoralis major had higher muscle activity than the non dominant side in bench press with both barbell and Smith machine. The non dominant side of Deltoideus anterior had higher muscle activity than the dominant side in bench press with both barbell and Smith machine.

    Working out with a barbell and in a Smith machine has its advantages and disadvantages. There is no answer to which one is the best, it depends on both experience and the goal with the training. If the purpose is to train the middle part of the breast, it is according to our study better to do the bench press in a Smith machine. For novices, it can be a good idea to use machines in the beginning, to give the body time to adapt without stressing the muscles and the joints unnecessarily. Persons with more experience can benefit greatly from the additional benefits, as greater variation in exercises, and the similarity to daily and sport movements that exercising with free weights can give. For most people, the combination of free weights and machines gives an effective variation in the training.

  • 106.
    Ericsson, Karin
    et al.
    Environmental and Energy Systems Studies, Department of Technology and Society, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    The introduction and expansion of biomass use in Swedish district heating systems2016In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 94, p. 57-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    District heating satisfies about 60% of the heat demand in Swedish buildings. Today, more than two thirds of the heat supply to the district heating systems is based on biomass and waste, and biomass alone accounts for about half of the heat supply. The purpose of this paper is to present the Swedish experiences of introducing and expanding the use of biomass in the district heating systems and to identify the main drivers behind this development. Our five research questions and the corresponding conclusions consider the driving forces from energy policy tools and local initiatives, the biomass prices, the established infrastructures in forestry and district heating, the technology paths for biomass conversion, and finally the future challenge of competing uses of biomass. © 2016 The Authors

  • 107.
    Eriksson, Elin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Lundberg, Andrea
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Knästabilitet hos ungdomar aktiva inom fotboll och handboll: En rörelseanalys som riskindikator för främre korsbandsskador2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Anterior cruciate ligament injuries (ACL-injuries) are serious and common in sports, especially in adolescents between the ages of 14 and 19. An increased risk for ACL-injury has been shown in individuals active in soccer and team handball, which both are popular sports worldwide. Within these sports, women have been proven to have two to eight times greater risk for ACL-injury than men.

    Aim: The aim was to investigate whether there was any difference in knee stability during a jump-landing movement between girls and boys aged 16-19 years, active in soccer and team handball and also to investigate whether there was any difference between the soccer players and team handball players, regardless of gender.

    Method: A drop jump test was performed by 20 adolescents, active in soccer and team handball, mean ± SD age 17.0 ± 0.9 years old. The tests were recorded in the frontal and sagittal plane and were then analyzed using the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS). Post hoc analyzes were used to examine differences in 1) the degree of knee valgus alignment between the girls and the boys and 2) the degree of knee flexion between the soccer- and the team handball players in the landing movement. An independent student’s t-test was used in the statistical analysis and the level of significance was set at p ≤ 0.05.

    Results: There was no significant difference in LESS-score between the girls and the boys (p = 0.694). The soccer players had significantly lower LESS-score (p = 0.002). A higher frequency of the girls displayed a knee valgus alignment during the test compared to the boys. The soccer players displayed according to LESS adequate knee flexion to greater extent than the team handball players did during the test.

    Conclusion: No significant difference in knee stability and jump-landing technique was found between the girls and the boys. The soccer players displayed significantly better knee stability and jump-landing technique than the team handball players. The girls displayed a greater degree of knee valgus during the test than the boys did and the team handball players displayed a smaller degree of knee flexion then the soccer players did. More research is required within the area to be able to generalize the results.

  • 108.
    Eriksson, K.M.
    et al.
    Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Clarke, A.K.
    Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Franzén, Lars-Gunnar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Plant Cell Biology: Energy transduction in plant cells.
    Kuylenstierna, M.
    Department of Marine Ecology, University of Gothenburg, Sven Lovén Centre for Marine Sciences Kristineberg, Fiskebäckskil, Sweden.
    Martinez, K.
    Spanish National Research Council—IIQAB-CSIC, Department of Ecotechnology, Josep Pascual Vila, Barcelona, Spain .
    Blanck, H.
    Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Community-Level Analysis of psbA Gene Sequences and Irgarol Tolerance in Marine Periphyton2009In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 75, no 4, p. 897-906Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes psbA gene sequences, predicted D1 protein sequences, species relative abundance, and pollution-induced community tolerance in marine periphyton communities exposed to the antifouling compound Irgarol 1051. The mechanism of action of Irgarol is the inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport at photosystem II by binding to the D1 protein. The metagenome of the communities was used to produce clone libraries containing fragments of the psbA gene encoding the D1 protein. Community tolerance was quantified with a short-term test for the inhibition of photosynthesis. The communities were established in a continuous flow of natural seawater through microcosms with or without added Irgarol. The selection pressure from Irgarol resulted in an altered species composition and an inducted community tolerance to Irgarol. Moreover, there was a very high diversity in the psbA gene sequences in the periphyton, and the composition of psbA and D1 fragments within the communities was dramatically altered by increased Irgarol exposure. Even though tolerance to this type of compound in land plants often depends on a single amino acid substitution (Ser(264)-> Gly) in the D1 protein, this was not the case for marine periphyton species. Instead, the tolerance mechanism likely involves increased degradation of D1. When we compared sequences from low and high Irgarol exposure, differences in nonconserved amino acids were found only in the so-called PEST region of D1, which is involved in regulating its degradation. Our results suggest that environmental contamination with Irgarol has led to selection for high-turnover D1 proteins in marine periphyton communities at the west coast of Sweden.

  • 109.
    Eriksson, Martina
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Utvärdering och framtagande av åtgärdsförslag för de mindre avloppsreningsanläggningarna i Laholms kommun: En studie av fem avloppsreningsanläggningar upp till 500 pe2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project was to describe and to evaluate five small sewage treatment plants in the municipality of Laholm, Sweden, in order to investigate the treatment efficiency and to evaluate if effluents comply with discharge permits. The treatment systems were designed to treat effluents from 90 to 500 population equivalents. A report on the design and the present state of each sewage treatment plant has been made. This was made based upon previous documentation on water quality and by new sampling campaign as there were only a few previous measurements. Data has been evaluated and remedial actions proposed for those treatment plants that don’t fulfill discharge permits. Based upon the scientific investigation in combination with visits to the plants, discussions with the technicians in charge of the operation and literature study the following conclusions have been made:

    The sewage treatment plant in Hishult doesn’t comply with the permits and the plant will soon be totally renovated.

    Mästocka and Kornhults sewage treatment plants are complying with discharge permits and will be left without further actions at the present time.

    Skogaby sewage treatment plant is in need of remedial action and I recommend focusing on the later treatment stages of the plant (pond and infiltration unit).

    Öringe sewage treatment plant needs to be further investigated before suitable remedial actions can be proposed.

  • 110. Eriksson, P.G.
    et al.
    Svensson, J.M.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Carrer, M.
    Dipto. Proc. Chimici dell'Ingegneria, Université di Padova, Padua, Italy.
    Temporal changes and spatial variation of soil oxygen consumption, nitrification and denitrification rates in a tidal salt marsh of the Lagoon of Venice, Italy2003In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 58, no 4, p. 861-871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate seasonal and spatial patterns of soil oxygen consumption, nitrification, denitrification and fluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in a tidal salt marsh of the Lagoon of Venice, Italy. In the salt marsh, intact soil cores including overlying water were collected monthly at high tide from April to October in salt marsh creeks and in areas covered by the dominant vegetation, Limonium serotinum. In May, cores were also collected in areas with vegetation dominated by Juncus maritimus and Halimione portulacoides. In laboratory incubations at in situ temperature in the dark, flux rates of oxygen and DIN were monitored in the overlying water of the intact cores. 15N-nitrate was added to the overlying water and nitrification and denitrification were measured using isotope-dilution and -pairing techniques. The results show that highest soil oxygen consumption coincided with the highest water temperature in June and July. The highest denitrification rates were recorded in spring and autumn coinciding with the highest nitrate concentrations. Soil oxygen consumption and nitrification rates differed between sampling sites, but denitrification rates were similar among the different vegetation types. The highest rates were recorded in areas covered with L. serotinum. Burrowing soil macrofauna enhanced oxygen consumption, nitrification and denitrification in April and May. The data presented in this study indicate high temporal as well as spatial variations in the flux of oxygen and DIN, and nitrogen transformations in the tidal salt marshes of the Venice lagoon during the growth season. The results identify the salt marshes of the Venice lagoon as being metabolically very active ecosystems with a high capacity to process nitrogen.

  • 111.
    Eriksson, Robin
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Heat storages in Swedish district heating systems: An analysis of the installed thermal energy storage capacity2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    District heating is the most common source of heating in Sweden and has played a crucial part in the country’s substantial reductions of carbon dioxide emissions. This recycling technology is ideal in order to use thermal energy as efficiently as possible and makes the goals set for a sustainable future more achievable. The future potential of this technology is therefore huge. Today, a lot of the district heating systems have installed heat storages in order to improve the systems reliability and performance. These heat storages have the potential to be utilized even further in the future by acting as a balancing power for the power grid. However, there is currently no data available regarding the storage capacity available in the district heating systems. This thesis therefore seeks to quantify the installed storage capacity in Swedish district heating systems. The data gathered regarding this can then be utilized in research regarding potential future applications of heat storages, such as balancing the power grid. All collected data regarding heat storage capacity has also been analyzed in an effort to find any correlations between the relative storage capacity and the size, energy sources, customer prices and operational costs of each investigated system. This analysis has concluded that most of the district heating systems in Sweden have installed storage capacity and that it is more commonly used in larger systems. It is also concluded that most of the installed storage capacity is used to counteract daily heat load variations. The heat storages influence district heating systems by reducing their operational costs as well.

  • 112.
    Eriksson, Robin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Johansson, Alexander
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Energieffektivisering av bostäder: En analys av åtgärder som kan förbättra energiprestandan i flerbostadshus2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient energy use in the housing sector is crucial for achieving a sustainable society. The expansion of this sector only represents a fraction of the existing houses, hence it’s within the existing houses the potential for energy savings lie. This potential has been analyzed in order to determine if it’s possible to cut the current energy demand in half. An ongoing renovation project was used as a reference to evaluate the different measures that can increase a buildings efficiency. The measures evaluated were also compared to similar ones from other projects. The main methods examined were ventilation systems utilizing heat exchangers, energy efficient windows and glazed balconies. Based on cost efficiency and amount of energy saved, the results were then evaluated and compared to one another. This showed that the cost efficiency for the different measures varied depending on the size of the building, meaning the different measures should be prioritized in different scenarios. It was concluded that it’s theoretically possible cut the current energy demand of the housing sector in half, but very hard and costly to achieve in reality.

  • 113.
    Ertem, Funda Cansu
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    IMPROVING BIOGAS PRODUCTION BY ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES: Calculation of Potential Energy Outcomes2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Global energy demand is rapidly increasing. In contrast, fossil fuel reserves are decreasing. Today, one of the major challenge is energy supply for the future. Furthermore, effects of global warming cannot be neglected anymore. Alternative energy sources such as biogas should be developed. The biomass has huge biogas potential. However, arable area in the world is limited. Therefore, substrate which will be used for biogas production should be chosen carefully. The objective of this study was to determine the biogas yields of different substrates. For this reason; red algae, green algae, mixture of brown and red algae, mixture of sugar beets and sugar beet leaves, mixture of straw and sugar beet leaves, mixture of maize and sugar beet leaves, straw, maize and ensiled ley were chosen to conduct a lab-based anaerobic digestion experiment. Biogas production and composition in mesophilic (37 OC) conditions during 25 days were measured and compared. The measurements were performed in a system consisting of 32, 1000 ml glass bottles with rubberstoppers. Potential energy production and energy requirements of each substrate were calculated. Methane yields ranged between 65.8 – 578.9 m3. t-1 VS (Volatile Solids). Whilst the highest methane yield was obtained from sugar beets, the lowest methane yields were obtained from the co-digestion of sugar beets and sugar beet leaves. The highest total energy potential for Sweden was obtained from ensiled ley and the lowest energy potential was obtained from maize. Sugar beet leaves were not good co-substrates, when they were digested with sugar beets, since they resulted in a decline in the methane yields. The highest total energy requirements for cropping and digestion were calculated for sugar beets. The lowest total energy requirements for cropping and digestion were calculated for ensiled ley. In the present study, digestion of sugar beets is suggested as good substrates for biogas production in Sweden, since it is more economical and helpful to solve the food&energy challenge. Although algae did not yield as much biogas as crops, they are interesting for biogas production since algae are considered a problem on the beaches and their high growth rates and abundance make them attractive for use in energy production. Due to lack of information, further studies are needed about economical aspects of algae for using in biogas plants.

  • 114.
    Farkas, Daniel
    et al.
    Institutionen för kemi, Göteborgs Universitet, Department of Chemistry, University of Gothenburg.
    Franzén, Lars-Gunnar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Plant Cell Biology: Energy transduction in plant cells.
    Hansson, Örjan
    Institutionen för kemi, Göteborgs Universitet, Department of Chemistry, University of Gothenburg.
    Cloning, expression and purification of the luminal domain of spinach photosystem 1 subunit PsaF functional in binding to plastocyanin and with a disulfide bridge required for folding2011In: Protein Expression and Purification, ISSN 1046-5928, E-ISSN 1096-0279, Vol. 78, no 2, p. 156-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The photosystem 1 subunit PsaF is involved in the docking of the electron-donor proteins plastocyanin and cytochrome c6 in eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms. Here we report the expression, purification and basic characterization of the luminal domain of spinach PsaF, encompassing amino-acid residues 1-79. The recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) using a pET32 Xa/LIC thioredoxin fusion system. The thioredoxin fusion protein contained a His6 tag and was removed and separated from PsaF through proteolytic digestion by factor Xa followed by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Further purification with size-exclusion chromatography resulted in a final yield of approximately 6 mg PsaF from one liter growth medium. The correct identity after the factor Xa treatment of PsaF was verified by FT-ICR mass spectrometry which also showed that the purified protein contains an intact disulfide bridge between Cys residues 6 and 38. Secondary structure and folding was further explored using far-UV CD spectroscopy indicating a α-helical content in agreement with the 3.3 Å-resolution crystal structure of photosystem I Ref. [5] and a helix-coil transition temperature of 29 °C. Thermofluorescence studies showed that the disulfide bridge is necessary to keep the overall fold of the protein and that hydrophobic regions become exposed at 50-65 °C depending on the ionic strength. The described expression and purification procedure can be used for isotopic labeling of the protein and 15N-HSQC NMR studies indicated a slow or intermediate exchange between different conformations of the prepared protein and that it belongs to the molten-globule structural family. Finally, by using a carboxyl- and amine-reactive zero-length crosslinker, we have shown that the recombinant protein binds to plastocyanin by a specific, native-like, electrostatic interaction, hence, confirming its functionality.

  • 115.
    Figueroa-Martinez, Francisco
    et al.
    Departamento de Genética Molecular, Instituto de Fisiología Celular, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico.
    Funes, Soledad
    Institut für Physiologische Chemie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Germany .
    Franzén, Lars-Gunnar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Plant Cell Biology: Energy transduction in plant cells.
    González-Halphen, Diego
    Departamento de Genética Molecular, Instituto de Fisiología Celular, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico.
    Reconstructing the mitochondrial protein import machinery of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii2008In: Genetics, ISSN 0016-6731, E-ISSN 1943-2631, Vol. 179, no 1, p. 149-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii several nucleus-encoded proteins that participate in the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are targeted to the organelle by unusually long mitochondrial targeting sequences. Here, we explored the components of the mitochondrial import machinery of the green alga. We mined the algal genome, searching for yeast and plant homologs, and reconstructed the mitochondrial import machinery. All the main translocation components were identified in Chlamydomonas as well as in Arabidopsis thaliana and in the recently sequenced moss Physcomitrella patens. Some of these components appear to be duplicated, as is the case of Tim22. In contrast, several yeast components that have relatively large hydrophilic regions exposed to the cytosol or to the intermembrane space seem to be absent in land plants and green algae. If present at all, these components of plants and algae may differ significantly from their yeast counterparts. We propose that long mitochondrial targeting sequences in some Chlamydomonas mitochondrial protein precursors are involved in preventing the aggregation of the hydrophobic proteins they carry.

  • 116.
    Finth Winslow, Moa
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science.
    Kontrollkvitto vid livsmedelsinspektion: en utvärdering av ett nytt arbetssätt i Karlstads kommun2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At the end of 2013, the environmental administration of Karlstad municipality still had 975 regulatory hours left to perform which they had already charged the food businesses for. The environmental administration is in need of a more effective approach since they have been struggling with the same kind of problem for years.

      The introduction of the control receipt has proved to be good in two ways. The environmental administration has succeeded in getting a more efficient approach and the business operators has increased their understanding of the authority’s work. 

      For maintaining and/or even increasing the efficiency it is important for the inspectors to possess competence and professionalism, which is gained through continuous use of utilities from the National Food Agency. The food inspections influence on restaurant business operators is significant as well and affected by inspection frequency, treatment and the type of inspection (announced/unannounced). Therefore, the environmental administration may consider increasing both the total amount of inspections and the amount of announced inspections. Systems for incentives may even be considered as well.

  • 117.
    Fleischer, Siegfried
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Emissionen av koldioxid inom Vesanområdet2010In: Överkörd natur: Rolands Hav och Vesan / [ed] Sven Björk, Olofström: Vekerum , 2010, p. 562-563Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 118.
    Fleischer, Siegfried
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Interaction between N and C in Soil has Consequences for Global Carbon Cycling2012In: Journal of Resources and Ecology, ISSN 1674-764X, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 16-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy—yielding processes in the N—cycle form important links with the global C—cycle. One example is demonstrated with the supply of nitrogen to soils, initially resulting in lowered CO2 emissions. This well known effect has mostly been interpreted as hampered or delayed soil respiration. When added in surplus, however, nitrogen supply does not stabilize the minimum emissions initially obtained, but gradually results in increased CO2 emissions. Specific inhibition of the CO2 consuming process nitrification in soils, with surplus ammonium supply or with acetylene, mostly results in additional CO2 emissions. The difference between this disclosed gross heterotrophic respiration (GHR) and the net CO2 emission (NHR) is the result of a within—soil CO2—sink. Soil respiration solely determined as CO2 emitted as NHR (the common situation) therefore may lead to misinterpretations of the function of the soil system, especially in areas with high N—deposition. As a consequence, the interpreted ‘acclimation’ of the soil respiration response in a warmer world should be reconsidered. The concept of respiration inhibition by nitrogen supply may also be questioned. Disregard of these processes, including the indicated N—driven within—soil CO2—sink, may prevent adequate measures counteracting climate change.

  • 119.
    Fleischer, Siegfried
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Production of greenhouse gases in Lake Hornborga2014In: Limnological Methods for Environmental Rehabilitation: The Fine Art of Restoring Aquatic Ecosystems / [ed] Sven Björk, Stuttgart: E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 2014, p. 102-105Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 120.
    Fleischer, Siegfried
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Bauhn, Lovisa
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering/Nuclear Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fors, Patrik
    Vattenfall Research and Development AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ödegaard-Jensen, Arvid
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering/Nuclear Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dark oxidation of water in soils2013In: Tellus. Series B, Chemical and physical meteorology, ISSN 0280-6509, E-ISSN 1600-0889, Vol. 65, no 1, article id 20490Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the release of oxygen (O2) under dark conditions in aerobic soils. This unexpected process is hidden by respiration which constitutes the dominating reversal O2 flux. By using H218O in different soils, we confirmed that 16O18O and 18O2 released under dark soil conditions originated from added H218O. Water is the only large-scale source of electrons for reduction of CO2 in soils, but it has not been considered as an electron donor because of the very strong oxidation system needed. A high share of soil inorganic material seems to favor the release of O2. © 2013 S. Fleischer et al.

  • 121.
    Fleischer, Siegfried
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Bouse, Ivo
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Nitrogen cycling drives a strong within-soil CO2-sink2008In: Tellus. Series B, Chemical and physical meteorology, ISSN 0280-6509, E-ISSN 1600-0889, Vol. 60, no 5, p. 782-786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For about three decades, it has not been possible to completely balance global carbon emissions into known pools. A residual (or 'missing') sink remains. Here evidence is presented that part of soil respiration is allocated into an internal soil CO2-sink localized to the saprophytic subsystem (roots excluded). The process occurs in forest, agricultural and grassland soils and is favoured by high N-deposition. Chemoautotrophic nitrification has a key role, and the most efficient internal CO2-sequestration occurs concurrently with lowest soil nitrate (NO3-) concentrations, despite considerable N-loading. Not until drastic N-supply occurs, does the CO2-sink successively breakdown, and nitrate concentrations increase, leading to NO3--leaching. Within-soil CO2-uptake seems to be of the same magnitude as the missing carbon sink. It may be gradually enforced by the ongoing input of nitrogen to the biosphere.

  • 122.
    Fleischer, Siegfried
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Ohlsson, Lars
    Svensson, Jonas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Våtmarkscentrum skapar viktigt nätverk2002In: Cirkulation, ISSN 1103-2855, no 7, p. 26-27Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 123.
    Flenner, Ida
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Olne, Karin
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Suhling, Frank
    Technische Universität Braunschweig.
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Predator-induced spine length and exocuticle thickness in Leucorrhinia dubia (Insecta: Odonata): a simple physiological trade-off?2009In: Ecological Entomology, ISSN 0307-6946, E-ISSN 1365-2311, Vol. 34, p. 735-740Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Morphological defence structures evolve against predators but are costly to the individual, and are induced only when required. A well-studied example is the development of longer abdominal spines in dragonfly larvae in the presence of fish. Numerous attempts to discover trade-offs between spine size and behaviour, development time or body size have, however, produced little evidence.

    2. We considered a physiological trade-off. Spines consist of cuticle and using material to build longer structures may result in less material remaining elsewhere. We therefore measured exocuticle thickness at nine locations on Leucorrhinia dubia larvae from habitats with and without fish.

    3. Our results show a significant effect of the interaction between fish presence and spine length on head and fore leg exocuticle thickness. Relative thickness increased with relative length of lateral spine 9 in the absence of fish, whereas no such relationship existed with fish. Hence, synthesis and secretion of cuticle material occur as a trade-off when larvae react to fish presence.

    4. We assume the mechanism to be a selective synthesis of material with different responses in different parts of the larval body. These findings offer a new angle to the fish/spine trade off debate.

     

     

  • 124.
    Flenner, Ida
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Richter, Otto
    Technische Universität Braunschweig.
    Suhling, Frank
    Technische Universität Braunschweig.
    Rising temperature and development in dragonfly populations at different latitudes2010In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 397-410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. For modelling the future ecological responses to climate change, data on individual species and on variation within and between populations from different latitudes are required. 2. We examined life cycle regulation and growth responses to temperature in Mediter- ranean and temperate populations of a widespread European odonate, Orthetrum cancellatum. In an experiment, offspring from individual females from different parts of the range were kept separately to elucidate differences between families.

    3. The experiment was run outdoors at 52°N at a natural photoperiod for almost a year. We used four temperature regimes, ambient (i.e. following local air temperature) and ambient temperature increased by 2, 4 and 6 °C, to mimic future temperature rise. A mathematical model was used to categorise the type of seasonal regulation and estimate parameters of the temperature response curve.

    4. Growth rate varied significantly with temperature sum, survival and geographic origin, as well as with family. Offspring of all females from the temperate part of the range had a life cycle with a 12 h day-length threshold necessary to induce diapause (i.e. diapause was induced once day length fell below 12 h). By contrast, Mediterranean families had a 10 h threshold or had an unregulated life cycle allowing winter growth. The temperature response did not significantly differ between populations, but varied between families with a greater variation in the optimum temperature for growth in the Mediterranean population.

    5. The variation in seasonal regulation leads to a diversity in voltinism patterns within species, ranging from bivoltine to semivoltine along a latitudinal gradient. Given that the type of seasonal regulation is genetically fixed, rising temperatures will not allow faster than univoltine development in temperate populations. We discuss the consequences of our results in the light of rising temperature in central Europe.

     

  • 125.
    Flenner, Ida
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Dragonfly community re-organisation in boreal forest lakes: rapid species turnover driven by climate change?2008In: Insect Conservation and Diversity, ISSN 1752-458X, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 169-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]
    1. Climate change affects many ecosystems on earth. If not dying out or migrating, the species affected have to survive the altered conditions, including changes in community structure. It is, however, usually difficult to distinguish changes caused by a changing climate from other factors.
    2. Forestry is considered to be the major disturbance factor in Swedish forests. Here, we use forest lake data sets from 1996 and 2006 which include species abundance data for dragonfly larvae, water plant structure, forest age and forestry measures during a period of 25 years: from 1980 to 2005. Hence, we were able to discriminate between forestry effects and changes in species composition driven by recent climate change.
    3. We explored effects on regional species composition, species abundance and ecosystem functions, such as changes in niche use, utilising dragonflies (Odonata) as model organisms.
    4. Our results show that dragonflies react rapidly to climate change, showing strong responses over such a short time span as 10 years. We observed changes in both species composition and abundance; former rare species have become more frequent and now occur in lakes of a wider quality range, while former widespread species have become more selective in their choice of waters. The new communities harbour about the same number of species as before, but seen from a regional perspective, diversity is reduced.
    5. We predict that the altered species composition and abundance might raise new demands in conservation planning as well as altering the ecological functions of the aquatic systems.
  • 126.
    Folkhammar Andersson, Siv
    et al.
    Unit of Rehabilitation, Kalmar County Council, Samrehab, Oskarshamn, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Lund University, Lund, Sweden & FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine. Lund University, Lund, Sweden & FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Arthritis Management in Primary Care and Adherence to National Guidelines – a Swedish Survey Based on the Canadian Physiotherapists Arthritis Care Questionnaire2015In: Arthritis & Rheumatology, ISSN 2326-5191, E-ISSN 2326-5205, Vol. 67, no Suppl. S10, article id 2385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Purpose:

    For patients with osteoarthritis (OA) physical therapy is recommended first line treatment and performed in primary care while patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may be treated in primary care at disease onset and during stable phases of the disease. This requires updated skills and evidence based knowledge of the physical therapists (PTs) in arthritis treatment. The aim of this study was to explore physical therapy arthritis practice in primary care and to study the application of evidence based care given to patients with OA or RA.

    Methods:

    All PTs working in primary care in one health care region in Sweden (n=70) were e-mailed a questionnaire (the Canadian Physiotherapists Arthritis Care Survey1) to assess the frequency of current practice, feeling of confidence, educational needs and adherence to national guidelines in managing patients with OA or RA.  The questionnaire was translated and culturally adapted into Swedish according to international recommendations. Interventions supported by national guidelines were compared with reports of treatment modalities in the questionnaire. Mann-Whitney U test, Chi-square test or Fishers Exact test, were used where appropriate, to analyze differences between groups (PT management of patients with OA vs. RA).

    Results:

    Sixty-four PTs responded (91%), reporting a higher feeling of confidence in assessment, treatment and education for patients with OA than for RA (p<0.001). The total numbers of roles assumed by the PTs were higher in management of OA compared to RA (p<0.001). PTs who assumed a large numbers of roles also reported a higher feeling of confident in assessing OA (p=0.036). PTs who assumed a lower numbers of roles also reported a lower feeling of confidence in RA treatment (p=0.045). The recommendations in the guidelines were reported to be followed by almost all PTs in managing patients with RA and for eight out of eleven treatment modalities for patients with OA. Most PTs did provide joint mobilization and education of proper footwear for patients with OA even though Swedish national guidelines did not recommend this as treatment until further research has proven its effectiveness.

    Conclusion:

    PTs reported a lower feeling of confidence and to have assumed a lower numbers of roles in managing patients with RA than OA. There was a good adherence to the national guidelines for almost all listed treatment modalities. However, experienced evidence care and national guidelines did not totally agree. The results indicate a need for education in arthritis care, especially in RA.

    References:

    Li CL, Hurkmans EJ, Sayre EC, Vliet Vlieland TPM (2010). Continuing professional development is associated with increasing physical therapists´ roles in arthritis management in Canada and the Netherlands. Physical Therapy 90:629-42.

  • 127.
    Forssén, Jens
    et al.
    Chalmers, Div Appl Acoust, Dept Civil & Environm Engn, Gothenburg.
    Schiff, Martin
    Lally Acoust Consulting, New York.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Persson Waye, Kerstin
    Univ. Gothenburg.
    Wind turbine noise propagation over flat ground: measurements and predictions2010In: Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, ISSN 1610-1928, E-ISSN 1861-9959, Vol. 96, no 4, p. 753-760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Noise from wind turbines is of concern in the planning process of new wind farms, and accurate estimations of immission noise levels at residents nearby are required. Sound propagation from wind turbine to receiver could be modelled by a simplified standard model assuming constant meteorological conditions, by an engineering method taking atmospheric and ground propagation conditions into account, or by a more exact model. Epidemiological studies have found a higher frequency of annoyance due to wind turbine noise than to other community noise sources at equal noise levels, indicating that the often used simplified model is not sufficient. This paper evaluates the variation of immission sound levels under the influence of meteorological variation and explores if the prediction of levels could be improved by taking the effect of wind speed on sound propagation into account. Long-term sound recordings and measurements at a distance of 530 m from a wind turbine show that the simplified standard model predicts the average sound pressure levels satisfactorily under downwind conditions, and that a more complex propagation model might not be needed for wind turbine noise at a relatively short distance. Large variations of sound immission levels at the same wind speed were however present. Statistical analysis revealed that these variations were influenced by meteorological parameters, such as temperature, static pressure and deviation from ideal downwind direction. The overall results indicate that meteorological factors influence the noise generated by the wind turbine rather than the sound propagation.

  • 128.
    Frandsen, Björn
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Hip and trunk muscle electromyography differences between bilateral and unilateral bodyweight resistance exercises2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 129.
    Frandsen, Björn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Hip and Trunk Muscle Electromyography Differences Between Bilateral and Unilateral Bodyweight Resistance Exercises2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    In sports, force production and movement are predominantly generated in a unilateral weight-bearing stance. Therefore, unilateral resistance training may possibly elicit more sport-specific strength gains compared to traditional bilateral strength training. Hip- and trunk- muscles stabilize the pelvis and trunk to maintain proper technique and posture in resistance training and are thought to play a central role in sports performance as well as injury prevention. Hip- and trunk- muscle activity increases as the body weight balance change from a bilateral to a unilateral stance. Little research has examined the magnitude of change in muscle activation differences between bilateral and unilateral stance in lower body exercises.

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to examine the electromyographic (EMG) activity in hip and trunk muscles in three bodyweight exercises performed in a bilateral and a unilateral stance.

    Methods

    14 healthy, young adults participated in a single session, single-group, observational study. Manual muscle testing was used to attain a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) value for gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, rectus abdominis, and erector spinae. EMG measurements (4 channel ME6000, MegaWin Software, Kuopio, Finland) were taken during performance of squat, bridge, and plank exercises in both a bilateral and a unilateral stance.

    Results

    In all three exercises, EMG activity (presented as magnitude of change) was greater in the unilateral stance compared to the bilateral stance (p< 0.05), for the muscles gluteus medius (squat 478%, bridge 204%, plank 285%) and gluteus maximus (squat 371%, bridge 172%, plank 233%). In addition, in plank, EMG activity was greater in unilateral stance compared to the bilateral stance (p< 0.05) in rectus abdominis (120%) and erector spinae (127%). In the squat and bridge, no differences were identified in EMG activity for rectus abdominis and erector spinae between the bilateral and the unilateral stance.

    Discussion

    Nearly all unilateral exercises activated the hip muscles (gluteus medius, gluteus maximus) more than double compared to the same exercises performed bilaterally. In particular, gluteal muscle activity during the unilateral squat was more than 3.5 fold greater as compared to the bilateral stance. This greater magnitude of change in the unilateral squat might be explained by the single contact point with the ground in the squat, whereas the bridge and plank exercises include more ground contact points even in their unilateral stance. A unilateral training program including squat exercises might be beneficial for developing hip strength which is of great importance in sports performance.

  • 130.
    Frederiksen, Svend
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    District Heating and Cooling2013 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 131.
    Frejd, Amanda
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Salomonsson, Elin
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Sit and Go: Ett hjälpmedel som underlättar för rullstolsanvändare vid matlagning2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The number of persons with disabilities is expected to increase since they live longer with their disability. To increase the empowerment of the disabled, new innovative assistive technologies have to be developed and existing assistive technologies further developed.

    The idea to this project arose when one of the project members for a long time have seen her family member, who is a wheelchair user, find his own solutions when cooking on the stovein a non-adjusted kitchen. The main aim of the project has been to solve the problems that wheelchair users may encounter when cooking on the stove, for example, that they cannot reach or see properly. The goal has been to develop a functional prototype to perform tests on users to ensure improved ergonomics and opportunity for increased independence.

    The result of the project was a user friendly prototype. The prototype consists of a walker with an attached harness/seat that gives support while cooking on the stove. The harness/seat can also be attached to a rail at the kitchen counter or on the wall.

  • 132.
    Frennessen, Sebastian
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    A comparison of peak trunk rotational power and club head speed in elite golf players2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: Golf is a sport with a growing focus on the physical aspect of the game and its relationship to performance. Studies have determined a correlation between club head speed and performance in golf. Rotational power has proven to be an important factor for the club head speed. By examining the relationship between club head speed and rotational power, researchers has found that rotation power on the golfers dominant side have a moderate to high correlation with club head speed. Previous research has mostly investigated the peak rotational power on the dominant side. Furthermore, additional research is needed to examine the bilateral strength and its relationship to club head speed. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between peak trunk rotational power and club head speed in elite golfers, and also to study the impact of bilateral rotational strength on club head speed. Methods: The study included 27 elite golf players (21 males, 6 females) age 19±2 years. The subjects attended two sessions where the first session included a club head speed test and the second session a rotation power test in the Quantum machine. The rotational peak power ratio (dominant/non-dominant side) were ranged from 1-27 (the closer to 1, the higher order) to study a linier relationship with club head speed. Spearman’s nonparametric rank correlations coefficient (rs) was used since the data was not normally distributed. Results: There was a moderate correlation between peak trunk rotational power on the dominant side and club head speed ( rs=0.58, p=0.01). The correlation between the peak trunk rotational powers on the dominant and non- dominant side was high, rs=0.82 (p=0.01). There were no significant correlation found between the ranged rotational peak power ratio and club head speed (rs=0.30, p=0.1). Conclusion: The current study found a slightly lower correlation between peak trunk rotational power and club head speed than found in earlier studies. The golfers in this study had symmetric strength in the trunk, other studies have shown that the rotational strength in golfer´s dominant side were higher than of the non- dominant side. The result of this study indicates that balance between the sides not necessarily has a relationship with how high the golfer’s club head speed is. Future research is needed to analyze the quadratic correlation between ratio and club head speed on a more advanced level. The results of this study can, if validated, be used for further researching and understanding of club head speed and golf performance.

  • 133.
    Frisén, Ida
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET). Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Karlsson, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET). Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Förbättrad muskelfunktion och balans hos äldre kvinnor efter sex veckors funktionell träning2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is the country that has got the largest amount of elderly in the adult population in the world. The physical activity level decreases as we grow old and we experience muscle mass loss and a bone density reduction. This leads to an increased risk for falls and subsequent fractures. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether an exercise program could affect muscle function and balance ability to prevent falls. 17 women (age 64-79) participated in this study and was assigned to a control group (n=7) and an intervention group (n=10). The subjects were physically active on a regular basis (3-5 times per week). The participants performed three tests, Timed Up & Go (TUG), Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and One Leg Stance (OLS), and answered questionnaires. During a sex week period the intervention group performed group training three times a week. The training program was based on functional exercises to strengthen the lower extremities. The results of the intervention group showed a significant (p≤0, 05) difference in all tests, except the TUG. The control group only showed a significant difference on one test from pre- to post testing. The hypothesis of increased muscle function and confidence of one’s ability was met. It was concluded that the present training program with functional exercises can be used to prevent falls.

  • 134.
    Funes, Soledad
    et al.
    Institut für Physiologische Chemie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Germany.
    Franzén, Lars-Gunnar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Plant Cell Biology: Energy transduction in plant cells.
    González-Halphen, Diego
    Departamento de Genética Molecular, Instituto de Fisiología Celular, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, D.F., México.
    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: the model of choice to study mitochondria from unicellular photosynthetic organisms.2007In: Methods in Molecular Biology, ISSN 1064-3745, Vol. 372, p. 137-149Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a model organism to study photosynthesis, cellular division, flagellar biogenesis, and, more recently, mitochondrial function. It has distinct advantages in comparison to higher plants because it is unicellular, haploid, and amenable to tetrad analysis, and its three genomes are subject to specific transformation. It also has the possibility to grow either photoautotrophically or heterotrophically on acetate, making the assembly of the photosynthetic machinery not essential for cell viability. Methods developed allow the isolation of C. reinhardtii mitochondria free of thylakoid contaminants. We review the general procedures used for the biochemical characterization of mitochondria from this green alga.

  • 135.
    Fältström, Mattias
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Ferdinandsson, Mikael
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Förutsättningar för absorptionskyla: Examensarbete på Öresundskraft2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The cooling demand increases in Sweden despite the cold climate, which could cause the increase of district cooling. District cooling is a centralized cooling system with multiple benefits such as safer operations, reduced failures and removal of rumbling that will otherwise occur in local cooling systems. That’s why the absorption chiller is becoming more and more interesting to incorporate indistrict heating.The purpose of this report is to give the company Öresundskraft the technical and economic conditions for absorption cooling in Helsingborg. The main goal with the report have been to investigate: which temperature from the district heating system will be used for the absorptions chiller, how the coefficient of performance affects the conditions of absorption chiller, different dimensions for absorption chiller, different placement options for absorption chiller, if the existing cool water storage tank can be used in the future, is it profitable to invest in an absorption plant. The main goal questions have been answered through interviews, compilation and calculation of data, examination of research literature and other literature. Conclusions the authors were able to find is that the absorption chiller should be sized to 2,2 MW and it should be placed on Västhamnsverket. Under the conditions that there was access to cheap heat and only operating during the summer the result to invest in an absorption plant was profitable.

  • 136.
    Gadd, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Achieving low return temperature from district heating substations2014In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 136, p. 59-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    District heating systems contribute with low primary energy supply in the energy system by providing heat from heat assets like combined heat and power, waste incineration, geothermal heat, wood waste, and industrial excess heat. These heat assets would otherwise be wasted or not used. Still, there are several reasons to use these assets as efficiently as possible, i.e., ability to compete, further reduced use of primary energy resources, and less environmental impact. Low supply and return temperatures in the distribution networks are important operational factors for obtaining an efficient district heating system. In order to achieve low return temperatures, customer substations and secondary heating systems must perform without temperature faults. In future fourth generation district heating systems, lower distribution temperatures will be required. To be able to have well-performing substations and customer secondary systems, continuous commissioning will be necessary to be able to detect temperature faults without any delays. It is also of great importance to be able to have quality control of eliminated faults. Automatic meter reading systems, recently introduced into district heating systems, have paved the way for developing new methods to be used in continuous commissioning of substations. This paper presents a novel method using the temperature difference signature for temperature difference fault detection and quality assurance of eliminated faults. Annual hourly datasets from 140 substations have been analysed for temperature difference faults. From these 140 substations, 14 were identified with temperature difference appearing or eliminated during the analysed year. Nine appeared during the year, indicating an annual temperature difference fault frequency of more than 6%. © 2014 The Authors.

  • 137.
    Gadd, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Daily Heat Load Variation in Swedish District Heating Systems2010In: 12th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling, Tallinn, Estonia: Tallinn University of Technology , 2010, p. 199-201Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    If daily heat load variations could be eliminated in district heating-systems, it would make the operation of the district heating system less costly and more competitive . There would be several advantages in the operation such as:

    • Less use of expensive peak load power where often expensive fuels are used.
    • Less need for peak load power capacity.
    • Easier to optimize the operation that leads to higher conversion efficiencies.
    • Less need for maintenance because of more smooth operation of the plants

    There are a number of ways to handle the daily variations of the heat load. Two often used are large heat storages or using the district heating network as temporary storage. If it would be possible to centrally control the customer substations, it would also be possible to use heavy buildings connected to the district heating system as heat storages.

    To be able to find the best way to reduce or even eliminate the daily heat load variations, you need to understand the characteristics of the daily variations. This paper will describe a way of characterizing daily heat load variations in some Swedish district heating-systems.

  • 138.
    Gadd, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Daily heat load variations in Swedish district heating systems2013In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 106, p. 47-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heat load variations in district heating systems are both seasonal and daily. Seasonal variations have mainly its origin from variations in outdoor temperature over the year. The origin of daily variations is mainly induced by social patterns due to customer social behaviours. Heat load variations cause increased costs because of increased peak heat load capacity and expensive peak fuels. Seasonal heat load variations are well-documented and analysed, but analyses of daily heat load variations are scarce. Published analyses are either case studies or models that try to predict daily heat load variations. There is a dearth of suitable assessment methods for more general analyses of existing daily load variations. In this paper, a novel assessment method for describing daily variations is presented. It is applied on district heating systems, but the method is generic and can be applied on every kind of activity where daily variations occur. The method was developed from two basic conditions: independent of system size and no use of external parameters other than of the time series analysed. The method consists of three parameters: the annual relative daily variation that is a benchmarking parameter between systems, the relative daily variation that describes the expected heat storage size to eliminate daily variations, and the relative hourly variation that describes the loading and unloading capacity to and from the heat storage. The assessment method could be used either for design purposes or for evaluation of existing storage. The method has been applied on 20 Swedish district heating systems ranging from small to large systems. The three parameters have been estimated for time series of hourly average heat loads for calendar years. The results show that the hourly heat load additions beyond the daily averages, vary between 3% and 6% of the annual volume of heat supplied to the network. Hereby, the daily variations are smaller than the seasonal variations, since the daily heat load additions, beyond the annual average heat load, are between 17% and 28% of the annual volume of heat supplied to the network. The size of short term heat storage to eliminate the daily heat load variations has been estimated to a heat volume corresponding to about 17% of the average daily heat supplied into the network. This conclusion can also be expressed as an average demand of 2.5 m3 of heat storage volume per TJ of heat supplied by assuming a water temperature difference of 40 C. The capacity for loading and unloading the storage should be equal to about half of the annual average heat load for heat supplied into the network. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 139.
    Gadd, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Heat load patterns in district heating substations2013In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 108, p. 176-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future smart energy grids will require more information exchange between interfaces in the energy system. One interface where dearth of information exists is in district heating substations, being the interfaces between the distribution network and the customer building heating systems. Previously, manual meter readings were collected once or a few times a year. Today, automatic meter readings are available resulting in low cost hourly meter reading data. In a district heating system, errors and deviations in customer substations propagates through the network to the heat supply plants. In order to reduce future customer and heat supplier costs, a demand appears for smart functions identifying errors and deviations in the substations. Hereby, also a research demand appears for defining normal and abnormal heat load patterns in customer substations. The main purpose with this article is to perform an introductory analysis of several high resolution measurements in order to provide valuable information about substations for creating future applications in smart heat grids. One year of hourly heat meter readings from 141 substations in two district heating networks were analysed. The connected customer buildings were classified into five different customer categories and four typical heat load patterns were identified. Two descriptive parameters, annual relative daily variation and annual relative seasonal variation, were defined from each 1 year sequence for identifying normal and abnormal heat load patterns. The three major conclusions are associated both with the method used and the objects analysed. First, normal heat load patterns vary with applied control strategy, season, and customer category. Second, it is possible to identify obvious outliers compared to normal heat loads with the two descriptive parameters used in this initial analysis. Third, the developed method can probably be enhanced by redefining the customer categories by their indoor activities.

  • 140.
    Gadd, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Thermal energy storage systems for district heating and cooling2015In: Advances in Thermal Energy Storage Systems: Methods and Applications / [ed] Luisa F. Cabeza, Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2015, 1, p. 467-478Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The context for this chapter is the current use and typical applications of thermal energy storages within contemporary district heating and cooling systems in the Nordic countries. Examples include a new assessment method, distributed heat storages, and hourly, daily, weekly, and seasonal heat and cold storages. Specific sizes have been estimated for 209 heat storages and 9 cold storages.

  • 141.
    Gatica, Nicolas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Kraftskillnad i olika Muay Thai tekniker: händer armbågar och sparkar mot huvudet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In the martial art of Muay Thai, techniques are used with hands, elbows, knees and kicks. The contestants are divided into different weight classes and experience levels. The Swedish martial arts association has decided that techniques with elbow are not allowed in B-class. Why is it so?

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the martial arts delegation decision to restrict techniques with elbows to the head in the B-class is justified. To do this, comparison of peak force and impulse between elbow techniques and already authorized techniques with hand and kick was compared.

    Method: Ten Muay Thai practitioners of high class (Class A and Class B) hit a punching bag fitted with a triaxial accelerometer. The force was calculated by multiplying the mass of the bag with acceleration resultant. The peak force was taken out and compared between the techniques. A high-speed camera was used to record the techniques. The contact time was calculated through video analysis and through analyzing the power data of the techniques. The contact time was used to calculate the impulse.

    Results: Peak force for technique with the hand was 135 (SD 757) N greater than for technique with elbow. Peak force for technique with kick was 348 (SD 835) N less than the technique with elbow. The differences were not statistically significant. For impulse calculated by video analysis, technique with hand was 18 (SD 13) Ns greater than for technique with elbow and technique with kick was 13 (SD 27) Ns greater than for technique with elbow. Analysis of the force data showed the same trend. Technique with hand was 14 (SD 9) Ns greater than technique with elbow and technique with kick was 4 (SD 19) Ns greater than for technique with elbow. Impulse difference between hand techniques and elbow techniques was statistically significant.

    Conclusion: Techniques with elbow does not generate statistically significantly greater peak force or impulse than already permitted techniques. The martial arts delegation decision should be reviewed.

  • 142.
    Glenn, Johansson
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science.
    Metaller i dagvatten - Effekter i recipient: En analys av koppar, kdamium och zink i dagvatten från en parkering i Halmstad, Sverige2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When stormwater occurs near human activity the water gets polluted. The purity and composition vary widely depending on the types of activities in the area, the type of surface the water comes in contact with, precipitation and many more parameters. It has long been known that stormwater quality can affect both human health and the environment as stormwater is a major contributor to pollution of receiving waters.

    A human activity that has an impact on the environment in several different ways is traffic and stormwater is no exception. Airborne gases that react with precipitation, oil leaks and fuel systems that drops down on the ground, metals from brake linings and rubber particles from tire wear are some of the aspects you have to take into account when categorizing the relationship between traffic and polluted stormwater.

    In this project, stormwater samples from a parking lot in Halmstad, Sweden were collected and analyzed with an atomic spectrophotometer. The presence and relationship between copper, cadmium and zinc with different rainfall parameters have been studied. The results have been compared with similar studies to answer whether the metals pose a threat to the recipient or not.

    Copper and zinc were found in concentrations that may lead to chronic effects in aquatic organisms depending on the nature of the recipient. There is a need for further studies in this field in order to better carry out risk assessments and plan preventive measures.

  • 143.
    Gong, Mei
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Wall, Göran
    Öxbo, Lerum, Sverige.
    Exergy Analysis of the Supply of Energy and Material Resources in the Swedish Society2016In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 9, no 9, article id 707Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exergy is applied to the Swedish energy supply system for the period 1970–2013. Exergy flow diagrams for the systems of electricity and district heating as well as for the total supply system of energy and material resources for 2012 are presented. The share of renewable use has increased in both electricity and district heat production. The resource use is discussed in four sectors: residential and service, transportation, industry and agriculture. The resource use is also analyzed with respect to exergy efficiency and renewable share. The total exergy input of energy and material resources amounts to about 2700 PJ of which about 530 PJ was used for final consumption in 2012. The results are also compared with similar studies. Even though the share of renewable resource use has increased from 42% in 1980 to 47% in 2012, poor efficiency is still occurring in transportation, space heating, and food production. A strong dependence on fossil and nuclear fuels also implies a serious lack of sustainability. A more exergy efficient technology and a higher renewable energy share are needed in order to become a more sustainable society.

  • 144.
    Gong, Mei
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Wall, Göran
    Öxbo gård, Härryda, Sweden.
    Life Cycle Exergy Analysis of Solar Energy Systems2014In: Journal of Fundamentals of Renewable Energy and Applications, ISSN 2090-4533, E-ISSN 2090-4541, Vol. 5, no 1, article id 1000146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exergy concepts and exergy based methods are applied to energy systems to evaluate their level of sustainability. Life Cycle Exergy Analysis (LCEA) is a method that combines LCA with exergy, and it is applied to solar energy systems. It offers an excellent visualization of the exergy flows involved over the complete life cycle of a product or service. The energy and exergy used in production, operation and destruction must be paid back during life time in order to besustainable. The exergy of the material that is being engaged by the system will turn up as a product and available for recycling in the destruction stage. LCEA shows that solar thermal plants have much longer exergy payback time than energy payback time, 15.4 and 3.5 years respectively. Energy based analysis may lead to false assumptions in the evaluation of the sustainability of renewable energy systems. This concludes that LCEA is an effective tool for the design and evaluation of solar energy systems in order to be more sustainable.

  • 145.
    Gong, Mei
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Wall, Göran
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Energy and Exergy Analysis of District Heating Systems2012In: 13th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling: 3rd of September – 4th of September: Copenhagen, Denmark, 2012, p. 55-60Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of exergy is defined and applied to district heating systems. The influence from different reference state conditions and system boundaries are explained in some detail. The aim is to show the simplicity and value of using the concept of exergy when analyzing district heating processes. The exergy factor is introduced and applied for a number of Swedish and Danish district heating systems. This varies from 14.2% to 22.5% for Swedish district heating systems. The higher the exergy factor, the more the exergy losses in the passive conversion towards space heating. Large losses revealed in an exergy treatment of a process should be seen as a challenge to achieve technical improvements of the system.

  • 146.
    Gong, Mei
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    An assessment of district heating research in China2015In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 84, p. 97-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent growth of the Chinese district heating sector has been very high. No other country in the world can show the same growth rate during the last decades. The heated building area increased six times between 1995 and 2008. China has also enjoyed strong growth of scientific articles and papers about district heating in recent years. One third of all international scientific journal articles and conference papers about district heating came from Chinese scientists during 2010–2012, while Swedish scientists accounted for one quarter according to the Scopus scientific search engine. It is important to identify the Chinese district heating research to judge the potential for future collaborative research on district heating systems between Sweden/Europe and China. The 205 international publications on district heating by Chinese scientists published until 2013 have been mapped and summarised with respect to demand, supply, technology, market and environment. More diversified heat supply with renewable source was grasping the Chinese interest, since many new systems have been established, having more degrees of freedom when choosing various heat supply and technology options. The Chinese district heating systems were compared with sustainable district heating solutions in Sweden. Both countries would benefit from future research cooperation. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 147.
    Gong, Mei
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Exergy analysis of network temperature levels in Swedish and Danish district heating systems2015In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 84, p. 106-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exergy concept is applied on district heating systems with different network temperature levels in their distribution networks. These district heating systems use a combination of renewables and heat recovery from other primary processes. The aim is to show simplicity and value of using exergy concept when comparing current and future temperature levels. Both the traditional exergy factor and the novel exergy utilisation rate are used in these analyses. Exergy utilisation rate expresses the ratio between the exergy delivered to customer heating systems and the exergy content in heat supply input to the distribution network. The analyses are performed on four different generations of district heating technologies, two national groups of district heating systems in Denmark and Sweden for revealing variations among systems, and two municipal systems for revealing variations within systems. The main conclusions are simplifications can be introduced in order to analyse the network temperature levels, current exergy factors reveal that current temperature levels can be reduced, and that almost two thirds of the exergy content in heat supply input are lost in the heat distribution chain. These conclusion will be vital input in developing the future fourth generation of district heating systems using both renewables and heat recovery. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 148.
    Gong, Mei
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Mapping Energy and Exergy Flows of District Heating in Sweden2016In: Proceedings the 15th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling: September 4th - 7th, 2016, Seoul, South Korea / [ed] Rolf Ulseth & Kyung Min Kim, 2016, p. 96-102Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    District heating has been available in Sweden since the 1950s and used more than half of the total energy use in dwelling and no-residential premises in 2013. Energy and exergy efficient conversion and energy resources are key factors to reduce the environmental impact. It is important to understand energy and exergy flows from both the supply and demand sides. The exergy method is also a useful tool for exploring the goal of more efficient energy-resource use. Sankey diagrams together with energy and exergy analyses are presented to help policy/decision makers and others to better understand energy and exergy flows from primary energy resource to end use. The results show the most efficient heating method in current district heating systems, and the use of renewable energy resources in Sweden. It is exergy inefficient to use fossil fuels to generate low quality heat. However, renewable energies, such as geothermal and solar heating with relative low quality, make it more exergy efficient. Currently, about 90% of the energy sources in the Swedish district heating sector have an origin from non-fossil fuels. Combined heat and power is an efficient simultaneous generator of electricity and heat as well as heat pump with considering electricity production. Higher temperature distribution networks give more distribution losses, especially in exergy content. An outlook for future efficient district heating systems is also presented.

  • 149.
    Gong, Mei
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    On district heating and cooling research in China2014In: Proceedings from the 14th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling: September, 6-10, 2014: Stockholm, Sweden, Stockholm: Swedish District Heating Association , 2014, p. 325-332Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growth of the Chinese district heating sector has been very rapid during recent years. No other country in the world can show the same rapid growth of district heating systems during the last decades. Heated building area increased six times between 1995 and 2008 according to the Chinese district heating statistics. China has also enjoyed strong growth of scientific articles and papers published about district heating in recent years. During 2010-2012, one third of all international scientific journal articles and conference papers about district heating came from Chinese scientists, while Swedish researchers accounted for one quarter. It is important to identify the Chinese district heating and cooling research to judge the potential for future collaborative research on district heating systems between Sweden/Europe and China. Until 2013, Chinese district heating and cooling scientists have published 205 international publications on district heating and 36 publications on district cooling. In this paper, these articles are mapped and summarised with respect to topics, active research institutions, and their technology focuses. Another approach is to grasp the Chinese interest for more diversified heat supply, since many new systems are established and thereby have more degrees of freedom when choosing by various heat supply and technology options.

  • 150.
    Gossec, L.
    et al.
    Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Institut Pierre Louis d'Epidémiologie et de Santé Publique, GRC-UPMC 08 (EEMOIS), Paris, France & Department of rheumatology, AP-HP, Pitié Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris, France.
    Smolen, J. S.
    Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine 3, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria & Second Department of Medicine, Hietzing Hospital, Vienna, Austria.
    Ramiro, S.
    Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    de Wit, M.
    EULAR, representing People with Arthritis/Rheumatism in Europe (PARE), London, United Kingdom.
    Cutolo, M.
    Research Laboratory and Clinical Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto, Italy.
    Dougados, M.
    Medicine Faculty, Paris Descartes University, Paris, France & Rheumatology B Department, APHP, Cochin Hospital, Paris, France.
    Emery, P.
    Leeds NIHR Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit, LTHT, Leeds, United Kingdom & Leeds Institute of Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Landewé, R.
    Department of Clinical Immunology & Rheumatology, Amsterdam Rheumatology Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands & Atrium Medical Center, Heerlen, The Netherlands.
    Oliver, S.
    North Devon, United Kingdom.
    Aletaha, D.
    Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine 3, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Betteridge, N.
    EULAR, representing People with Arthritis/Rheumatism in Europe (PARE), London, United Kingdom.
    Braun, J.
    Rheumazentrum Ruhrgebiet, Herne and Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Herne, Germany.
    Burmester, G.
    Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Charité—University Medicine Berlin, Germany.
    Cañete, J. D.
    Arthritis Unit, Department of Rheumatology, Hospital Clínic and IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain.
    Damjanov, N.
    Belgrade University School of Medicine, Belgrade, Serbia.
    FitzGerald, O.
    Department of Rheumatology, St. Vincent's University Hospital and Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    Haglund, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS). Section of Rheumatology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Helliwell, P.
    Section of Musculoskeletal Disease, Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Kvien, T. K.
    Department of Rheumatology, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Lories, R.
    Laboratory of Tissue Homeostasis and Disease, Skeletal Biology and Engineering Research Center, KU Leuven, Belgium & Division of Rheumatology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Luger, T.
    Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Münster, Münster, Germany.
    Maccarone, M.
    A.DI.PSO. (Associazione per la Difesa degli Psoriasici)—PE.Pso.POF (Pan European Psoriasis Patients’ Organization Forum), Rome, Italy.
    Marzo-Ortega, H.
    Leeds NIHR Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit, LTHT, Leeds, United Kingdom & Leeds Institute of Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    McGonagle, D.
    Leeds NIHR Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit, LTHT, Leeds, United Kingdom & Leeds Institute of Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    McInnes, I. B.
    Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
    Olivieri, I.
    Rheumatology Department of Lucania, San Carlo Hospital of Potenza and Madonna delle Grazie Hospital of Matera, Potenza, Italy.
    Pavelka, K.
    Institute and Clinic of Rheumatology Charles University Prague, Czech Republic.
    Schett, G.
    Department of Internal Medicine 3, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany.
    Sieper, J.
    Department of Rheumatology, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Charité, Berlin, Germany.
    van den Bosch, F.
    Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.
    Veale, D. J.
    Centre for Arthritis and Rheumatic Disease, Dublin Academic Medical Centre, St. Vincent's University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.
    Wollenhaupt, J.
    Schoen Klinik Hamburg, Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Hamburg, Germany.
    Zink, A.
    Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, German Rheumatism Research Centre Berlin, Charité—University Medicine Berlin, Germany.
    van der Heijde, D.
    Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations for the management of psoriatic arthritis with pharmacological therapies: 2015 update2016In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 75, no 3, p. 499-510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Since the publication of the European League Against Rheumatism recommendations for the pharmacological treatment of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in 2012, new evidence and new therapeutic agents have emerged. The objective was to update these recommendations.

    METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed regarding pharmacological treatment in PsA. Subsequently, recommendations were formulated based on the evidence and the expert opinion of the 34 Task Force members. Levels of evidence and strengths of recommendations were allocated.

    RESULTS: The updated recommendations comprise 5 overarching principles and 10 recommendations, covering pharmacological therapies for PsA from non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), to conventional synthetic (csDMARD) and biological (bDMARD) disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, whatever their mode of action, taking articular and extra-articular manifestations of PsA into account, but focusing on musculoskeletal involvement. The overarching principles address the need for shared decision-making and treatment objectives. The recommendations address csDMARDs as an initial therapy after failure of NSAIDs and local therapy for active disease, followed, if necessary, by a bDMARD or a targeted synthetic DMARD (tsDMARD). The first bDMARD would usually be a tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor. bDMARDs targeting interleukin (IL)12/23 (ustekinumab) or IL-17 pathways (secukinumab) may be used in patients for whom TNF inhibitors are inappropriate and a tsDMARD such as a phosphodiesterase 4-inhibitor (apremilast) if bDMARDs are inappropriate. If the first bDMARD strategy fails, any other bDMARD or tsDMARD may be used.

    CONCLUSIONS: These recommendations provide stakeholders with an updated consensus on the pharmacological treatment of PsA and strategies to reach optimal outcomes in PsA, based on a combination of evidence and expert opinion. © 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & European League Against Rheumatism.

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