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  • 101.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Aagerup, Ulf
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Customer Value Creation in Mature Born Globals2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION

    Research on firms that already from their inception see the whole world as a market and/or the whole world as a source to access resources, so called born globals (Andersson & Wictor, 2003, Knight & Cavusgil, 2004; Cavusgil & Knight, 2015), has been growing during the last decades  (Servantie, 2016). Born globals are an especially interesting group of firms to study, in regard of value creation, as they have been able to create competitive offers fulfilling the needs of customers on global markets.

     The distinguishing feature of born globals is their international behaviour at birth and soon thereafter. The firms’ behaviour is initiated by the entrepreneurs’ and management’s global mindset and the commitment of resources leading to international growth (Andersson, 2000; Knight & Causgil, 2004). Born globals is, by definition, a born global firm “forever”, as has been characterized by their early years.  We argue that the early years make these firms a special type of firms that will influence their further international development. Firms with a long-term focus on the domestic market must unlearn routines rooted in the domestic context before new, internationally oriented routines can be learned. An early entrance to international markets forces born globals to adopt to new contexts and create new knowledge that leads to new routines and creates a culture in the firms to adapt to new international opportunities (Andersson & Evers, 2015; Autio et al ., 2000, Cavusgil & Knight, 2004).

    There has been extensive research on born globals’ internationalization dealing with which markets, and market channels firms should choose to grow internationally. There has also been extensive research dealing with antecedents and factors influencing these choices. The focus on born global research has also been on the very early stages in the internationalization process. Few studies have captured the long-term behaviour and growth of born globals (2008; Gabrielsson and Gabrielsson, 2013, Melen Hånell, Nordman and Sharma, 2014). A question that has been very little addressed is: what happens to born global firms when they grow up (Cavusgil & Knight, 2015)? In this study we define this grown up born global firms as mature born globals (c. f. Hagen & Zuchella, 2014, maturing born global firms). To succeed with a continued international expansion, the born global firms need to increase sales on international markets. The underlying reason for success on international markets and continuous growth is that the mature born global firms have an offer that gives higher value to the customer than their competitors. However customer value is not explicitly treated in internationalization theories (Axinn & Matthyssen, 2002). To our knowledge there has not been any research that has, in- depth, explored how mature born globals create value for customers to create international growth. In line with the above discussion, the aim of this study is to investigate how mature born global firms create value for customers to create international growth.

    METHOD

    A qualitative approach has been adopted to enable us to investigate, in-depth, an under-researched area (Ghauri and Gronhaug, 2010; and Yin, 1989) “how born global firms create value for customers to create international growth”. In all, the study was conducted with five companies. The key factor underpinning the selection of the five cases was conceptual relevance rather than representative grounds, so we used theoretical sampling (Miles and Huberman 1994). We conducted a review of annual reports, other secondary documentation, and the websites of the case firms. We combined secondary data research and field interviews and workshops with the CEOs in the case firms. The researchers constructed an interview-guide based on earlier literature and discussion on a works-shop. Interviews were carried out with the five CEOs and transcribed. Data analysis included several steps. The information from the interviews, and other sources served as descriptive narratives, which helped us process the large volume of data (Mintzberg and McHugh 1985). This process enabled the unique patterns of each case to emerge before cross-case comparison (Eisenhardt 1989; Yin 1994) was undertaken. Our aim and research question served as the basic structure for data analysis.

    CONCLUSIONS

    We conclude that a strong focus on customer value creation was in focus. To create customer value a combination of proactive and reactive market orientation was implemented built on a competitive offer that was hard to replicate. Depending on the characteristics of the buyer-seller relationship different tools were used to build relationship value. The revenue earned is invested in further international growth, by investing in market driving activities, and entrepreneurial alertness to act on upcoming opportunities was crucial. This study contributes to the international entrepreneurship field by explicitly including marketing literature and empirically investigating how value is created to achieve international growth in born globals. This study also contributes to the industrial marketing field by developing a model that shows how born global firms create value for international customers to generate international growth in a B2B context.

  • 102.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Analyzing Capabilities which Born Global Firms Develop and Implement for their International Growth2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate how born global firms co-operate with local and international network actors to provide innovations for international growth, Consequently, born globals’ use of their own innovation capabilities, stemming from firm-specific advantages, and their access to complementary resources and activities of their network partners, termed here as network capabilities, are analyzed to aid our understanding of the provision of innovative solutions that lead to firms’ international growth. The paper opted for an exploratory study, using a qualitative case study approach of five born global companies. Focus groups, work-shops and interviews with the entrepreneur-CEOs in the companies are used to gain deep insight into innovation and internationalization processes that underlie the case companies’ international growth. The study shows that the entrepreneur-CEOs’ networking and innovation capabilities, have been crucial for the born global firms international growth. A high responsiveness to changes in the environment and incremental rather than radical innovation characterize the firms’ growth. A fruitful relationship between the Born Globals and other actors is crucial for them to be able to get access to resources, which can complement their own to create innovative solutions that will lead to growth. 

  • 103.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Born Global's Use Of Innovative Solutions To Create Sustainable Competitive Advantages As It Expands And Grows In Different International Markets2013In: / [ed] Helen Lawton Smith, Klaus Nielsen & Carlo Milana, London: Centre for Innovation and Management Research , 2013, p. 1-35Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate born global firms’ use of innovative solutions and their networks to create sustainable competitive advantages as they expand and grow in different international markets. Consequently, born globals’ use of their own firm-specific advantages and their access to complementary resources and activities of their network partners are analyzed to aid our understanding of the provision of innovative solutions that lead to growth. We use a qualitative case study approach of five born global companies. A focus group interview with the CEOs in the companies is used to gain deep insight into innovation and internationalization processes that underlie the case companies’ international growth. The study shows that the use of the entrepreneur-CEOs’ personal networks and business networks have been assets that have accorded the firms’ strong position in international markets. It can be concluded that the born global firm has strategies to tap on complementary assets of external network parties. 

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  • 104.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Born global's use of innovative solutions to create sustainable competitive advantages as it expands and grows in different international markets2013In: The 16th Annual McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference: Researching New Frontiers: The Conference Program and Collection of Short Summaries, Montreal, Canada: McGill University , 2013, p. 16-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate born global firms’ use of innovative solutions and their networks to create sustainable competitive advantages as they expand and grow in different international markets. Consequently, born globals’ use of their own firm-specific advantages and their access to complementary resources and activities of their network partners are analyzed to aid our understanding of the provision of innovative solutions that lead to growth. For this purpose we use a qualitative case study approach of five born global companies. A focus group  approach with the CEOs in the companies is used to gain deep insight into innovation and internationalization processes that underlie the case companies’ international growth. The study shows that the use of the entrepreneur-CEOs’ personal networks and business networks have been assets that have accorded the firms’ strong position in international markets. It can be concluded that the born global firm has strategies to tap on complementary assets of external network parties.  The Born global firms learn from own experiences and those of others, with whom the firms interact in foreign markets, to create innovative solutions for international growth.

  • 105.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Aagerup, Ulf
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    International growth in born globals – value creation on international markets2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Importance and key contribution

    Research on firm’s that already from inception see the whole world as a market and/or the whole world as a source to access resources, so called born globals (Andersson & Wictor, 2003), have been growing during the last decades (Jones, Coviello and Tang, 2012).  These firms are characterized of innovative business models that are competitive on the global market already from inception (Hennart, 2013). To succeed with a continued international expansion, the born global firms need to adapt their respective business models for a more complex environment; in more institutionally remote markets. The continued growth phase of born globals are scarcely treated in earlier research (Gabrielsson & Gabrielsson, 2013).

    Earlier studies on Born Globals have focused on Born Globals’ development in western, developed countries. Therefore there is a need to examine Born Globals’ activities on emerging markets (Kiss et al, 2012). The attractiveness and growth opportunities in emerging markets are perceived to be higher than what obtains in other conceivable markets of the world (Cavusgil, Knight, and Risenberger, 2012).

    Important in this stage is handle relationship with different stakeholders on a global base. An important tool to handle this relationship is the companies’ branding strategy. Few studies have combined research on born globals’ internationalization and branding (Gabrielsson, 2005) and there is a need to further develop the knowledge about branding and international growth. This study aims to explore how born global companies are using brand management when growing on emerging markets. This study contributes to the international entrepreneurship field by exploring growth on emerging markets, it also contributes by adding knowledge from the brand management field to explore international growth.

    Theoretical base

    In recent studies the “global” part in the BG has been criticized (Lopez, Kundu and Ciravegena, 2009, Rugman and Almodovar, 2011). Some researchers argue that there a very few really Born Global firms with activities in the three economic and political power bases in the world. NAFTA, EU and the largest eight Asia-Pacific economies (Rugman and Almodovar, 2011). Implicit in research on Born Global firms is that distance (geographic, psychic, cultural, and institutional) is no longer an important issue when the international behaviour and international performance in a Born Global is discussed. We argue that the reason for that is a bias in the research treating Born Global firms with focus on companies that both have their origin and target markets in high-developed economies. Peiris, Akoorie and Sinha (2012) showed that most studies on Born Global firm were done on firms originating in developed countries and only a few studies were done on firms from emerging countries. Studies from emerging countries mainly were done on Chinese firms and very few studies has treated firms from Middle east, Africa or South Asia. Another reason why the Born Global research has not focused on institutional differences can partly be explained by the fact that the Born Global studies have looked internally at firm-specific factors (e.g. using resource-based view and knowledge-based view of the firm as a theoretical domain) (Andersson, Evers and Kuivalainen, 2014; Knight and Cavusgil, 2004).

    We argue that institutional differences affect Born Globals’ international behaviour (scope, speed, and entry mode); and to investigate how institutional distances affect Born Global firms, it is important to include nations with a variety of institutional and cultural characteristics. Born Global firms from developed countries entering institutionally distant markets will meet a context that is different from their home markets. Regulations, culture etc. differ and relationships are often fewer and weaker than, the companies’ relationships with western companies.  Born Global companies from developed countries still first focus on other developed countries, followed by emerging markets (e. g China and Brazil). We argue that institutional distance still matters and that firms from developed countries still have more and stronger networks in other developed countries. More research is needed two explore how this influence Born Global firms’ internationalization processes.

    Most studies on born globals have focused on firms in a business-to business context. Also this study is focusing on this sector. Even if most brand management studies have focus on business-to consumer sectors, there is an increasing stream of literature that has shown the importance of brand management also in business-to business settings (Gabrielsson & Gabrielsson, 2005). Brands are used to build relationships with customers. In emerging markets, western companies have fewer and weaker relationships, as the distance is longer (see the discussion above. Research is needed to explore how brand management can be used to create and sustain relationships on emerging markets. The above discussion lead us to the following research questions.

    Research questions

    How do born globals manage the organization’s international growth in in emerging markets?

    Which role has brand management to create and sustain relationships with internal and external stakeholders on emerging markets?

    Method and Findings

    Emprical data will be gathered during the Spring 2015. A case approach is considered as the most appropriate to catch the complexity of value creating process in international network context (Yin, 1994). The case study approach is under-represented in studies about internationalization and has been recommended as a fruitful way to expand the knowledge in this area (e.g Andersson, 2000, Cavusgil, 1980). Eisenhardt (1989) recommends case studies as a fruitful way to give a deeper insight in conflicting literature, as well as sharpening the generalizability of different theoretical standpoints which is an important goal in this study. There is a need to learn more about special types of firms and not only to look for the average firm (Andriani and McKelvey, 2007). The close relationship already established with the firms will make it possible to receive information that is hard to get access to with other methods (Welch et al, 2002).

    The cases will be built built on action research in co-operation with the partner firms, work-shops, personal interviews and observations but complemented with secondary data, such as, annual reports and internal documents. The individuals who have the greatest influence on the internationalization processes will be interviewed. Interviews and observations will lead to the identification of individuals/actors who are central in the international value creating processes. This includes actors outside the focal company, such as customers, suppliers, and co-operation partners. Our long co-operation with the companies has created trustful relationship between the researchers and the company representatives.

    The analysis of the data will include several steps. The information from interviews and other sources will be written down in descriptive narratives. This process allows the researcher to become intimately familiar with each case and allows the unique patterns of each case to emerge before cross-case comparison (Eisenhardt, 1989). The analysis will be carried out together with companies and results will be a base for decisions in each companies as well as part in academic research.

    Patterns will be identified among the cases (Yin, 1994). Earlier theoretical findings will be compared with the international development in the cases. Thereafter, the theory will be revised and the findings examined again. The reasoning is, in other words, not entirely inductive or deductive (Yin 1989). Following Eisenhardt’s (1989) recommendations, the analysis will include several iterations between theory and data.

    Implications

    The study will also give knowledge about pros and cons with different localisation alternatives on emerging markets. It is easy to just follow management trends (everyone should out-source production and buy supplies from China) and “go with the flock” instead of get knowledge of different alternatives. The comparison between the different firms will increase the knowledge about when different alternatives are suitable.

  • 106.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Innovation in Internationalization of Born Global firms2012In: 15th McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization and increased liberalization of markets have made it possible for many firms, large or Small and Medium –Sized Firms (SMEs), to be in many foreign markets, especially those in the global industries (Czinkota and Ronkainen, 2007; Doole and Lowe, 2008, 2004). Since trade barriers among markets have fallen dramatically, due to the effects of globalization, intense competition in many markets, and the spread of technological improvements in almost all sectors of any economy, many firms (small or large) seek to establish their presence in many foreign markets (Awuah, et. al., 2011; Doole and Lowe, 2008; Driffield and Love, 2007). Studies abound to shed light on why and how firms internationalize their business activities (Andersson, 2011; Moen, et al., 2004; Knight and Cavusgil, 1996; Johanson and Vahlne, 1990, 1977; Johanson and Wiedersheim-Paul, 1975). Although increased globalization, trade liberalization, and technological improvements do enable many firms (e.g. “Mininationals” or “Born Globals”) to serve several markets (Doole and Lowe, 2008; Czinkota and Ronkainen, 2007), there has emerged an intense competition among firms in all countries (Peng et al., 2008; Czinkota and Ronkainen, 2007; Beamish and Lu, 2004). For many SMEs, a number of factors (e.g. lower trade barriers, increased competition, rapid technological developments, shrinking market opportunities in domestic market, and firm-specific advantages combine to drive their rapid entry into foreign markets (Andersson, 2011; Peng et al., 2008; Moen, et al., 2004). SMEs that have, from the very inception of their establishment, had the drive to internationalize their business activities are termed “Born Global Firms”, in the subsequent sections to be addressed just as born globals (Andersson, 2011; Rialp et al., 2005; Knight and Cavusgil, 1996; Madsen and Servias, 1997). 

    Previous studies about a firm’s internationalization has predominantly concentrated on big multinational firms, where their motives for internationalization, the pace and pattern of their internationalization have been widely studied (Qian and Delios, 2008; Johanson and Vahlne, 1990, 1977; Johanson and Wiedersheim-Paul, 1975; Cavusgil, 1984; Coviello, 2006). In recent times studies have emerged, which have found out that the pace and pattern of the internationalization of big multinational firms are not in line with the pace and pattern, through which born globals, for example, internationalize their business activities (Andersson, 2011; Andersson and Wictor, 2003; Moen, et al., 2004; Rialp, et. al., 2005; Knight and Cavusgil, 1996; Madsen and Servais, 1997).  

    However, extant literature is virtually silent on what it takes for a born global (a small international player with limited resources, for example) to compete with big and resourceful multinational enterprises in many international markets. Our contention is that born globals’ ability to use innovative solutions to create sustainable competitive advantages as they aspire to expand and grow in international markets will be very crucial. The pace and pattern at which born globals internationalize their businesses, in the face of intense competition in almost all markets, in order to provide innovative solutions that enable them to achieve competitive advantages in the marketplace is under-researched. This has been an important reason for the study of the present phenomenon.   As stressed by Doole and Lowe (2008), products and services offered by firms, these days, are becoming ‘commodities’ (i.e. ‘me too’ products/services), if firms are not able to differentiate the core product benefit or service by offering a bundle of benefits for target customers or users in a target market. For Porter (1985), the competitive advantage of a firm grows fundamentally out of the value the firm can create for its customers, irrespective of the markets in which a firm operates.  Operating across borders, though offers opportunities, dealing with new set of macro-environmental factors (e.g. politics, laws, economics, cultures, and societies) and intense competition, will demand that a born global, for example, differentiates its products and services that will help it to meet similar needs and wants of its transnational customers, while it adapts to meet different market-specific requirements and/or needs of customers (e.g. Doole and Lowe, 2008). And for Doyle and Stern (2006), a firm that is good at satisfying customer needs, better than its competitors can do, has the best opportunities to grow and expand. Hence, Born Globals and their growth and expansion narratives are worth studying.

    In view of the above, the purpose of the present study is to investigate a born global’s use of innovative solutions to create sustainable competitive advantages as it expands and grows in different international markets. To be able to achieve the above purpose, we seek to address the following research questions:

    1. Why and how does a born global firm enter any chosen foreign market?
    2. Which strategies does the firm develop and implement in order to provide innovative solutions that will help achieve sustainable competitive advantages as the firm strives to grow and expand in the marketplace?
    3. Does the firm use ‘go-alone’ strategies or does it use strategies that influence and are influenced by other actors and the effect thereof? 
  • 107.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Baffour Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    International Growth in Born Globals – Continued Growth through Networking on Institutionally Distant Markets2015In: Handbook On International Alliance and Network Research / [ed] Jorma Larimo, Niina Mummela and Tuija Mainela, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 139-154Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this chapter is to shed light on how a born global can obtain continued growth internationally, in institutionally distant markets. We are seeking a deeper understanding of international growth for born global enterprises by combining theories of networks and institutional perspective. We discuss how institutional distance affects the internationalization processes in born globals. We seek to highlight why and how a born global firm does enter different markets. In this respect, born globals from developed countries and those from emerging markets are compared, leading us to derive some propositions from our discussions.

    Finally some suggestions for future research are presented. 

  • 108.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Berggren, Eva
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Born Global or Local? Factors influencing the Internationalization of University Spin-Offs - The Case of Halmstad University2016In: Journal of International Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1570-7385, E-ISSN 1573-7349, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 296-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A wealth of research in the past decades has examined born globals or international new ventures, which are firms that from inception view the whole world as a market and as a source to access resources. Many of these firms build their competitive advantage on high-tech knowledge. However, although many studies have shown how born globals can achieve success if they access resources through their relationships from actors in their networks, few studies have explored the relationship between born globals and universities. Universities are important actors in creating new technology knowledge, and many studies have shown how new firms, or so-called university spin-offs (USOs), are formed around universities. The current study explores why some USOs are successful in their international growth strategy and discusses the factors that influence and facilitate the internationalization process. The study investigates 10 USOs around the newly established Halmstad University in Sweden and finds that universities have a positive effect on firm creation and initial international growth. The regional competence base increases from the establishment of a local university, primarily by strengthening the regional human capital and by increasing university research. This study shows that researcher entrepreneurs’ ventures start as born globals, but that these firms do not continue to grow. Born global business models, per se, do not lead to competitive advantage and successful internationalization. Instead, a strategy built on customer focus and an ability to adapt to different customer demands lead to growth, and the location of growth is dependent on the size of the home market. This study also shows that student entrepreneurship can be a successful growth strategy for USOs focusing on both international and local markets. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  • 109.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Berggren, Eva
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Born Globals and Born Locals originating from University Spin-Offs2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on firm’s that already from inception see the whole world as a market and/or the whole world as a source to access resources, so called born globals. Many of these firms, build their competitive advantage on high-tech knowledge. Universities have shown to be an important actor, to create technology knowledge, and numerous studies have shown how new firms are created around universities, so called University Spin-offs (USOs). Earlier research has shown that some USOs are successful with their international growth strategies. This study aims to explore why some USOs are successful in their international growth strategy and some are not. 10 USO around the newly established Halmstad University in Sweden is investigated. Both USOs founded be students and researchers are included in the sample. This study shows the positive influence of a university for firm creation and international growth. The regional competence base has increased by the establishment of a local university, primarily by strengthening the regional human capital, but lately also by an increased amount of university research. This study has showed student entrepreneurs more successful in growth and international development than researcher entrepreneurs, which imply that further development of support for student entrepreneurship is fruitful to create international growing firms.

  • 110.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI). Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China.
    Hanjun, Huang
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Success Factors in Western and Chinese Born Global Companies2015In: iBusiness, ISSN 2150-4075, E-ISSN 2150-4083, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 25-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Born Global firms are becoming increasingly more important in terms of internationalization, innovation, ability to grow and providing employment. Most of the previous research about BornGlobals is done in North America, Europe or Australia, all these being developed industrialized countries but not developing countries or emerging markets. However, the emerging markets in general, and the Chinese in particular, have become very important for the world economy. Our aim is to investigate the differences between Western literature and literature from emerging markets, regarding internationalization process of Born Global firms. We also aim to discuss the various success factors, which underlie Born Globals’ internationalization process, particularly focusing on Born Globals firms in the China. Our methodology in this research has been literature review and interviews with Chinese CEOs of Born Global firms. However, this paper is only based on the litterateur part of our research. Our analysis shows that most of the Chinese Born Globals publications about the internationalization success factors are based on the Western literature and use them as the theoretical platform in the design of their own research strategy and research questions design. The consequence of this observation is important as it indicates that Chinese researchers are reproducing research under different contextual and situational conditions that might lead to unclear conclusions or maybe even wrong conclusions. Furthermore, compared to most Western Born Global companies, which treat innovation as core competence, the innovation culture becomes one of the biggest weaknesses of Chinese manufacturing Born Globals’ internationalization. China has special economic environment. Chinese manufacturing Born Globals not only need to follow the market but also the government policies, since the government greatly influences the industries and the whole economy. To foreign investors who want to exploit Chinese market, they also should take Chinese economic background and government policies into consideration. One important aspect of Chinese born Globals, neglected in previous research on Born Globals, that has been identified in our research, is the critical success factor of Chinese manufacturing Born Globals—the political and economic background and the role of the Chinese Government in the transformation process of Chinese business life, and the Guanxi network.

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  • 111.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Evangelista, Felicitas
    School of Marketing and International Business, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    The entrepreneur in the Born Global firm in Australia and Sweden2006In: Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, ISSN 1462-6004, E-ISSN 1758-7840, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 642-659Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this research is to identify and analyse the common characteristics and behaviour of entrepreneurs that affect the establishment of Born Global firms. The differences between the Australian and Swedish contexts will be scrutinized.

    Design/methodology/approach – This study was designed to be qualitative in nature so that rich insights can be obtained directly from the entrepreneurs themselves. The sample consists of three Born Global firms each from Australia and Sweden.

    Findings – This study shows the importance of entrepreneurs for the rapid internationalization of firms in Australia and Sweden. Different types of entrepreneurs were identified and small but important differences were identified between the two countries and different industries.

    Research limitations/implications – This study shows that analysis on an individual level enhances the understanding of internationalisation in new firms. By using the concept marketing and technical entrepreneur in different industrial contexts a more detailed understanding of different internationalization patterns can be obtained. This study is limited to two countries and six case studies. The findings may be limited to the chosen firms and studies across more countries and industries are needed.

    Practical implications – This study shows that the entrepreneur should be in focus when analysing new firms' possibilities to expand abroad. Entrepreneurs can use their international experience, visions, ambitions and networks as crucial competencies in an international expansion. Different types of entrepreneurs can use different international strategies.

    Originality/value – The focus and detailed analysis on the individual level across different countries make this study original.

  • 112.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Evers, Natasha
    J.E. Cairnes School of Business and Economics, NUI Galway, Galway, Ireland.
    International opportunity recognition in international new ventures—a dynamic managerial capabilities perspective2015In: Journal of International Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1570-7385, E-ISSN 1573-7349, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 260-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to advance theoretical knowledge of the international opportunity recognition in international new ventures (INVs) from a dynamic capabilities perspective with particular focus on the emergent perspective of dynamic managerial capabilities. Building the extant literature on international opportunity recognition, dynamic capabilities theory, this paper presents a conceptual framework explaining how dynamic capabilities of the firm can be created and enacted through the entrepreneur’s dynamic managerial capabilities and actions for international opportunity identification for international firm growth. Drawing on the dynamic capabilities theory and more recent dynamic managerial capabilities perspective, this article enriches understanding of how opportunities are identified for the venture’s international development and growth. The article concludes with theoretical and research implications. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  • 113.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Evers, Natasha
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER). National University of Ireland (NUI), Galway, Ireland.
    Chen, Xuelin
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Zhang, Yini
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Business and Social Networking for Rapid SME Market Entry and Development in China2017In: / [ed] Natasha Evers, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores how the firm’s business and social relationships influence how adolescent Swedish born globals and Born Again Globals develop their customer base following post market entry into China. Using the network perspective and extant research on Chinese Guanxi, this study shows how Swedish manufacturing exporters leverage their network relationships in different phases the internationalisation process, in term of the extension, penetration and integration upon entry and post-market entry into China. A qualitative case study approach of three Swedish manufacturing adolescent born global and born again firms, on the Chinese market is employed. A framework developed from a network perspective is used to analyze the data. The study demonstrates the importance, and the degrees of impact, of business and social networks in market and post market entry into China. Business networks emerge as most important in the first part of the market entry process and when networks were integrated between China and other markets. However, social relationships had greater impact in facilitating the firm’s commitment of resources and its market penetration into China. The study also shows that business and social networks were interpreted as synonymous in the Chinese business context, in that social relationships (Guanxi) were considered just as important as business relationships from the Chinese perspective. Hence managing social dimensions of the relationship (Guanxi) were just as important as the business dimensions when conducting relationships with their Chinese customer and business partners.

  • 114.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Evers, Natasha
    The Marketing Discipline, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Gliga, Gabriela
    The Marketing Discipline, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Entrepreneurial marketing and born global internationalisation in China2018In: Qualitative Market Research, ISSN 1352-2752, E-ISSN 1758-7646, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 202-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study aims to explore the entrepreneurial marketing (EM) behaviour of Swedish born globals entering the Chinese market through their international networks. Drawing from the network theory of small firm internationalisation, this study is positioned in the domain of EM, and thus captures the relevance of EM behaviour to explain how born globals internationalise through their networks.

    Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative case study approach of two Swedish born global companies active in the Chinese market is used. The network theory helps analyse the data in the three phases of firm internationalisation processes.

    Findings: The study shows the importance of networks for the enactment of EM for born globals. The study traces the evolution of network development in the market entry process of born globals and highlights the importance of aligning network leverage with contextual factors for market performance.

    Research limitations/implications: The generalisation of the findings is limited due to the exploratory nature of the study and the size of the research sample.

    Practical implications: Management of different types of networks is essential in the entry process and further growth of born globals in the Chinese market. In addition, born globals operating in psychically distant and complex institutionally contexts can especially gain support from intermediary networks.

    Originality/value: This study extends knowledge of international entrepreneurship by demonstrating that born global managers can enact EM behaviour by leveraging networks to gain rapid entry into the Chinese market. It further highlights the role of firms’ networks in the EM activities in their internationalisation. The conceptual underpinnings of EM and network theory provide greater understanding of how born globals enter and grow their psychically distant markets.

     © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited.

  • 115.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Evers, Natasha
    National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Griot, Clemence
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Local and Global Networks in Small Firm Internationalisation – Cases from the Rhone-Alp Medical Technology Cluster2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although networks have been shown in many studies to be critical for the international development of firms, surprisingly few studies have focused on the influence of local networks and global networks in the internationalisation of firms operating in industrial clusters. This study explores the internationalisation processes of small and medium sized firms operating in the medical technology cluster in the Rhone-Alp region in France. Firstly, we find that local and global networks influence the internationalisation processes of the case firms but in different ways. The influence of such networks were determined by the regional location, industry dynamics and the life-cycle of firms in the cluster. Second, internationalising firms found were Born Globals, led by entrepreneurs globally market-orientated from inception and Born Again Globals, late but rapid internationalisers. The internationalisation of Born Again Globals was triggered by a critical event that redirected the firm rapidly on to global markets late in their life-cycle. Thirdly, local networks were important for initiating internationalisation for the Born Global firm yet held limited importance for the Born Again Globals in the cluster. Local networks in the cluster were however, important for both Born Global and Born Again Globals for developing and internationalising their innovations.

  • 116.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Evers, Natasha
    Marketing Discipline, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Griot, Clémence
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2). La Redoute Sverige AB, Borås, Sweden.
    Local and international networks in small firm internationalization: Cases from the Rhône-Alpes medical technology regional cluster2013In: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, ISSN 0898-5626, E-ISSN 1464-5114, Vol. 25, no 9-10, p. 867-888Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the internationalization processes of small firms operating in the medical technology cluster in the Rhône-Alpes region in France. The study demonstrates that both the location and the sectoral type of industry cluster influence the internationalization and network dynamics in the cluster. In addition, both local and international networks influence firm internationalization processes in different ways. First, the firm life-cycle, industry and locational cluster dynamics determine the extent of network influence on firms' internationalization processes. Second, two types of internationalizing firms emerge in this study: born global firms, led by proactive entrepreneurs and globally market-orientated firms from inception, and born-again globals, which engage in late but rapid internationalization as a result of new management or foreign acquisition. Third, local networks in the cluster are important for influencing the internationalization of the born global firm at inception. In contrast, international networks serve as the main impetus for re-launching internationalization for the born-again globals. Fourth, the local research institutions and their connections abroad help both born globals and born-again global firms develop and internationalize their innovations rapidly in the global marketplace.

  • 117.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Evers, Natasha
    National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Kuivalainen, Olli
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta, Finland.
    International new ventures – rapid internationalization across different industry contexts2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nature of the industry, or the environment in which the firm operates, can have a significant impact on the internationalization of the new venture. The impact of industry factors has received limited attention in the context of international entrepreneurship, however. The goals of this conceptual paper are the following: First, we present some insights into the industry idiosyncrasies and INVs and present a conceptual framework identifying key industry variables to aid further examination of the role industry factors on new venture internationalization processes and strategies, and hence, this paper can be seen as an early version of the conceptual review. Second, we build up propositions how industry affects the internationalization process of the INVs. In this we provide a platform for further studies in the domain of international entrepreneurship.

  • 118.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Evers, Natasha
    National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Kuivalainen, Olli
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta, Finland.
    International new ventures: rapid internationalization across different industry contexts2014In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 390-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this article is to, first, offer insights into the relationship between industry idiosyncrasies and international new ventures (INVs), and then present a research conceptual framework that identifies the role of industry factors in new venture internationalization processes and strategies. Second, the authors introduce the content of this special issue. Design/methodology/approach – This conceptual article builds on extant studies on INVs operating in different industrial contexts. Particular attention is given to the role of industry influences in the processes of new venture internationalization, in terms of speed, geographical scope and entry strategy. Such factors are discussed to formulate a conceptual framework as a basis for further research. Findings – The conceptual framework identifies key industry factors as well as emergent factors that influence the new venture internationalization process, in terms of speed, geographical scope and entry strategy. Such key influencing factors are competition and structure, industry life cycle, industry concentration, knowledge intensity, local cluster internationalization and global industry integration. Emergent factors are identified as new business models, technology and industry network dynamics. Research limitations/implications – This article is conceptual in nature, and thus empirical research is recommended in diverse contexts. Practical implications – Further analysis of industry factors is a valid research avenue for understanding INVs. Originality/value – This special issue offers new insights into how industry factors influence INVs’ internationalization processes in terms of speed, scope and entry strategy.

  • 119.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Florén, Henrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Differences in managerial behavior between small international and non-international firms2011In: Journal of International Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1570-7385, E-ISSN 1573-7349, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 233-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main question raised in this article is whether there are any differences between the work activities of managers in small firms primarily operating on an international market and those managing firms doing business on a domestic market. If so, what are these differences, and what do they tell us about the internationalization of small firms? The comparative method used here is based on multiple approaches including interviews, diary studies, and direct observations. The conclusions indicate that managers in small international firms are more proactive in their networking behavior, delegate operative activities and devote more time to planned strategic activities connected with their international expansion than managers in other small firms. 

  • 120.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Gabrielsson, Jonas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Born Globals' market channel strategies2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 121.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Gabrielsson, Jonas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    International activities in small firms: Examining factors influencing the internationalization and export growth of small firms2004In: Canadian Journal of the Administrative Sciences, ISSN 0825-0383, E-ISSN 1936-4490, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 22-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we explore internationalization and export growth over time in a sample of 135 small manufacturing firms. By using concepts and arguments from literature on international business and small firms, the paper identifies six situational, or contingency, factors that are expected to influence the international activities of small firms. Our results show that a dynamic and fast-changing environment may push small firms to go abroad, while it seems to be the experiences built up in the organization and a younger generation of CEOs that can explain why some small firms continue to expand their international activities. The findings suggest that the factors influencing small firms to go abroad and become international differ from the factors that influence them to continue and grow once they are on the international marketplace. The paper ends with a discussion of the findings, together with suggestions for further research.

  • 122.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Ghannad, Navid
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    The role of entrepreneurs’ imprinting in the creation of born global firms2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study shows how imprinting episodes in entrepreneurs’ childhood and prior life story influence their mind-sets, which influence the entrepreneur’s venture creation and their firms international behaviour. Depending on the imprinting experiences, entrepreneurs develop skills and mind-sets with preferences and especially desires that will affect the total behaviour of their future organization.  The study also shows how firms’ international growth can be an important part of a firm’s strategy, but also a consequence of strategy that not per se include internationalization.

  • 123.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Servais, Per
    Department of Marketing and Management, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Combining industrial buyer and seller strategies for international supply and marketing management2010In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 64-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review international industrial purchasing and marketing literature with a focus on portfolio models, to develop portfolio models for buyers' and sellers' international strategies, and to combine the models so that both the buyer and seller perspectives are dealt with simultaneously. Design/methodology/approach: Literature on international industrial purchasing and marketing is discussed. Dimensions that are important for the buyers' and sellers' strategies are identified. Portfolio models for buyers and sellers are developed and the two perspectives are matched together. Findings: The paper contributes a specification of features that are important for industrial buyers' and sellers' international purchasing and marketing strategies. These dimensions are used to develop a model of supplier relationship management and a marketing management model for supplier strategies. The consequences for the firm's international activities are discussed. A model combining industrial buyers' and sellers' international supply and marketing management strategies is developed. Research limitations/implications: This paper provides a deeper understanding of international exchange processes by combining literature on international industrial purchasing and international marketing. Situations are identified where different areas of theory are applicable. The paper also contributes to the discussion on what should be the conceptual domain of international business. Here, it is argued that international exchange is the product of joint decisions made by two or more actors based in different countries. Earlier academic literature reveals a striking imbalance: while one side of the coin - the exporter side - has been extensively studied, the importer side has largely been neglected. In this paper, it is tried to present a balanced view of both sides. Practical implications: This paper introduces portfolio management models that can be used for both industrial purchasing and marketing management. The paper stresses the importance of finding a fit between the marketing and purchasing strategies within a relationship. If both parties have positioned the relationship in a similar way, there are much greater possibilities for the relationship to create value for both parties. Originality/value: The paper combines international industrial purchasing and international marketing perspectives as few studies have done before. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 124.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Servais, Per
    Linneus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Different types of International New Ventures Based on Different Commercialization Processes in a Business-to-Business Context2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An emerging topic in the field of International Entrepreneurship (IE) is currently focused on international new ventures (INVs) and/or born-globals (Oviatt and McDougall, 1997; Madsen and Servais, 1997; Knight and Cavusgil, 1996) which are, by theoretic definition, start-ups that become international at inception or very shortly thereafter. More concretely, INVs have been previously defined as “a business organization that, from inception, seeks to derive significant competitive advantage from the use of resources and the sale of outputs in multiple countries” (Oviatt and McDougall, 1994: 49; McDougall et al., 1994:470). Quite similarly, Knight and Cavusgil (1996:11) conceptualise the born-global firm as ““small, [usually] technology-oriented companies that operate in international markets from the earliest days of their establishment”.

    Even if the born global research has grown rapidly during the last decades, most studies have focused on entrepreneurs, resources and networks and only a few researchers are observant about the context in which the born global firms are established and thrives. Literature reviews in international entrepreneurship has shown that most research in this area is based on business to business firms (Jones et al, 2012). However, we have not found any studies which go deeper in the different customer-supplier relationships that exist in a B2B context.

    Adaptation on B2B markets is important to make a relationship more productive, according to Hagberg-Anderson (2006).  There are structural factors, in the relationship between sellers and buyers which make different internationalization strategies more likely to succeed (Andersson, 2000).In this article we thoroughly discuss and review scientific articles that highlights the variation, differentiation and typology of international new venture. We complement this review with literature dealing with buyer-seller relationship in a B2B context. Based on these two strands on literature we develop a framework of different types of international new ventures in a business to business context. The framework gives theoretical contributions to the area of international entrepreneurship research but also managerial implication, showing how different types of relationships with customers make different internationalization strategies more or less likely to succeed.

  • 125.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Sundermeier, Janina
    Department of Information Systems, Digital Entrepreneurship Hub, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Firms' use of organizational, personal, and intermediary networks to gain access to resources for internationalization2019In: Thunderbird International Business Review, ISSN 1096-4762, E-ISSN 1520-6874, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 609-621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores which networks are beneficial for gaining resources for firms' internationalization. Little is known about firms' use of organizational, personal, and intermediary networks to gain access to resources for internationalization. Firms are seeking resources through their organization's relationships (organizational networks) and individuals' personal contacts (personal networks). Governmental and industry actors are implementing networks to promote international growth and act as an intermediary between business actors (intermediary networks). We conduct in-depth interviews with firms and representatives for intermediary networks complemented with a survey. The findings reveal which resources are accessed through the different networks. We find organizational networks provide considerable access to most resources (except financial resources) that are beneficial for internationalization, whereas intermediary networks provide access to reputational, human, and market resources. Personal networks primarily provide access to human resources. This study contributes to theory by giving a more fine-grained understanding of how different types of networks give access to different resources valuable for internationalization. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. 

  • 126.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Svensson, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    A Glocal marketing model2009In: Glocal Marketing: think globally and act locally / [ed] Svante Andersson & Göran Svensson, Lund, 2009, 1, p. 391-396Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 127.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Svensson, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Anti-climate Change Management in Marketing2009In: Glocal Marketing: think globally and act locally / [ed] Svante Andersson & Göran Svensson, Lund, 2009, 1, p. 373-390Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 128.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Svensson, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Early Internationalizing Firms2009In: Glocal marketing: think globally and act locally / [ed] Svante Andersson & Göran Svensson, Lund, 2009, 1, p. 45-64Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 129.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Svensson, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wood, Greg
    Deakin University, Australia .
    International Corporate and Business Ethics2009In: Glocal Marketing: think globally and act locally / [ed] Svante Andersson, Göran Svensson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2009, p. 319-338Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 130.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Tell, Joakim
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The relationship between the manager and growth in small firms2009In: Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, ISSN 1462-6004, E-ISSN 1758-7840, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 586-598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to improve the understanding of the relationship between the manager and growth in small firms, through a review of earlier research.

    Design/methodology/approach

    A review of articles published during the last 25 years is carried out in order to answer the question: How does the top manager influence growth in small firms?

    Findings

    Three key relationships are identified: between growth and, respectively, managerial traits and characteristics, managerial intentions, and managerial behavior or roles. The diverse findings in the literature are contradictory and give a paradoxical picture of the impact of the manager. A deeper analysis of the results from the review, supplemented with leadership theory, yields a better understanding of small-firm growth with a special focus on the behavior of the manager.

    Research limitations/implications

    This paper problematizes the complexity in managing small-firm growth, and can be further empirically validated by using multiple methods including qualitative ones such as observational studies.

    Practical implications

    The findings have a bearing on education and policy implications. If a behavior can be identified that promotes small firms' growth, education and policy implications can be developed in line with these results.

    Originality/value

    In small firms there seems to be a general consensus that managers do influence the performance of small firms, but so far there has not been a systematic review of earlier empirical research, that is done in this paper. From this review, a more complete picture of how managers influence growth in small firms is presented.

  • 131.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Innovative Internationalisation in New firms: Born Globals–the Swedish Case2003In: Journal of International Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1570-7385, E-ISSN 1573-7349, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 249-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past few years, the phenomenon of Born Globals has been highlighted in many studies. Such firms adopt a global approach right from their inception or very shortly thereafter. This behaviour challenges the traditional internationalisation models of slow and gradual development with respect to geographical markets and market entry modes. In this paper a conceptual framework is developed from earlier research and includes the factors: globalisation, entrepreneurs, networks, and industry. A survey showed that Born Globals were still very uncommon in Sweden. However, four Born Global firms were identified and analysed with the framework. It was concluded that the ongoing globalisation has made it easier to conduct Born Global strategies. However, active entrepreneurs, who recognised the global opportunities, were crucial for the implementation of these strategies, in which personal networks were used as tools.

  • 132.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Wikström, Niclas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Why and how are social media used in a B2B context, and which stakeholders are involved?2017In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 32, no 8, p. 1098-1108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This study aims to explore why and how business-to-business (B2B) companies use social media and which users and stakeholders they communicate with.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study employs a case study approach because of its exploratory nature. Data from three companies consisted of interviews and observation of websites. The analysis includes within-case and cross-case displays to find patterns and themes in the data.

    Findings – The study shows that companies in a B2B contexts use social media as communication to enhance customer relationships, support sales and build their brands, in line with prior research. However, they also use social media as a recruiting tool, a seeking tool and a product information and service tool.

    Research limitations/implications – The findings confirm extant literature showing that B2B companies can directly influence content through corporate user accounts. Furthermore, firms in early stages of social media do not target any special stakeholders with broader messages, while more experienced social media users develop special messages for different stakeholders.

    Practical implications – This study contributes by shedding light on how B2B companies use social media. It also shows how different channels are effective with different stakeholders.

    Originality/value – Few studies have investigated the use of social media in a B2B context. This study goes beyond prior work by detailing how different social media tools are used, identifying different users and stakeholders, and explaining why different tools are used for different purposes targeted towards different stakeholders. New applications of the use of social media are also identified. © Emerald Publishing Limited 2017

  • 133.
    Andersson, Thomas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Differences between American and Swedish cases – a study of how case studies can differ2017Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 134.
    Andersson, Thomas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Liking and commenting on Facebook – what are the reasons?2016Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 135.
    Andersson, Thomas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Why entertainment content posts get more likes and comments on Facebook2017Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 136.
    Andersson, Thomas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Tengnäs, Alexander
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Implementering av affärssystem - Påverkan på ekonomistyrning inom SMF2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 137.
    Andersson, Viktoria
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Bungerfeldt, My
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Revisorns betydelse vid kreditbedömningen av mindre aktiebolag2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Drygt ett och ett halvt år har gått sedan revisionspliktens avskaffande genomfördes och det har förts en del diskussioner om hur viktig revisorns roll är. Halling (2007) menar att bankerna använder den reviderade årsredovisningen som en noggrannare granskning och har företaget valt bort revisor kan kreditbeslutet påverkas. Detta beror på att redovisningsinformationen kan hjälpa bankerna att förutse en del risker som kan ligga till grund för beslutsfattandet (Svensson, 2003). Tidigare forskare menar på att en reviderad årsredovisning är viktig och om förtaget inte väljer att ha revisor så kommer bankerna vara mer försiktiga när de beviljar en kredit. Vi ställer oss frågande till detta och vill undersöka om det är andra faktorer som påverkar småföretagens möjligheter till lån om de har valt bort revisor.

     

    Syfte: Vi vill beskriva och analysera om valet av att inte ha en reviderad årsredovisning påverkar de mindre aktiebolagens kreditvärdighet ur revisorers och bankers olika bedömningar. Detta för att söka utveckling i begreppet kring kreditvärdering i och med ändringarna i 9:1 Aktiebolagslagen om vilka företag som är skyldiga att ha revisor. Dessa funderingar bidrog till vår problemformulering ”Hur bedömer kreditgivarna mindre aktiebolag utan en reviderad årsredovisning vid en kreditansökan?”.

     

    Metod: Vi har valt att göra en kvalitativ studie och vår ansats vi har använt oss av är den abduktiva ansatsen. Vi har valt att fokusera oss på småföretag som omfattas av den nya lagen om revisionspliktens avskaffande. Vi har intervjuat fem revisorer och tre banker för att kunna utveckla begreppet om småföretagets kreditvärdighet efter revisionspliktens avskaffande.

     

    Resultat och slutsatser: I vår studie har vi kommit fram till att varken banker eller revisorer har märkt av revisionspliktens avskaffande i någon större bemärkelse. Det är inte av någon större betydelse heller om småföretagen har en revisor eller inte när de ansöker om krediter. Vidare kan vi konstatera att de deltagande bankerna i vår studie tycker att en redovisningskonsult ger samma kvalitetsstämpel på räkenskaperna som en revisor ger. Vi kan även se tendenser att småföretag som väljer bort revisorn inte får högre ränta på sina lån. Detta är för att bankerna inte ser en icke reviderad årsredovisning som en högre risk utan det som påverkar bankens räntesättning mest är vilka säkerheter företaget har.

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    Revisorns betydelse vid kreditbedömningen av mindre aktiebolag
  • 138.
    Anderssson, Linus
    et al.
    FM.
    Karlberg, Fredrik
    FM.
    Gemensamt mål eller gemensamma medel?: En komparativ textanalys av svensk och finsk säkerhetsstrategi efter kalla krigets slut och dess konsekvenser för det svensk-finska försvarssamarbetet.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    COMMON ENDS OR COMMON MEANS?

    The Cold War is over and Sweden and Finland are starting to deal with the new security enviroment that has emerged. Grand Strategy in both countries is changing to meet the new Europe and surroundings. Both Sweden and Finland consider the risk of a direct attack in the near future to be highly unlikely and this has effects on the respective countries grand strategy. A broadened approach to security is applied and the military instrument is no longer the primary concern in the strategy. Both Sweden and Finland become members of the European Union in 1995 but neither is a member of NATO, the countries both consider themselves as military non-aligned, the only two countries with a coastline to the Baltic Sea with that stance. This makes for a logic choice to cooperate for the common security and a cooperation is formed to cover security policies to be relevant in peace, crisis and war. Even though the countries are existing in and interpret the new security enviroment in similar ways they approach the challanges in differing ways. This creates the differences that we identify and describe in this thesis.

    The purpose of this thesis is to identify and describe the differences between Sweden's and Finland's grand strategy, how this difference has changed from 1996 to 2018 and if these differences can have consequences for the cooperation between the two countries, mainly military and at the highest strategic level. The thesis is focused on the elements of the grand strategy that involves the armed forces of the respective countries.

    This comparative text analysis compares political policy documents within the grand strategy field from both Sweden and Finland. We will compare the period from 1996-2018. The comparison will be made by examining three occasions in the period, year 1996, Year 2004 and year 2018. The documents used have relevance against these years and are analyzed by applying Jacob Westberg's model; ends, means, ways and environment.

    The differences and the consequences that are the conclusions of this thesis are that cooperation are not always formed because it is the best possible option but sometimest the only possible options. Sweden and Finland's history differ in some parts and this has affected the respective country's security strategies. Finland has a history of coping for itself and has thus a national focus with focus on a stable national defense while Sweden has a history without war in modern times and a constant glance at military international engagement and the political benefits that can be achieved on the international scene.

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  • 139.
    Andrade, Débora Mengarda
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Prada, Danielle Fiamoncini
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Customer Value Creation: How do external factors influence SME's customer value creation in a new foreign market? A case study of Axelent A.B.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When companies go international some factors present in the host country act like forces that might drive the company to standardize or adapt its strategies. The choices between to standardize or to adapt to local needs are of a great importance, since it can have significant impact in the company’s performance in the foreign market. In this paper these forces are characterized in country specific and industry specific factors. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of external factors in the customers’ value creation in a new foreign market, under standardization and adaptation strategies. In order to fulfill the purpose of the paper, a qualitative research was conducted using a single case study of a Swedish SME, focusing on a single product, namely machine guarding, in connection with one foreign market, Brazil. The study shows that the factors that were most influenced in the customers’ value creation were social/cultural aspects and competition, which tend to lead the company to adapt in order to fulfill local needs and to react to the competitiveness. It was also presented that economic factors and market size did not represent any influences in the standardization or adaptation strategies of the company studied. However, other external factors, as technological, political/legal and industry structure, have shown impact to some degree, whether in adaptation or standardization strategies.

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    Andrade and Prada _ Thesis Customer Value Creation
  • 140.
    Andreas, Andersson
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Simon, Ramsén
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Företagsobligationer: En kvalitativ studie om samband mellan transparens och likviditet på sekundärmarknaden2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish corporate bond market has grown in both volume and number of issuers since the financial crisis in 2007/2008. The market is undergoing fundamental changes that may affect the attractiveness of corporate bonds among market participants. In February 2015 came the Swedish Financial Supervisory practices in force for increased transparency and openness in the corporate bond market. The literature review conducted for the paper indicates that, from a theoretical perspective it is unclear what impact increased transparency will have for variables such as interest, liquidity, competition and costs. The purpose of this paper is to describe the relationship between transparency and liquidity in the Swedish market for corporate bonds. In a qualitative study, 13 interviews with various actors in the corporate bond market has been analyzed by using the theory written on the subject. In general, market participants seem to agree that transparency is positive, however, there are divided opinions on the appropriate degree of transparency and what impact transparency will have on the market. The market must be sufficiently transparent for investors to be confident to participate but the degree of transparency should not disfavor market makers whom set prices.

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  • 141.
    Andreas, Knutsson
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Lindberg, Joel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Ränteavdragets effekt på finansiering och kapitalstruktur: Vilka faktorer är viktiga för kapitalstruktur och hur kan en ränteavdragsbegränsning påverka svenska företag?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur företag väljer att finansiera sin verksamhet grundas på många faktorer. Tidigare forskning har visat att företagsspecifika förutsättningar som storlek och bransch är viktiga. På samma sätt kan personliga attribut hos finansiella beslutsfattare påverka. Utöver detta kan omvärldsfaktorer, exempelvis regleringar, influera finansiering. Avdragsrätten för räntor har tills nu i princip alltid varit orörd men kommer begränsas inom EU. Uppsatsen undersökte hur en generell ränteavdragsbegränsning kan påverka kapitalstruktur och studerade samtidigt vilka faktorer som är viktiga när svenska företag tar beslut om kapitalstruktur. Undersökningen genomfördes kvalitativt genom intervjuer med tjänstemän som besitter kunskap och inblick inom ämnet. Resultatet visar att det finns flertalet faktorer som kan påverka företags val av finansiering. Storlek är den mest betydande faktorn huruvida företag aktivt arbetar med kapitalstruktur. Studien visar att större företag generellt arbetar med att effektivisera kapitalstrukturen. Mindre bolag gör inte detta i samma utsträckning men skulle kunna dra fördel av det. Enligt rapporten är bland annat bransch, konjunktur, ränteläge, ägarstruktur och riskattityd viktiga faktorer vid beslut om kapitalstruktur. Vidare visar resultatet att en ränteavdragsbegränsning skulle kunna påverka företags kapitalstruktur, i högre grad tungt belånade företag, till exempel fastighetsbolag. Resultatet indikerar att företag skulle behöva samla mer eget kapital för att göra investeringar vilket skulle förlänga investeringscykeln och därmed hämma företag som vill expandera.

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  • 142.
    Andreasson, Adam
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Olofsson, Jennie
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Komponentavskrivning: - En uppsats om informationsförändringen i årsredovisningen och dess väsentlighet för beslutsfattare2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In June 2012 the Swedish Accounting Standards board presented the K3-regulation which is the new main regulation for annual reports and consolidated account statements.  One of the new requirements is that companies now have to use component depreciation for their fixed assets. This has been under great debate because the real estate companies were very critical and thought that the benefits would be negligible compared to the costs since depreciation-information is considered to be unimportant and does not bring any value to the stakeholders. Accounting experts, on the other hand, argued that they would benefit from the requirement by a more evenly distributed profit and improved financial reporting.

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the expected effects of component depreciation on the different parts of the annual report of a real estate company. Because of the recent debate about whether or not it will benefit the stakeholders, we also want to examine the effect from the users perspective. The study focuses on decision-making. Our research question is: Which effects will the new K3-requirement of component depreciation have on real estate companies annual report?

    This is a case study where we have used a deductive approach and a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative data collection has been based on the annual report of the company together with data from internal documents. The data has been used to construct different types of economic data for a "model-building" according to the method used today and the component depreciation method which are then compared to see the effects. The qualitative data has been collected by interviews with the different stakeholders of the company.

    Our study has strengthened the already described effects on annual reports concluded by theorists earlier. However, we have been able to go deeper in some of our explanations than what we have  read on the subject. The most important effects are a more evenly distribution of maintenance costs over the years; it will no longer affect the profit and it will eliminate the cost peaks which occur during years with high maintenance levels. This will also result in a rearrangement of the company's cash flow. The study has also concluded that component depreciation will have a contribution to the stakeholders.  The improved profit during the first years and changed cash flow are expected to lead to different decisions concerning maintenance. The level of maintenance is based on this data and an increase of profits will increase the maintenance level. An increased level of maintenance can lead to a general increase of the building standards. This effect is believed to be especially important to real estate companies with a high share of buildings from the "million programme". We also found an indirect correlation between component depreciation and an increased rent; the possibility of higher building standards may be used as decision basis in negotiations to increase rent.

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    Uppsats
  • 143.
    Andén, Sara
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science. 1993.
    How cases can be used as exams2016Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 144.
    Andén, Sara
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Hauser, Matilda
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Ledaren och organisationskulturens roll for anstalldas motivation2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ledarskap och organisationskultur är två avgörande parametrar för företags framgång och är två faktorer som tidigare visats har stor inverkan på anställdas motivationsnivå. Motiverade anställda leder i sin tur till högre prestationer och därmed även högre resultat för hela företaget. Tidigare forskningsresultat har visat hur ledarskap, organisationskultur och motivation har samvarierat men att det är ett komplext ämne som ständigt behöver undersökas i nya miljöer. Syftet med denna studie är därför att skapa en djupare förståelse för hur ledarskap och organisationskultur påverkar motivation samt se i vilken utsträckning det tidigare funna sambandet kan appliceras på arbetsgrupper i Sydsverige. Med hjälp av en kvalitativ studie som baserats på intervjuer med ledare och arbetsgrupper i sydvästra Sverige ska följande problemformulering besvaras Hur påverkar ledaren och organisationskulturen anställdas motivation i arbetsgrupper?. Resultatet visade att den transformativa ledarskapsstil som ledarna i de intervjuade bolagen arbetade efter med högre grad av empowerment hade positiv påverkan på de anställdas motivation. Det framgick dock ur studien att de grupper som arbetade inom standardiserade arbetsmiljöer där empowerment är begränsat resulterade i lägre genomsnittlig motivationsnivå. Organisationskulturens roll i strävan mot att öka motivationen hos de anställda visade sig i dessa fall inte ha någon större påverkan på hur motiverade de anställda var. Resultatet visade också att det fanns andra motivationsfaktorer som spelade in som varken ledaren eller organisationskulturen kan råda över som krävs mer forskning.

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  • 145.
    Annie, Arvidsson
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Josephine, Scholey
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Fjärrvärmeinvesteringar för företag: En studie om investeringsbedömning, risker samt osäkerheter och riskhantering2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to describe how companies on the district heating market implements their investment analysis, identify which risks and uncertainties exists within investments in district heating and define the implementation of risk management.

    The theoretical framework includes two main sections: Financial theory and District heating theory. Some of the introduced theories are: Knight’s definition of risk and uncertainty, Lygnerud’s risk management model, discounted cash flow methods, discount rate, sensitivity and risk analysis, solidity, risk areas in district heating, price dialogue and Nils Holgersson investigation.

    Before companies on the district heating market make an investment there are various methods to assess the investment’s most important factors; economic value and environmental benefit. Every investment involves risks and uncertainties that must be managed by accepting, minimizing, avoiding or eliminating with different interventions. It is essential for companies to implement risk management to remain active on the district heating market.

    • Companies use discounted cash flow methods, discount rate, sensitivity and risk analysis and solidity when making investment analysis.
    • The primary risks are costly main investments, maintenance costs, production breakdown, competition, demand, price and politics.
    • The risk interventions most frequently used are diversification, continuous maintenance, participate in planning, price dialogue, Nils Holgersson investigation, agreement construction and attend to political decisions.
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  • 146.
    Anongdeth, Alissa
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Lundgren, Amanda
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Intressenters påverkan på prissättning av hyresrätter: En jämförelse mellan kommunala bostadsaktiebolag och privata fastighetsbolag2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 147.
    Antonsson, Emma
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Johansson, Carolina
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Värdering av kulturinvesteringar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Profitability assessments are made in traditional businesses before investments: possible revenues are compared to costs to determine which investments can be profitable. Investing in culture is often associated with high investment costs but not with high revenues, therefore it can be difficult to get a cultural investment to become profitable. Culture is valuable for the community, but is also difficult to valuate in monetary terms since it is perceived differently and existing valuation methods can be used to value the culture output in various ways. Municipalities often invest in culture, why it is interesting to examine how they proceed in order to justify such investments, which this report covers.

     

    Purpose: The purpose of this report is to describe and analyze the factors that can affect decisions in culture investments, and to explain how culture can be evaluated in monetary terms.

     

    Method: In this qualitative report Varberg municipality was selected as a case study. A deductive approach has been used, with a starting point in existing theories and then compared with collected empirical data. The theories are derived from scientific articles and printed literature, the collected empirical data are gathered through qualitative interviews and a quantitative survey.

     

    Conclusion: The report concludes that the municipality of Varberg takes into account the number of visits, population increases, the demand and needs of the residents when making decisions about cultural investments, and not traditional profitability assessments. Method of valuing culture is not used, but the municipality sees culture as an essential part of the community and instead examine the benefits it brings to local residents.

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  • 148.
    Antonsson, Malin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Borup, Malin
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Belöningssystem: Regiformens betydelse för belöningssystemet2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Regiformerna har olika målsättningar och olika intressenter. Kan detta vara varför belöningssystemen inte är likadant utformade, trots att individerna utför liknande arbetsuppgifter.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 149.
    Antonsson, Malin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Borup, Malin
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Ren eller oren revisionsberättelse: En undersökning om revisorns träffsäkerhet i konkursdrabbade gasellföretag 2006-20112012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Gasellföretag har en snabb tillväxt under en kort tidsperiod men trots en snabb tillväxt försätts en del av företagen i konkurs efter att de erhållit utmärkelsen till gasellföretag. Tidigare forskning tyder på att revisorer som arbetar på en Big 4 revisionsbyrå är mer träffsäkra vid utgivandet av revisonsberättelser än de revisorer som arbetar på andra revisionsbyråer. Tidigare forskning visar också på att auktoriserade revisorer är mer träffsäkra vid utgivandet av revisionsberättelser än godkända revisorer.

    Syftet med arbetet är att kartlägga och förklara revisorns träffsäkerhet av den sista revisionsberättelsen i gasellföretag som försatts i konkurs. Vidare vill vi analysera vilken typ av revisor som är mest träffsäker vid utgivandet av en oren sista revisionsberättelsen till gasellföretag som försätts i konkurs.

    Genom en deduktiv ansats kommer vi testa befintliga teorier för att sedan antingen förkasta eller acceptera hypoteser och genom en kvantitativ metod kommer vi samla in sekundärdata till undersökningen.

    Vårt resultat visar att revisorns träffsäkerhet vid utgivandet av revisionsberättelser inte beror på vilken revisionsbyrå denne arbetar på eller vilken examensnivå revisorn uppnått. Det som istället kan ha betydelse för om ett konkursdrabbat gasellföretags sista revisionsberättelse blir ren eller oren är företagets soliditet.

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  • 150.
    Aradini, Adelina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Tahiri, Ilirian
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Mellanchefers användning av Simons fyra styrsystem via styrmedlet budget: En studie om Simons fyra styrsystem2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Simons fyra styrsystem
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