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  • 101.
    Håman (née Eriksson), Linn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Center for Sport and Health Science (CIHF). University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Patriksson, Göran
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Barker-Ruchti, Natalie
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Eva-Carin
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Disordered eating outside the sport setting: Contextualizing representations of orthorexia nervosa in Swedish daily newspapers2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the late 1990s, Bratman coined the term orthorexia nervosa to mean an unhealthy obsession of only eating healthy foods (Bratman & Knight, 2000). The research is limited and orthorexia has rarely been researched in sport settings (e.g. Eriksson et al., 2008; Segura-García et al., 2012). At this stage, this concept is considered under establishment and negotiation – a process of formation where it is not clear what orthorexia is. How orthorexia is contextualized and represented influences the establishment and understanding of the condition and concept. The aim of this study is to analyze representations of orthorexia in articles printed in Swedish newspapers, with a special view on how the articles refer to sport as a social setting. Notions of healthy and disordered eating are influenced by cultural ideas in society. The language is central in this process as it creates and organizes beliefs about social reality. Perceptions and knowledge about orthorexia are created through, for example, newspaper texts. The material included in this study was limited to national, regional and local Swedish daily newspaper articles published between January 2004 and June 2011. A total of 102 articles were included as they explicitly dealt with orthorexia. The articles were analyzed using a discourse analytical approach through a qualitative content analysis. The articles represented orthorexia in different ways: a) (un)controlled and obsessive patterns of behavior; b) sacrificing social situations; c) an eating disorder in new clothes; d) a painful existence; and e) an invisible problem. Within the last category, the way orthorexia is represented in relation to sport points to how different norms and values apply in and outside this setting. Orthorexia is only considered as disordered eating in non-sport settings. In sport, orthorexic behaviours are considered standard practice. These findings thus further problematize disordered eating in and outside sport settings.

  • 102.
    Idén Nordin, Amanda
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    How to Become and Maintain to Be a Runner: Experiences of Two Swedish Females2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine personal running histories of one successful and one less successful Swedish female runner. The focus was on finding the motivating and demotivating factors in becoming a runner, and major differences between the successful and the less successful runner. The theoretical frameworks- transtheoretical model and selfdetermination theory- were used as guides when conducting two narrative interviews. Data analysis was based on the recommendations of the Narrative Oriented Inquiry (NOI) model. Sjuzet and fabula, holistic content and categorical content analyses were the three analyses chosen out of the six recommended in the NOI model. The holistic content analysis resulted in narratives about each participant life background and previous training, personal history to become a runner, and present time and future plans for running. The categorical-content analysis revealed eight motivating factors for running, four demotivating factors for running and three themes contrasting the participants. Results are discussed in relation to the theoretical frameworks and previous research.

  • 103. Ingeberg, Karoline
    et al.
    Thomsen, Sofia
    En intervention på kvinnliga fotbollsspelare: kan resultatet av Sörensens test påverkas av funktionell träning?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 104.
    Isbring, Evelina
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    A longitudinal study of the frequency of knee pain and the effect on countermovement jump at a sports secondary school2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies have shown that participation in sports during adolescence has several positive aspects, both physical and mentally. Today there is more focus on competition than before and more adolescents choose to specialize in one sport. High sport specialization can cause a higher risk of injuries. Knees are one of the most common sites for adolescence to experience pain in and girls are more often exposed to this problem, compared to boys.

    Aim: The aim of the study was to longitudinally investigate the frequency of reported knee pain in 7th grade and 9th grade in a secondary school with a sports profile stratified for sex, difference in frequency of knee pain between 7th and 9th grade and whether knee pain affected performance in countermovement jump with arm swing.

    Methods: To compare frequency of knee pain between 7th and 9th grade, the test subjects (n=42, 17 girls and 25 boys) that answered the questionnaire about knee pain both years were included. The questionnaire had six options for frequency, where those who reported “never” or “rarely” were grouped as “no knee pain”. Those who reported “monthly”, “weekly”, “more than once a week” or “almost daily” were grouped as “knee pain”. Jump height was measured by countermovement jump with arm swing. The tests were performed twice, in May 2014 when the test subjects were in 7th grade (age: mean (SD) 14±0.2) and in May 2016 in 9th grade (age: 16±0.2).

    Results: In 7th grade, 74% reported knee pain (girls 82 %, boys 68%). In 9th grade, 36% reported knee pain (girls 36%, boys 35%). The difference between the frequency of knee pain in 7th and 9th grade was significant, with a lower frequency in 9th grade. In 7th grade the jump height for those with knee pain was 32.9±7.5 cm, and for those with no knee pain 33.8±5.6 cm. In 9th grade the jump height for those with knee pain was 33.5±7.2 cm, and for those with no knee pain 36.5±10.1 cm.

    Conclusion: The frequency of knee pain decreased significant from 7th to 9th grade. There was no significant difference regarding jump height in countermovement jump with arm swing between the group that reported monthly to almost daily knee pain, and the group that reported that they experienced knee pain rarely or never. The result of this study therefore indicates that self-reported knee pain does not affect jumping performance.

  • 105.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Could level and change in psychosocial stress during a 7 week period predict sport injuries in a population of professional soccer players?2012In: Proceedings of the 3rd Conference on Science and Soccer, 2012, p. 163-163Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Itroduction: Involvement in competitive soccer is connected with a high injury rate (Hägglund, 2007). Previous research has suggested that a psychosocial stress (both major and minor stressors) have a great impact on injury risk (Rogers & Landers, 2005; Fawkner et al., 1999).

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate if individual level and change in psychosocial stress (daily hassle) during a 7 week period could predict injuries among Swedish Premiere League soccer players.

    Method: The participants were 56 (38 males and 18 females) Swedish Premiere League soccer players. Participants ranged in age from 16 – 36 years (M = 25, 05, SD = 5, 46). Participants completed the Hassle and Uplift Scale once a week for a 7-week period. During the research period, the physiotherapists for each team were asked to record any injuries occurring during the study period. Latent grpwth curve models were used to examine whether the level and change in psychological stress could predict the frequency of injury over the 7 week period.

    Result: The results showed that both high initial levels of daily hassle and negative changes in it were associated with more injuries. Moreover, intra-class correlation showed that 23,4 % of the variance in hassle over the 7 repeated observations could be explained by the within-person variance, whereas the majority of variance (76,6%) could be attributed to between-person variance.

    Discussion: The findings highlight the importance of focusing on state variables using prospective designs and appropriate change analysis in order to detect complex and dynamic associations across time in injury prediction research. It is also important to acknowledging and investigating individual differeces in order to understand how psychosocial stressors influence different athletes. Recommendations for players, coaches and physiotherapies are to be observant of the influence from daily hassles in order to be able to help the athlete to decrease injury risk by for example adjusting his/her training load due to psychological status.

  • 106.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science & Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, Karlstad University & Swedish Winter Sports Research Centre, Mid-Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Altemyr, Mats
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Fatigue as a Predictor of Sport Injuries: A Latent Class Analysis2013In: Abstracts of the ISSP 13th World Congress of Sport Psychology: July 21-26, 2013, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, China, Beijing, 2013, p. 99-100Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has showed that psychosocial factors such as fatigue, could increase risk of injury (Borotikar et al., 2008; Johnson, 2011). Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the potential risk of different developmental trajectory profiles in fatigue, over three weeks, for injury among Swedish junior elite soccer players. Participants were 91 junior elite soccer players at the soccer high schools (64 male and 33 female) aged between 15-18 years (M =16.57, SD = .75). All players were asked, at a weekly basis during the first three weeks of pre-season, to complete the fatigue sub-scale from Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes-Sport (Kellman & Kallus, 2001). Two months after, the athletic trainers of the participants were asked to record any injury that occurred in the last two months. Latent class analysis was performed to analyze the data. Sample adjusted BIC was used to evaluate the goodness-of-fit and to help select the best fitted model (Yang, 1998). Relative risk ratios were calculated to compare the injury risk between participants in various latent classes identified from the latent class analysis. The model with best fit (BIC = 832, entropy .77) contained four different latent classes (i.e., low stable, moderate stable, high increasing, high decreasing). Members of the low stable class characterized by low levels of fatigue over the three-week period (Intercept = 2.5, slope = -.16) were selected as the reference class when calculating relative risk rations. Members of the high increasing class, experiencing high and increasing level of fatigue over the three-week period (Intercept = 4.94, slope = .29), were exposed to the highest risk of injury (RR = 2.53), compared with the reference class, and with other classes. Results from the participants included in the two other classes as (1) the moderate stable, characterized by a stable moderate level of fatigue during the course of assessment (Intercept = 3.78, slope = .14), and (2) the high decreasing, with high but decreasing level of fatigue during the three-week period (Intercept= 5.97, slope = -1.14), were both exposed to a 1.63 greater risk of injury than the reference class. The result indicates that high levels of fatigue might increase the risks of injury among soccer players. In other words, players’ risk in sport might potentially be reduced by proper recovery protocols. It is therefore highly recommended that coaches and medical staff should work actively and continuously with athletes to aid their physical and psychological recovery.

  • 107.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Center for Sport and Health Science (CIHF).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Center for Sport and Health Science (CIHF).
    Podlog, Leslie
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Utah, Utah, USA.
    Psychological predictors of injury occurrence: A prospective investigation of professional Swedish soccer players2013In: Journal of sport rehabilitation, ISSN 1056-6716, E-ISSN 1543-3072, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 19-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context:

    Athletes participating in sport are exposed to a high injury risk. Previous research has found a great number of risk factors (both physiological and psychological) that could increase injury risk.1 One limitation in previous studies is that few have considered the complex interaction between psychological factors in their research design.

    Objective: To study whether personality, stress and coping predicted injury occurrence in an elite soccer population based on a hypothesized model.

    Design: Prospective.

    Participants: 56 (n = 38 males, n = 18 females) Swedish Premiere league soccer players were selected based on convenience sampling.

    Intervention: Participants completed four questionnaires including the: Swedish Universities Scales of Personality,2 Life Events Survey for Collegiate Athletes,3 and Brief COPE4 during the initial questionnaire administration. Subsequent to the first meeting, participants also completed the Hassle and Uplift Scale,5 once per week for a 13-week period throughout the competitive season.

    Main Outcome Measures: A path analysis was conducted examining the influence of personality traits (i.e., trait anxiety), state level stressors (i.e., negative life event stress and daily hassles), and coping on injury frequency.

    Results: Results of the path analysis indicated that trait anxiety, negative life event stress, and daily hassle−were significant predictors of injury among professional soccer players accounting for 24% of the variance.

    Conclusion: The findings highlight the need for athletes, coaches and medical practitioners to attempt to reduce state level stressors, especially, daily hassles in minimizing injury risk. Educating and training athletes and coaches in proactive stress management techniques appears warranted.

  • 108.
    Ivarsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Helgesson, Fredrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Stein, Tobias
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Fotbollsskador hos manliga amatörspelare i Halland säsongen 2009: En jämförelse mellan division två, tre och fyra2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Fotboll är en intressant idrott att utforska ur skadeperspektiv då det är en av de mest skadedrabbade idrotterna. Fotbollsskador uppkommer antingen akut eller över tid och åtskiljs beroende om de inträffar under träning eller match. Tidigare studier av elitspelare visar att skador främst inträffar under match i form av akuta skador. De visar också att överbelastningsskador är mer träningsrelaterade och att flertalet av dem inträffar under försäsongen. Skadeincidensen beskrivs i antalet skador per 1000 tränings- respektive matchtimmar. Elitnivå har högre incidens än amatörnivå, framförallt under match. Sextio till nittio procent av alla skador drabbar nedre extremitet. Studier visar att de mest skadedrabbade kroppsdelarna är knän, lår och fotleder men även att ljumsk- och vadskador ofta förekommer.

    Syftet med studien var att jämföra olika divisioner inom den manliga amatörfotbollen, för att se hur spelnivån kan inverka på skadebilden. Undersökningen avsåg säsongen 2009 och genomfördes i Halland med spelare från division två, tre och fyra involverade. En enkät användes för att samla in information om spelarnas skadehistorik. Totalt inkluderades 79 spelare i undersökningen och av dessa var 39 skadade och tillsammans hade de 49 skador. Vid beräkning av konfidensintervall för samtliga enkätsvar framkom inga signifikanta skillnader mellan divisionerna. Sextioen procent av skadorna var akuta och 39 % överbelastningsskador. De akuta skadorna var vanligast i division två och tre medan överbelastningsskador var vanligast i division fyra. Den totala skadeincidensen var 7,92 per 1000 matchtimmar och 2,92 per 1000 träningstimmar. Division tre hade högst skadeincidens för match med 10,63 skador och division fyra hade högst skadeincidens för träning med 4,09 skador. Av alla skador resulterade 30,6 % i en frånvaro mellan 1-7 dagar, 32,7 % mellan 8-28 dagar och 36,7 % mer än 28 dagar. Skadorna var främst lokaliserade till knä, lår och fot. Mittfältare var mest skadedrabbade följt av försvarare, anfallare och målvakter. I division två och fyra inträffade skadorna främst under för- och vårsäsongen medan det i division tre var vanligast med skador under höstsäsongen.

  • 109.
    James, Parker
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Variability of score and golf ball trajectory in elite golfers2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Introduction: Ball trajectory in the golf swing is an important outcome variable for golf performance, however, no direct investigation of ball flight trajectory variability for pre-elite players has been conducted.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine correlations between average score and ball trajectory variability (for carry and lateral displacement) on pre-elite golfers both at and between two different clubs. 

    Methods: Sixteen pre-elite/elite golfers were included in the study, 11 men and 5 women with a mean age of 22 ±2 (SD). An actual average (mean) score was calculated for each player’s first ten competition rounds. Subjects were then instructed to hit 5 balls, with focus on consistency, with their seven iron and then hit 5 balls approximately 70 metres with their preferred wedge. Ball trajectory variables were recorded using a Flightscope® Kudo Doppler radar launch monitor system (EDH South Africa (PTY) Ltd). Statistical calculation of averages, standard deviation (SD), normalised root-mean, coefficient of variance, performance error index (PEI= and Pearson’s correlation.

    Results: The results from the present study showed there was no significant correlation between average score (76.2 ±1.9) and variability of ball trajectory, for the seven iron or wedge. Results also showed average seven iron CV for carry and lateral PEIdisplacement was 5% and 3% respectively, whilst average wedge carry CV for carry and lateral PEIdisplacement was 9% and 2% respectively.  Carry CV and Lateral CV PEI were moderately correlated (r=0.61, p=0.012) with each other for the wedge.

    Conclusion: : Our findings show no correlation between shot variability and golf score, however we found weak correlation between carry and lateral variability for the wedge. In order for effective coaching more understanding into the importance of biomechanical variability and golf performance is required, further research is needed to better understand the implication of our findings

  • 110.
    Jaoudat, Sarah
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Skullman, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Idrottsrelaterade utbrändhetssymptom i relation till motivationsklimat samt perfektionism hos fotbollsspelare2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 111.
    Johansson Eiben, Katarina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Svensson, Linnéa
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Strategier för att hantera skadade tävlingsidrottare- Coachers perspektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to identify the primary strategies coaches use to help seriously injured athletes. How an injury is perceived and managed from a coach's perspective is an unexplored area. Podlog and Dionigi's (2010) is one of few studies that have investigated world elite coacher’s strategies. The authors of present study chose to use similar approaches. Nine semi-structured interviews were conducted with coaches active at a lower level compared to world elite, and experiences of severely injured athletes. Seven men and two women participated from both individual and team sports. Five primary strategies were identified: (1) goal setting, (2) social support, (3) intermediary to medical professionals, (4) adapted training and (5) personalized support. These strategies are addressed to the three aspects of the self-determination theory in the discussion part. Goal setting and adapted training were addressed to competence and adapted training linked to skills. Social support and intermediary to medical professionals were addressed to relatedness. Personalized support, intermediary to medical professionals and goals setting were addressed to autonomy. Finally suggestions for future research, methodology critique and implications are provided.

  • 112.
    Johansson, Kim
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Jernberg, John
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Martinsson, Ted
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Postaktiveringspotentiering i knäböj med hjälp av countermovement jumps2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 113.
    Johansson, Oliwia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Räihä Olsson, Caroline
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Ledarskapets samband med motivation: - tvärsnittsstudie med handbolls- och fotbollsspelare2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to examine relationships between athletes' perceptions of different leadership styles and motivational orientations within the context of sports. Theoretical frameworks of transformational; conventional; and laissez-faire leadership - as well as the different motivational orientations within Self-Determination Theory (SDT) - were applied. Participants were 117 handball and soccer players aged between 16-33 years (M = 19.17, SD = 3.61). Participants completed questionnaires consisting of the Sport Motivation Scale-II (SMSII) to estimate motivational orientations; the Transformational Teaching Questionnaire (TTQ) to measure perceived transformational leadership; and parts of the Developmental Leadership Questionnaire (DLQ), which intended to measure perceived conventional leadership and perceived laissez-faire leadership. The results revealed significant correlations between both transformational leadership and intrinsic motivation as well as extrinsic self-determined motivation (identified regulation and integrated regulation). Furthermore, results showed significant correlations between conventional leadership and non-self-determined motivation (external regulation and introjected regulation). The correlation between perceived laissez-faire leadership and amotivation was not statistically significant. The results are discussed in relation to theories and previous research. Conclusions were that both transformational and conventional leadership correlate with athlete's motivation, hence the knowledge of said subjects may be meaningful for practical application. The results are in line with previous limited research however further research is needed.

  • 114.
    Johansson, Rasmus
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Persson, Rasmus
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Skadehantering i skolan: En undersökning om vad lärare i idrott och hälsa har för uppfattningar om hantering av skador vid fysisk aktivitet i skolundervisningen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund - Varje år skadas uppskattningsvis 280 000 människor i Sverige i samband med fysisk aktivitet. Vid en mjukdelsskada bör behandling ske omedelbart för att stoppa blödning samt för att minska på läkeprocessen. Erfarenhet av idrottsmedicin är av fördel för samtliga individer. För att få den bästa läkeprocessen bör behandlingen utgå från PRICE-modellen. Syfte - I denna studie undersöks vad lärare i idrott- och hälsa från västra Sverige anser om hantering av skador vid fysisk aktivitet som en del av undervisningen i idrott- och hälsa och om det borde ingå i läroplanen. Med hantering av skador vid fysisk aktivitet menar vi till exempel hur en stukad fot behandlas eller vad som ska göras om en kompis får hjärnskakning m.m. Metod - Studien är genomförd med kvalitativa intervjuer genomförda på fem stycken aktiva lärare i idrott och hälsa. Intervjuerna har varit både strukturerade och icke-standardiserade Resultat - I intervjuerna var samtliga lärare i idrott och hälsa positiva till att ha med skadehantering i läroplanen. Det kom fram både fördelar och nackdelar som till exempel att det är bra om en elev kan hantera en stukning om någon skadas där ingen medicinskt kunnig vuxen är i närheten, respektive att det finns viss tidsbrist hos lärare i idrott hälsa för att hålla ett nytt moment. Studien visar att fördelarna väger över nackdelarna. 

  • 115.
    Johansson, viktor
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Motivation och målsättning till att genomföra och återigen delta i Vasaloppet2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vasaloppet is the world's oldest and longest skirace and there are 15800 participants listed for the upcoming race this year. Previous research has reported that 75 % of all participants are extrinsically motivatied to participation and shown that goal-setting is one effective strategy in order to increase motivation. The present study aimed to investigate what causes people to participate in and return to Vasaloppet from a motivational- and goal-setting perspective. Semi- structured interviews were conducted with 10 male (M=33.1) participants whom had all participated in Vasaloppet from one to four times before and were entered for this following year. The result showed a change from extrinsic motivation at the first race to a higher level of intrinsic motivation later on but with outcome goal orientation at both races. The participants experienced a big difference from the first to the following race, especially regarding higher achievement goal-setting and more motivation ahead of the upcoming race, where experience seems to be a contributing factor. For further research it is recommended a longitudinal study a along the similar premises as the current study and to investigate the Vasalopp participants that only choose to attend once.

  • 116.
    Johnsen, Caroline
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Samband mellan vertikal hopphöjd och sprint hos unga kvinnliga gymnaster: Kandidatuppsats i Biomedicin - inriktning fysisk träning 15hp2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Gymnastik är en sport som kräver bra sprint-och hoppförmåga. Det är känt att högre sprinthastigheter kan leda till högre vertikal hopphöjd, ett måste för svårare gymnastiska moment. Plyometrisk träning är principen om högintensiva hoppövningar som tillämpar Stretch Shortening Cycle (SSC). En förbättrad SSC-förmåga kan bidra till ökad kraftutveckling och förmågan att uppnå högre vertikal hopphöjd och sprinthastigheter. Syftet med studien var att undersöka om det fanns samband mellan vertikala hopphöjden och sprinttiden vid 30 meter hos unga kvinnliga gymnaster. Sexton kvinnliga gymnaster testades i vertikal hopphöjd genom Squat jump (SJ), Countermovement jump (CMJ) och Free jump (FJ) och sprint 30 meter, varav femton gymnasters resultat har analyserats. För att studera sambandet mellan SJ, CMJ, FJ och sprinttiden vid 30 m gjordes korrelationer (Spearman, rs). En korrelation mellan 0.4 och 0.6 är medelstarkt, allt där över är starka korrelationer och allt under är svaga korrelationer. Samtliga hopp visade på en stark negativ korrelation med sprinttiden vid 30 meter, SJ rs= - 0,68, CMJ rs= -0,76, FJ rs= -0,69. Starkaste korrelationen fanns mellan CMJ och 30 meter sprint. Den starka negativa korrelationen tyder på att en högre vertikal hopphöjd har ett starkt samband med sprinthastigheten.

  • 117.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Mental återhämtning och rehabilitering efter idrottsskada2008In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 36-39Article, review/survey (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att etablera sig på hög idrottslig nivå krävs, förutom: talang, hård fysisk träning, positivsocial miljö, god återhämtningsförmåga även att du är mer eller mindre skadefri. Tyvärrdrabbas många lovande idrottsungdomar och senioridrottare av skadeproblem som såvälfördröjer som även i vissa fall omöjliggör återgång till tävlingsidrotten igen. Denna artikeldiskuterar området kring mental återhämtning och rehabilitering efter idrottsskada.

  • 118.
    Johnson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Ekengren, Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Andersen, Mark B.
    Victoria University, Australia.
    Injury Prevention in Sweden: Helping Soccer Players at Risk2005In: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 32-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the effectiveness of a prevention intervention program to lower the incidence of injury for soccer players with at-risk psychosocial profiles. The Sport Anxiety Scale, the Life Event Scale for Collegiate Athletes, and the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory-28 were used to screen for psychosocial risk factors outlined in the stress and injury model (Williams & Andersen, 1998). Thirty-two high injury-risk players were identified and randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. Injuries of participants were reported by their coaches. The intervention program consisted of training in 6 mental skills distributed in 6 to 8 sessions during 19 weeks of the competitive season. The results showed that the brief intervention prevention program significantly lowered the number of injuries in the treatment group compared with the control group. © 2005 Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc.

  • 119.
    Johnson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Gunnarsson, Martin
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Petersson, Jerry
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Ledarskap – individen i gruppen2004In: Perspektiv på sport management, Stockholm: SISU idrottsböcker , 2004, p. 122-155Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 120.
    Johnson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Otillräcklig återhämtning ökar skaderisken2010In: Svensk Idrottsmedicin, ISSN 1103-7652, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 22-24Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 121.
    Johnson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Karlsson, Jón
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Football Research Group, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Football Research Group, Linköping, Sweden & Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Waldén, Markus
    Football Research Group, Linköping, Sweden & Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Börjesson, Mats
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden & Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rehabilitation after first-time anterior cruciate ligament injury and reconstruction in female football players: a study of resilience factors2016In: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation, ISSN 2052-1847, Vol. 8, article id 20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Most of the research in the area of psychosocial factors in rehabilitation after sports injuries has focused on risk behaviors, while relatively few studies have focused on behaviors that facilitate rehabilitation. The objective of our study was to understand the psychosocial features that characterize elite female football players who express a resilient behaviour during rehabilitation after a first-time anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and reconstruction.

    Methods

    A qualitative method was used based on individual in-person interviews and video communication of players who incurred a first-time ACL tear during the 2012 season of the Swedish Women’s Elite Football League. In total, 13 players had a first-time ACL and were interviewed post-season. The interviews were followed by a thematic content analysis. Based on this, eight players were identified as showing resilient behaviors during their rehabilitation and were included in the final analysis.

    Results

    Three core themes representing psychosocial factors that help players cope successfully with rehabilitation were identified: (I) constructive communication and rich interaction with significant others; (II) strong belief in the importance and efficacy of one’s own actions; and (III) the ability to set reasonable goals.

    Conclusions

    The findings suggest three core themes of psychosocial factors that characterize first-time ACL-injured elite female football players showing resilience during rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction. Suggestions for medical teams about ways to support communication, self-efficacy, and goal-setting during the rehabilitation process, are provided. © 2016 The Author(s).

  • 122.
    Johnsson, Elin
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Elitdressyrryttares visualiseringsupplevelser samt deras förståelse och upplevelse av instrumentet the Survey of imagery experiences in sport2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Blakeslee and Goff (2007) suggest that dressage riders’ imagery experience should be different from other sports that do not involve an animal. According to Murphy, Nordin and Cumming (2008), there is a need for an assessment instrument assessing the imagery type, function and outcome. The Survey of imagery experiences in sports (SIES, Weibull & Wallsbeck, 2009; Wallsbeck & Weibull, 2009) is a relatively new instrument that measures these variables. The objectives of this study was therefore to: (1) study the elite dressage riders’ imagery experiences, (2) study the elite dressage riders’ understanding and (3) experiences of the instrument SIES. A combination of qualitative and quantitative method was used in the study. The elite dressage riders’ imagery experiences partly differed from previous research. Most imagery patterns were for example used for the purpose find the right feeling and the auditory sense was included in many imagery patterns. The participants’ understanding and experience of SIES were good, with only a few ambiguities regarding for example effect and frequency.

     

     

     

     

  • 123.
    Jonsson, Linus
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    EXPLORING EXERCISE BEHAVIOR AND WELL-BEING OF SWEDISH UNIVERSITY STUDENTS - A SELF-DETERMINATION PERSPECTIVE2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between motivational profile, self-efficacy, basic needs satisfaction, exercise behavior and well-being among Swedish university students. A set of the instruments including GLTEQ, SHIS, BPNES, BREQ-2 and BARSE was distributed at a university in southern Sweden. The respondents (n = 260) were men (n = 122) and women (n = 138). For analysis and processing of the gathered data SPSS was used with Pearson's r and Multiple Regression Analysis. The results showed that competence, autonomy and relatedness were positive predictors of self-determined motivation, whilst identified regulation, intrinsic regulation and barrier self-efficacy were positive predictors for strenuous exercise. Moreover a regression analysis showed that only competence was a significant predictor for well-being, however, positive correlations were shown between all the basic needs and well-being. To promote university students exercise and well-being, the conclusion is that it most probably would be successful to base interventions with focus on basic needs satisfaction.

  • 124.
    Jonsson, Linus
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Exploring exercise behavior and well-being of Swedish university students - A self-determination perspective2012In: Book of Abstract, 2012, p. 15-16Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 125.
    Jonsson, Linus
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Self-Determination Theory in Practice2013In: Book of Abstracts: ENYSSP 9th Workshop: 25-26th October 2013, Gothenburg, Sweden / [ed] Jonsson, Linus, 2013, p. 10-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing body of research supporting the positive effects of physical activity and exercise on both psychological and physiological well-being. However, most people do not engage in regular exercise. Moreover, research shows that individuals who initiate a new exercise program drop out within three to six months. This begs the question, how do we get people to start and adhere to a regular exercise regimen?

    It is generally accepted that participation in sport will lead to positive outcomes including increased psycho-social development and physical health. However, research shows that sport participation can lead to damaged self-esteem, anxiety, depression, body image concerns, and disordered eating. This begs the question, how do we promote optimal functioning and well-being of athletes in the world of sports?

    The purpose of this workshop is to explore how Self-Determination Theory (SDT) can be used in practice to (1) promote physical activity/exercise based on the principles of Autonomy Support and ‘Motivational Interviewing’; (2) promote optimal functioning and well-being of athletes. The workshop will include the following: 1) a brief introduction 2) discussion in smaller groups 3) presentation of the group discussions.

    Recommended readings

    Bartholomew, K. J. (2011). THE ROLE OF INTERPERSONAL CONTROL AND NEED THWARTING IN THE PREDICTION OF ILL-BEING IN SPORT: A SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY APPROACH. University of Birmingham: Thesis for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

    Chatzisarantis, N. L. D., & Hagger, M. S. (2009). Effects of an intervention based on self-determination theory on self-reported leisure-time physical activity participation. Psychology and Health, 24(1), 29-48.

    Ng, J. Y. Y., Ntoumanis, N., Thogersen-Ntoumani, C., Deci, E. L., Ryan, R. M., Duda, J. L., & Williams, G. C. (2012). Self-Determination Theory Applied to Health Contexts: A Meta-Analysis. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7, 325-340.

    Sarrazin, P. G., Tessier, D. P., Pelletier, L. G., Trouilloud, D. O., & Chanal, J. P. (2006). The effects of teachers’ expectations about students’ motivation on teachers’ autonomy-supportive and controlling behaviors. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 4, 283-301.

    Su, Y-L., & Reeve, J. (2011). A Meta-analysis of the Effectiveness of Intervention Programs Designed to Support Autonomy. Educational Psychology Review, 23, 159-188.

  • 126.
    Jonsson, Linus
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Departement of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The role of autonomy and controlling teachers behaviors on pupils needs satisfaction and needs thwarting2014In: ISBNPA 2014 Abstract Book: 21-24 May: San Diego, California, 2014, p. 325-325Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Physical Education (PE) can be of importance for increasing pupils’ physical activity (PA) levels, whereas the PE teachers may play an important role in motivating the pupils to engage in PA. Based on the tenets of Self-Determination Theory (SDT), the overall aim of this study is to explore social conditions that satisfies versus thwarts the basic psychological needs of pupils, and in turn impacts well-/ill-being and behavior outcomes in the PE context.

    Methods: A set of SDT-based instruments measuring perceived autonomy supportive/controlling teacher behaviors, needs satisfaction/thwarting, motivation, and physical (in)activity will be distributed to about 200 pupils in grades seven to nine.Structural equation modeling will be used to test a proposed working model.

    Results: On the one hand, it is expected that if the pupils perceive their PE teacher as autonomy supportive this will satisfy the pupils’ basic needs, and in turn lead to more self-determined motivation and enhanced well-being. Self-determined motivation will in turn predict healthy behaviors, such as PA. On the other hand, it is expected that if the pupils perceive their PE teacher as controlling this will thwart the pupils’ basic needs, and in turn lead to more controlled motivation and greater ill-being. Controlled motivation will in turn predict unhealthy behaviors, such as physical inactivity.

    Conclusions: There is a lack of knowledge in the literature regarding the effects of controlling teachers’ behavior on pupils’ needs thwarting and ill-being. This knowledge should be considered essential when developing future interventions and educating new PE teachers.

  • 127.
    Jonsson, Linus
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Departement of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The role of basic needs satisfaction in the prediction of university students exercise behavior and well-being2014In: ISBNPA 2014 Abstract Book: 21-24 May: San Diego, California, 2014, p. 374-374Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Despite the growing body of research supporting the positive effects of exercise on both psychological and physiological well-being, most people do not engage in regular exercise. Grounded in Self-Determination Theory, the purpose of this study was to examine relationships between basic needs satisfaction, self-efficacy, motivation, exercise behavior and well-being among Swedish university students.

    Methods: A set of instruments measuring basic needs satisfaction, barrier self-efficacy, motivation, well-being, and exercise behaviors was distributed at a university in southern Sweden. The respondents (n=260) were men (n=122) and women (n=138) with a mean age of 22. To analyze and process the gathered data, SPSS was used with Pearson’s r and Multiple Regression Analysis.

    Results: The results showed that competence, autonomy and relatedness were positive predictors of self-determined motivation. Identified regulation, intrinsic regulation and barrier self-efficacy were positive predictors for strenuous exercise. Moreover, positive correlations between all the basic needs, strenuous exercise and well-being were shown. No significant correlations between light or moderate exercise and the independent variables appeared.

    Conclusions: This study provides further support for Self-Determination Theory and Self-Efficacy Theory. To promote strenuous exercise and well-being among Swedish university students it appears important to create a need supportive exercise environment, where the basic needs can be satisfied.

  • 128.
    Jonsson, Linus
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Lidén, Ulf
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Weman-Josefsson, Karin
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Göteborg Universitet.
    Motivation, perceived barriers and self-efficacy towards physical activity - a study of university students physical activity behaviors2012In: Svensk idrottspsykologisk förening Årsbok 2012, Örebro: Svensk idrottspsykologisk förening , 2012, p. 21-46Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 129.
    Jonsson, Linus
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Departement of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Departement of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Weman-Josefsson, Karin Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Departement of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rationale and development of individual counseling based on self-determination theory and motivational interviewing2014In: ISBNPA 2014 Abstract Book: 21-24 May: San Diego, California, 2014, p. 282-282Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In a recent published article series in International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity a marriage between Self-Determination Theory (SDT) and Motivational Interviewing (MI) was proposed. The purpose of the present paper is to describe the rationale and development of individual counseling, based on the tenets of SDT and techniques drawn from MI, used to promote exercise adherence.

    Methods: A review of the literature relevant to the marriage of SDT and MI was conducted, and a counseling approach based on SDT and MI progressed. Guidelines for how to support individuals basic needs in individual counseling and scripts for individual counselling sessions to promote exercise adherence was developed.

    Results: To support the individuals need for autonomy, competence and relatedness different techniques and approaches was proposed. The counseling technique is now being tested in a randomized control intervention (intervention group  (n=50), control group (n=50)) to promote regular exercise among healthy, inactive adults.

    Conclusions: This paper outlines the rationale and development of individual counseling based on SDT and MI. Although a ‘complete marriage’ between SDT and MI may not be possible, an initial step towards a ‘new’ counseling approach has been made.

  • 130.
    Jonsson, Linus
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Weman Josefsson, Karin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Papaioannou, G. Athanasiosos
    University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece.
    Exploring exercise behavior and well-being of Swedish university students: A self-determination perspective2013In: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between motivational profile, self-efficacy, basic needs satisfaction, exercise behavior, and well-being among Swedish university students. A set of the instruments including GLTEQ, SHIS, BPNES, BREQ-2 and BARSE was distributed at a university in southern Sweden. The respondents (n=260) included men (n=122) and women (n=138). For analysis and processing of the gathered data SPSS was used with Pearson’s r and Multiple Regression Analysis. The results showed that competence, autonomy and relatedness were positive predictors of self-determined motivation, whilst identified regulation, intrinsic regulation and barrier self-efficacy were positive predictors for strenuous exercise. Moreover, a regression analysis showed that only competence was a significant predictor for well-being; however, positive correlations were shown between all the basic needs and well-being. Satisfaction of the basic needs seem to result in more self-determined motivation and higher levels of barrier self-efficacy, which in turn increases the number of strenuous exercise sessions per week. Furthermore, satisfaction of the basic needs, especially competence through exercise, appears to be important for university students’ well-being. Strenuous exercise itself may also have the potential to positively influence well-being.

  • 131.
    Josefsson, Anthony
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    The Kinematic Differences Between a Barbell Back Squat Wearing Weightlifting Shoes and Barefoot2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: The squat is one of the most used exercises in the field of strength and

    conditioning. It is included as a core exercise in many sports training programmes to

    enhance athletic performance due to its biomechanical and neuromuscular similarities

    of a wide range of athletic movements. The barbell squat commonly used by athletes

    participating in resistance training and it is generally performed using regular athletic

    shoes or specially designed weightlifting shoes. However it is now getting more

    common to perform the barbell back squat in barefoot or in barefoot-inspired foot

    wear. Weightlifting shoes may be well known to weightlifters but to the noncompetitive

    lifters and professional athletes they are in general unfamiliar. It is

    believed that the structure of the weightlifting shoe supports proper squat mechanism.

    There is however limited scientific data reporting on the use of weightlifting shoes

    and therefore, it may be needed to investigate how weightlifting shoes affects the

    lower body lifting kinematics in the back squat compared to other conditions. Aim:

    The aim of the study was to compare the kinematic differences that appears in the

    sagittal plane when performing a barbell back squat wearing weightlifting shoes and

    barefoot. Method: Fifteen healthy participants (n=15) completed the study. The study

    included the barbell back squat in three sets of three repetitions on 50, 60 and 70% of

    the participant’s 1RM. The participants performed the movement in both weightlifting

    shoes and barefoot in an order randomly chosen and all movements was recorded with

    a digital camera from the sagittal plane. Results: The results showed that the angles

    were greater in the weightlifting shoe condition on all percentage. The results showed

    that there was no statistical significance in the hip angle at 50% of 1RM (p= 0,370) or

    at 70% (p = 0,053) but a statistical significance in the hip angle at 60 % (p = 0,028).

    The results showed no statistical significance in the ankle angle at 50% of 1RM (p =

    0,997), 60% (p = 0,182) or 70 % (p = 0,332). Conclusion: Findings from this study

    did not demonstrate that there was a significant difference between performing a

    barbell back squat in weightlifting shoes and barefoot. More research is needed to

    investigate and compare more variables in the difference between performing a

    barbell back squat wearing weightlifting shoes and barefoot.

  • 132.
    Josefsson, Karin
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Arbetsgivarens roll för motionsfrämjande och hälsopromotion2009In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 46-49Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I diskussioner kring hur människor kan bli mer fysiskt aktiva för att gynna den allmänna folkhälsan fokuseras helt naturligt ofta på interventioner som rör fritidsaktiviteter och vardagsmotion. Dock finns det ytterligare en arena att ta hänsyn till, nämligen arbets- platsen. Vi tillbringar som bekant förhållandevis mycket tid på arbetet och en krävande arbetsmiljö kan i många fall ge upphov till ohälsa. I en annan vinkling av arbetsplatsen kan dock istället positiva möjlig- heter skönjas, möjligheter till att främja hälsa. Vi påverkas förstås av den atmosfär som råder på arbetet och sociala faktorer påverkar både attityder och beteendemönster, inte minst hälsorelaterade sådana. Omkring hälften av Sveriges befolkning har en arbetsförmån som innebär att de får motionera med arbetsgivarens stöd och av dem som får sådan kompensation av arbetsgivaren nyttjar drygt hälften av männen och mer än två tredjedelar av kvinnorna förmånen (Mark- lund, 2005). Det finns alltså stora möjligheter till hälsofrämjande arbete på arbetsplatsen och goda utsikter för arbetsgivare att skapa en stödjande miljö för regelbunden fysisk aktivitet.

  • 133.
    Josefsson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Faculty of Health, Science, and Technology, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Tornberg, Rasmus
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Böröy, Jan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Effects of Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC) on Sport-Specific Dispositional Mindfulness, Emotion Regulation, and Self-Rated Athletic Performance in a Multiple-Sport Population: an RCT Study2019In: Mindfulness, ISSN 1868-8527, E-ISSN 1868-8535, Vol. 10, no 8, p. 1518-1529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    The aim of the study was to examine mediating effects of emotion regulation and sport-specific dispositional mindfulness on self-rated athletic training performance, following the Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC) intervention, compared to a Psychological Skills Training (PST) control group.

    Methods

    Sixty-nine competitive elite athletes who did not have any prior experience with mindfulness- and acceptance-based exercises, were recruited and randomly assigned into either a MAC group or a traditional PST group. Latent growth curve analyses were performed to examine longitudinal relationships among the study variables. Mediation analyses were conducted to test if the growth trajectory of each of the proposed mediators mediated the relationship between the intervention and perceived performance (measured at T3).

    Results

    Findings showed that the MAC intervention had an indirect effect on self-rated athletic training performance through changes in dispositional mindfulness and emotion regulation respectively. Further, the MAC-group obtained greater post-test improvements in athletic mindfulness, emotion regulation abilities, and perceived performance compared to the PST group.

    Conclusions

    Overall, findings suggest that dispositional athletic mindfulness and emotion regulation may function as important mechanisms in MAC, and that the MAC approach is a more effective intervention compared to the PST condition in reducing emotion regulation difficulties, as well as enhancing sport-relevant mindfulness skills and perceived athletic training performance in elite sport.

  • 134.
    Josefsson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Archer, Trevor
    y of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden & Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden .
    Physical exercise intervention in depressive disorders: Meta-analysis and systematic review2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 259-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous meta-analyses investigating the effect of exercise on depression have included trials where the control condition has been categorized as placebo despite the fact that this particular placebo intervention (e.g., meditation, relaxation) has been recognized as having an antidepressant effect. Because meditation and mindfulness-based interventions are associated with depression reduction, it is impossible to separate the effect of the physical exercise from the meditation-related parts. The present study determined the efficacy of exercise in reducing symptoms of depression compared with no treatment, placebo conditions or usual care among clinically defined depressed adults. Of 89 retrieved studies, 15 passed the inclusion criteria of which 13 studies presented sufficient information for calculating effect sizes. The main result showed a significant large overall effect favoring exercise intervention. The effect size was even larger when only trials that had used no treatment or placebo conditions were analyzed. Nevertheless, effect size was reduced to a moderate level when only studies with high methodological quality were included in the analysis. Exercise may be recommended for people with mild and moderate depression who are willing, motivated, and physically healthy enough to engage in such a program.

  • 135.
    Josefsson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Tornberg, Rasmus
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Practitioners’ reflections of working with the Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC) approach in team sport settings2019In: Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, ISSN 2152-0704, E-ISSN 2152-0712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article was to describe the implementation of a team-based MAC intervention, and discuss important aspects to consider when implementing the MAC protocol in elite team sports. The MAC program contains seven modules in which core concepts such as mindfulness, acceptance, and values-driven behavior are being taught and practiced. We experienced conceptual as well as practical challenges in the application of the MAC protocol. A general recommendation in implementing MAC concepts and exercises for teams is to make the content of the program sport-specific.

  • 136.
    Järphag, Ulf
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Center for Sport and Health Science (CIHF).
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Center for Sport and Health Science (CIHF).
    Psychological aspects of athletic retirement among elite Swedish athletes2003In: New Approaches to Exercise and Sport Psychology: Proceedings of the 11th European Congress of Sport Psychology / [ed] R. Stelter, FEPSAC , 2003, p. 81-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction. This study is a part of the international project „European perspectives on athletic retirement“ (Alfermann, Stambulova, & Zemaityte, in press). It focuses on: a) reasons for sports career termination; b) perceived emotional problems, need for adaptation, and duration of transitional period; c) differences in the process of retirement between athletes who planned and did not plan it in advance.Method. The „Retirement from sport“ questionnaire (Alfermann, Stambulova, & Zemaityte, 2001) was send to retired Swedish athletes by mail, and after considering returned answers 88 subjects were selected for this study on the basis of two criteria: international level athletic career; 1-10 years period after the sports career end. Participants included males (n=57) and females (n=31) – representatives of different individual and team sports.ResultsQuantitative analyses showed that elite Swedish athletes terminated mainly because of sport-related reasons followed by health- and familyrelated reasons. About a half of the subjects (46%) perceived a specific need to adjust to the life after sports, and 24% experienced emotional problems during the transitional period, which lasted 19.0 months (SD=15.7). Several one-way ANOVAs were conducted to identify differences in the process of athletic retirement between two groups of subjects: who planned (67%) and did not plan (33%) retirement. These revealed that athletes who planned retirement were more satisfied with their athletic careers (p< .01) and the timing of retirement (p< .01); they also used „acceptance“ of retirement as a coping strategy more often (p< .01). Athletes who did not plan retirement had more negative emotional reactions on this event (p< .01), and used „denial“ as a coping strategy more often (p< .05).Conclusion. The results will be discussed from the point of view of the Sports Career Transition model (Stambulova, 1997).

  • 137.
    Jönsson, Carolin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Personlighet och idrott: En studie på lag- och individuella idrottare samt på elit- och breddidrottare2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to investigate how the personality traits extraversion, neuroticism and hardiness differed between elite athletes and lower level athletes. The study also aimed to investigate how those personality traits differed between team athletes and individual athletes. The participants were elite athletes (n=61), lower level athletes (n=60), team athletes (n=62) and individual athletes (n=59) (M = 24.68, S = 6.47). The final amount of participants were 121 athletes. The measures that were used were two questionnaires; Eysenck’s Personality Inventory and Personal Views Survey III-Revised. The results indicate that elite athletes and team athletes were more extrovert, less neurotic and had higher levels of hardiness than lower level athletes and individual athletes. Elite athletes were less neurotic than lower level athletes when team athletes and individual athletes were equal in neuroticism. The results are discussed based on previous research and the theoretical framework. Further, application for the results of the study are discussed and suggestions for further research is provided.

  • 138.
    Jönsson, Linea
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Lejon, Sara
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Manlig eller bögig?: - om konsten att acceptera homosexualitet utan att själv avvika från normen bland män som idrottar2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrunden till denna studie och det problem vi velat belysa grundade sig i tankar kring hurlite utrymme manlig homosexualitet har inom idrotten, och hur bilden och normen av denhomosexuelle idrottsmannen kan konstrueras i en manlig idrottsmiljö. Syftet med dennastudie var att undersöka hur ett manligt idrottslag talar om könsnormer och sexualitet, samthur de genom språket konstruerar manlig homosexualitet. Utifrån en socialkonstruktivistiskoch queerteoretisk ansats genomfördes studien på ett manligt seniorhandbollslag, med hjälpav två fokusgruppsintervjuer. Resultaten bearbetades därefter genom en diskursanalys. Istudien framkommer att spelarna uttrycker en acceptans vad gäller manlig homosexualitet,men att de samtidigt upplever det som något avvikande inom idrotten. Vidare framkommeräven att spelarna skiljer på att vara homosexuell och att vara "bögig", samt att de använderbegreppet bögig både som skällsord och för att markera att något avviker från normen.Handbollsspelarna konstruerar en bild av den homosexuelle idrottsmannen med vilken dedistanserar sig från, "den homosexuelle andre".

  • 139.
    Karlsson, Alfred
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Shorter, David A.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Effekten av träning för ökad rörelsemedvetenhet enligt Feldenkraismetoden på kvantitativa rörelsetester hos friska kvinnor2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Awareness of body and movement is often mentioned as an important factor in increasing performance ability, avoiding injury, reaching a higher quality of life and improving conditions of illness. There has long been an ambition to improve movement through increased awareness. The Feldenkrais method is a method for improving movement through increased movement-awareness and is compatible with modern science. but comparatively little empirical research supports the methods effectivity. Most earlier studies have been on subjects with some form of dysfunction and often on subjective experience rather than objective measurements. It has been challenging for Feldenkrais-practitioners to find suitable ways of measurement for evaluating the method.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of training for increased movement-awareness according to the Feldenkrais method on movement in healthy subjects by quantitative measurements.

    Method: Healthy women in an experiment-group (n=4, 30±7 years) and a control-group (n=4, 26±2 years) were tested with five quantitative movement-tests; one-leg standing balance, one-leg standing long jump, standing triple jump, star excursion balance test and upper quarter Y-balance test, before and after an intervention where the experiment-group went through ten training sessions according to the Feldenkrais method during five weeks time.

    Results: Significant improvement (P≤0,05) in comparison to both pre-test and change in the control-group was seen for star excursion balance test of the left leg.

    Conclusion: Training for increased movement-awareness according to the Feldenkrais method seem to be able to improve quantitatively measured movement in healthy women. Further research with more participants is necessary to better answer the hypothesis that training for increased movement-awareness in accordance with the Feldenkrais method leads to improved results in the chosen tests in healthy persons.

  • 140.
    Karlsson, Jesper
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Nilsson, Dennis
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Barn rör sig för lite: IKT hjälper eleverna att bli mer motiverade i idrott och hälsa2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I skolan minskar den fysiska aktiviteten hos eleverna och många av eleverna når inte upp till den dagliga rekommenderade aktivitetsnivån. En sämre hälsa för dagens elever oroar många när eleverna hellre väljer att sitta framför datorer och skärmar istället för att vara aktiva. Syftet med vår litteraturundersökning är att undersöka IKT:s betydelse för att öka motivationen hos elever i grundskolan till att delta aktivt i idrott och hälsa. De frågeställningar vi har är:

    Hur kan IKT främja elevernas motivation till att röra sig mer?

    Hur kan IKT öka förståelsen för hälsans betydelse i idrott och hälsa?

    Med ett bra motivationsklimat kan elevernas förmåga och motivation öka visar vårt resultat. I resultatet får vi fram att IKT har en positiv påverkan på motivationen till att vilja röra sig. Det finns även en positiv inverkan på hur hälso delen i ämnet kan bli mer motiverande med hjälp av IKT. En slutsats som vi kom fram till var om eleverna får filma sig själva och sedan analysera det ökar elevernas motivation. Däremot finns inte mycket forskning om negativa aspekter med användning av IKT vilket är ett nytt forskningsområde.

  • 141.
    Karlsson, Michaela
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Sandéhn, Alexandra
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Role of timeouts in table tennis examined2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of timeouts in competitive elite table tennis in relation to psychological momentum (PM). To that end, archival data from elite top-international matches (N= 48) was firstly examined to gather information on when timeouts are most taken, and whether these have any objective influence on subsequent performance (set outcome and ultimately match outcome). Secondly, similar archival data for Swedish League matches (N= 36) was examined and interviews with elite coaches from the highest Swedish league (N= 6) at these given matches were carried out to gain further knowledge and understanding on the role and use of timeouts in competitive elite table tennis. Findings showed that timeouts were mostly called following a sequence of three consecutive lost points; that is, coaches used timeouts to break negative PM. However, findings also showed that these given timeouts had no objective impact on neither set nor match outcomes; that is, sets and matches were ultimately lost. Future research examining the subjective coach-player experience revolving around timeouts is needed to comprehend potential ‘secondary’ purposes when calling timeouts and, subsequently, understand timeouts role in table tennis fully.

  • 142.
    Kilhage Persson, Amanda
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Vildö, Ludvig
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Kvinnliga fotbollsdomare: En kvalitativ studiekring motivation, upplevd stress och coping2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to examine what motivates female soccer referees to continuerefereeing, which situations result in stress and how they perceive that they handle thesesituations. The following research questions were used: What are the main motivationalfactors for female soccer referees to continue refereeing? Which situations are experienced asstressful? How do female soccer referees handle stressful situations? A total of ten femalereferees from Southern and Western Sweden participated, all of them active soccer refereesfor at least three seasons. The average age was 21.1 years (SD = 3.62) and they were ondistrict-, regional- or elite level. A semi-structured interview guide with three pre-identifiedthemes (motivation, stress and coping) were used. The result showed that referees possess ahigh internal motivation when they feel refereeing is fun. External motivation such asconfirmation and money was also important. Several situations could be perceived asstressful, game situations were recurrent incidents. Emotion- and problem focused coping wasused to handle stressful situations. Social support and personal characteristics (e.g. calmness)was also appreciated. The result was interpreted using two theoretical frameworks (Selfdeterminationtheory and Transactional model of stress and coping). The conclusion from thestudy is that soccer referees consider refereeing fun and that they can handle the stressfulsituations that occur.

  • 143.
    Kip, David
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Willman, Peter
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    ÖVERENSSTÄMMELSE MELLAN RESULTAT I COOPERTEST OCH 30-15 INTERMITTENT ICE TEST PÅ MANLIGA JUNIORISHOCKEYSPELARE2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Majoriteten av tester inom ishockeyn utförs off-ice vilket kan begränsa testresultatets applicerbarhet till on-ice prestation, på grund av brist på sportspecificitet. Ishockey har karaktäriserats som en intermittent kontaktsport, med högintensiv skridskoåkning som förutsätter snabb acceleration, förändringar i hastighet och riktningsförändringar. Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om ett bra resultat på det löpningsbaserade Coopertestet (CT) överensstämmer med ett bra resultat på det mer idrottsspecifika 30-15 Intermittent Ice Test (30-15IIT) hos manliga juniorishockeyspelare. Metod: Manliga juniorspelare i olika åldrar som går på ett certifierat elithockeygymnasium deltog i studien. Resultaten från ett CT och ett 30-15IIT samlades in. Testernas överensstämmelse studerades med hjälp av Spearmans korrelationskoefficient. Resultat: 22 manliga juniorishockeyspelare, medelålder 17,9 (SD ± 0,8) år, slutförde studien. Överensstämmelsen mellan CT och 30-15IIT gav en korrelationskoefficient (rs) på -0,39 (p = 0,073). Slutsats: CT räcker inte som uthållighetsprov för manliga juniorishockeyspelare, utan ett mer idrottsspecifikt intermittent uthållighetstest, t.ex. 30-15IIT, kan vara ett viktigt komplement för utvärdering av spelarnas fysiska profil.

  • 144.
    Koch, Sven
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Krüger, Emil
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Dispositionell mindfulness, emotionsreglering, ältande och coping2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to test parts of the model by Birrer, Morgan and Röthlin (2012) at three separate occasions, and through mediation analyses examine the relationship between trait mindfulness, emotion regulation, rumination and coping. As the basis of the study a survey was used in which 168 participants, 107 men and 61 women, answered. The average age of the participants was 17,73 years (SD=2,16). The result of the mediation analyses showed that trait mindfulness had a significant indirect effect on coping via emotion regulation. However the result did not show a significant indirect effect between trait mindfulness and coping via less rumination. From the result of this study it is suggested that Birrer et al.‘s (2012) model is not entirely functional. This study suggests that emotion regulation is a mediating variable in the relationship between trait mindfulness and coping within athletes. Athletes that have a high level of trait mindfulness can through emotion regulation also have a better coping ability. Trait mindfulness therefore creates good opportunities for the athlete to be able to handle stress in a sport context.

  • 145.
    Koivula, Nathalie
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, SE-106, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hassmén, Peter
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, SE-106, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fallby, Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Self-esteem and perfectionism in elite athletes: effects on competitive anxiety and self-confidence2002In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 865-875Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The setting of high standards is an integral part of elite sports, and often beneficial for the athlete's performance. However. individuals who are characterized by frequent cognitions about the attainment of ideal, perfectionistic standards, have been shown to be likely to experience heightened levels of anxiety. due to discrepancies between ideal and current self 1 situation. This could Of Course be detrimental to their sport performance. The aim Of the Study Was to investigate the relationship between different patterns of perfectionistic dimensions and sport-related competitive anxiety and self-confidence. for elite athletes with different self-esteem strategies. The results revealed that the relation between self-esteem and perfectionism differs depending on which dimensions of self-esteem and perfectionism that ire being considered. Athletes with a high self-esteem based on a respect and love for themselves had more positive patterns of perfectionism, whereas athletes who have a self-esteem that is dependent on competence aspects showed I more negative perfectionism. Further, negative patterns of perfectionism were in the present Study related to higher levels of cognitive anxiety and lower levels of self-confidence, Hence, it seems that sport related anxiety is positively associated to certain patterns of perfectionism. patterns that are more common in individuals with specific self-esteem strategies. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 146.
    Kristén, Lars
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Adapted physical activity: a study of sports for the disabled in the Swedish community2009In: Book of abstracts / ISAPA 2009, Bollnäs: SUH , 2009, p. 91-91Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children and young people with functional disabilities do not have today the same opportunities to participate in sporting and health-promoting activities as other young people without such handicaps. Sporting activities for these children and teenagers can in many cases only be pursued in their leisure time and are not exploited to any great extent within rehabilitation. Within the curricular framework of the school, special needs teaching in sport and health is available but as with amateur sports provision in general it is dependent on the expertise and methods of the teacher or trainer. Investment in sport in Sweden with the help of ‘HANDSHAKE’ funding has involved some 126 different projects and presumably even more have been carried out for the target group of children and teenagers with functional disabilities. The special study described in this paper was carried out partly as a questionnaire survey involving sports clubs and associations supporting the projects and partly as a more extensive interview survey with six selected clubs / associations. The clubs taking part in the special study were relatively few with a response frequency of 37%. The responses of the clubs are clear in that the projects will be continuing and will become a part of their regular activities. The pre-requisites for a successful project are related to both committed project leaders and financial means while at the same time club leaders have stated that the integration of children and teenagers with functional handicaps is not easy. This is possibly due to the fact that sports clubs and associations are not used to opening up their activities for children and young people with functional disabilities and also that these issues are rarely discussed within the day-to-day running of the clubs. It would be desirable to more clearly tie research and educational investment into the area which would reflect not only community aims but also favour the individual’s opportunities and benefits in terms of sporting and health-promoting activities.

  • 147.
    Kristén, Lars
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Handslaget - från idé till utvärdering: Om projekt, ekonomi och verksamhet2008Report (Other academic)
  • 148.
    Kristén, Lars
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Idrott som habilitering och rehabilitering i ett samhällsperspektiv2004In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 24-28Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 149.
    Kristén, Lars
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Uppfattningar från barn med funktionsnedsättning och deras lärare i idrott och hälsa om lärandet i en inkludering inom ämnet idrott och hälsa2016In: SVEBI-konferensen 2016: Idrott-Skola-Samhälle: Program, 2016, p. 17-17Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion

    För barn och ungdomar såväl med som utan funktionsnedsättningar är det viktigt att få tillfredsställa sina rörelsebehov, uppleva rörelseglädje, rekreation och gemenskap. Skolämnet Idrott och hälsa kan medverka till ett ökat idrottsutbud även för barn och ungdomar med funktionsnedsättningar, vilket i sin tur kan leda till positiva fysiska, psykiska, sociala och existentiella effekter. Att delta i skolämnet Idrott och hälsa och vara med i en idrottsförening är däremot ingen självklarhet för barn och ungdomar med funktionsnedsättningar. Idrotten har också för många barn med funktionsnedsättningar en större betydelse i den individuella situationen än för barn utan funktionsnedsättningar, bland annat när det gäller hälsa och välbefinnande. Därför är det betydelsefullt att fördjupa kunskapen om barn med funktionsnedsättningar men framförallt om lärandet som kan sammankopplas med att inkluderas i klassundervisningen inom Idrott och hälsa.

    Syfte & teoretisk ram

    Syftet med projektet är att kartlägga uppfattningar från barn med funktionsnedsättningar och deras lärare i idrott och hälsa om lärandet i en inkludering inom ämnet idrott och hälsa. Målsättningen är att få vetskap om vilka åtgärder som är viktiga för ett ökat lärande för barn med funktionsnedsättningar vid en inkludering i idrott och hälsa, därmed att stärka deras delaktighet i skola och samhälle. I forskningsprojektet där barnen själva kommer till tals är fokus på barnens lärande och inkludering för att hitta nyskapande perspektiv på delaktighet.

    Metod

    Metodmässigt används kvalitativ analys med fenomenografisk metod som forskningsansats.Intervjuer genomförs med 8 barn med funktionsnedsättningar och 8 lärare i Idrott och hälsa om deras uppfattningar om lärandet i en inkludering inom ämnet idrott och hälsa. Barn och lärare är jämt fördelade över kön. Med hjälp av analyser av intervjuer och sammanställning av olika typer av beskrivningskategorier undersöks uppfattningar i ett sk fenomenografiskt utfallsrum. Processen inriktas mot att kartlägga uppfattningar samt undersöka hur uppfattningar förhåller sig till varandra och till det undersökta fenomenet. Genomförandet av projektet sker på skolor i Halmstad kommun år 2015-2016.

    Resultat

    Olika beskrivningskategorier belyser de variationer som framkommer i svaren från barn och lärare i Idrott och hälsa. Beskrivningskategorierna för barnen beskrivs i följande ordning: Att finna tilltro till undervisningen i idrott och hälsa; Att finna tilltro till sin kroppsliga förmåga; Att finna tilltro till inkludering i i idrott och hälsa; Att finna tilltro till att uttrycka möjligheter och hinder under undervisningen i idrott och hälsa. Därefter följer beskrivningskategorierna för idrottslärarna i följande ordning: Att främja delaktigheten i undervisningen i idrott och hälsa; Att främja lärandet i idrott och hälsa; Att främja inkludering i i idrott och hälsa; Att främja olikheter i undervisningen i idrott och hälsa.

    Diskussion

    I forskningsstudien resonerar barn med funktionsnedsättning om vikten av att vara både i en stor och liten grupp under lektionerna i idrott och hälsa. Det kan tyda på att undervisningen och lärandet skulle främjas av möjligheten av att ha lektioner i halvklass och helklass under en skolvecka. Barnen är medvetna om begränsningarna med sina kroppar och uttrycker intresse för fysiska aktiviteter, men tveksamhet inför moment där begränsningarna märks av. Det kan tyda på att undervisningen inte tillgodoser barnens behov av rörelse utan behöver utvecklas. Idrottslärarna tydliggör ett klassomfattande perspektiv på lärandet som kan utveckla kunskaper för både barn med och utan funktionsnedsättningar. Idrottslärarna anger en hög grad av engagemang och motivation kring inkludering i undervisningen, men påpekar avsaknaden av kunskaper och kompetenshöjande åtgärder inom skolan. Det kan tyda på att lärarprogrammen som sådana inte lägger så mycket krut på området, samt en avsaknad av fortbildning efter slutförda studier.

  • 150.
    Kristén, Lars
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Klingvall, Bodil
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Jonasson, Mikael
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Centrum för lärande, kultur och samhälle (CLKS).
    Open norm critical innovation for relational inclusion (ONCIRI).- “Nya idrottsredskap för barn med och utan funktionsnedsättningar”.2016In: SVEBI-konferensen 2016: Idrott-Skola-Samhälle: Program, 2016, p. 31-31Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion

    Inom samhällets och skolans värld råder en rad normer som kan kopplas till genus, etnicitet, ålder och funktionshinder. Projektets målsättning är att, tillsammans med företag inom industrin för redskapsproduktion och produktutveckling utveckla innovativa idrottsredskap som gör det möjligt att förändra och utmana normer som påverkar delaktighet inom ämnet idrott och hälsa i skolan. Trots att skolan idag har ett uppdrag att inkludera alla elever oavsett etnicitet, genus eller funktionshinder är många uteslutna från deltagande, beroende på normer och det faktum att möjligheten att använda och utveckla redskapen för undervisningen inte ses som prioriterad. Barn med funktionsnedsättning skulle vinna mer på ökade förutsättningar att få röra sig, jämfört med barn utan funktionsnedsättning. Barn med funktionsnedsättning har i utgångsläget en mer sårbar hälso- och välbefinnandesituation, vilken dramatiskt kan förbättras genom en ökad delaktighet. Hindren för en inkluderande idrottsundervisning har hitintills betonat barriärer som sociala, personliga, motoriska eller materiella aspekter. Med ett normkritiskt perspektiv, har detta projekt som utgångspunkt att utmana sådana aspekter och istället testa och utveckla befintliga och framtagna redskap för en inkluderande idrottsundervisning i skolan och under hela skoldagen.

    Syfte & teoretisk ram

    Syftet med forskningsprojektet är dels att testa och utveckla produkter och tjänster som gör det möjligt för en inkluderande undervisning i idrott och hälsa i skolan. Dels är syftet att studera hur barnen uppfattar de produkter som finns och utvecklas inom ramen för projektet. Projektet kommer att fokusera på barn med och utan funktionsnedsättningar och deras användning av olika befintliga och framtagna idrottsredskap för undervisning i idrott och hälsa i skolan.

    Tanken är att inte bara utveckla redskap för idrottsundervisningen som beskrivs som betydelsefulla och ges mening genom att barn med funktionsnedsättning kan använda dem. Tanken är också att redskapen som tas fram ska kunna vara användbara för alla barn, oavsett funktion, genus, etnicitet eller liknande och ska kunna utgöra en ny norm för användandet av idrottsredskap inom ämnet idrott och hälsa i skolan. I det hänseendet är barn med funktionsnedsättning utmanare av gamla normer och skapande av nya normer inom ämnet idrott och hälsa. Som utmanare och skapare av nya normer har barn med funktionsnedsättning möjlighet att öka välbefinnandet, genom ökad delaktighet. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) är centralt för hälsa och välbefinnande. Det normkritiska perspektivet och lärandet med focus på ”Hur vi lär” står i centrum.

    Metod

    Projektet kommer att använda sig av kvalitativa ansatser genom deltagande observationer, intervjuer och filmande av sekvenser på lektioner i idrott och hälsa så att resultatet så småningom kan bilda utgångspunkt för utveckling och utvärdering av idrottsredskap i ämnet idrott och hälsa i skolan. Projektet genomförs på 3-4 grundskolorskolor med ca 10-15 barn med och utan funktionsnedsättningar, totalt ca 50 barn i åldrarna 10-15 år.

    Förväntade resultat

    På kort och längre sikt:

    - utveckling och verifiering av metoder, verktyg och processer för normkritisk innovation.

    - utveckling av idrottsredskap till stöd för lärande och delaktighet för barn med och utan funktionsned­sättningar i idrott och hälsa.

    - projektet kommer att mynna ut i prototyper och nya sätt att använda

    idrottsutrustning och idrottsmaterial för testning och utvärdering.

    Diskussion

    Föreliggande studie och utvecklingsarbete kommer att bidra med kunskap och redskap som gör det möjligt för alla att inkluderas i undervisningen om idrott och hälsa i skolan. Tidigare forskning har många gånger fokuserat på funktionsnedsattas rättigheter och har haft en utvärderande roll. Många tidigare utvecklingsprojekt har fokuserat på anpassade idrottsredskap som inte varit tillgängliga för alla. Målsättningen är att utmana befintliga normer och att barn med funktionsnedsättning ska utgöra normen för utveckling av idrottsredskap för alla. Delaktighet i idrott och hälsoundervisningen kommer att göra en skillnad i framtiden för barnen med funktionsnedsättning, dels genom en förbättrad hälsa, och dels utifrån förändrade självförväntningar och en större tilltro till den egna kapaciteten under hela skoldagen.

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