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  • 101.
    Andersson, Jonna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Gaviola Poblete, Marianne
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Volioti, Christina
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Migrän: En osynlig sjukdom: En litteraturstudie om icke-farmakologiska metoder vid migränanfall hos vuxna2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Migraine is a recurrent headache that occurs in periods of sudden attacks and is regarded as one of the 20 most disabling disorders in the world. It is the responsibility of the nurse to promote the health of patients with migraine by educating about migraine and by providing vital information about non-pharmacological methods that has beneficial effects on migraine. The aim of this literature study was to describe non-pharmacological methods on adult migraine patients. The result of this literature study was based on 13 scientific articles that generated three themes: acupuncture, knowledge about trigger factors and lifestyle changes. The result showed that acupuncture, knowledge about migraine triggers and lifestyle changes are favourable alternative treatments in migraine health promotion as they demonstrated significant reduction of migraine attacks. To attest its validity further research regarding the use of non-pharmacological methods on migraine is necessary. Specific guidelines regarding migraine and adequate available treatment methods in healthcare settings would be of great importance. We encourage additional education on migraine and nonpharmacological, preventive methods to be integrated in nursing schools.

  • 102.
    Andersson, Josefin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Teacher Education (LUT).
    Nilsson, Elisabet
    Halmstad University, School of Teacher Education (LUT).
    Rör sig elever tillräckligt mycket?: En studie om pojkar och flickors fysiska aktivitet på fyra olika skolor2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which children's physical activity during school  hours  are  met  in  relation  to  today’s  health  recommendations.  This  study  was  a quantitative  research  method  through  study  with  pedometers  and  observation.  The  main instrument was pedometers which the pupils wore during one day at school. The study group consisted of 74 students, made up of 36 boys and 38 girls from the 4th grade in four schools in  southern Sweden. The  results demonstrate  that  the boys were physical active 47-50 % of what  they should and  the girls 33-36 % of what  they should according  to recommendations. The boys  took about 3000 more  steps  than  the girls.  In our  study only one boy  reached  the recommended  amount  of  steps  per  day,  but  no  girl  did. The  conclusion  is  that  the  pupils  are  inactive  during  their  time  in  school.    There  are differences  in  boys'  and  girls'  physical  activity,  both  within  each  school  and  between  the schools. The observation showed that the girls stand still more than the boys during break and the girls are generally less active than the boys at all four schools.

  • 103.
    Andersson, Lena
    et al.
    The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden & Nordic School of Public Health, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Staland Nyman, Carin
    The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Krantz, Gunilla
    The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Associations between general self efficacy, barriers to care and self-reported mental illness—a population-based study2010In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 20, no Suppl. 1, p. 69-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Mental illness is an increasing health problem globally. However, many individuals do not seek health care although evidence-based care is available. Research has shown that self efficacy is associated with various health outcomes and it is of importance to investigate if it also is associated mental illness. Early detection promotes recovery and decreases suicide risk.

    Aim

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether low levels of self efficacy is associated with a higher degree of mental illness and whether level of self-efficacy influence health seeking behaviour.

    Methods

    This is a cross-sectional study based on data from the Health Assets study, with data collected in 2008 in West Sweden. The study population is a randomly selected population sample of 4027 individuals, aged 18–65 years. Data collection was done by a postal questionnaire and the response rate was 50.4%. Bi-and multivariate analyses were employed to investigate associations and results were stratified on sex, age, civil status, education and social support.

    Results

    A total number of 1361 (36%) out of 3811 individuals answered ‘Yes’ on the question ‘Have you ever felt so mentally ill that you had (felt a need) to seek care’. A total of 33% of the women answering yes were found in the lowest quartile of the general self efficacy scale, 20% in the highest quartile. Corresponding figures for men were 30 and 23% respectively. The most common reason stated for not seeking health care was a belief that the mental health problem would disappear by itself. Others reasons mentioned were beliefs that health care would not help, they did not know were to go or they felt ashamed for showing others they suffered from mental illness.

    Conclusion

    Mental illness is a serious health problem and access to care needs to be improved. Health promotion should also include individual traits/characteristics such as self efficacy and health-seeking behaviour.

  • 104.
    Andersson, Lena
    et al.
    The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Department of Social Medicine, PO Box 453, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Staland Nyman, Carin
    The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Department of Social Medicine, PO Box 453, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Spak, Fredrik
    The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Department of Social Medicine, PO Box 453, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hensing, Gunnel
    The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Department of Social Medicine, PO Box 453, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    High incidence of disability pension with a psychiatric diagnosis in western Sweden. A population-based study from 1980 to 19982006In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 343-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regional differences in Sweden in the prevalence of disability pension with a psychiatric diagnosis are unexplained, in spite of the significant impact on the population's health, rehabilitation systems, and the health care system. The purpose of this study was to describe the pattern of disability pensions with a psychiatric diagnosis and to analyze the impact of age and gender. We examined the incidencerates in one urban and one semi-rural region and compared these to national rates. The study sample was drawn from employed persons between 16-64 years of age who, because of their sickness insurance coverage, would be eligible to access disability pensions should it be necessary. Analysis of annual incidences and standardized morbidity ratios were made for 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, and 1998. Data ondisability pension cases were collected from the National Social Insurance registers. In the urban region we found that the proportion of men and women clearly outnumbered the national average: approximately twice the number of persons between 16-64 years of age with apsychiatric diagnosis were receiving a disability pension. In the semi-rural region there were fewer men overall on disability pensionswith psychiatric disorders, but in 1980, 1985, and 1995 women clearly outnumbered men. Access to psychiatric care, unemployment, alcohol dependence, and previous sickness absence are suggested as possible factors that might affect the rates of disability pension in different geographical settings. © 2006 IOS Press. All rights reserved.

  • 105.
    Andersson, Lena
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Twum-Antwi, Akwasi
    Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada.
    Nyman, Carin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    van Rooyen, Dalena
    Nelson Mandela University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa.
    Prevalence and socioeconomic characteristics of alcohol disorders among men and women in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa2018In: Health & Social Care in the Community, ISSN 0966-0410, E-ISSN 1365-2524, Vol. 26, no 1, p. e143-e153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is growing concern about alcohol problems in low- and middle-income countries. More research is required, particularly among the younger generation. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of alcohol disorders and associated socioeconomic characteristics among young men and women living in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. This was a cross-sectional population-based study of 977 participants (52% male and 48% female) aged 18–40, the majority of whom lived in low-income areas. Data collection was carried out in 2012 by trained fieldworkers. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (DSM-IV) was used to investigate the prevalence of alcohol dependence (increased tolerance to alcohol, failed attempt to cut down, risk of physical and mental effects) and alcohol abuse (harmful use, consistent intoxication, risk behaviour, physically hazardous, social problems). A high 12-month prevalence of alcohol dependence was found (26.5% in total; 39.0% among men and 19.1% among women) as well as of alcohol abuse (9% in total; 19.0% among men and 6.0% among women). Few socioeconomic differences emerged among the men, except older men (OR 1.94, CI 1.11–3.42) and those supported by social grants (OR 2.28, CI 1.06–4.93), who presented higher odd ratios for alcohol dependence than the reference groups. Among the women, more differences emerged: women who were widowed/single (OR 2.35, CI 1.20–4.62), had no education (OR 3.41, CI 1.04–11.21), had a low income (OR 3.26, CI 1.55–6.80) and had no social support from friends when ill presented higher odd ratios (OR 1.73, CI 1.07–2.80). In the adjusted model, marital status and low income remained statistically significant. With regard to alcohol abuse, fewer socioeconomic differences emerged. Interventions need to address the early onset of alcohol misuse in order to meet both current needs and long-standing mental and physical illness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

  • 106.
    Andersson, Linda
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Karlsson, Annika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Sunnenell, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Dagbok över intensivvårdstiden: Patientens upplevelse2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To become seriously ill and cared for in an intensive care unit is for many an unpleasant experience. Monitoring and treatment of vital functions takes place around the clock in an environment that is foreign to the patient. Many patients, due to drug treatment and difficulties in communication, can suffer from memory loss and hallucinations. As an act of caring, the nurse can write a diary throughout the hospital stay. The aim of this study was to focus on the patient's experience of reading a personal diary of their time in the intensive care unit and assess how it can affect the patient's recovery. Twelve articles were analyzed and summarized in five categories: Experience of receiving and reading the diary, The importance of feeling cared for, To gain insight into their own vulnerability, To interpret memories and fill memory gaps and The diary's importance for recovery. Many patients feel unpleasant after a period of intensive care. Results have shown that the diary helped them cope with time afterwards as it filled memory gaps which supported a faster recovery. Patients felt a greater level of care and received the diary as a gift. To optimize this support for the patient, further research on what the diary should contain would be of interest.

  • 107.
    Andersson, Linnéa
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Ivansson, Therese
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Distriktssköterskans erfarenhet av kommunikation inom omvårdnadsteamet2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kommunikation är en central del i distriktssköterskans arbete och forskning visar att

    bristande kommunikation och informationsöverföring mellan distriktssköterska

    och omvårdnadsteamet är riskområden för patientsäkerhet. Syftet med studien var att

    beskriva distriktssjuksköterskans erfarenheter av kommunikation och informationsöverföring

    inom omvårdnadsteamet. Fyra intervjuer genomfördes och datan analyserades med kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Tre kategorier framkom: tillämpa kommunikationsstrategier, verka för samarbete och arbeta med organisationsansvar. Distriktssköterskan använde olika strategier i kommunikationen med omvårdnadsteamet för att skapa goda relationer. Hög kontinuitet mellan distriktssköterskan och omvårdnadsteamet ger förutsättningar för ett effektivt samarbete vilket ökar patientsäkerheten. Organisationen var en betydande påverkansfaktor. Förbättringsarbete inom klinisk verksamhet kan uppnås genom att uppmärksamma kommunikation som ett komplext område. Vidare forskning krävs om kommunikation mellan distriktssköterskan och omvårdnadsteamet.

  • 108.
    Andersson, Louise
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Kamberi, Besarta
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Nutritionens betydelse för palliativa patienter: Ur patientens och sjuksköterskans perspektiv2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Genom hela livet har nutrition en stor betydelse för människan. I palliativ vård prioriteras inte alltid nutrition trots att det är viktigt för patienten. Sjuksköterskans roll är att stötta patienten och gynna nutritionen för att på så sätt främja välbefinnande och lindra lidande. Syftet med studien var att belysa nutritionen i ett palliativt skede. Studien är en litteraturöversikt där 13 artiklar användes, artiklarna söktes i databaserna PubMed och Cinahl. Resultatet delades in i tre teman: en symbol för livet, ett etiskt dilemma. Nutritionen hos de palliativa patienterna har flera fördelar, den kan förlänga livslängden, förbygga undernäring, ge patienten komfort och lugna oroliga närstående. Nutritionsfrågan kan lätt bli ett etiskt dilemma då patienten, närstående och vårdpersonal har olika syn på hur behandling bör ges, olika kunskapsgrad ligger ofta till grund för oenigheten. Kommunikationen är en viktig faktor för att alla berörda ska känna sig delaktiga. Trots att nutritionsbehandlingen har få medicinska effekter är det en viktig del för patienten och närstående, nutritionen kan förebygga känslor av övergivenhet, hopplöshet och bristande förtroende hos både patient och närstående. Sjuksköterskan behöver god kunskap och hög kompetens för att kunna vara mer delaktig i beslut som tas om patientens nutrition. Det krävs mer forskning inom området palliativ vård som inriktas mot nutrition för att kunna tillgodose krav från patienter och närstående.

  • 109.
    Andersson, Malin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Johansson, Sofie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Sjuksköterskans upplevelser av moralisk stress: Med maktlöshet i centrum2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nurses are experiencing huge demands and big loads in their daily work, both from patients and from colleagues and from themselves so that they often feel inadequate. This great physical and psychological workload means that nurses are concerned about the quality of care which gives rise to the moral distress. Nurses are experiencing this moral distress at greater extent than other professions and is a major reason why nurses quit their jobs. In previous research, few studies have moral distress as their main purpose. Therefore this general literature review intends to look more closely at what the nurse is experiencing in his or her moral distress. The purpose was to describe the nurse's experiences of moral distress. For this purpose, 13 qualitative research articles were selected and the results revealed six categories: Powerlessness, Frustration, Agony, Anger, Self-doubt and Guilt. Powerlessness has a significant role and contributed to many of the other emotions listed. Powerlessness is mainly due to the nurse not feeling involved in decision-making regarding the patient. To reduce the nurse's moral distress collaboration between professions could be encouraged. Further Swedish research could be needed to identify whether moral distress is a contributing factor to the current nursing shortage.

  • 110.
    Andersson, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Spenshult Research and Development Center, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Reasons to stop drinking alcohol among patients with rheumatoid arthritis – a mixed method study2016In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 75, no Suppl 2, article id 1295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies of alcohol use in patients with rheumatoid arthritis are sparse and studies of why patients choose to stop drinking alcohol in particular.

    Objectives: The aim of the current study was twofold: first to identify patients with RA who stopped drinking alcohol and compare those to patients drinking alcohol, and second, to explore reasons to stop drinking alcohol.

    Methods: In 2010 a self-completion postal questionnaire was sent to all 2,102 prevalent patients in the Better anti-rheumatic farmacotherapy (BARFOT) study enquiring about disease severity, physical function (HAQ) and health related quality of life (EQ5D), pain, fatigue, patient global assessment (PatGA) and lifestyle factors e.g. alcohol. The questions assessing alcohol included the question “Have you stopped drinking alcohol?” and an open question “Why have you stopped drinking alcohol?” A mixed method design was used and 1512 patients had answered the alcohol questions and was included in the study of those 86 had stopped drinking alcohol. Seventy-one patients answered the open question and their answers were analyzed with qualitative content analysis (1).

    Results: Comparing patient with RA using alcohol or not, the patients who stopped drinking alcohol was older median age (min-max) 69 (36–90) vs. 66 (23–95), p=0.011, more men 42% vs. 29%, p=0.015, had worse physical function, median HAQ (min-max) 0.50 (0–3.00) vs. 1.00 (0–2.75), p<0.001, worse health related quality of life, median EQ5D (min-max), 0.69 (-0.59–1.00) vs. 0.76 (-0.02–1.00), p<0.001, worse self-perceived health, median PatGA (min-max) 5 (0–10) vs. 3 (0–10), <0.001, more pain, median (min-max) 5 (0–10) vs. 3 (0–10), p<0.001, and more fatigue median (min-max) 6 (0–10) vs 4 (0–10), p<0.001. There were no differences between the groups regarding disease duration, swollen and tender joints. The qualitative content analysis resulted in five categories describing the reasons for patient with RA to stop drinking alcohol: disease and treatment, health and wellbeing, work and family, faith and belief and dependences and abuse.

    Conclusions: Patients with RA who stopped drinking alcohol have a lower physical function, health related quality of life, self-perceived health and more pain and fatigue comparing to patients with RA drinking alcohol. The reasons to stop drinking alcohol were of different nature such as medical, physical, mental, social and spiritual

  • 111.
    Andersson, Marie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Johansson, Berith
    Stöd till närstående inom palliativ vård2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Relatives to patients receiving palliative care are subjected to all kinds of different pressures. The duty of the nurse is to assess and form a complete picture of the support the relatives need, and what kind of support that she can provide for them.

    The purpose of the study was to illustrate the different kind of support the relatives to patients in palliative care have, and what the nurse can do for them.

    The method used was a literature study based on 12 research articles, both qualitative and quantitative.

    The need for support varied over time and depended on how the relative’s relationship had been to the patient prior to illness. Many relatives found it very helpful to be able to talk to others with similar experiences. Professional help worked as a complement. One important task for the nurse was to teach the relatives about the specific care problems that could arise, including how to operate certain medical equipment. The nurse’s aim was to be able to give individual support that was specifically adapted to each relative’s need. In the result four categories emerged; the need of emotional support, the need of confirmatory support, the need of informative support and the need of instrumental support.

    Future research may focus on if the need of support to relatives differs depending on if the patient is treated in non-institutional care or in hospital care, if the patient becomes ill rapidly or slowly, and how the health care system can integrate the relatives in the care in a better way.

  • 112.
    Andersson, Marie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Ludvigsson, Linda
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av sexuell dysfunktion: En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sexuality is a fundamental part of being human and sexual health is an important part of holistic care. More women than men suffer from sexual dysfunction. Nevertheless, nurses rarely address women's sexual health. The purpose of the study was to highlight women's experiences of sexual dysfunction. In response to the purpose, a general literature study was conducted. A systematic literature search resulted in 14 results critically reviewed. Data processing revealed three categories: Inability to live up to social expectations, The impact of dysfunction on health and The need for support. The result showed that women with sexual dysfunction experienced social expectations that with sexual dysfunction became impossible to live up to. The women expressed that dysfunction affected health and there was also a need for support from both the partner and the healthcare sector. The healthcare confirmation of dysfunction was described to reduce the perceived expectations. Redefining sexuality could be supportive in finding new ways of sexual health. Healthcare is considered to be the most reliable source of information and women experience a high level of confidence in the nursing profession. Based on the results of this study, nurses are expected to have great opportunities to support women for sexual health. Nurses need to routinely raise the issue of sexuality. Sexual health also needs to be an important part of nursing education so that sexuality becomes as obvious as addressing, for example, tobacco habits and sleep.

  • 113.
    Andersson, Marie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Motin, Helena
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Samband mellan ungdomars psykiska hälsa och socilat kapital2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing mental health issues among adolescent in Sweden is a major public health issue. Research shows that the social capital of young people can be seen as a health source, and that protection factors, such as family and friends, have an impact on mental health . District nurses in school health service have an important role in their work with individual's health factor to promote the mental health. The aim of this study was to describe whether there is a relationship between mental health and social capital, as social network, social ability and sense of belonging among girls and boys aged 14-16 years. The cross-sectional study was performed in a smaller town in southwest of Sweden. A sample of 461 adolescents aged 14-16 years participated. Data for the self-rated mental health and the perception of social network, social ability and sense of belonging were collected from the instrument Minneapolis Manchester Quality of Life (MMQL). Both girls and boys rated their mental health and social capital high. There was no clear connection between mental health and social capital, in forms of social network, social ability and sense of belonging. Social capital could be highlighted as a health addiction by the district nurse in health promotion. More longitudinal studies are needed to gain more knowledge about the effect of social capital on mental health, as well as the role of social media in youth social capital.

  • 114.
    Andersson, Matilda
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Tyler, Hannah
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Avvikelserapportering: Faktorer som påverkar sjuksköterskans beslut att inte rapportera avvikelser2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Incident reporting is essential to identify risks that can lead to health damage. Despite this many nurses fail to report incidents. The aim of this study was to describe factors influencing nurse’s decision not to report incidents. The study was conducted as literature review in which 13 scientific articles were the basis for the result. The result indicated that time constraint were an impediment to incident reporting. Lack of knowledge and experience about incident reporting and lack of feedback are also reported as barriers to reporting incidents. Many nurses experienced fear of reprisals admitting to mistakes. They also felt guilty about writing an incident report on mistakes committed by a colleague. Work culture and organizational factors also affect the decision to make an incident report. Discussing incident reporting during nursing school might reduce feelings of guilt and incompetence by nursing students understanding the purpose of making incident reports. Research on Swedish conditions are necessary to highlight nurses attitudes on incident reporting as a mean to enhance patient safety.

  • 115.
    Andersson, Mattias
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Perelius, Louise
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Kommunicera professionellt: Kommunikationens betydelse för patienter med diabetes typ 22013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Type 2 diabetes is one of the most common diseases in Sweden. Since the disease brings great demands on self-care, it´s important that the patient understands the disease. The communication between the nurse and the patient therefore is important. The aim of the study was to illuminate the importance of communication in the interaction between nurse and patient with type 2 diabetes. The study is a literature review based on 12 scientific articles. Insufficient communication could lead to poor self-care as it could cause uncertainty and poor motivation among patients. Good communication could help a patient to feel confidence in the care system, feel supported, understood and feel unique as a person, which could lead to better self-care. It´s important that the nurse is aware of how communication can affect the patient. Nurse students need more feedback of the way they communicate with patients in clinical training. More research and experience about the importance of communication in type 2 diabetes and how it can be performed more efficiently is needed. 

  • 116.
    Andersson, Moa
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Annervi, Susanne
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Larsson, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Leken läker alla sår: En litteraturstudie om lekens betydelse i omvårdnad.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Varje år befinner sig cirka 95 000 barn på sjukhus i Sverige. För att kunna möta dessa barn på en adekvat nivå samt att kunna vara korrekt i sin profession krävs det att sjuksköterskor besitter stor kunskap och respekt inom sitt område. Barn kan uppleva att de har en minskad kontroll över sin verklighet när de har blivit sjuka och hamnar i en ny miljö. Avsaknaden av kontroll och osäkerhet kan leda till ovisshet samt oförutsägbarhet. Osäkerheten bidrar till en känsla av att mista greppet om situationen barnen befinner sig i. Syftet var att belysa lekens psykologiska effekter i samband med omvårdnad för barn. Metoden som användes var en litteraturstudie vilken var uppbyggd av fjorton vetenskapliga artiklar vilka analyserades och sammanställdes. Resultatet visade att leken i omvårdnad påvisade olika effekter hos barnen. Fyra övergripande kategorier valdes ut efter noggrant genomförd granskning och redovisas i litteraturstudiens resultatdel. Kategorierna som redovisas är: leken som distraktionsmoment, leken som informationsverktyg, leken som ångestreducering och leken som bearbetningsfas. Då befintlig forskning generellt inriktas på lekens effekter relaterat till ångest- och stressymtom hos barnen och deras föräldrar, behövs mer specifik forskning där upplevelsen av leken i omvårdnad belyses.

  • 117.
    Andersson, Natalie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Lundgren, Josefin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Att hantera sitt livsöde: Copingstrategier hos personer med ALS2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Amyotrofisk lateralskleros (ALS) är en obotlig neurodegenerativ sjukdom som leder till muskelförtvining och förlamning. Syftet med studien var att beskriva copingstrategier hos personer med ALS. Studien genomfördes som en systematisk litteraturstudie med deduktiv riktad innehållsanalys. Tolv resultatartiklar analyserades och sammanställdes. Två kategorier beskrivs enligt befintlig teori: problemfokuserad coping och känslofokuserad coping. Den problemfokuserade copingstrategin självständighet och den känslofokuserade copingstrategin användande av stöd visades ge personer med ALS ett bättre välbefinnande genom att minska oro och ångest. Användandet av copinstrategier sågs variera beroende på individen och sjukdomsprogressionen. Den känslofokuserade copingstrategin undvikande sågs föredras i ett tidigare skede av sjukdomen medan den omdefinierande copingstrategin jag är filosofisk mot min sjukdom det som kommer må komma, som är en annan form av känslofokuserad copingstrategi, användes mer i slutskedet av sjukdomen ALS. Personer med ALS ökade hanteringen av sin sjukdom genom att använda rätt copingstrategier vid rätt tidpunkt i sjukdomsförloppet. För att personer med ALS ska kunna uppleva trygghet trots sin sjukdom bör sjuksköterskan ha god kunskap om copingstrategier. 

  • 118.
    Andersson, Niklas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    The Effects of a New ACL-Injury Prevention Device on Knee Kinematics and Hamstring and Quadriceps Co-Contraction: A Pilot Study2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) –injury is 3-5 times greater in female athletes compared to male athletes. This may be partially attributed to lower levels of hamstring-quadriceps co-contraction in females with subsequent knee kinematics that increases risk of ACL-injury. Finding training methods that improves co-contraction and increases knee stability is important.

    Objectives: To evaluate the effects of a new device on hamstring-quadriceps co-contraction and to investigate if training with the device can alter knee kinematics in female athletes.

    Study design: Controlled experimental study design with repeated measures.

    Method: Twenty soccer and floor ball athletes were measured with electromyography (EMG) for hamstring-quadriceps co-contraction while performing squats with and without the device. Thirteen athletes also underwent three-dimensional kinematic analyses, measuring knee abduction angles (at initial ground contact and peak angle) during a drop jump, before and after a six week intervention period with the device. Friedman’s test and Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to assess differences and effect sizes (ES) were calculated.

    Results: Co-contraction was consistently larger on the device (medial side: p<0.001, ES=0.88; lateral side: p<0.001, ES=0.80) and the ratio of medial-to-lateral co-contraction increased (p=0.001, ES=0.79). In the kinematic analysis low adherence rates amongst our subjects meant that the effects of the device on kinematics could not be measured.

    Conclusion: Performing squats with the new training device stimulates increased hamstring-quadriceps co-contraction and increases the ratio of medial-to-lateral co-contraction. The effects of the device on knee kinematics have yet to be determined.

     

  • 119.
    Andersson, Petra Lilja
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Lund, Sweden..
    Ahlner-Elmqvist, Marianne
    Lund Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Lund, Sweden..
    Johansson, Unn-Britt
    Sophiahemmet Univ Coll, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci, Danderyd Hosp, Div Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Larsson, Maria
    Karlstad Univ, Dept Nursing, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Ziegert, Kristina
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Nursing students' experiences of assessment by the Swedish National Clinical Final Examination2013In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 536-540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish National Clinical Final Examination (NCFE) was established in 2007 in order to examine nursing students' clinical competence upon completing their Bachelor's degree in nursing. The NCFE constitutes an innovative method of examination, divided into two parts: a written and bedside test. The aim of this study was to evaluate nursing students' experiences of being assessed by means of the NCFE, in order to obtain information that could be used to improve the examination. A survey was conducted using a questionnaire with open-ended questions concerning the written and the bedside part of the NCFE. The answers from 577 third-year nursing students were analysed using content analysis. The nursing students regarded the NCFE as promoting further learning and as an important means of quality assurance. Its comprehensive nature was perceived to tie the education together and contributed to the students' awareness of their own clinical competence. The strengths of the NCFE especially highlighted were its high degree of objectivity and the fact that it took place in a natural setting. However, the students felt that the NCFE did not cover the entire nursing programme and that it caused stress. It thus appears to be important to reconsider the written theoretical part of the examination and to standardise the bedside part. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 120.
    Andersson, Rosanna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Örtengren, Kajsa
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Effekter av motiverande samtal vid prevention av hjärt- och kärlsjukdom2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in Sweden. The majority of all CVDs can be prevented with the help of a lifestyle change, but to do so it requires motivation. An evidence-based approach used to promote motivation and lifestyle changes is motivational interviewing (MI). The aim of this literature review was to explore the effects that MI may have in the nurse’s preventive work against CVD. The results showed that MI had a varied but mainly positive effect in improving lifestyles that are associated with CVD. Among the patients who had participated in MI improvements were shown mainly in physical activity, body size and blood pressure. Dietary habits had improved in the short term, but in the long term it varied how long the good habits could be maintained. The health related quality of life had improved, but the patients also experienced an increase in anxiety. The results showed that MI is an effective method in promoting lifestyle changes, however, it is unclear which design of MI should be chosen, in combination with other methods, and what patient group would benefit the most, which implies further research on the subject.

  • 121.
    Andersson, Sabine
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Nyhlén, Mari
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Barns upplevelser av att leva med synnedsättning2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Children with disabilities experience more problems and difficulties with their health and decreased quality-of-life conditions than other children. An integrative litteraturestudy was used to describe the experiences of children with visual impairment and their everyday-life. This study includes an anlysis of 13 articles. The children described scenarios in which social settings were avoided due to problems or concerns that may arise involving the visual impairment. Many of the children with visual impairment and their families attended leisure services that were arranged by different childrens organisations. The children described both positive and negative experiences when meeting with their caregivers. Some of the children described a frustration of having to explain their medcial and health condition to caregivers who were not familiarwith their medical and personal history. A recurring theme in several studies was physical activity and school and how self-esteem and confidence of the children often depended on opportunities to participate in these subjects. Children experienced disappointments and frustrations over the stigmatisation that visual impairment involved. The study encompasses a topic that is relatively unexplored and in need of further research to provide greater understanding. Research that focuses on evaluating the well being of children and youth living with vision loss is sparingly both in Sweden and abroad. By summarizing the existing research, increased knowledge could lead to a more individualized nursing care for these children.

  • 122.
    Andersson, Sara
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Cramér, Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Att leva med ett organ från en avliden donator -  en humanbecoming2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The need for organ transplants has risen considerably, that is why there are more organ transplants carried out each year. To acquire a new organ means for many that somebody has to die during circumstances that an organ can be donated and the donor or their relatives must have a will to donate their organ. The transplant process is long and doesn't end when the new organ is transplanted, in addition to lifelong medication there can be many thoughts and questions that can arise. The purpose of this study was to describe the patients experience to live with an organ from a deceased donor. The study was carried out like a general literature study. The ten resulting articles were assessed, compiled and resulted in the following five themes: Experience of gratefulness, Experience of responsibility to the donator, Experience of a changed self, Experience of guilt and Experience of grief. The main findings from the study is that the recipient experiences a change in their self and experience of gratefulness. A wider understanding around the recipient experiences after a transplant with an organ from a deceased donor, where personal treatment is needed to support the requirements.

  • 123.
    Andersson, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Damm, Cecilia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Johansson, Elin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    ”Har glasögon” -  Omvårdnad och dokumentation av patienters synförmåga inom geriatrisk vård2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 124.
    Andersson, Veronica
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Karlsson, Amanda
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Upplevelser vid förlossningsdepression: Ur kvinnans perspektiv2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Förlossningsdepression drabbar 10-15% av allanyblivna mammor.Relationen mellan mammanoch barnet kan påverkas negativt om behandling inte sätts in i tid och denegativa effekterna kan bli bestående.Syftet var att beskriva kvinnors upplevelser vid förlossningsdepression. Ensystematisk litteraturstudie genomfördes där elva artiklar granskades,kategoriserades och sammanställdes. Resultatet visade att sjukdomen är starkt förknippad med skam, vilket gör attmånga kvinnor lider i det fördolda då de inte vågar söka hjälp av rädsla föratt bli sedd som dåliga mödrar. De rubriker som framträdde var att inte uppleva den förväntade lyckan, att förlora sig själv, att vara ensam och att behöva stöd.Kvinnor som tog kontakt med vården för att få behandling saknade ett empatisktbemötande av vårdpersonalen och upplevde att deras känslor normaliserades, defick inte adekvat hjälp och skickades hem utan behandling. En depression kan tasig många uttryck och därmed kan kvinnorna tänkas söka vård på olikavårdinstanser. Alla sjuksköterskor behöver därför ha god kunskap omförlossningsdepressionens olika uttryckssätt och kvinnans upplevelser avdepressionen för att kunna ge god omvårdnad och bemöta på ett lyhört, empatisktoch respektfullt sätt. För att minska stigmatiseringen i samhället och ökakunskaper om sjukdomen bör informationsåtgärder vidtas. Vidare forskning ommäns upplevelser vid förlossningsdepression, samt samkönade parförhållandenspåverkan är önskvärt för att främja familjehälsan.

  • 125.
    Andersson, Viveca
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Förekomst och behandling av smärta hos patienter inneliggande på sjukhus2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Pain is a commonly symptom among inpatients at hospital. Studies have shown that pain doesn´t have sufficient high priority, and the compliance for pain management guidelines are weak.

    Aim: The aim with the study was to investigate the prevalence of pain among inpatients in two hospital and highlight how guidelines concerning pain-management where adopted in practice.  

    Method: Descriptive, quantitative cross-sectional study. Data was collected from 356 patients. Data was collected by using an interview questionnaire. Pain vas measured with the pain assessment tool; Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) or Verbal Rating Scale (VRS). 

    Results: Thirty-one percent of the patients reported that they experienced a pain level > VAS/NRS 3 while resting, 44 % reported the pain level as VAS/NRS > 4 when doing activities. Thirty-nine percent experienced disturbed sleep at night depending on the pain. Only 17 % of the patients had been using a valid pain measurement-tool in the hospital. Numerous patients who reported severe to worst possible pain showed a lack of individually tested analgesic-treatment, in order with the guidelines.

     Conclusions: Too many patients reported their pain level as being moderate to worst possible, which indicating insufficient nursecaring for pain-assessment and also inadequate prescriptions for analgesic-treatment. Further studies are needed concerning the introducing of guidelines for pain management, which could be of importance for improving pain management among inpatients at hospital.

  • 126.
    Andersson, Åsa
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Lundberg, Frida
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Sårbarhet: En emotionell anknytning mellan sjuksköterska och patient2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vulnerability is a phenomenon that with life changing events becomes more apparent. The nurse’s approach to their own and the patient’s vulnerability affects the caring relationship where all the feelings the patient is experiencing is considered. For the patient to dare express the feelings that vulnerability induces it is important not to disregard it. Caring tradition implies a deeper emotional connection between the patient and nurse, it fills an important and central part in caring for vulnerable patients. The aim of the study was to illuminate what vulnerability is within caring. The method was a literature study where systematical searches in different databases with care focus resulted in ten scientific result articles. With inspiration from content analysis the result articles were processed and analysed. The result clarifies experiences of vulnerability within caring through the categories: feelings, courage, alleviation, and burden-resource. It emerged that vulnerability occurs because of different reasons for the patient and nurse and how vulnerability is considered has impact on the emotional connection that is needed in a caring relationship. The conclusion from the literature study is that vulnerability is an important phenomenon to have knowledge of. It is relatively unexplored and demands further research with the purpose of exploring vulnerability in a caring context and thereby give the nurse better tools to be able to give best possible care based in scientific evidence.

  • 127.
    Anderzon, Emilie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Claesson, Jenny
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenhet av att administrera intravitreala injektioner2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 128.
    Andreas, Plate
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Hemtjänstpersonals uppfattning om äldre personers barriärer mot och möjligheter till fysisk aktivitet: En intervjustudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physical activity contributes to increased longevity and quality of life, and plays an important role for older people when it comes to maintaining their health. There was a lot of barriers against being physically active. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe home care staff´s views on elderly peoples opportunities and barriers to be physically active – an interviewstudy.Method: A sample of five women from the home care service was selected and semi-structured interviews were conducted. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using tema analysis. Results: The results were divided into two main headings, barriers and opportunities. The results showed that the home care staffs were working hard to try to get the older motivated to be physically active and they also used personal training programs. It also emerged that there are barriers such as lack of motivation and barriers in the home in the form of sills and carpets that made it difficult for older people being physically active. Implication: It is important to have knowledge about elderly people’s opportunities and barriers to be physically active. This study provides an insight of the problem and can be used in future public health work among elderly people. Suggestion for further research would be to do a larger study of both women and men involved working in the home care sector to get a broader perspective about physical activity among elderly people.

  • 129.
    Andreasson, E.
    et al.
    The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Faculty of Health and Caring Sciences, Institute of Nursing, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Psychiatry Sahlgrenska, Sweden.
    Skärsäter, Ingela
    The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Faculty of Health and Caring Sciences, Institute of Nursing, Sweden.
    Patients treated for psychosis and their perceptions of care in compulsory treatment: basis for an action plan2012In: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1351-0126, E-ISSN 1365-2850, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 15-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to describe patients' conceptions and experiences of care in compulsory treatment for acute onset of psychosis. Twelve patients with experience of compulsory treatment were interviewed in 2008-2009, and phenomenographic analysis was used to analyse the data. Two descriptive categories emerged in the results: receiving needed support and perceiving respectful care. Patients perceived that coercive interventions were positive if they were given good care, if they were given the shelter they needed, if they got help with understanding and if the setting was healing. Patients felt respected if they were treated like human beings, if they were allowed to retain as much of their autonomy as possible and if they were invited to participate even though they were under compulsory treatment. The results show that it is important to prevent patients from being traumatized during compulsory treatment and to take advantage of patients' inner resources. Patients' experiences of compulsory treatment can form the basis for preparing an individual action plan for future compulsory treatment. Individual action plans could empower patients during compulsory treatment and improve their experience of care.

  • 130.
    Andreasson, Maria
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Ekstav Lilja, Lena
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Förebyggande av anestesirelaterad atelektasbildning.2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Atelektaser uppstår inom tio minuter hos 90 % av alla patienter som sövs och leder till försämrad syresättning men kan även leda till postoperativa lungkomplikationer. Syftet med studien var att beskriva hur anestesisjuksköterskan med olika ventilationsstrategier kan förebygga atelektasbildning under generell anestesi. Studien genomfördes som en litteraturstudie där 19 vetenskapliga artiklar granskades och analyserades. Resultatet visar att när 100 % syrgas ges under induktionen av anestesi ökar uppkomsten av atelektaser. Om positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) 6-10 cmH2O används tillsammans med 100 % syrgas motverkas detta. Det är mer oklart vilken effekt PEEP har efter induktionen av anestesi. PEEP bör kombineras med rekryteringsmanöver för att effektivt motverka atelektasbildning. Olika metoder för att genomföra rekryteringsmanöver finns beskrivna men gemensamt är att topptrycket ska nå upp till cirka 40 cmH2O. Efter induktionen kan anestesisjuksköterskan även förebygga uppkomst av atelektaser genom använda 40 % syrgas. I den kliniska verksamheten saknas ofta riktlinjer för vilken ventilationsstrategi som ska användas. För att kunna arbeta preventivt med att förebygga atelektasbildning måste anestesisjuksköterskan diskutera ventilationsstrategi med anestesiläkaren innan problem med syresättningen uppstår. För framtida forskning skulle det kunna vara av intresse att undersöka hur olika ventilationsinställningar påverkar patientens upplevelse under preoxygenering.

  • 131.
    Andréasson, Kristina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Wallentin, Ida
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Ett livsavgörande arbete: Mötet med unga suicidala patienter2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most common causes of death among adolescents in Sweden is suicide. The increased mental illness is a common underlying cause of suicidality. Nurses often experience the meeting with young suicidal patients as difficult, because of the ignorance about how to handle the situation. Knowledge and predictability are of importance for finding out the elements behind a suicidal behavior. The aim of this study was to illustrate important elements to administrate in the meeting with young suicidal patients. The study was conducted as a literature study and the result was based on 16 well processed research articles. The result showed that knowledge about suicide was an important element to help nurses in their meeting with young suicidal patients. The nurse can work through different strategies which all are based in acceptance, understanding and respect. The nurse can contribute the patient with different kinds of support, for example emotional, practical and social support and further promote spirituality. When this is contributed patients more easily regain their inner locus of control and move from a death-oriented to a life-oriented view of life. In the education for nurses, knowledge about suicidility and mental illness among adolescents should be increased. Knowledge about young suicidal patients and assessment of suicide should be applied in health care services.

  • 132.
    Andréasson, Marielle
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Mårtensson, Frida
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Kommunikation vid livets slut: att skräddarsy stödet2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Palliative care is something nurses will encounter during their professional life. Nurses may find it hard to communicate with patients at the end of life [EOL]. It is vital for the patient’s well-being to have a good communication with the nurse when receiving palliative care. The purpose of this study was to describe nurses’ and patients’ communication in palliative care. The study is a literature review, based on 14 scientific articles. From the results of the articles, three themes emerged; nurses’ and patients’ experiences of communication at EOL, communication in teams and its effect on the patients care and honesty in the communication and the preservation of hope. The studies showed that there was a willingness among nurses to communicate with patients at EOL but there were different obstacles which made the task difficult. For example, nurses’ emotional barriers, patients’ ambivalence about discussions regarding EOL, time constraints and cultural differences. Many nurses requested more education regarding communication at EOL and more research in this area is needed.

  • 133.
    Andrén, Linn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Erlandsson, Mathilda
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Sjuksköterskestudenters erfarenheter av vårdande i livets slutskede: En allmän litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: End-of-life care strives to improve the quality of life for patients with a life-threatening illness and their relatives. One of the nurses’ most important tasks are to provide care for patients at the end of their lives and for their relatives. Nursing students are tomorrows nurses, therefore they need to have knowledge about caring in end-of-life. Purpose: The purpose was to describe nursing student’s experiences of caring in end-of-life. Method: A general literature study based on 11 scientific articles. The data process resulted in four categories: insufficiency about caring in end-of-life, handling difficult situations in end-of-life, cooperation in caring in end-of- life and lack of knowledge about caring in end-of-life. Results: Nursing students became emotionally engaged when they met patients in end-of-life and their relatives. They experienced different ways to cope with the difficult situations that arose when caring in end-of-life. Nursing students also felt that it was important to establish relationships with patients as well as include the relatives in the care, they also described that communication with patients and their relatives could be challenging. However, it was also found that nursing students experienced insufficient skills and knowledge about caring in end-of-life. Conclusion: Caring in end-of-life caused feelings of insufficiency, loneliness and anxiety for the nursing students. Coping strategies included both total involvement in the care, and distancing one’s self from it. Nursing students experienced cooperation with both patients and relatives through communication as meaningful. However, nursing students experienced that the education in end-of-life care are inadequate. 

  • 134.
    Anjou, Marie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Hedqvist, Johanna
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Komplementära behandlingsmetoder mot illamående2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Patienter med illamående finns överallt i hälso- och sjukvården. Illamående är vanligt efter kirurgi och anestesi, liksom vid cytostatika- och strålbehandling. Även vid graviditet är illamående ett känt faktum. Komplementär medicin kan användas som komplement till den traditionella skolmedicinen. Sjuksköterskan ska bidra med sin kunskap i det specifika omvårdnadsarbetet för att kunna lindra det lidande som illamåendet innebär. Syftet med litteraturstudien var att beskriva komplementära behandlingsmetoder mot illamående hos vuxna. Studien är gjord som en systematisk litteraturstudie. De komplementära behandlingsmetoder som identifierades och utgör kategorier i resultatet var Non-invasiv akustimulering, Invasiv akustimulering och Behandling med ingefära. Invasiv akustimulering har god effekt på illamående medan effekten av non-invasiv stimulering har tveksam effekt. Akustimulering med elektricitet, oavsett om den är invasiv eller non-invasiv, har effekt på illamående. Även behandling med ingefära lindrar olika typer av illamående. Komplementära behandlingsmetoder mot illamående har i stor utsträckning effekt men placeboeffekten kan i vissa fall inte uteslutas. Komplementära behandlingsmetoder mot illamående vid vård i livets slutskede är inte undersökt i någon större omfattning och därför skulle det vara ett angeläget område att forska vidare inom.

  • 135.
    Anna, Andersson
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Lisa, Phan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Att inte kunna få barn: Mäns upplevelser av infertilitet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Infertility is a diagnosis that can effect both men and women but the man’s experiences are far less explored than the woman’s experiences. A literature study was done, where the aim of the study was to highlight men's experiences of living with infertility. The result is based on 11 scientific articles and shows four categories; Emotional aspects, Experiences of life impact, Social aspects and Experiences of support and information outside the relationship and family. The result shows that infertility can mean many different mixed emotions, such as frustration, guilt, helplessness, disappointment and isolation. One option for achieving pregnancy was to undergo fertility treatment, which could be perceived as very trying. During the treatment process many men felt that their main role was to be there to support their partner. Infertility was also perceived as difficult to talk about outside the relationship with the partner. For some of the men internet forums for infertile became a meeting place, where they could exchange information and experiences regarding their life situation. The men’s experiences regarding health professionals varied. Some of the men thought they were given a lot of support while others experienced that information from the health professionals was insufficient and this could have been given more attention to. The men dealt with their situation differently, the majority sought support from their partner while other men instead went to their family. Isolation was a common consequence of infertility because the men did not want to burden their family and friends.

  • 136.
    Antonsson, Jesper
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    Johansson, Robin
    Halmstad University.
    Att leva med ofrivilliga ljud och rörelser: - upplevelser av Tourettes syndrom2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by ticks, which is involuntary movements and verbal sounds. Tourette syndrome affects 1% of the world population. The syndrome has it´s onset usually between 3-10 years of age and disappears or is reduced usually before the age of 18. The purpose of the study was to illuminate people's experiences of living with Tourette syndrome. The essay was carried out as a literature study where eleven scientific articles were analyzed and summarized. The following main categories emerged in the result: experiences of being in social situations and experiences of handling life. The results showed that people with Tourette syndrome experienced difficulties in social contexts, stigma and that peers were important in everyday life. Then there is scant research about what it's like to live with Tourette syndrome, it is important that the nurse gain a greater understanding about the syndrome to be able to give person-centered care.

  • 137.
    Antonsson, Maria
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Ving, Angelica
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Fri från cancer?: Patienters upplevelser av att leva med en rädsla för recidiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fear of recurrence is a common issue among patients who have had cancer. It is important that the nurse has knowledge of how the fear of recurrence can affect healthin order to be able to support these patients in a satisfactory manner. The purpose of the literature study was to describe patients' experiences of the fear of recurrence after having cancer.Ten articles that matched the purpose of the study were reviewed and compiled. By condensing the content, the data processing revealed three categories that formed the result: Fear of recurrence is maintained by recurring reminders, fear of recurrence creates emotional and existential vulnerability andfear of recurrence affects the quality of life. In the results of the literature study, several factors were identified that triggered patients' fear of recurrence. These factors were follow-up visits, media, stories of other people's cancer and bodily changes. The result also showed patients' thoughts and feelings that gave them an emotional and existential vulnerability. The fear of recurrence greatly affected the patients' quality of life and had a negative impact on their health. It is of great importance that the nurse draws attention to factors in patients who can be associated with fear of recurrence and more research is needed on how the nurse can adequately support these patients.

  • 138.
    Antonsson, Victoria
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Böhlin, Josefine
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Patienters erfarenheter av omvårdnad vid kataraktoperationen2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cataract accounts for about half of all blindness in the world, which represents several million people. Patients who come to the surgery department may have good, none or less good experiences of care. The aim of the pilot study's was to describe patients' experiences of care in the cataract surgery. The pilot study was conducted as an interview with a descriptive qualitative design with an inductive approach. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The results revealed three categories: Experiencing security, Experiencing strategies to deal with physical and psychological symptoms and Experiencing deficiency. The response from health care professionals created trust through their expertise, information, and their approach. It did not matter in what form the information was given according to the informants, the main thing was that it showed what would be done. All informants used various strategies to cope with the surgery. It was revealed gaps in information about the operation. Further research with a full-scale study should focus on how the information is clearly given to patients before cataract surgery. One conclusion of the pilot study is the importance of the patients´ involvement in care around a cataract surgery and the patients´ experience of the surgery which in turn generate relevant knowledge for ophthalmic nurses who can develop a better eye care. In the education of ophthalmic nurses a patient perspective should be used as a basis.

  • 139.
    Anving, Nicole
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    Svensson, Angelica
    Halmstad University.
    Teittinen, Caroline
    Halmstad University.
    Vikten av vikten: Hur kan sjuksköterskan stödja barn till viktnedgång?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Overweight and obesity among children are a widespread and growing problem in the world and in Sweden today and it can lead to serious health problems in adulthood such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Since nurses often are in contact with children who have problems with overweight or obesity, it´s important that they are properly equipped to support and guide children and families. The aim of the study was to illuminate nurses’ opportunities and barriers to support children with overweight or obesity, based on children's, parents 'and nurses' perspectives. The study is designed as a literature review. Three categories are presented in the results; support through intervention programs, support through communication and sharing of knowledge and support through motivation and engagement. There are factors that hinder the nurse's ability to support children, such as child's lack of motivation. Guidelines and action plans for nurses, according to parents and nurses is important to convey support. The families’ involvement plays a significant role in succeeding to support overweight and obese children. Nurses should work in collaboration with the entire family in the work with overweight and obesity among children. Further research should be done on how children can be motivated and how the whole family can be involved in the weight loss process.

  • 140.
    Aptich, Nursen
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Azaric, Mirjana
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenhet av arbete med flyktingbarn och deras föräldrar på barnavårdscentralen2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     Nurses working in Child Health Centers (CHC-nurses) face daily refugee children and their parents in their work and these meetings vary depending on various factors.The aim of this study was to describe CHC-nurses experience of working with refugee children and their parents. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. From the result three categories emerged; to create security, to be responsive and to provide support. In the category to create security the CHC-nurses described how they worked to create equal care, increase accessibility, and highlight the importance of the continuity in the health care of refugee children. Category to be responsive comprised nurses' approach to the individual child's needs which was applied with respect, understanding and acceptance of cultural differences. Providing support through helpfulness with language and communication difficulties, the right customized information and collaboration with other professions gave refugee children safer and faster integration into the Swedish society. Difficulties described by the CHC-nurses were communication through interpreters, lack of resources and lack of continuity in the work with refugee children. Continued research is needed to increase knowledge and understanding of refugee children’s needs. Further studies in development, organization and coordination of activities engaged in health care for refugee children are needed.

  • 141.
    Aradottir, Louis
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Möllgård, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Att explodera i handling: Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av hjärt- och lungräddning2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Between 2005-2014 a total of 15959 cardiac arrests were registered at Swedish hospitals. Nurses’ are often the first people on the scene of a cardiac arrest and it is required of them to be educated in CPR and CPR-D. In CPR many elements that must be performed during a short period of time and under high pressure are included. It is important that nurses’ get the opportunity to process the situation to progress in their profession and deal with potential feelings that might occur. The aim was to explore nurses’ experiences during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in hospitals. The study was a literature review where 11 articles were used for the result. The articles generated three major themes; nurses’ experiences before CPR, nurses’ experiences during CPR and nurses’ experiences after CPR. Continuous CPR- training was as a positive experience that prepared nurses’ for real situations. However, the simulations were viewed as being too simplistic and not realistic enough. The CPR- situation was often experienced as stressful with high levels of anxiety that made the nurses’ adrenaline flow which could have both a positive and negative impact on cognitive function. The nurses’ experienced that they after the event felt a need to process emotions and a good instrument for that was considered debriefing. Further research on nurses' experiences of CPR is required to determine why some nurses’ are more affected than others by the event despite similar training.

  • 142.
    Arlegui, Leigh
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Changes in Anaerobic Sprint Performance, Perceived Muscle Soreness and Sleep Quality after Wearing Compression Garments during Recovery from a Strength Training Workout2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Compression garments are elastic, body-tight pieces of clothing with different pressure gradients used as a recovery method after exercise, such as strength training. Compression garments have increased in popularity within recreational and elite athletes as it is believed that they promote a reduction of muscle soreness and inflammation, which in turn may enhance performance. However, the exact physiological, psychological and performance enhancing effects of compression garments after recovery still remain unknown. Aim: To investigate whether female and male recreational athletes wearing full leg customised compression garments for at least 15 hours following a personalised strength training workout leads to an improvement in anaerobic sprint cycling performance as well as a reduction of perceived muscle soreness. Additionally a sleep quality assessment was conducted to assess the effects of the garments during sleep. Methods: Thirteen male and female subjects took part of a cross-over, randomised, controlled study. Subjects performed the first set of tests including Wingate anaerobic sprint test followed by their personalised strength training workout, after which they recovered with Compression Garments (CGS) or without compression garments (CON). They then returned 24hrs later to perform the second set of tests. Ten days later the same procedure was conducted however the other recovery method was used. Results: No significantdifferences were found between CGS and CON for the Wingate anaerobic test performance. Perceived muscle soreness was lower when subjects wore the garments and they felt better recovered 24hrs post-intervention compared to the CON condition. Some aspects of sleep were affected by wearing the compression garments during sleep however it was unclear whether this had an impact on performance. Conclusion: Recovering with customised full leg compression garments did not promote an improvement of physiological power performance 24 hours after a personalised strength training workout session. However perceived muscle soreness was reduced and the perception of recovery improved. The compression garments caused some sleep disturbances as subjects rated that they were too warm, suggesting a possible drawback of recovering with garments if worn during sleep.

  • 143.
    Arlid, Jonas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Nilja, Nicklas
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Olofsson, Nina
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Fysisk aktivitet som hälsofrämjande åtgärd för barn och ungdomar med särskilda behov: En intervjustudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund/Syfte: Ett av Folkhälsoinstitutets 11 målområden är fysisk aktivitet, målområdet innefattar att främja fysisk aktivitet bland befolkningen. Ett steg i detta arbete är att rekommendera fysisk aktivitet 30-60 minuter om dagen. Hallands Idrottsförbund bedriver olika projekt för att kunna erbjuda barn med särskilda behov möjlighet att bli fysiskt aktiv i en idrottsförening i samarbete med bland annat Barn och ungdoms psykiatri, Region Halland och habiliteringen. Syftet med studien var att beskriva erfarenheter av fysisk aktivitet som hälsofrämjande metod för barn och ungdomar med särskilda behov.

    Metod: En kvalitativ metod användes och 6 intervjuer genomfördes på olika arbetsplatser bland personer som jobbar med hälsofrämjande åtgärder och insatser för barn och ungdomar. Intervjuerna transkriberades från ljudfil till text och analyserades till en temaanalys.

    Resultat: Temaanalysen resulterade i tre olika teman. Det första temat var betydelsen av barn och ungdomars hälsofrämjande arenor, här visade det sig att skolan och föreningslivet är de två viktigaste arenorna för att nå ut till barn och ungdomar med hälsofrämjande arbete. Det andra temat var motivation och stöd till barn och ungdomar där det framkom att motiverande samtal är en tänkbar metod för att motivera äldre barn till fysisk aktivitet. Stöd från omgivningen är även en viktig komponent för att motivera barn och ungdomar till fysisk aktivitet. Det tredje temat var hinder och behov i arbetet. Här beskrevs fördelar och nackdelar inom det aktuella området exempelvis hur ekonomin kan vara ett hinder både för föräldrar och föreningar. Det framkom även att kompetensen hos de ledare som arbetar med barn och ungdomar behövs utvecklas.

    Implikation: Vi vill med hjälp av denna studie belysa olika hinder och behov samt vad som är viktigt att tänka på inom det hälsofrämjande arbetet med barn och ungdomar exempelvis utökade resurser inom föreningslivet och stöd från omgivningen. Ett steg i att hitta tänkbara lösningar för att gagna fortsatt arbete inom det aktuella området är att underlätta för föräldrar att erbjuda sina barn fysisk aktivitet genom ekonomiskt och praktiskt stöd.

  • 144.
    Arnell, Erika
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Höjskeld, Lena
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Diagnosen få känner till: Erfarenheter av Myalgisk encefalomyelit/kroniskt trötthetssyndrom2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is a complex disease of unknown etiology. Although ME/CFS is not visible on the outside, it leads to disability in varying degrees. There is a lack of knowledge regarding the disease, which often leads to a delayed or incorrect diagnosis. ME/CFS represents an ethical challenge for research, society and especially for healthcare professionals since no evidence-based nursing or treatment are available. The aim was to investigate people’s experiences with ME/CFS. Three categories emerged in the data analysis: meeting with the health care, impact on daily life and adaption to the new life situation. The result shows experiences of people with ME/CFS and how they feel they are treated by the healthcare system and the lack of knowledge that exists. It appears that the disease affects identity, relationships and abilities in physical activity. The result also shows how life changes and what strategies are required to manage everyday life when the conditions in life change. To meet the nursing needs of people with ME/CFS, more research on the subject, as well as education for healthcare professionals, are necessary.

  • 145.
    Aronsen-Torp, Jenny
    et al.
    School of Health and Society, Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Berggren, Vanja
    School of Health and Society, Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Erlandsson, Lena-Karin
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Somali Women's Experiences of Cooking and Meals after Immigration to Sweden2013In: Journal of Occupational Science, ISSN 1442-7591, E-ISSN 2158-1576, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 146-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article elucidates Somali women's experiences of cooking and meals after immigration to Sweden. Six Somali women participated in repeated focus group interviews. Content analysis of the interviews resulted in four themes: change in routines and content of the daily meals, changed experiences related to cooking and shopping for groceries, the social dimensions in food-related occupations, and change of identity and roles. According to the women, variety of factors related to their life in Sweden had led to changes in their food occupations and meals: environmental changes, societal factors and the fact that the women secured employment. Although their new focus on employment led to altered responsibility and time for the cooking, foodrelated occupations remained important for the creation of identity and the maintenance of the family. This study may inform the development of strategies to restrict the negative impacts of immigration on Somali women's health. Future research will increase understandings of the relationships between food-related occupations and women's roles, identity and health. © 2013 The Journal of Occupational Science Incorporated.

  • 146.
    Aronsohn, Tove
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Nevland, Cathrine
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Acceptera och förneka: Copingstrategier vid långvarig muskuloskeletal smärta2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain is a big problem among the Swedish population today. To enable the management of the chronic musculoskeletal pain there is a need of coping strategies. What strategies an individual uses is depending on the individual’s story of life. It is important that nurses have a holistic approach to support individuals in the selection of coping strategies. The purpose of the literature study was to identify coping strategies in individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain. In this study 12 research articles were included, of which 9 were qualitative and 3 were quantitative. The result showed that individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain used many different coping strategies that were included in denial and acceptance, which could lead to failed adaptation or adaptation. Strategies for acceptance and denial functioned as coping tools for individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Nurses’ care should act as a support for individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain in the choice of coping strategies and perception of the human being should be holistic. No studies revealed the importance of the nurse's care work in the choice of coping strategies. More research is desirable on what nurses need to do, to enable individuals to cope and develop coping strategies.

  • 147.
    Aronsson, Desirée
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Prado, Karen
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Faktorer som påverkar egenvården vid diabetes mellitus typ 22010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sjuksköterskor möter ofta patienter med diabetes typ 2 som av flera olika anledningar har problem med följsamheten till egenvården. Därför är det viktigt att känna till de olika faktorer som hindrar samt främjar patienter i deras egenvård. Syftet med studien var att belysa de faktorer som påverkar egenvården hos patienter med diabetes mellitus typ 2. Studien är genomförd som en litteraturstudie. Majoriteten av patienterna upplevde att de saknade kunskap i behandling om diabetes typ 2, en av anledningarna till detta var att de fick olika information från vårdpersonal om hur de skulle sköta sin egenvård. Vidare visar studien hur brist på motivation och rädsla för senkomplikationer påverkar egenvården. Många patienter hade även svårt att identifiera sig som diabetiker. Mer forskning kring hur kunskapsinlärningen om diabetes typ 2 sjukdomen skiljer sig mellan olika patienter vore av intresse.

  • 148.
    Arosenius, Maria
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Holmqvist Lidh, Linnéa
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    En kamp mot tiden: Att uppleva livskvalitét och välbefinnande vid den obotliga sjukdomen ALS2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable, neurological disease characterized by a progressive degeneration of the motor nervous system. The symptoms of the disease are progressive muscle weakness that eventually causes paralysis and respiratory failure. The survival time from the onset of the disease is two to five years. There is currently no cure for ALS and treatment consists of symptomatic relief. The aim of the study was to illuminate quality of life and well-being in patients with the incurable disease ALS. The method used was a literature review based on thirteen scientific articles that were analyzed and compiled. The results revealed four themes; the importance of physical deterioration and loss of bodily function, the importance of support from family, friends and caregivers, the importance of living in the present and ignore the future and the importance of feeling hope and maintain a positive outlook on life. It is significant that more qualitative studies are being made, studies that explore patients' individual experiences of living with the disease ALS.

  • 149.
    Arvidsson, Barbro
    Malmö School of education, Malmö, Sweden.
    Clinical supervision: a study of how psychiatric nurses experience group supervision2000Book (Refereed)
  • 150.
    Arvidsson, Barbro
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Malmö School of Education, Malmö, Sweden.
    Group supervision in nursing care: a longitudinal study of psychiatric nurses' experiences and conceptions2000Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of group supervision in nursing care is to understand nurses’ experiences from real care settings and to structure these in a professional and personal context. An interventional and longitudinal method of research was chosen in this study of group supervision in nursing care. The overall aim of the present study was to examine and investigate how psychiatric nurses’ professional competence changed over time as a result of group supervision in nursing care. The sample consisted of two groups (N=12) of nurses, who received clinical supervision over a period of two years. The study is composed of three interim studies. The aim of Interim study 1 was to describe how psychiatric nurses experienced group supervision in nursing care. A questionnaire was constructed to investigate if, and to what degree, the participants experienced safety, trust and learning during the supervision sessions. The questions asked focused on the concepts ‘a feeling of friendship’, ‘allowing atmosphere’, ‘understanding’ and ‘competence’. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics, and the informants’ comments were categorised. Dairy notes were presented as a background to the ratings, words and quotations. The supervision process was analysed based on theories on supervision, including Maslow’s need theory. The results showed that the supervision climate was, to a high degree, characterised by safety, trust and learning regardless of when the rating was made. The theoretical basis of the interim study and the most common words and expressions appearing in the results were used to design a general model of supervision. The aim of Interim studies 2 and 3 was to investigate the influence of supervision in nursing care, after one and after two years of ongoing supervision as well as four years after completed supervision, on the psychiatric nurses’ professional competence. Data consisted in answers provided during interviews with the informants. Data was analysed according to the phenomenographical method. Interim studies 2 and 3 resulted in four description categories: ‘a feeling of job satisfaction’, ‘gaining knowledge and competence’, ‘gaining a sense of security in nursing situations’ and ‘a feeling of personal development’. In Interim study 3, an additional two description categories emerged: ‘realising the value of supervision’ and ‘a sense of professional solidarity’. The findings gave valuable proof that group supervision in nursing care has a lasting influence on nurses’ professional competence in the form of a distinct professional identity and an integrated nursing care perspective. Group supervision contributes to maintaining the participants’ strength and energy to carry on working, which makes continuing supervision necessary.

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