hh.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
1234 101 - 150 of 151
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 101.
    Nelson Berg, Joakim
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Lee, Jonathan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    A pre-study on the compressed air system at Ljunghaell AB2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish industry uses large volumes of compressed air. The compressed air process isenergy intensive and creates large amounts of excess heat. It is therefore important to utilizethe excess heat, optimize the operation of the compressors and to have a regular maintenanceon the system. This thesis is a pre-study to make a compressed air system energy efficient andis done in collaboration with Ljunghäll AB. Ljunghäll AB is one of Northern Europe's leadingdie casting companies and are located in Södra Vi, Sweden. The purpose is to describe andmap the compressed air system in the old part of the facility in Södra Vi. The thesis will alsogive an explanation of how Ljunghäll AB can improve the compressed air system. Providethem suggestions for energy savings and lower the environmental impact of production. Theobjective of the thesis is to create an understanding of how improvements in the compressedair system can be done by studying the operation, compressor, pipe system and leak detecting.The economic aspects of the solutions together with the effect of noise and engine operationof the compressors have not been taken into consideration. To reach improvement measures avisit to the facility in Södra Vi was made, where measuring and mapping was executed andthen compared with earlier studies and literature. The conclusions of the thesis show thatLjunghäll AB has a good operation and control of the compressors, through the variable speeddrive and steering system. It also showed that the choice of the existing compressors are goodfor their compressed air usage. The study also resulted in the following suggestions for theenergy efficiency and lowering of the environmental impact of production at Ljunghäll AB’scompressed air system: Water heat recovery, replacement of old pipes, cover the leakage,regular maintenance of compressors and fittings, training in compressed air for workers,centralized compressor central and sectioning of the pipe system.

  • 102.
    Niklasson, Edvin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Coster, Albin
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Frånluftsvärmepumpens möjligheter i flerbostadshus2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    If a building is heated by a heat pump, it is of high importance that the heat pump has a high coefficient of performance. An exhaust air heat pump extracts heat from the building’s exhaust air. The air has a relatively high and constant temperature all year around, leading to a high seasonal coefficient of performance. This thesis examines whether it is profitable to complement an exhaust ventilation system with an exhaust air heat pump in an apartment block that already has geothermal heat pump, district heating, oil- or biofuel heated system. To determinate the profitability, a reference building in Strömstad has been used and was considered a representative of Sweden’s other apartment blocks. The result of the study indicated that it is economically justifiable to combine an exhaust air heat pump with district heating, oil- and biofuel heated system. However it must be added that exhaust air heat pumps are best suited for single-family houses since they provide relatively low energy compared to e.g. geothermal heat pumps.

  • 103.
    Nilsson, Anneli
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Hedberg, Fanny
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Energikartläggning enligt ISO 50001: En kartläggning av en industrianläggning för betong2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report has been written as part of a degree project at the Bachelor’s programme in energy engineering at Halmstad University in the spring of 2014. The project was made in collaboration with AB Färdig Betong and ÅF Infrastructure AB in Gothenburg.

    The project aims to investigate the potential energy savings of AB Färdig Betong’s production plant at Ringön in Gothenburg.

    The project was to make an energy audit of an industrial production plant for concrete. The starting point for the energy audit has been the ISO 50001 energy management system with the aim to develop a technical energy audit report in accordance with the standard.

    The plant has been analyzed from an energy perspective. Measurements, collection of data and information has been carried out to develop the input data basis. Through calculations, potential energy savings and proposals for actions were developed.

    Among the four largest energy saving potentials, there are two that have no investment cost at all. The total of all potentials represent a saving of 26 % of the total plant energy consumption of 857 MWh in 2013.

    General conclusions include that all production should be located within the building, that all heating should be temperature regulated and that a long term perspective on energy use is needed.

  • 104.
    Nilsson, Christophe
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Beckne, Olle
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Specifik värmeanvändning: Metod för framtagning av den specifika värmeanvändningen för fjärrvärmeanslutna flerbostadshus via Metrias fastighetsregister2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    District heating is currently the most common form of heating for apartment buildings in Sweden, with a ratio up to 90%. It has for a long time been the cheapest heating option for real estate in urban areas but has recently been challenged by cheap and efficient heat pumps. Suppliers are required to work more customer oriented to keep their heating customers, for instance by analyzing the customers heating usage. One way to do that is to get the customer's specific heat consumption expressed in kWh/m2.

    This report presents a method for obtaining the specific heat consumption of apartment buildings among Öresundskraft’s district heating customers in Helsingborg and Ängelholm. The method assumes Metria’s land registry to compile surfaces for Öresundskraft’s heating customers. The area for each property is matched with the delivered heat from Öresundskraft’s customer database.

    In total there are 1,326 properties with apartment buildings. The results show a variation between 2.8 kWh/m2 to over 2,600 kWh/m2 with a median of 109 kWh/m2. Approximately 85% of the properties have a specific heat use between 64 kWh/m2 and 170 kWh/m2, which is considered the normal distribution.

    The values ​​of the heated areas as calculated from Metria’s land registry are compared with values ​​obtained directly from the real-estate company. The result of the comparison is mixed and has in most cases different values ​​for the same property. However, it can’t be distinguished if Metra or the real-estate company’s value is the most accurate.

    The heated surface and the quantity delivered heating for a number of properties with extreme high and low specific heat consumption are compared with its energy return. In most of these cases the cause of the extreme values ​​has been resolved through contact with the owners of the buildings, with the help of aerial photographs or by identifying the building's usage.

    The method is inexpensive, easy to use and can be used instantly to companies. The results provides a clear overview of the specific heat consumption for district heating connected apartment buildings and the method is ideal as a first screening to see which properties needs improvements.

  • 105.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Fjärrvärmeanslutna passivhus: Fallstudie av värmelaster och innetemperaturer i fyra flerbostadshus2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is today an increasing interest in low-energy buildings, and the so-called “passive houses” are becoming increasingly popular in Sweden and other European countries. There are however some concerns regarding the indoor climate in these houses, notably the risk of too low indoor temperatures in the winter and too high temperatures in the summer. Another issue is the heat load characteristics of this type of buildings, and how these affect the energy systems. In this thesis, these two aspects – heat load characteristics and indoor temperatures – are analysed in four identical multi-family buildings in Falkenberg, Sweden, using measured values from the buildings’ technical systems and measured indoor air temperatures in all dwellings. The buildings are heated with district heating, comprise 108 dwellings in total and use approximately 50 kWh/m2 annually (space heating, hot water and electricity for building services).

    The heat loads are mainly characterised by low but varying heat demands for space heating and hot water. The buildings appear to have a higher than usual sensitivity for variations in heat from internal sources and solar gains, leading to regular variations in the heat demand for space heating and fluctuations in the total heat demand. These fluctuations, which may negatively affect the energy system, could be avoided by actively controlling the heat demand for space heating.

    There are also daily fluctuations in the indoor temperatures, but the buildings perform well in this aspect, with temperatures that stay within the acceptable range most of the time. The summer indoor temperatures do not get higher than in other buildings. A possibility for further improvement within this area could be the use of forced ventilation during the night in hot periods, and hence utilising the buildings’ well insulated and airtight building envelope to keep heat out during the day. This possibility might further improve the passive house concept.

  • 106.
    Nilsson, Micke
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Lindqvist, Oscar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Intern energiåtervinning: En förstudie för att ersätta fossila bränslen medrestprodukter från egen produktion2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 107.
    Nilsson, Sanna
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Analys av solelinstallationer på olika fastighetstyper: En studie om möjligheter och hinder2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Generation of electricity by use of solar irradiation is today a very small part of the total electricity generation in Sweden. It is not necessary to build a great amount of solar parks all over Sweden to reach a higher level, it could instead be possible by using already existing rooftops. That is one of the situations that indicates the need of a greater knowledge dissemination, about today’s energysystem and the technology of photovoltaics. It also exists a demand of knowledge about characteristic Swedish houses and rooftops. To convert the different kinds of rooftops to small powersources, there is also a demand of knowledge about installations that is possible to do with different kinds of photovoltaics. Although, solar power alone cannot compete with fossil fuels, but it should have a good possibility to reach a much higher level than what exists today. Wallenstam AB is anenergy-conscious company within the real estate business in Gothenburg. Their interests in renewable energy and their ambition to replace fossil fuel with more environment-friendly technology facilitated this cooperation.The first part of the report aims to get more and deeper knowledge about the subject photovoltaics and solar plants. The second part of the report aims to investigate what possibilities and impediments there is with photovoltaic installations at different kinds of typical Swedish houses. A planning work is made at three different types of buildings in the area of Gothenburg. One at an industry/office space, one at a modern apartment block and one at a central building in Gothenburg that has both apartments and commercialized activity. The goal is to find the most suitable photovoltaic installation to each of the three buildings, based on economic advantageousness, appearance and esthetic, and the possibilities with the technology of earlier installed energy systems.The report and the result are formed on the basis of literature studies, site visits at the buildings, measurements at drawings and satellite maps, calculations by hand and modelling in the software PVsyst. Many discussions with people in the solar energy industry were also held. To calculate the Levelized Cost Of Energy (LCOE) and to perform the sensitivity analysis, a web-based calculator was used. The web-based calculator belongs to the report El från nya och framtida anläggningar 2014. The main result shows that only two of the possible photovoltaic installations gets a LCOE that is competitive relative the comparative electricity price at 0,75 SEK/kWh. Installations with polycrystalline solar panels at Kvillebäcken 3:1 and Mölnlycke 1:1. The result also shows that the two installations with polycrystalline solar panels at Kvillebäcken 3:1 and Mölnlycke Fabriker is really competitive if the capital interest rate is reduced from 4 % to 2 %, or if the investment cost isreduced by 15 %. At the property Inom Vallgraven 26:8, the LCOE for all possible installations are over one Swedish krona per kilowatt hour, but an installation with solar panels at a central building like that could have a marketing value. It would also show Wallenstams standpoint for renewable energy, new technology and a sustainable energy system.

  • 108.
    Nolhag, Richard
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Effektivare elanvändning på avfallskraftvärmeverk: Förslag till handlingsplan för minskad elanvändning på Renovas anläggning i Göteborg2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has identified and studied measures to allow for reduced use of electricity in a waste incineration plant in western Sweden. The energy extracted from the waste at the powerplant is utilized and sold in form of electricity and heat. Technical and environmentally the combined heat and power plant is by today's standards among the leading waste incineration plants in the world. The owners are constantly striving to improve the efficiency of the waste incineration plant. They have seen the opportunities for savings in reducing internal usage of electricity. The delivery from the plant in 2012 was ~1.3 TWh heat and ~0.2 TWh of electricity. Of the total generated amount of electricity, about 29% was used for internal needs, a quota referred to decline by means of this thesis. In the search for ways to achieve a reduction in electricity usage, the plants energy systems was separated into subsystems such as: electric power, heating, ventilation, compressed air, fluid systems, lighting, and two additional categories, administrative and other measures. Efficiency measures were identified through literature reviews, visits at the facility, study of process data and routines as well as interviews and discussions. After analyzes using data and estimated values these measures was quantified in both estimated reduction in electricity usage and in economic measures which resulted in a compilation of several substantial efficiency improvements. With the implementation of these, the electricity usage can be reduced by 4.7 GWh per year, which represents 5.9% of the internal electricity usage. Repayment periods range between zero and 5.3 years. Based on the substantial efficiency potentials, administrative potentials emerged that may contribute to a future energy-wise management of the waste incineration plant.

  • 109.
    Olsson, Robin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Älgsjöö, Marcus
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Westlund, Oskar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Storskaligt batterilager i samband med landanslutningen i Ystad hamn2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The transition to a more sustainable society plays a significant role in achieving Europeanclimate goals and multilateral agreements, the 20/20/20 objectives. One of these goals is thatthe share of power generation from renewable energy resources is to increase this requires agreater hosting capacity on the power grid.The future power grid must become more modern in order that it through further and moredeveloped management and system monitoring can balance power variations more efficientfor an increased stability and adequate balance between renewable power generation and endusage. Already at present, technical solutions exist that make it possible to construct such amodern power grid.The project team's collaboration partner Ystad Energi AB wanted to explore the possibility toconnect a battery energy storage system in conjunction with the newly constructed shore toship connection in the port of Ystad.When the ferries dock and connection is established to the local power grid, the powerrequirements in Ystad local power grid increases, to an extent that reserved power limit andhosting capacity on the overhead power grid is exceeded. At present, it is not possible toupgrade to a higher power subscription because the transformer's maximum power limit thatsupplies electrical energy to Ystad City is already reached.In order to explore the possibilities of a battery energy storage system, Ystad power demandand the additional power demand from the shore to ship connection system has been analyzed.To avoid an upgrade of the limitative transformer, the dimensioning of battery energy storagesystem assumed a peak power requirement, which increases as a result of ship to shoreconnection. Two types of battery technologies have been investigated in cooperation withABB; the battery system that is best suited for this purpose is after a judgment a Lithium-ionbattery technology. The project team also has been in contact with partners in order to obtainmore and additional information for appropriate sizing.The battery energy storage system main role is to obtain a smooth power flow from anoperation point of view and contribute to a more efficient and stable power grid. The batterystorage system will be loaded during low load hours at night and delivering electricity to theshore to ship connection and the rest of the local power grid during the most critical hourswhen the power requirement is high. Another advantage is to trade on spot price, which addsa potential source of income because the spot price of electricity varies over a day and night.In addition to the battery storage system four alternative measures are briefly being examinedto see what other possible solutions that can solve the problem.Judging by the size of the battery energy storage system and estimated investment cost, it isnot today economically viable to realize the project. With available technology and pace withreduced battery prizing, increased spot price variations and new developed business models, itmay be the case that the prestudy is implemented in the future.

  • 110.
    Ottermo, Fredric
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik. Division for Electricity, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Division for Electricity, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden & Swedish Centre for Renewable Electric Energy Conversion, Uppsala, Sweden.
    An upper size of vertical axis wind turbines2014In: Wind Energy, ISSN 1095-4244, E-ISSN 1099-1824, Vol. 17, no 10, p. 1623-1629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The scaling behaviour of a straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine is considered. A scaling scheme is described that, in the presence of a wind shear profile, aims at leaving the material stresses of the scaled construction unchanged. On the basis of a recent 200 kW three-bladed H-rotor design, a structural upper size of the turbine is proposed, this size being the scale at which the gravitational force starts to become important. As gravity has a much worse scaling behaviour than the aerodynamic and centrifugal forces, the construction work will become increasingly more difficult above this scale. The upper size is estimated to be around 30 MW. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 111.
    Ottermo, Fredric
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University.
    Resonances and Aerodynamic Damping of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine2012In: Wind Engineering: The International Journal of Wind Power, ISSN 0309-524X, E-ISSN 2048-402X, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 297-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamics of a straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine is investigated with respect to oscillations due to the elasticity of struts and shaft connecting to the hub. In particular, for the three-bladed turbine, a concept is proposed for dimensioning the turbine to maximize the size of the resonance free rpm range for operation. The effect of aerodynamic damping on the struts is also considered. The damping of these types of oscillations for a typical turbine is found to be good.

  • 112.
    Ottermo, Fredric
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Möllerström, Erik
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nordborg, Anders
    Sound View Instruments, Borrby, Sweden.
    Hylander, Jonny
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Location of aerodynamic noise sources from a 200 kW vertical-axis wind turbine2017In: Journal of Sound and Vibration, ISSN 0022-460X, E-ISSN 1095-8568, Vol. 400, p. 154-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Noise levels emitted from a 200 kW H-rotor vertical-axis wind turbine have been measured using a microphone array at four different positions, each at a hub-height distance from the tower. The microphone array, comprising 48 microphones in a spiral pattern, allows for directional mapping of the noise sources in the range of 500 Hz to 4 kHz. The produced images indicate that most of the noise is generated in a narrow azimuth-angle range, compatible with the location where increased turbulence is known to be present in the flow, as a result of the previous passage of a blade and its support arms. It is also shown that a semi-empirical model for inflow-turbulence noise seems to produce noise levels of the correct order of magnitude, based on the amount of turbulence that could be expected from power extraction considerations.

  • 113.
    Palmer, Simon
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Sjöberg Åkerlundh, Theodor
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Lomander, Mikael
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Lågtempererad fjärrvärme i bostadsområdet Tullkammarkajen2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    District heating plays a major part of the energy system used for heat supply in Sweden. The starting point of this parameter study have been to investigate the possibilities to provide the area Tullkammarkajen with efficient district heating supply in help of low temperature residual heat and waste heat from a nearby industry. The area is located in the city center of Halmstad and is currently in its planning phase. Facilities and apartments are planned to be built.The study is based on three different parameters: type of system, system temperatures and energy demand. The different type of systems that is analyzed is conventional districtheating, low-temperature district heating with a heat pump as a complement as well as low-temperature district heating with the primary network’s feed line as a complement. Further comparison was made between these parameters, both from an energy wise perspective as well as from an economic perspective.The underlying idea to this study has been to obtain an energy efficient solution that at the same time suits the principle of sustainable development. However, it can clearly be seen in the presented results that it is more profitable to use more conventional methods that are not adapted to sustainable development, based on today’s market. Thus, the question becomes whether the future of innovative solutions or economical funds should be prioritized.

  • 114.
    Persson, Urban
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    District heating in future Europe: Modelling expansion potentials and mapping heat synergy regions2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents a set of methodologies and approaches to investigate and determine the extent by which district heating can contribute to improved energy system efficiency and reduced carbon dioxide emissions in future Europe. The main motivation for suggesting large-scale implementation of district heating as a structural energy efficiency measure to obtain these objectives originates essentially in the predicament that a majority of European buildings today remain highly dependent on fossil fuels to provide energy needed for space heating and hot water preparation. In parallel, vast annual volumes of rejected excess heat from European power plants and industries are mainly neglected and lost unutilised to the ambient surroundings, why extended recovery and utilisation of such secondary energy assets realistically could replace significant shares of current inefficient supplies by fuel substitution. A prerequisite, however, for the viability of this logical prospect, is that infrastructures by which to facilitate excess heat recovery and subsequent network heat distribution are in place, which by no means is the average case in contemporary Europe.

    Hereby, the investigation is structured orderly by first establishing whether district heating can be a competitive alternative on current urban European heat markets, facilitated by a distribution capital cost model, where after the energy systemic benefits of expanding district heating are characterised and used to estimate a plausible expansion potential based on comparative analysis. Next, energy system modelling of continental EU27 by the year 2050, with district heating expanded in alignment with this potential, is performed to assess the total energy system cost benefits relative an alternative scenario focusing mainly on individual energy efficiency measures. Finally, spatial mapping to identify current primary target regions from which large-scale implementation of district heating could emanate is conceived and performed by use of a geographical information systems interface.

    The findings are generally supportive of a realisation of the objectives, mainly so by establishing a three-fold directly feasible expansion potential for district heating in city areas, but recognise also several additional, mainly non-technical, issues and challenges necessary to address in a successful transition to more energy efficient supply structures in future Europe.

  • 115.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Möller, Bernd
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Heat Roadmap Europe: Identifying strategic heat synergy regions2014In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 74, p. 663-681Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a methodology to assess annual excess heat volumes from fuel combustion activities in energy and industry sector facilities based on carbon dioxide emission data. The aim is to determine regional balances of excess heat relative heat demands for all third level administrative regions in the European Union (EU) and to identify strategic regions suitable for large-scale implementation of district heating. The approach is motivated since the efficiency of current supply structures to meet building heat demands, mainly characterised by direct use of primary energy sources, is low and improvable. District heating is conceived as an urban supply side energy efficiency measure employable to enhance energy system efficiency by increased excess heat recoveries; hereby reducing primary energy demands by fuel substitution. However, the importance of heat has long been underestimated in EU decarbonisation strategies and local heat synergies have often been overlooked in energy models used for such scenarios. Study results indicate that 46% of all excess heat in EU27, corresponding to 31% of total building heat demands, is located within identified strategic regions. Still, a realisation of these rich opportunities will require higher recognition of the heat sector in future EU energy policy. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 116.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Münster, Marie
    DTU Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Current and future prospects for heat recovery from waste in European district heating systems: a literature and data review2016In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 110, p. 116-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Municipal solid waste has seen increasing annual volumes for many decades in contemporary Europe and constitutes, if not properly managed, an environmental problem due to local pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. From an energy perspective, waste is also an alternative fuel for power and heat generation; energy recovery from waste represents an effective measure to reduce landfilling and avoid disposal emissions while simultaneously reducing the equivalent demand for primary energy supply. A key factor for obtaining the full synergetic benefits of this energy recovery is the presence of local heat distribution infrastructures, without which no large-scale recovery and utilisation of excess heat is possible. In this paper, which aims to estimate municipal solid waste volumes available for heat recovery in European district heating systems in 2030, a literature and data review is performed to establish and assess current and future EU (European Union) waste generation and management. Main conclusions are that more heat can be recovered from current Waste-to-Energy facilities operating at low average heat recovery efficiencies, that efficient incineration capacity is geographically concentrated, and that waste available for heat recovery in 2030 is equally determined by total generation volumes by this year as by future EU deployment levels of district heating. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 117.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Möller, Bernd
    Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Mapping local European heat resources: a spatial approach to identify favourable synergy regions for district heating2012In: / [ed] Morten Hofmeister, 2012, p. 261-270Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major setback in standard generic energy modelling is that national conditions constitute the basis for analysis. By such an approach, heat and energy assets, demands, and distribution structures are viewed from an aggregated perspective not permitting insight into unique local circumstances and conditions. As a consequence, genuinely local synergy opportunities, e.g. recovery and utilisation of excess heat from various activities and sources by distribution in district heating systems, are often ignored or overlooked in generic forecasts.

    The ambitious European targets to increase energy efficiency in future power and heat distribution and use acts as a force to address local conditions in a more systematic and thorough sense than previously elaborated. Increased utilisation of local heat assets and recovered excess heat from local activities, to provide space and tap water heating in residential and service sectors, can replace and thus substitute large shares of natural gas and electricity currently being used to satisfy low temperature heat demands. Spatial screening and identification of local conditions throughout Europe, by use of NUTS3 regions as analytical level of reference, can disclose favourable synergy regions by combining information on local heat assets and demands, and hence provide additional and pivotal information to energy modellers.

    In this study, local conditions such as excess heat from thermal power generation plants, Waste-to-Energy incineration facilities, energy intensive industrial processes, and renewable heat assets (geothermal and solar), are depicted together with heat demand concentrations, using GIS based spatial information, to visualise the possibilities of mapping local European heat resources.

  • 118.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Competitiveness of European district heating systems2011In: European Energy Pathways: Pathways to Sustainable European Energy Systems / [ed] Filip Johnsson, Göteborg: Alliance for Global Sustainability (AGS) , 2011, p. 283-290Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 119.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Evaluating competitiveness of district heating using a distribution capital cost model2011In: Methods and models: used in the project Pathways to Sustainable European Energy Systems, January 2011 / [ed] Filip Johnsson, Göteborg: Alliance for Global Sustainability (AGS) , 2011, p. 157-160Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 120.
    Poon, Jackie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Ayoub, Ali
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    HFAB har smak för celler på sina tak: Kartläggning av potentialen att installera solceller på HFAB:s fastighetstak2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 121.
    Runesson, Anna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Nilsson, Sofie
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Energieffektivisering av Villor: Finns möjligheten till Passivhusstandard för befintliga bostäder2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The climate change the earth today has to face is no longer a global problem when every individual has a responsibility to act. The residents in Sweden have no understanding how their energy consumption affects the environment, nor what measures can be taken to reduce the energy consumption.The use of the energy in new Buildings is considerably lower than in the older ones as conditions have improved and the requirements have been more stringent. As most of the buildings in the future have already been constructed it´s important to take every opportunity for energy efficiency and rebuilding of available buildings will become a significant act. Reconstruction of a building contributes generally to both a reduced individual and a reduced total energy use, while new constructions only keep a low individual energy use but a increase the total energy use. For this reason we present the opportunities for reconstruction, mainly to reach the standards for a passive house.

  • 122.
    Rydström, Petter
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Skingrad dimma: energikartläggning på Högskolan i Halmstad2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Society's standards and guidelines say that today's buildings shall reduce their energyconsumption to obtain a better energy performance. To make this possible new laws havebeen formulated to ensure that this is the case. Halmstad University (HH) consists of 18building cells, each with has its own unique energy usage. To get an overall image overHH’s energy situation, the values for heating, cooling and electricity have been collected.The task of obtaining these values has been difficult were multiple instances in HH, theenergy provider and the property manager has been consulted. These values have beentreated along the guidelines of the National Housing Board on how the energyconsumption documents should be created. There have been some values that areunobtainable, the reason for this is because several buildings shared the same connectionpoint for heating, cooling and energy, because of this a breakdown of how much energyeach building uses have been impossible to answer. In these situations all of the buildingsenergy consumptions and surfaces have been pooled and then been treated as onebuilding. Further simplification has been made. In some instances many differentcustomers have shared the same connection point even though separate meters for eachcustomer have not existed. On these occasions the energy provider has divided the energyconsumption between the energy customers only with the means of a fixed percentage, adistribution that is perceived as a disincentive to energy efficiency measures.Distributions of this type do not show the actual energy usage in a specific building.When comparing the values obtained from the energy provider and the energyconsumption documents, several errors were found. Some of the building surfaces havebeen switched. Even pure neglections have occurred. The final result shows that HH’sbuildings have higher energy consumption than the documents that society refers to tooensure that the energy performance of each building is known.

  • 123.
    Samuelsson, Therése
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Olsson, Robert
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Energianalys av kvarteret Borgen 10: En utredning av ökande energianvändning med förslag på åtgärder för energieffektivisering2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 124.
    Sernhed, Kerstin
    et al.
    Department of Energy Sciences, Lund University, Sweden.
    Lygnerud, Kristina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science. Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Synthesis of recent Swedish district heating research2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 151, p. 126-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, district heating meets currently above half of the heat demands in buildings. District heating research in Sweden has a long tradition dating back to 1975. The latest research program period included 34 projects and was executed between 2013 and 2017. In this paper, a synthesis is performed on the Swedish research frontier by assessing these recent research projects. The three study purposes was to provide an overview over the executed projects, to identify new research questions, and to identify future challenges to the Swedish district heating industry. The assessment was based on six defined key areas, such as demand, resources, system frameworks, technology, cold supply, and international perspective. The subsequent content analysis was performed from three perspectives: the perspective of energy system transition, the customer perspective, and the sustainability perspective. Final conclusions include the three future challenges for the Swedish district heating industry. These are future strategies to communicate the value of district heating, vision for district heating beyond the transition to fossil free supply, and technology development for efficient use of low temperature heat sources. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

  • 125.
    Sjögren, Pontus
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Wåhlin, Henrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Solenergi i Tranemo: En utvärdering av solenergins potential i Tranemooch andra mindre kommuner.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Runt om i världen ökar produktionen av elektricitet från solenergi och Sverige är inget undantag. Här uppnår däremot solelens andel av totala elproduktionen mindre änen promille. I denna rapport har vi därför utvärderathur mycket potentiell takyta som finns att tillgå i Tranemo kommun. För att evaluera detta har det gjorts en fältstudie tillsammans med samarbetspartnern Tranemo kommun där företag och kommunala byggnader undersökts. Därifrån har takytors area, lutning och väderstreckdokumenterats för att med vår egenkonstruerade beräkningsmodell uträknalämpligheten för platsen. I beräkningsmodellen behövs endast treindataför att kunna räkna ut ett ungefärligt värdepå solinstrålningen mot en vinklad yta. Dessaär platsens koordinater samt ytans lutning och vädersträck. För ett mer precist värde är molnighetsgrad nödvändigt för platsen. Vi har dokumentera en yta på 116000m2för solceller vilketkan utgöra 7 % av det årligaelbehovet i Tranemo, men endast en mindre delpå 46000 m2användbar ytaanser vi idag vara lämpliga. Det finns dock mycket mer yta att tillgåeftersom siffrorna endast är baserade påkommunala byggnader och företag.Delämpligaytorna kan bidra med en elproduktion på 6,74 GWh, motsvarande 3 % av Tranemos årliga elanvändning. Som kontrast har Sverige i dagsläget också en potential på ungefär 3 %. Kommunens potential är följaktligen näramedelvärdet för landet, vilket skulle påvisa goda möjligheterför solenergi.

  • 126.
    Sporrong, Kristofer
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Harrysson, Mattias
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Elektrisk integrering och projektering av förnybar energi i svagt lokalt elnät2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To achieve a reliable and qualitative power conversion from the wind into electric power, a variety of factors and demands need to be obtained. Climatological and technological factors requires proper dimensioning and adjustment of the conversion technology, to harvest the greatest possible amount of energy and to be converted in a reliable and energy efficient way, that windmill owners, power grid owners require. The wind is as familiar an unpredictable power supply. The variations in intensity over time could mean a number of drive optimization problems with after-effects of the wind turbine, power grid and load. The consequences may depend on which type of technology that is installed in the different parts of the energy system. The area's power grid and varying power needs with characteristics over time, also has a significant importance. The turbulent wind gives deviations of voltage and power flow, especially in various extreme situations in weak power grids. Good interaction between the wind turbine and power grid with varying active and reactive power demand for the energy users, provides conditions for a good power quality and thus, an optimal and safe operation with few interruptions over time. It can be, and often is the mechanics, electro-technical choices in the wind turbine and associated electrical systems that play a critical role in how profitable installation is during the wind turbines technological life. The power grid owner strives for a good interaction between the power grid and electrical generation which rise for few faults between interruptions and errors. In the branch this is known as "Mean time between failures" MTBF. 

    According to the Swedenergy, harmonics, slow and fast voltage variations including required short-circuit power should be investigated and compared with those requirements and terms that prevails with electrical integration of power into the grid. The feasibility study has concluded two suitable power connection proposals including wind mapping research, later in this report it is described and suggested two related Smart Grid variants with energy storage for the two power connection proposals in the existing weak local grid. 

  • 127.
    Stumle, Viktor
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Biogasproduktion vid Ecocitrus: Potentiella möjligheter för biogasanvändning i södra Brasilien2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ecocitrus är en samrötningsanläggning för produktion av biogödsel och är belägen i Brasiliens södraste delar. På senaste tiden har ledningen till Ecocitrus fått upp ögonen för biogasproduktion av de avfall som kommer till anläggningen. Detta skulle inte störa den ordinare produktionen av biogödsel. Detta examensarbete har utgått ifrån frågeställningen om hurvida det skulle vara möjligt, ekonomiskt försvarbart och lämpligt att uppföra en biogasproduktionsanlägning vid Ecocitrus. Det visar sig i arbetet att det skulle vara mycket lönsamt att börja producera biogas och även att det mest lönsamma alternativet skulle vara att producera fordonsbränsle. I kapitel 5 ges ett förslag på hur en sådan anläggning skulle kunna se ut och visar ungefärliga kostnader för en fullskalig anläggning. 

  • 128.
    Svedberg, David
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Olsson, Robin
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Virtuella värmebanker i fjärrvärmesystem: En analys av värmelagring i flerbostadshus2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of the heat storage in residential apartment buildings can be utilized to achieve a smoothing effect of the heat load in district heating system. This heat storage leads to a more optimal operation of the district heating system and will lead to reduced oil consumption for peak load purposes. The district heating system has since its beginning been demand-driven. This means that the customer determines how high the heat demand should be. This leads to large variations in heat production. The variations result in peak demands in the district heating system. These peaks are expensive for the utility company which will be forced to start their peak load plants, which usually consists of oil-fired boiler plants. In this bachelor thesis we have developed a system structure and a model for how the load control can be applied in the district heating system operated by Trollhättan Energi in Western Sweden. The model developed shows how the district heating system and the indoor temperature is affected by the new load control proposed.

  • 129.
    Svensgård, Johan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Larsson, Martin
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Systemlösningar för lågtempererad uppvärmning2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 130. Svensson, Viktoria
    et al.
    Fredriksson, Linda
    Framtidens Energisystem: Kunskapshöjning för barn och ungdomar2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 131.
    Sánchez García, Luis
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Feasibility study of a district heating system in the Spanish city of Gijón2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The current energy context is characterized by the absolute necessity to reduce carbon emissions in order to tackle climate change and avoid its bleakest consequences. Furthermore, the overall energy supply system presents plentiful inefficiencies that lead to outrageous waste of energy.

                    Spain's energy outlook is also marked by its astonishingly high energy dependence, which has contributed to its secular deficit in the trade balance.

                    District heating systems permit to cover the heat demand from the residential, service and some components of the industrial sector utilizing excess heat that otherwise would be wasted, thus, reducing the total primary energy demand. In addition, they ease the development of renewables and enable a a reduction of greenhouse emissions and other hazardous gases.

                    Despite its their advantages towards the fulfilment of climate change goals and the improvement of the country's economic situation,  they they only represent an insignificant contribution to Spain's heat demand. The main target of this dissertation has been to determine the economic feasibility of regarding the development of a district heating system in the Spanish city of Gijón.

                    The city of Gijón counts on several parameters that allow the development of a centralized supply, such as several sources of excess heat and a high population density with little urban sprawl. However, other circumstances such as the low specific heat demands endanger the success of these systems.

                    The first step towards the determination of the economic feasibility has been to assess the heat demands of the different subsectors that comprise the building stock. Particular care has been taken in order to attain the most realistic figures to supplement lack of official statistics with other sources. Furthermore, the final results have been compared to other independent evaluations, allowing to determine its accuracy.

                    Following the calculation of heat demands, the attention is focussed on the estimation of the costs of the different elements that entail the construction and operation of a district heating system; the construction and maintenance of the distribution network, the heat supply, and the interface between the distribution network and the customer's systems, the substations. The assessment of these expenses has endeavoured to be rather conservative.

                    The estimation of the specific cost of heat for the district heating system and its contrast with current forms of heat supply has allowed drawing the conclusion that the new network would be economically competitive despite the conservative assumptions taken. In addition, the system would practically eliminate the emissions of carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides from the building stock.

                    Finally, the viability of the system to changes in certain key parameters has been evaluated. Overall, the system's economic performance is not jeopardized by different configurations and solely two factors, the cost of capital and the connection rate could put at risk the success of the undertaking.

  • 132.
    Tauberman, Klas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Olausson, Pontus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Självkörande elbussar - Framtidens miljölösning2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to (Regeringskansliet, 2017a) Sweden’s greenhouse gas emissions shall not affect the atmosphere by the year 2045, which then becomes negative, this means that more carbon dioxide will be consumed rather than released into the atmosphere. In order to reach the climate goals, many new solutions to the society are required. A bigger transport sector with more cars and parking spaces is not sustainable for neither the future transport sector, nor the progressive work toward the climate goals. By removing oil-operated vehicles from the streets, a significant contribution to a cleaner city climate would be achieved.

     

    The study aims to find out if an implementation of electric buses is possible in Varberg. A couple of key questions are raised: how much energy is required to support the buses? What are the costs of the various scenarios proposed? Will there be any problems with supporting many buses, in terms of harmonics and the electric power grid? The project, which is a cooperation with Varberg Energi, is proposing a realization of a new city area called Västerport, which would start construction 2020. The report constitutes three scenarios with a diesel bus, which is used in Varberg today, an electric bus and an autonomous electric minibus called Navya.

     

    The number of passengers to be transported and the environmental effect of the buses has a big impact on the conclusion of the report. With a fossil free bus fleet by 2020, this report shows that the Navya is primarily recommended up to 15 passengers, and the electric bus for more passengers. The report concludes that the implementation of electric buses is possible. It will not have a considerable impact on the existing power grid and will contribute to a cleaner and more attractive city.

  • 133.
    Törngren, Lotta
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Skedala solcellspark2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Skedala photovoltaic plant is the largest projected solar photovoltaic park in Sweden with

    4000 m2 and a total installed peak power of 610 kWp. The solar park planned for Halmstad

    Energy and Environment Ltd, which has a landfill in Skedala, a village northeast of Halmstad,

    where the final cover is in progress. When the final covering is finished, they want to use the

    land for something positive, which is good for both the environment and the residents? My

    work was to design and calculate the profitability of a photovoltaic power plant in the area. I

    chose to design the facility as a park, where you can get for a good time to play and snuggle

    up but also get knowledge about different types of solar cells. In the park, it will be possible

    to see the monocrystalline and polycrystalline solar cells, which are of solar type crystalline

    silicon and CIGS, that is a thin film cell. There are also variations though independent and

    mobile tracking system. HEM also considered, that it was important to get a clear picture of

    the environmental benefits of solar cells and therefore, calculations and comparisons are made

    in the case the electricity is used by households and electric cars compared to electricity made

    from coal and cars powered by petrol and diesel.

  • 134.
    Ullman, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Solceller och vindkraftverk: - Samverkan vid elproduktion2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 135.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    District Heating and Cooling2013In: Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences / [ed] Scott A. Elias et al., Elsevier, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    District heating and cooling systems move heat in urban areas. Heat and cold are generated in central supply units by heat or cold recycling, renewables, or by direct heat or cold generation. The heat and cold demands should be concentrated in order to keep low distribution costs. District heating and cooling systems substitute ordinary primary energy supply for heating and cooling. Therefore, district heating and cooling increase both energy efficiency and decarbonisation in the global energy system. However, district heating and cooling is a highly underestimated energy efficiency and decarbonisation method in contemporary energy policy, both nationally and internationally.

  • 136.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    District heating and cooling in Sweden2017In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 126, p. 419-429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this review is to provide a presentation of the background and current position for district heating and cooling in Sweden. The review structure considers the market, technical, supply, environmental, institutional, and future contexts. The main conclusions are high utilisation of district heating in Swedish buildings, commitment to the third generation of district heating technology, high proportions of heat recycling and renewable supply, high compliance to European definition of efficient district heating, considerable reductions of fossil carbon dioxide emissions, strong national driving forces from high fossil fuel taxes, and soft district heating regulation based on transparency. District cooling systems are small compared to district heating systems. From strong legislative driving forces, the Swedish heat market became a testing ground for a market situation when fossil fuels are expensive in a heat market. The long-term market solutions have then become district heating in dense urban areas and local heat pumps in suburban and rural areas. © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 137.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    District Heating in Sweden – Achievements and challenges2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish district heating sector has achieved a strong position with a market share of 60% during 2008 in the heat market for buildings in the residential and service sectors. This position has been reached during the last 30 years without major use of combined heat and power (CHP) plants. The district heat has instead been generated from a basket of waste incineration, industrial surplus heat, biomass, and some fossil CHP. But during the recent years, the fossil CHP has been replaced by biomass CHP. The specific carbon dioxide emissions are now more than 80% lower than in other European cities and towns using natural gas and fuel oil to heat buildings. This paper gives a short overview of the development of the Swedish district heating sector with respect to market position, the CHP situation, the carbon dioxide emissions, and the additional social cost for district heating.

  • 138.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Energiförsörjning: En introduktion till vårt energisystem2016 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Boken beskriver inledningsvis de grundläggande energiprinciperna samt det tekniska energisystemets organisation och hur detta energisystem relaterar till andra över- och underordnade energisystem. Vidare behandlas mer ingående den energianvändning som det tekniska energisystemet ska tillgodose i byggnader, industrier och transporter. Vidare beskrivs miljöpåverkan, energihistorien och de nuvarande politiska målen för energisystemet kortfattat. Boken avslutas med trettio viktiga slutsatser, fjorton typiska anläggningar för energiomvandling, definitioner av de viktigaste energiglosorna och svaren till bokens 42 övningsuppgifter.

    Syftet med denna lärobok är att ge en inledande översikt över den nomenklatur med konventioner, uttryck, storheter, beteckningar och enheter som används inom energitekniken. Man kan därför uppfatta läroboken som en kommenterad glosbok. Inriktning och nivå på läroboken ligger mellan den grundläggande energifysiken och den mer praktiskt tillämpade energitekniken. En viktig grundkunskap för denna bok är gymnasiets fysik- och kemikurser. Med denna bok som grund kommer det bli enklare att förstå efterföljande mer detaljerade energitekniska kurser.

    Bokens målgrupp är universitets- och högskolestudenter som har valt en utbildning med energiteknisk inriktning.

  • 139.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    European District Heating Price Series2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This project has been devoted to collection of long time series of national average district heating prices in Europe, since this information is neither collected by the International Energy Agency nor Eurostat.

    In all, relatively long time series of district heating prices have been identified in 23 European countries, of which 20 countries are currently members of the European Union. Additional countries were Iceland, Norway, and Switzerland. These annual average prices have been estimated according to three different methods. Data sources have primarily been various national sources as national statistical authorities. Secondarily, various international sources have been used, when national sources could not provide required information.

    The outputs from this price collection project consist of long time series of national average district heating prices until 2013 and the corresponding annual revenues and heat sales. In all, 560 annual average national district heating prices have been estimated.

    Five main conclusions have been identified concerning European district heating prices:

    1. Currently, very little aggregated information is available about district heating prices in various European countries. The purpose with this price collection has been to close this information gap.
    2. International energy price analysts have therefore excluded district heating prices from their analyses.
    3. Countries with high district heating prices during 2013 were Denmark, Slovak Republic, Germany, Norway, and Sweden.
    4. Countries with low district heating prices during 2013 were Iceland, Bulgaria, Switzerland, Hungary, and Poland.
    5. Countries with high proportions of district heating costs in the disposable incomes during 2013 were Slovak Republic, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia.

    Market analyses and further conclusions based on these estimated time series of national district heating prices will be published in another publication. Hence, no explanations for different price levels in various countries have be provided in this report. © 2016 ENERGIFORSK

  • 140.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    European space cooling demands2016In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 110, p. 148-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information about European space cooling demands is rare, since cooling demands are not properly measured, when electricity is used for operating space cooling devices. Cooling demands are only measured at deliveries from district cooling systems. However, information about cooling demands by location and country is required for planning district cooling systems and modelling national energy systems. In order to solve this cooling information dilemma, space cooling demands have been assessed for European service sector buildings. These estimations were based on cold deliveries from twenty different European district cooling locations in eight countries. Main findings are that (1) the estimated specific cold deliveries are somewhat lower than other estimations based on electricity inputs and assumed performance ratios, (2) aggregated spacecooling demands are presented by country, and (3) an European contour map is presented for average specific space cooling demands for service sector buildings. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 141.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science. Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Fjärrvärmens framtida roll i Europa2017Report (Other academic)
  • 142.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    International review of district heating and cooling2017In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 137, p. 617-631Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this review is to provide a presentation of the background for the current position for district heating and cooling in the world, with some deeper insights into European conditions. The review structure considers the market, technical, supply, environmental, institutional, and future contexts. The main global conclusions are low utilisation of district heating in buildings, varying implementation rates with respect to countries, moderate commitment to the fundamental idea of district heating, low recognition of possible carbon dioxide emission reductions, and low awareness in general of the district heating and cooling benefits. The cold deliveries from district cooling systems are much smaller than heat deliveries from district heating systems. The European situation can be characterised by higher commitment to the fundamental idea of district heating, lower specific carbon dioxide emissions, and higher awareness of the district heating and cooling benefits. The conclusions obtained from the six contexts analysed show that district heating and cooling systems have strong potentials to be viable heat and cold supply options in a future world. However, more efforts are required for identification, assessment, and implementation of these potentials in order to harvest the global benefits with district heating and cooling. © 2017 The Author

  • 143.
    Werner, Sven
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    The heat load in district heating systems1984Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis considers the composition of the daily heat load in six Swedish district heating systems supplying heat for space heating and hot water supply. The analysis was performed by bringing together a heat load model and series of daily heat load observations covering periods ranging from five to eleven years.

    The influences of transient heat transmission, solar gain, and wind infiltration are found to be significant but small. It is shown that a natural self control of water radiators affects the magnitude of these influences when the control systems are incomplete. The annual fraction of each heat load component, the composition of the heat load duration graph, and the long term changes in heat consumption are presented.

    Furthermore, the heat load composition estimated facilitates future heat load simulations in order to quantify the outcome of various energy conservation measures with respect to reductions in design heat load and annual heat demand.

  • 144.
    Werner, Sven
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Ericsson, Karin
    Department of Technology and Society, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Three decades of biomass use in Swedish district heating systems2015In: European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings, Florence: ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2015, p. 519-528Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More than two thirds of the heat supply to the Swedish district heating systems is nowadays based on biomass and waste resources. These district heating systems provide heat to cover more than half of the heat demands in the Swedish building stock. This paper reveals the development from the original use of fossil fuels in the late 1970s, the introduction of biomass as fuel in the early 1980s, the transition to considerable more renewables during the 1990s, and to the current situation when biomass dominates the heat supply. Our four conclusions consider the established infrastructure in both forestry and district heating, driving forces from energy policy tools and local initiatives, the contradiction between primary energy use of biomass and traditional heat recovery, and finally the future challenge of competitive use of biomass.

  • 145.
    Werner, Sven
    et al.
    Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Forsaeus Nilsson, Stefan
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Reidhav, Charlotte
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Lygnerud, Kristina
    School of Business, Economics and Law, Department of Business Administration, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Sparse district-heating in Sweden2008In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 85, no 7, p. 555-564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a review of the sparse district-heating research programme undertaken in Sweden between 2002 and 2006. The goal of the programme was to increase the future competitiveness for district heat in low heat density areas, e.g., suburban single-family houses and small villages. Such areas are unfavourable, since revenues from heat sold are low compared with the investment cost for the local distribution network. In Sweden, district heat has a dominant position in the heat market for residential and service-sector buildings. In order for the business to grow, it is necessary to increase the rate of expansion in the detached-house segment. This is why the programme was initiated. The extent of the programme was set at € 3.6 million with equal financing from the Swedish District-Heating Association and the Swedish Energy-Agency. The research was carried out in three phases: a state of the art survey; a development phase focused on productivity gains where new research on both technology and customer interaction was performed; and finally a demonstration phase where new methods were tested in full-scale field operation. The programme has shown that the Swedish district-heating industry needs to adjust in order to reach a higher profitability for sparse district-heating investments. Tradition from large-scale high-density district heating is hard to scale to fit sparse district-heating systems. For example, the construction becomes very labour intensive and the industry is weak when it comes to market-oriented business logic, sales and private customer interaction. Innovation seems to be a way forward and active management of innovations is a way to create increased value of the investments. Other keys to improving the profitability of sparse district-heating investments are more efficient working routines (resulting in higher productivity) and revised ways of customer communications. These seem more important than increasing efficiency in district-heating technology. © 2007.

  • 146.
    Werner, Sven
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Frederiksen, Svend
    Lunds Universitet.
    Fjärrvärme och fjärrkyla2014Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Effektiv förflyttning av värme och kyla i stadsområden är det huvudsakliga syftet med fjärrvärme- och fjärrkylesystem. Genom att koppla samman kundernas värme- och kylbehov med olika tillgängliga värme- och kylkällor kan man tillgodose behoven med ett totalt lägre resursutnyttjande än med konventionella värmepannor och luftkonditioneringsaggregat.

    Denna lärobok innehåller avsnitt om den grundläggande affärsidén, energimarknader, kundbehov, lastvariationer, värmetillförsel, miljöpåverkan, distribution, fjärrvärmecentraler, systemfunktion, ekonomi, planering, historisk utveckling, nutida oh framtida användning, organisation och informationskällor avseende flöden av värme och kyla i fjärrvärme- och fjärrkylesystem.

    Fjärrvärme och fjärrkyla är en tvärvetenskaplig teknik med element från många allmänna tekniker och metoder som förbränning, värmeöverföring, rörströmning, marknadsföring, fakturering etc. Vår uppgift har varit att ge grundläggande inledande kunskaper om typiska aspekter på fjärrvärme och fjärrkyla, vilka vi har bedömt vara viktiga för den grundläggande förståelsen eller mycket unika för denna nischteknik.

    Vi har haft ett brett spektrum av läsare i åtanke. Vår huvudsakliga målgrupp är fjärrvärmeingenjörer, universitetsstudenter, och anställda på fjärrvärmeföretag. Vi skulle också uppskatta om stadsplanerare, ekonomer, politiker och andra som är intresserade av ämnet kommer att tycka att den här boken ger konkret och användbar information om fjärrvärme och fjärrkyla.

  • 147.
    Werner, Sven
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Gong, Mei
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    District heating research in China2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    District heating is growing rapidly in China as Chinese building areas is expanding fast giving increased heating and cooling demands. This report gives an overview of the current situation for district heating and the research and development in this sector in China. Possibilities for collaboration between Swedish and Chinese researchers and companies in the field of district heating and cooling are also presented.

  • 148.
    Werner, Sven
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Lund, Henrik
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Vad Mathiesen, Brian
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Progress and results from the 4DH research centre2014In: Proceedings from the 14th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling: September, 6-10, 2014: Stockholm, Sweden, Stockholm: Swedish District Heating Association , 2014, p. 302-307Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With lower and more flexible distribution temperatures, fourth generation district heating systems can utilize renewable energy sources, while meeting the requirements of low-energy buildings and energy conservation measures in the existing building stock. 4DH is an international strategic research centre located at Aalborg University, which develops 4th generation district heating technologies and systems (4GDH). This technology is fundamental to the implementation of the Danish objective of being fossil fuel-free by 2050 and the European 2020 goals. The research centre is working between 2012 and 2017, with The Danish Council for Strategic Research as main financier and the participating 31 Danish and international companies and universities as co-financiers. Thirteen PhD student projects constitute a vital part of the research centre. In 4GDH systems, synergies are created between three areas of district heating and cooling, which also sum up the work of the 4DH Centre: Grids and components; Production and system integration, and Planning and implementation. This paper presents an overview of the progress and results achieved after more than two years of work. This includes the basic definition paper, the two Heat Roadmap Europe pre-studies, annual conferences, additional demonstration projects, initiated European project proposals, an international PhD course based on the new international textbook, PhD student seminars, all PhD student subjects, and a list of major papers and articles written so far within the research centre.

  • 149.
    Werner, Sven
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Lygnerud, Kristina
    IVL Svenska miljöinstitutet, Sverige.
    Sernhed, Kerstin
    Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    Lauenburg, Patrick
    Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    En syntes av Fjärrsyn 2013-2017: Bortom förnybart2017Report (Other academic)
  • 150.
    Werner, Sven
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Reidhav, Charlotte
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Profitability of sparse district heating2008In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 85, no 9, p. 867-877Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The expansion of district heating into areas of low heat densities (heat sparse areas) constitutes a challenge due to the higher distribution costs. The profitability of sparse district heating has been analysed from actual investments in 74 areas with 3227 one-family houses connected to district heating between 2000 and 2004 in Göteborg, Sweden. The profitability was estimated from a probable price model, a typical marginal heat generation cost, and the investments from the actual connections made. The analysis identified factors as the linear heat density and heat sold per house explaining the main variations in profitability. The profitability analysis was concluded with a competition analysis. The main conclusion is that sparse district heating is possible when reaching low investment costs for the local distribution network and low marginal costs for the heat generation. In Sweden, the general competitiveness of sparse district heating is facilitated by the high consumption taxes for fuel oil, natural gas, and electricity. Hence, it should be more difficult to introduce sparse district heating in other countries with low energy taxes. © 2008.

1234 101 - 150 of 151
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf