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  • 101.
    Nilsson, Josefin
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Ecosystem age affects nitrate removal in created wetlands2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the effect of ecosystem age on the nitrate removal efficiency, nitrate removal rate and first-order area-based removal rate coefficients (both with and without temperature adjustment) of created wetlands. Data was collected from the first to eleventh year after wetland creation in an experimental wetland facility in south-west Sweden. The 18 small (22-29 m2) free water surface wetlands were divided into three groups based on initial planting: EVW (emergent vegetation wetlands), SVW (submerged vegetation wetlands) and CW (unplanted control wetlands). Summer and winter values from the 11 studied years were analysed separately in the repeated measures ANOVA. Over these 11 years the mean nitrate removal efficiency was 12 % and the mean nitrate removal rate was 0.17 g m-2 d-1. Mean removal rate coefficient (K) was 0.020 g d-1 and mean temperature adjusted removal rate coefficient (Ka) was 0.042 g d-1. The best performing wetlands were those initially planted with, and after four years almost completely covered by, emergent vegetation (EVW). This study indicates a positive correlation between wetland age and nitrate removal potential. It further indicates aging may be hastened by initial planting of wetland vegetation.

  • 102.
    Nilsson, Josefin
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Förändring i våtmarkers kväveavskiljning i förhållande till deras ålder och vegetationstyp2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nitrogen removal in wetlands largely depends on denitrification by bacteria. The bacteria and thus denitrification is aided by environmental conditions, some of which are favoured by certain types of wetland vegetation. Previous short-term studies have suggested that nitrogen removal will increase over time. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this suggestion is true or not. In this study data from 2004 to 2014 was analysed using One-way Repeated Measures ANOVAs. The data originates from the experimental wetland facility EVA located outside Halmstad. EVA consists of 18 wetlands (area 22 m2) divided in to three vegetation types (emergent, submerged and free-developing vegetation) with six replicates each. Overall, wetlands showed a decrease in nitrogen removal over the eleven study years. In the first years, especially during summertime, wetlands with emergent vegetation were the most nitrogen removal-efficient. Differences between vegetation types disappeared a few years after their creation. In conclusion, planting emergent vegetation will most likely enhance the nitrogen removal potential of constructed wetlands in the first years after their creation. However, additional studies are needed to determine the cause of nitrogen removal potential loss with wetland ageing.

  • 103.
    Olofsson, Sophie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Jönson, Elin
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Bekämpningsmedelsrester i dricksvatten: En undersökning av bekämpningsmedel i 50 enskilda brunnar i Laholms kommun2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The knowledge about pesticide residue in private wells is not well documented in Sweden.Previous studies have detected pesticide residue in private wells, this issue is what made themunicipality of Laholm commission the study. The purpose was to collect water samples from50 private wells in Laholm and have them analyzed for traces of pesticides. The wells in thestudy are spread geographical over the entire municipality. The analysis of the water sampleswas carried out by the accredited laboratory Eurofins. Nine of the 50 wells in this studycontained residue of pesticides and two of these exceeded the allowed concentration of 0,1 μg/l.Nine different pesticides were detected, among these were BAM, Atrazin and breakdownproducts from Metribuzin. These pesticides were mostly found in older dug wells. The result alsoindicates that occurrence of pesticide residue is more frequent in areas of agricultural activity.These areas should therefore be investigated further. Not all substances that were found are usedfor agriculture. Substances that have been banned for a long time were found in the samples.This highlights the importance of adequate control of new pesticides considered for commercialuse.

  • 104.
    Olsson, Therese
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Miljöbedömning: Miljökonsekvensbeskrivning för prövning av muddring i Natura 2000-området Nordre älvsestuarium2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordre älv estuary is the largest of its kind in Sweden with the typical fresh and salt water mix. It contains eelgrass which is an important habitat for many organisms as feeding ground and nursery area. The estuary is protected by several different directives, laws and conventions, such as: nature reserve and Natura 2000 according to the Habitats Directive and Birds Directive issued by the EU. Because of changed conditions for marine traffic through Gothenburg it may be necessary to relocate it to the river Nordre älv in the future. That would require a dredging since the river mouth contains a shallow threshold. An environmental impact assessment (EIA) is required as part of the permit application for dredging. This essay is a literature review inspired by EIA based on publications from agencies and organizations, research, scientific articles and personal communication with experts. The major effect of dredging is directly removal of vegetation and fauna. Other effects that may have significant impact is clouding (short term) and altered hydrodynamics. Eelgrass extent will decrease but might be offset by compensational measures. Through proper planning and precautions it’s possible to reduce negative environmental impacts.

  • 105.
    Oskarsson, Stina
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Community engagement in wildlife conservation2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     With a growing population in the world today, the pressure on land areas and wildlife is also increasing. In order to preserve certain land areas and endangered wildlife, so called community-based conservation programs are being created around the world. These programmes are aiming to benefit both local communities and wildlife in the same area. The difficult task is, however, to create incentive for poor communities to devotedly participate in these projects in order to prevent poaching, a common problem within conservation conflicts. It is important to consider all aspects regarding this issue, both from a conservation management and the communities’ point of view, and many times a change in behaviour, attitude and participation plays a key role in reaching the conservation and community goal.

  • 106.
    Pedersen, Eja
    et al.
    Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    Johansson, Maria
    Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Värdering av kulturella ekosystemtjänster baserat på bidrag till livskvalitet: slutrapport2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten presenterar resultaten av forskningsprojektet Värdering av kulturella ekosystemtjänster baserat på bidrag till livskvalitet, ett av sju projekt som ingår i forskningssatsningen Värdet av ekosystemtjänster. I projektet undersöks om etablerade teorier, begrepp och metoder från miljöpsykologisk forskning kring interaktionen mellan människa och naturmiljö kan bidra till förståelsen av kulturella ekosystemtjänster och deras värde.

    Projektet visar att värdet av grönområden kan beskrivas utifrån hur områ­ dena bidrar till närboendes livskvalitet genom att de ger möjlighet till miljö­ upplevelser, känsloresponser och aktiviteter som främjar hälsan, inte minst återhämtning. Slutsatsen är att kulturella ekosystemtjänster kan värderas ickemonetärt med utgångspunkt från väletablerade teorier, begrepp och metoder. Men forskarna ser att den kompetens som finns bland tjänstemän som arbetar med kulturella ekosystemtjänster idag behöver kompletteras med kunskap i beteendevetenskap.

    Ekosystemtjänster är grunden för vår välfärd. Ändå tar vi dem ofta för givna. Genom en ökad medvetenhet om och värdering av ekosystemtjänster kan vi påverka vår framtida välfärd och livskvalitet. Politiker, myndigheter, kommuner, företag och organisationer kan därigenom fatta mer välunderbyggda beslut.

    Rapporten är författad av Eja Pedersen och Maria Johansson, Miljöpsykologi, Institutionen för arkitektur och byggd miljö, Lunds universitet och Stefan Weisner, Våtmarkscentrum, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap. Eja Pedersen har varit projektledare och organiserat resultatrapporteringen. Maria Johansson har ansvarat för de miljöpsykologiska teorierna och metoderna. Stefan Weisner har deltagit i projektet som expert på anlagda våtmarker. Samarbetspartners var Länsstyrelsen i Skåne, Hässleholms kommun, Staffanstorps kommun och Helsingborgs stad.

    Forskningssatsningen Värdet av ekosystemtjänster är en central insats för att nå ett av etappmålen inom miljömålssystemet genom att öka kunskapen om hur ekosystemtjänster bättre kan användas i olika beslutssituationer. Etappmålet innebär att betydelsen av biologisk mångfald och värdet av ekosystemtjänster senast 2018 ska vara allmänt kända och integreras i ekonomiska ställningstaganden, politiska avväganden och andra beslut i samhället där så är relevant och skäligt. Sju olika forskargrupper ingår i den omfattande satsningen som började 2014.

    Författarna tackar alla som bidragit med kunskap och erfarenhet under projektets gång. För projektets genomförande och analyser av resultaten, tack till Beatrice Marschke, Emilie Björling, Eva Hedenfelt, Lina Haremst, Linnea Saarela, Lukas Österling och Sanna Stålhammar. För värdefulla synpunkter i slutskedet av rapporteringen tackar projektet David Barton och Eeva Furman. Och till alla som deltagit i fokusgrupper och strukturerade vandringar, svarat på enkäter och deltagit i workshopar – ett stort tack!!

  • 107.
    Pedersen, Eja
    et al.
    Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, LTH, Lund University, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Johansson, Maria
    Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, LTH, Lund University, Sweden.
    Wetland areas' direct contributions to residents' well-being entitle them to high cultural ecosystem values2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 646, p. 1315-1326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wetlands in urban areas will be crucial to counteract the effects of climate change, for example, by improving flood protection and regulating local climate. To gain acceptance for larger-scale creation of wetlands, total values must be identified and revealed. Provisioning and regulating ecosystem services can be described as the quantitative effect, but cultural ecosystem services require other assessments. This study sought to determine whether peri-urban and urban wetland areas contribute to the well-being and quality of life of nearby residents, and to capture their value relative to two other types of green areas (i.e., parks and urban forests). A postal questionnaire survey, based on validated environmental psychology instruments, was distributed to residents in three municipalities with wetland areas of different structures and locations. In these municipalities, respondents (n = 474; response rate = 40%) reported that the wetland area contributed to several quality-of-life aspects, such as encountering nature and experiencing beauty. The areas also facilitated activities that support well-being, were perceived to have high restorative qualities, and evoked positive affective responses. All wetland areas were rated high on most of the measured concepts, but their value relative to other green areas differed possibly depending on the accessibility of the wetland and the availability of other green areas. The location and extent to which the wetland area was integrated in the residential area determined what quality-of-life aspects were most satisfied. Wetland areas can be ascribed cultural ecosystem service values based on how residents perceive their contribution to their quality of life. These values can be added to those of provisioning and regulating ecosystem services, forming the basis for planning urban environments. © 2018 The Authors

  • 108.
    Persson, Urban
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    District heating in future Europe: Modelling expansion potentials and mapping heat synergy regions2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents a set of methodologies and approaches to investigate and determine the extent by which district heating can contribute to improved energy system efficiency and reduced carbon dioxide emissions in future Europe. The main motivation for suggesting large-scale implementation of district heating as a structural energy efficiency measure to obtain these objectives originates essentially in the predicament that a majority of European buildings today remain highly dependent on fossil fuels to provide energy needed for space heating and hot water preparation. In parallel, vast annual volumes of rejected excess heat from European power plants and industries are mainly neglected and lost unutilised to the ambient surroundings, why extended recovery and utilisation of such secondary energy assets realistically could replace significant shares of current inefficient supplies by fuel substitution. A prerequisite, however, for the viability of this logical prospect, is that infrastructures by which to facilitate excess heat recovery and subsequent network heat distribution are in place, which by no means is the average case in contemporary Europe.

    Hereby, the investigation is structured orderly by first establishing whether district heating can be a competitive alternative on current urban European heat markets, facilitated by a distribution capital cost model, where after the energy systemic benefits of expanding district heating are characterised and used to estimate a plausible expansion potential based on comparative analysis. Next, energy system modelling of continental EU27 by the year 2050, with district heating expanded in alignment with this potential, is performed to assess the total energy system cost benefits relative an alternative scenario focusing mainly on individual energy efficiency measures. Finally, spatial mapping to identify current primary target regions from which large-scale implementation of district heating could emanate is conceived and performed by use of a geographical information systems interface.

    The findings are generally supportive of a realisation of the objectives, mainly so by establishing a three-fold directly feasible expansion potential for district heating in city areas, but recognise also several additional, mainly non-technical, issues and challenges necessary to address in a successful transition to more energy efficient supply structures in future Europe.

  • 109.
    Petersson, Frida
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Beräkningsverktyg för koldioxidutsläpp från avfallshantering2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a time with an increasing demand for declaration of the environmental impacts of companies, which also can result in an enhanced market-value, companies have begun to look for information about how their waste is affecting the environment. Renova AB, a waste management company, has in recent years received an increasing number of inquiries from their customers about how their waste management affects the climate. Therefore Renova AB wanted to develop a computational model for such an analysis, which laid the foundation of this thesis.

    The aim of this thesis is to enable Renova AB to provide their clients with information on the amount of fossil carbon dioxide emissions, the degree of recycling and landfill, as well as energy extraction for the client’s delivered waste. Thus the objective of the thesis was to provide Renova AB with a computational tool for this.

    By following the method of a life cycle analysis, an Excel-based computational tool was developed. The computational tool is the result of this thesis. The tool consists of nine sheets. Only one of the sheets is to be filled out by the user to specify the waste, after which all the calculations are performed automatically. Three sheets represent the types of waste for which the calculations can be performed on, in its current version. It is in these sheets that the user can find the results of the calculations. In this version calculations can be performed on wood, combustible and unsorted waste. Two sheets contain all the reference values for the calculations, like a database. This is where the tool can be contemporized with changes in the company. One sheet demonstrates the process trees that describe how the waste is treated throughout Renova AB, and two sheets introduce and explain the tool to the user.

    The computational tool can be used in more ways than for retrospective calculations of carbon dioxide emissions. It can be used prospectively by calculating the emission of, for example changes in the company or changes in the content of the waste, and then comparing the changes with the current situation. Alternatively it could be used as an incitement for Renova AB’s customers to reduce the amount of delivered waste, in order to reduce their carbon dioxide emissions which emphasize their environmental profile.

    When the computational tool was completed it was demonstrated for and trial ran by the Renova AB staff. Opinions where collected for final revisions.

    Given the time limitation and amount of available information, the ambition was to create a computational tool which reflected the reality as much as possible. The tool has great potential to further development to give even more representative results. Recommendations for further development have been elaborated.

  • 110. Pérez Marne, Diego
    Bastu-frigidarium,energieffektivt system för återhämtning2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 111.
    Quintana, Angelica
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Yngstrand, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Miljöoptimera avfallsindustrin i Sverige: - återvinn restprodukten gips2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most common ways to produce heat and electricity in Europe today is by the incineration of waste or combustion of coal. These materials can be very sulfurous and during combustion sulfur dioxide is produced. This is an environmental and health related toxic substance which is why power plants have strict regulations on removing it from the flue gas. Sulfur dioxide is removed from the flue gas by adding a limestone reagent. The sulfur dioxide reacts with the limestone and the synthetic product obtained is “Flue Gas Desulfurization gypsum”. This byproduct, from combustion, provides an environmentally friendly solution when used in building material such as plasterboards. The FGD gypsum that is being used in different types of building materials does not derive from waste incinerated power plants. We have more than 30 of these in Sweden and some of them get FGD gypsum as a byproduct. The purpose of this thesis was to find out whether a particular waste incineration plant in Sweden can reuse their gypsum waste instead of disposing it at landfill.

  • 112.
    Richard, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Hazard assessment of landfill leachate in the EU: a survey of monitoring methods and discharge limits2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill leachate is an heterogenous percolate composed of hazardous contaminants which formation depend on factors such as age of the landfill, season or waste type. The regulation of the leachate has been required by the European Commission in the Landfill Directive and also other directives have contributed to the reduction of its impact on human health and the environment. Those directives are the Waste Framework, the Water Framework and the Industrial Emissions directives. In practice, little is known on the way those regulations and monitoring are implemented and transposed by the participating countries. To get an insight of the state of art in setting discharge limits, a questionnaire has been used for the representatives of European authorities dealing with landfill leachate management. Very few answers were obtained, thus the Landfill Directive transposing laws of the countries published online were mostly used for the results. In general, the member states don’t derive too far from what is required in terms of frequencies and locations of monitoring. They also, all monitor surface and groundwater. The discharge limits set by the countries are more often case-specific and can show noticeable differences. Germany and France often set the most stringent discharge limits. For every country, discharge limits can be much lower than the concentrations of pollutants found in untreated leachate in the literature thus treatment is necessary to comply with set discharge limits.

  • 113.
    Ritzman, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Larger on-Site Sewage Treatment Plants in Sweden: - A literature and an interview study to find appropriate solutions2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are no general recommendations of how a larger on-site sewage treatment plant should be designed; most research studies have been conducted on smaller ones. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate what type of design that is appropriate for an on-site sewage treatment plant built to manage the hydraulic load from between 50 and 200 human equivalents. Phosphorus is the main parameter of interest for this thesis, but nitrogen, biological oxygen demand (BOD ) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) is also included. To find appropriate solutions of this, both a literature study and a qualitative interview study have been done. The combined knowledge from this has then been used to describe what solutions are appropriate according to both environmental and economic aspects. The interview study included four participants with different designs of a larger on-site sewage treatment plant. For the analysis on the data from the interviews, content analysis was used, five main categories was found: Design of the on-site sewage treatment plant, Maintenance work to make the on-site sewage treatment plant well-functioning, Supervision and regulation, Environmental awareness and Economy. Infiltration, filter bed, phosphorus filter, precipitation of phosphorus, small sewage treatment plant and constructed wetlands, are the designs of an on-site sewage treatment plant that has been described in this thesis. Of these designs, infiltration or filter beds are appropriate solutions. These can be combined with a phosphorus filter, if higher phosphorus reductions are required. Also, a small sewage treatment plant could be an appropriate solution of a larger on-site sewage treatment plant, this solution requires more maintains work and has higher costs.  

  • 114.
    Roos Lundström, Frida
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science.
    Konsten att utveckla attraktiva städer på ett hållbart sätt: Hur kan en trafikreglering påverka innerstaden Göteborg?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Between the years 2005 and 2015 cars and trucks have increased with 7, 7 percent inGothenburg. This will mean that in 2035 there will be 47 140 more vehicles. 70.000 of the550.000 people in Gothenburg is being exposed by a noise that is over the limit of 55 dBA. Vehicles incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons leads to a number of additional health problems. According to the Swedish transport department, closer to 3000 people dies prematurely in Sweden each year due to traffic air pollution.A measure to prevent and reduce the intense traffic involves emission requirements, congestion and traffic regulations. The city center of Gothenburg will on the first of October 2016 introduce a prohibition for heavy traffic around the area close to Domkyrkan between 11am - 05am a clock. The purpose of this study has been to investigate if a regulation of heavy traffic can be used as an instrument to contribute to a sustainable and environment adjusted city without affect the residents feeling of an attractive city center. On behalf of the municipal entity Traffic office Gothenburg City and the organization Innerstaden Göteborg a customer satisfaction index analysis (CSI) has been done. Performed in order to measure customer satisfaction before the regulation. The CSI model which is a result from this paper will be re-used after the regulation in order to identify the effects of the traffic regulation. CSI is a statistical method built upon indicators (questions) and latent variables (quality factors) related to a set of indicators. CSI is measured by the respondents answering questions through a 1-10 point scale where 1 is the lowest rating and 10 is the highest ratings. There are three standard questions which average rating creates the CSI value: How satisfied are you with the overall environment as it is today?

    How well meets the environment your expectations?

    How well relate this specific area with an ideal inner city environment?

  • 115.
    Roos Lundström, Frida
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Mårtensson, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    The Journey of Plastic trough Oceans: A study on quantifying micro plastic particles in ocean outside Costa Rican west coast2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since 1950, the plastic production has increased radically from 1.5 to 280 million tons in 2012. The increased production of plastic has led to oceans becoming more polluted than ever. Micro plastic particles originate from large floating plastic debris by undergoing degradation caused by UV-radiation. Due to their small size, density and colour micro plastic particles resemble marine organisms’ natural prey and are therefore ingested. This report discuss the hypotheses that there are micro plastic particles present in oceans outside of the Costa Rican west coast (hypothesis 1), that the location between the South and North Pacific gyres will result in an accumulation of plastic (hypothesis 2) and that different sampling methods will generate different types of data which makes it difficult to compare results (hypothesis 3). A manta trawl was used to collect samples in size range 1-2mm and they were quantified with a microscope. To simplifying transportation and storing, aluminum foil was used instead of glass jars to collect samples. Thereby the need of transferring material from a glass jar to a flat surface for quantifying with microscope was eliminated. One area contained 56.5 % of all gathered particles together. The result also showed that micro plastic particles are present even in protected areas.

  • 116.
    Sami, Inas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Dakhil, Inas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Giftfri miljö på förskolor – Nulägesanalys och förslag till förbättringsarbete (åtgärder) i Båstads kommun2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Products that children get in contact with every day, such as toys, paints, electronics and detergents have recently been discovered that they contain harmful chemicals. Children are more susceptible than adults because of their thin skin and yet not fully developed bodies.

    The purpose of this work is to identify the risks from chemicals that children in the indoor nursery get in contact with, and how these products affect the health of children, and to describe how these chemicals affect children's health and the environment. The aim is also to find out how great the level of the staff's knowledge is about the harmful chemicals, as well as the preventive measures taken. 

    This is done through a survey among the staff at nurseries in Båstad municipality. The report consists of three parts, two practical parts in the form of an on-site investigation at nine kindergartens in Båstad municipality and a survey among the staff who worked there. The third theoretical part was in the form of literature.  The results of this study show that the indoor environment in nurseries has important significance for children's health. The inventory of nursery in Båstad municipality showed that today there are goods and products with harmful chemicals among kids at nurseries. The products that have been found in nurseries in Båstad municipality where most contain harmful chemicals such as phthalates, flame retardants, perfluorinated substances and bisphenol A. It was above all the electronic toys such as cell phones, keyboards, computers, and even in the older toys or soft and semi-soft toys. 

    To reduce the amounts of chemicals found in nurseries one should start to throw away old toys, old electronic toys, avoid toys with batteries or electronics that do not have their batteries covered, stop using cleaning products containing chemicals and also increase the number of times that the nurseries are cleaned thoroughly. The questionnaire study showed that most nurseries were not sufficiently aware of the dangerous chemicals in toys and detergents used. There was a certain part of the staff that was aware of what "green flag" means. 

    To achieve this is the best way, the municipality, and politicians should help the nurseries. Improvements by the municipality, and politicians should provide important training for both nurseries staff and for the various pictures within the community that directly or indirectly impact. In order to improve knowledge in this area it is needed to train nurseries staff, cleaning staff, parents and others in the business. To get a non-toxic nursery, it is important that the municipality, the nurseries staff, cleaning staff and parents all gain knowledge about chemicals in materials and products.

  • 117.
    Sandberg, Johan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Axelson, Robin
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Effektiv tillsyn av små avlopp: Vad behövs för att uppnå en hållbar åtgärdstakt?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden there are about 750 000 house holds that have on-site sewage systems (OSS). Approximately 40-60% of these are not approved by todays standards. The OSS releases every year large amounts of nutrients that contribute to eutrophication of the marine environment and emissions also contributes to an increased risk of the spread of infectious agents.

    Municipalities have a central role to ensure that the OSS’s are living up to both national and regional environmental objectives. Today there are no legal requirements on how municipalities should ensure that the OSS’s complies with current regulations. Each municipality is responsible to adapt their work to the requirements of the Environmental Code.

    This study examines how ten Swedish municipalities are working with OSS and what the differences are in their approach to this problem. The study presents what is needed for a sustainable upgrade or replacement rate for OSS’s.

    The study is divided into two parts , the first part summarizes the guidance for municipalities to inspect the OSS and that is available from the govermental agencies and which was considered to be relevant to this study. In the second part , ten Swedish municipalities were interviewed , using so -called semi-structured interviews.

    The conclusion is that if municipalities are to achieve a sustainable upgrade or replacement rate, more guidance materials on how municipalities should evaluate old facilities are required. More stricter guidelines are also needed to enforce political decisions in order to allocate more resources for the continuing work of OSS but also by setting clearer objectives with which municipalities are enforced to comply.

  • 118.
    Scheffler, Nadine
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Holm, Erika
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Hållbart konsumtionsbeteende på arbetsplatsen: En studie på WSP:s kontor i Halmstad2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Overconsumption of the earth’s limited resources at present rate is unsustainable. Diffuse emissions of chemicals, depletion of our natural resources and biodiversity are all environmental impacts caused by overconsumption. A big part of a person’s lifetime is spent at the workplace, where people learn and experience new behaviours, hence the possibilities of promoting sustainable consumption behaviour among employees opens. It is worthwhile to reflect on the workplaces as they play such an important role in people's everyday lives.

    Together with WSP in Halmstad, the consumption behaviour of employees was examined. WSP annually monitors the performance of its operations by quantifying the climate impact of employees' business trips, commuting and energy use. The aim of this study was therefore to calculate and evaluate “other resource use” among WSP’s employees and thereby investigate how this use can be affected by changed consumption behaviour. A literature search, calculations and interviews were conducted in this thesis.

    The calculation results showed that “other resource use” constitutes 36 % of the total annual CO2 emissions per employee and the three most significant environmental aspects were: food, office furniture/decor and residual. In the future, a better tool for calculating the climate impact should be considered. Based on the literature search and the interview material, it emerged that the three most important factors for employees to adopt a sustainable consumption behaviour in the workplace are: information and education, leadership and to include the employees in environmental interventions. It is proposed that WSP Halmstad adopt these conclusions and recommendations in the continued sustainability work.

  • 119.
    Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin
    et al.
    Aachen University.
    Hunka, Agnieszka D.
    Department of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change, Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Meli, Mattia
    Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Calow, Peter
    University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
    Bridging the Gap between Risk Perception and Ecotoxicology Research―How Can We Communicate to Improve Our Outreach?2013In: SETAC Globe, ISSN 2310-3086, Vol. 14, no 6Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 120. Sjöwall, Philip
    et al.
    Lundström, Robert
    The environmental and anthropogenic impact onfreshwater biodiversity in Lajeado, RS, Brazil.: A study of using dragonflies as indicators for theenvironmental status in freshwater biomes2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fragmentation of the Atlantic rainforest and alteration of waters due to agricultural expansion hasgreatly affected the species diversity in Brazil. In this study, we investigate how different

    environmental factors affect dragonfly communities and dragonfly species richness in sixteen

    different locations in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A total of 328 individuals distributed among 46species and eight families were collected. At each sampling location the water was analyzed andthe surrounding environment recorded and plotted. Our goal was to investigate if we could findspecies for use as bio indicators on water quality and if the fragmentation of the forests in RioGrande do Sul affects the species richness negatively. Our data suggested that the amount offorest, pH level and water temperature have a strong correlation to the number of species. For thenumber of specimens we found that amount of forest, pH level, water temperature, conductivity,amount of dissolved solids in the water and amount of surrounding urban area affects thepopulation. We found that still water holds more species as well as specimens than current water.The species T binotata, M Ocellata, Oxyagrion Sp., L pictus, M stawiarskii, R planaltica, Lauritus and L dichrostigma could possibly be used as indicators for pH level, and that Sreticulata, L bipupillatus, B furcata, R bonariensis, D mincki and T cophysa possibly could beused as indicators for conductivity. Further studies has to be done in order to be certain about theuse of these species as indicators.

     

     

     

  • 121.
    Skjetne, Linn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Bengtsson, Nanna
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Styrmedel som ett verktyg för att minska köttkonsumtionen i Sverige2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The process of producing meat by growing crops to feed animals which ends up on the consumer's plate contributes to major environmental damage. Too high consumption of mainly red meat contributes to increased risk of cancer. The aim of the study is to review how the consumers attitude are regarding reducing meat consumption and to find out which control means suits best. A literature and survey study claims that meat consumption is far too high and this contributes to various negative effects. The survey consisted of 14 questions shared via Facebook. From the survey it was found that women consume more environmentally friendly meat compared to men; women are also more positive about reducing meat consumption and more women have reduced their meat consumption over the last 5 years. The introduction of control means contributes to both positive and negative impacts. Above all, the introduction leads to reduction of greenhouse gases, which gives Sweden a chance to achieve the environmental goal of limited climate impact, which is currently not attained. It should be taken into account that a total stop in meat consumption could make it harder to achieve other environmental objectives such as a varied agricultural landscape, a rich diversity of plant and animal life. Based on the result, informative control means are the best workable and easiest to apply in society. When the consumer is more aware of the need for reduced meat consumption, it can take "stricter" control means, such as administrative and economical control means. The study indicates that it is better to motivate the consumer to change their meat consumption than to punish them if they do not.

  • 122.
    Skörvald Li, Elin
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Förstudie av blyfria lod till mjuklödning: Utfasning av bly hos ABB i Ludvika2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study was done for ABB’s work for the phasing out of lead in their soft soldering processes and aims to identify possible lead-free substitutes, due to the RoHs directive and the Reach regulation and the fact that lead is a particularly dangerous chemical. The company’s current solder was defined as SnPb. A literature study has been made where information has been reported regarding lead-free alternatives; SnZn, SnAgCu, SnAg, SnCu, SnBi, SnSb and SnIn. Based on the literature review five lead-free solder were ordered and examined to see if these are possible substitutes for the specific soldering processes. The lead free alternative melting points were measured and the solder technicians ranked the lead-free alternatives in comparison with the reference SnPb to decide which alternative was the most fitting. The literature study and the practical tests show which solder are the best for the company from an economic, social and environmental perspective. The conclusion was that the solder SnCu was the option that fitted the company's soldering processes. To clarify that the solder was a better option than SnPb, the substitution had to be seen from an overall perspective, this could for example, be done by a life cycle analysis.

  • 123.
    Song, Xiaojun
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Effects of water depth and phosphorus on nitrogen removal in agricultural wetlands2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Excess nitrogen (N) from agriculture runoff is a problematic pollutant in aquatic ecosystems. Free water surface created wetlands are widely used as a buffering system to lower the impacts of extra nutrients from agriculture runoff. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate critical factors for nitrogen removal. In this study, 12 free water flow wetlands with similar size and vegetation type and density were used as experimental wetlands. The effects of water depths, mean depth of 0.4m and 0.6m, and phosphorus, with external phosphorus and without external phosphorus were investigated from July 2017 to October 2017.

    Significant higher relative nitrogen removal (%) and first-order area-based rate coefficients (Ka) with modified Arrenhius temperature dependency were found in deep wetland basins. No significant difference in absolute nitrogen removal (g m-2 d-1) between the different water depths. As for phosphorus, significant higher absolute nitrogen removal and first-order area-based rate coefficients were found in basins with external phosphorus. No significant difference in relative nitrogen removal between the wetland basins with phosphorus and without phosphorus. Both the nitrogen removal and first-order area-based rate coefficients showed seasonal patterns, with better performance during warm period.

  • 124.
    Sparf, Lisette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Jönsson, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Nötköttsproduktion: -En jämförelse av djurskyddslagstiftning, är svensklagstiftning mer  optimal för  djurvälfärden?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden’s animal legislation was adopted in 1988 and is one of the most rigorous legislations in the world. Despite this, Sweden import beef from countries where animal legislation is not in accordance to the Swedish legislation. The meat consumption in Sweden has, just like the importation of beef, increased while Sweden’s own beef production has decreased. The countries Sweden import most beef from are Ireland, Germany and the Netherlands, and Brazil outside of the EU. The purpose of this study has been to compare the legal regulation according to the animal husbandry, transportation and slaughter in the EU and in the respective countries. The comparison has been based on the Welfare Quality®’s assessment protocol, which is based on four main principles: good feeding, good housing, good health and good appropriate behavior. The result indicates that the Swedish legislation is most optimal from an animal welfare point of view. Germany, as well as Sweden keeps a good standard of their national animal legislation. The main differences between Sweden and Germany’s legislation are the regulation about good feeding and anesthesia during surgical procedures and slaughter.

  • 125.
    Strand, John A.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Weisner, Stefan E B
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Effects of wetland construction on nitrogen transport and species richness in the agricultural landscape – experiences from Sweden2013In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 56, p. 14-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Constructed wetlands, have been used to decrease nitrogen transport from agricultural catchments to the coast of Sweden, while simultaneously contributing to increased species richness in the landscape. The purpose of this paper is to compile and evaluate data that have been produced in Sweden during some 20 years of using constructed wetlands as an environmental tool. To evaluate effects of different stated objectives for constructed wetlands within different national support systems we focus on nitrogen removal and bird and amphibian species richness. Continuous automatic water sampling for nitrogen removal measurements, during 1.5 to 10 years, has been performed in 7 constructed wetlands located in agricultural catchments in southern Sweden. Nitrogen removal per wetland area varied between wetlands but the results imply that an annual removal of at least 1000. kg. N per ha wetland area can be achieved in individual wetlands. Data from the long-term monitoring of the 7 wetlands, together with nitrogen removal data in the literature, were used to model >150 randomly selected constructed wetlands. According to the modeling, the nitrogen removal per created wetland area varied markedly between different wetland creation programs and was generally considerably lower compared to what can be achieved in individual wetlands. Cost-efficiency of nitrogen removal in wetland creation programs can be increased considerably with improved planning and if other desired benefits (e.g. species richness) contribute to share the costs for wetland creation. The effects of constructed wetlands in Sweden on species number and populations of wetland birds and amphibians were large enough to positively affect the occurrence of species in the national red list, i.e. on a national population level. Species richness of wetland breeding birds in the constructed wetlands were relatively stable after 13 years, but different functional groups had very different succession pattern. The mean maximum breeding bird species number in the wetlands occurred after 3.8 years. Wetland birds and amphibians colonized constructed wetlands irrespective of the original objective of the wetland (nitrogen removal or biodiversity). However, some amphibian species showed preference for biodiversity wetlands. There were clear effects of wetland construction on the regional populations of non-wetland bird species. The maximum species number for a given wetland size was found to be higher than previously reported. The analyses show that wetland construction can be a cost effective method for decreasing transport of diffuse pollution from arable land, and that the wetlands are important for the species numbers and population sizes on all spatial scales. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  • 126.
    Ström, Nikolina
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Nutrient release from Revaq sludge vs. mineral fertilizer – Implications for eutrophication effects from agriculture2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many farmers today are using mineral fertilizers (MF) containing big amounts of nutrients like phosphorus and nitrogen, which can lead to e.g. eutrophication in watercourses. Due to this problem, the use of Revaq-certified sewage sludge (RS) as fertilizer has drawn some attention, both because it might be a better alternative than MF and for the return and circulation of phosphorus and nitrogen. The aim with this study was to see if there was any difference between these two fertilization methods when analyzing nutrients in leakage water from soil that had been fertilized with either: RS or MF. An experiment was carried out with soil in pots fertilized with either MF or RS. The soil was watered and the leakage water sampled and analyzed for total phosphorus and total nitrogen. The results showed a clear difference of nutrient concentrations between the MF and RS. Soil fertilized with MF released phosphorus in a higher concentration than soil with RS. The result for total nitrogen showed that MF also released higher nitrogen concentration than RS during the first days after. The conclusions is therefore that MF due to its high concentrations of released nutrients, might more likely contribute to eutrophication than RS.

  • 127.
    Ström, Nikolina
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    VA-bolags kommunikationsstrategier för att reducera oönskade utsläpp i avloppsnätet från hushåll2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

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    For a long time there has been a problem with unwanted emissions to sanitary systems that causes problems in pipelines, pump stations and in wastewater treatment plants and also adversely affect the quality of the sludge. The wastewater contains for example: sanitary products, hair, grease, pharmaceutical residues etc. also the purification of the wastewater requires large investments. The aim of this study was to investigate the wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) communication methods to reduce the emissions from households to wastewater treatment plants. The study was made by a literature review and an interview survey involving four WWTP: Stockholm vatten och avfall AB, Kalmar vatten AB, Vatten & Miljö i Väst AB and Laholmsbuktens VA. WWTP use several different communication methods such as websites, social media, study visits and campaigns. Because of limited time and lack of resources the WWTPs have difficulty in fulfilling the purposes of their interventions. It also depends on that the interventions are not evaluated or monitored enough. It shows in the interviews that the WWTP are not working actively with best practice and also that there is no legal requirement for WWTPs to inform households about sewage rules and requirements. WWTPs need to create better structures to their interventions and they also need to evaluate and follow up ALL interventions to make progress in the future. The study also consider that a plan for best practice need to be developed and stricter regulations which also households may be sanctioned if they violate.

  • 128.
    Strömberg, Michelle
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Svensson, Emelie
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    TRÄDS UPPTAG AV METALLER PÅ FÖRORENAD MARK: EN FÄLTSTUDIE OM TRÄDPROVTAGNING ÄR LÄMPLIGT SOM INDIKATION PÅ METALLFÖRORENING.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The number of polluted areas in Sweden has been estimated to around 80 000. Therefore, during the last decade, a lot of time and effort have been spent to characterize the contaminants and assess the hazard at many of these sites. In some rare cases remedial action has already been completed. Traditionally survey methods such as groundwater and soil sampling are applied to determine the degree of pollution at contaminated site. These methods generally mean a lot of work and high costs as pollutants often are distributed unevenly at the site. These sampling techniques may also influence the surroundings. Because of the difficulties that may occur, it would be attractive to find an alternative sampling method that can provide an overall assessment of the pollution situation before any drilling and excavation is carried out. Tree sampling requires an increment borer to extract the tree-core. To see if there is any connection of where the tree uptake is made, this study also includes samples taken from soil and roots. One potential method is to use trees as a source of material for sampling instead of soil and water. Tree sampling requires only an increment borer to extract the tree-core. As the accumulation ability may vary with different plant organs samples in this study was taken from both roots and stems. To analyse the relationship between pollutants in soil and in tree organs soil samples were also included. The study material consisted of samples from 45 trees on site and two referential trees. There were three firs, two pines and the remainder forty was birches. The analysis made where on metals and the study focused on arsenic, lead, copper and zinc. Analyses of results by linear regression didn´t show any strong relationship between metal content in soil and metal content in the tree organs (max R2value = 0,30). However, it was possible to discern a stronger relationship between soil and roots than between soil and stems. There's a possibility that this study of tree samples might be a suitable method for the future, but still more tests needs to be done and more development needs in the field.

  • 129.
    Sundström, Michaela
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    UTVÄRDERING AV ARBETSMETODER OCH KONTROLL AV BELÄGGNINGSGRAD BLAND MJÖLKKOR I LÖSDRIFT I HALLAND2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is considered to have one of the world's highest animal welfare standards in agriculture. Despite this, there are shortcomings in animal husbandry. One example is overcrowding, which is a way to increase stock size without making costly investments in the buildings. It can be carried out systematically to increase profitability or due to, for example uneven calving during the year. The European Commission criticizes the fact that stocking density is not controlled under Swedish welfare inspections. One reason for this is the lack of routines to perform such controls. The aim was to evaluate different working methods to verify stocking density among dairy cows in free ranging housing systems. Various methods were suggested after literature review of laws and regulations, central registries, journals, and internal management systems. With the help of these working methods, stocking density was verified among free ranging dairy cows during public welfare controls performed by the County Administrative Board of Halland. The project covered 28 farms and 49 free ranging groups. The result shows that the most applicable working method to control the number of animals is to count by hand. Information from different management systems can be useful in some cases, and animal welfare inspectors could benefit from knowledge of these systems. 33 % of the verified groups had an overcrowding on beds, 33% were overcrowded at drinking places, and 4% were overcrowded at feeding places. A too high stocking density affects both production and animal welfare negatively.

  • 130.
    Svensson, Jennifer
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Koppfeldt, Frida
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    MRSA inom grisproduktion: En jämförelse mellan Danmark, Sverige och Tyskland angående antibiotikaanvändning, lagstiftning och smittskyddsrutiner2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    MRSA is a bacteria that is known to cause a wide range of different infections in humans, some more severe than others. In recent years different strains of the bacteria, mainly the MRSA CC398, has been found in many pig farming operations across Europe. Most of Sweden’s pork imports come from Denmark and Germany and the estimation of the prevalence of MRSA in pig farms throughout both countries are more than 50 percent. For this study Sweden were chosen due to the fact that no pigs have been found to carry the infection in this country. The purpose of this study was to find out if legislation and use of antibiotics in each of the countries somehow influence the spreading of the infection, but also to investigate how MRSA transmits between different individuals. The study is split in two parts, namely a literature review and a small survey that were sent to Swedish pig producers. The survey showed that disease protection is important and that 67 percent of the pig producers that answered are worried that MRSA might come to Sweden. From the comparison of the legislation no real conclusion could be made, but antibiotic group treatments of pigs can be linked to an increased incidence of MRSA in pig farms.

  • 131.
    Thiere, G.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Stadmark, J.
    Lund University.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Retention capacity achievements versus climate gas emission by constructed agricultural wetlands2007In: 2nd International Symposium on Wetland Pollutant Dynamics and Control - WETPOL 2007: Extended abstracts / [ed] Ülo Mander, Margit Kõiv, Christina Vohla, Institute of Geography, University of Tartu , 2007, p. 302-304Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 132.
    Thiere, Geraldine
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Schulz, Ralf
    Department of Zoology, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Runoff simulation with particle-associated azinphosmethyl in multispecies stream microcosms: implications for the field2004In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 1984-1990Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the acute (5 d) effects of particle-associated azinphosmethyl (AZP) in multispecies microcosms and assessed the results in the context to data obtained from a parallel field study undertaken in the Lourens River, South Africa. A runoff simulation was carried out in stream microcosms containing the macroinvertebrate fauna of an uncontaminated Lourens River site exposed to particle-associated AZP (control and 200, 1,000, 5,000, 20,000 μg/kg; three replicates each) for 1 h. Measured AZP concentrations in filtered microcosm water resulted in the following values: Not detectable (control) and 0.03, 0.2, 1.1, and 6.9 μg/L, respectively. The two highest treatments resulted in significantly (analysis of variance [ANOVA]) reduced total numbers of individuals, while the number of taxa was affected in the 20,000 μg/kg treatment only. A comparison with previous data suggests that observed effects partly resulted from particle-associated AZP. Particularly affected were six out of 14 macroinvertebrate taxa such as mayfly and stonefly taxa. In parallel, the distribution of macroinvertebrates at a pesticide-free and a contaminated stretch of the Lourens River was monitored five times during the spraying season in 2001 and 2002. Out of the 14 core taxa found in the microcosm study as well as in the field approach, 10 showed comparable reactions in the microcosm experiment and in their field distribution; they were either classified as affected or unaffected in both studies. Thus, we conclude that particle-associated AZP has the potential to affect the invertebrate community structure of the Lourens River and that microcosm studies employing field-relevant exposure scenarios may be valuable for a local risk assessment of pesticide-related community disruptions in the Lourens River.

  • 133.
    Thorstensson, David
    Halmstad University.
    Är återanvändning av renat avloppsvatten lösningen på Halmstad kommuns årliga vattenbrist?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to an increased population and future risks of drought in Halmstad municipality, the pres- sure on water reservoirs increases. To address future challenges and decrease the dependency on large amounts of precipitation, Laholmsbuktens Water and Sewer as started to investigate the opportunity to re-infiltrate purified wastewater. Therefore, I studied the possibility to re- infiltrate purified wastewater into a pit and produce drinking water. To investigate the possibil- ity, I selected to conduct a literature study. I started to compile the limit values for drinking water and outflowing concentrations from Western shore wastewater treatment plant for all the substances I studied. Then I investigated the pits purification capacity, through comparing the concentration after purification of the pit with limit values I could establish which substances required further purification. The pits area requirement and suitable further purification treat- ment for the studied substances were also examined. The investigated substances are chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total nitrogen (tot-N), total phos- phorus (tot-P), ammonium, suspended solids, 7 heavy metals, 10 pharmaceuticals and 11 Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). The results showed that COD, BOD, diklofenak, kar- bamazepin, zink and all PFAS-substances required further purification before the water entered the pit. The most suitable further purification for the studied substances established to be ultra- filtration as pre-treatment to reverse osmosis and it requires four 1.5 hectare basins to infiltrate the desired amount of water. Therefor the conclusion of this study is, that it is possible to create drinking water by infiltrating wastewater from Western shore wastewater treatment plant into the specific pit. However, the wastewater requires ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis treatment before infiltration in order to remove contamination that will not be removed by the infiltration process.

  • 134.
    Tiefenau, Börge Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Is phosphorus limiting the nitrogen removal in constructed wetlands?2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Two mesocosm studies were performed in a laboratory to figure out the relevance of  the phosphorus concentration to the nitrogen removal in wetlands. The main intention was to see if phosphorus is limiting the process of denitrification. In both experiments, plastic beakers (n=20) were filled with inlet water and plant litter material from the ground of  a constructed wetland near Halmstad, Sweden.. The litter consisted mainly of dead leaves of Phragmites australis and the water, originating  from an agricultural site, had a high concentration of total nitrogen (around 9 mg/L), but a low concentration of phosphorus (around 20 µg/L). The experiment was performed in darkness and in the mesocosms prevailed anaerobic conditions.  Half of the beakers were filled with phosphorus enriched water and water samples were obtained at several times and analyzed for nitrate, total nitrogen and total phosphorus to determine the nitrogen removal. In addition the plant material was analyzed for nitrogen and carbon content before and after the experiment with a carbon/nitrogen-analyzer. The mean removal rates of nitrogen were higher in the mesocosms which were treated with additional phosphorus. In a long-term perspective from the second experiment, the mean removal rates are declining faster in the non phosphorus treated beakers. The analysis of the plant litter material could not show if nitrogen was removed from systems through denitrification or just taken up and stored by microorganisms. The experiment was carried out under controlled conditions. The results show that the effect of P on denitrification is not completely understood yet and further research especially on the N uptake by microorganisms and long-term experiments are needed.

  • 135.
    Tägtström, Sanne
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Jerslind, Sofie
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Hästhållares uppfattning av Länsstyrelsens tillsyn i Halland2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the beginning of 2009 The County Administrative Boards assumed the responsibility of animal welfare, a task previously performed by the individual municipalities. This transfer was made with the aim of achieving more efficient and equivalent animal welfare controls across the country. Previous studies among animal owners have shown a somewhat negative image of animal welfare controls. This study focuses on investigating the experiences of the horse keepers in the County of Halland concerning animal welfare. The study is based on a questionnaire which was sent to 423 horse keepers in Halland, of which 130 were returned with information that laid the foundation of this study. The results show that the horse keepers mainly have a positive opinion of the animal welfare work. They also find the laws and regulations easy to understand. Most horse keepers have a positive attitude towards animal welfare controls and they also consider the animal welfare work to be sufficient. They consider themselves being well-informed on the laws and regulations concerning horse keeping. The positive opinion of animal welfare by horse keepers, indicated by this study, is a very interesting outcome. The negative image of animal welfare that has previously been illustrated by several studies could be due to various reasons. No matter what the reason is it is important to have an open dialogue between horse keepers and the authorities to achieve an effective relationship. The conclusion of this study is that the negative opinions of the animal welfare work that were suspected among the horse keepers may not represent the majority.

  • 136.
    Waara, Sylvia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Khokhotva, Oleksandr
    National Technical University of Ukraine, Kyiv Polytechnic Institute, Kyiv, Ukraine.
    The effect of environmental conditions on the stability of heavy meltal-filter material complex as assessed by the leaching of adsorbed metal ions2011In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 159, p. 146-1463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the influence of environmental conditions, most likely prevailing in filter beds used for intermittently discharged pollutant streams such as landfill leachate and storm water, on the stability of the heavy metalefilter complex was investigated for 2 filter materials; non-treated and urea treated pine bark, using leaching experiments. The metalefilter complex stability was higher for urea treated than for non-treated pine bark and dependent on the metal adsorbed. The type of environmental condition applied was of less importance for the extent of leaching.

  • 137.
    Waara, Sylvia
    et al.
    School for Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Waara, Karl-Otto
    School for Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Åke
    School for Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Fridolfsson, Magnus
    Tekniska förvaltningen, Örebro Kommun, Atleverket, Örebro, Sweden.
    Performance of a Constructed Wetland System for Treatment of Landfill Leachate2008In: Proceedings Waste 2008: Waste and Resource Management – a Shared Responsibility / [ed] Marie Townshend, Stanton-on-the-Wolds: Waste Conference Ltd. , 2008, p. 655-667Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of a constructed wetland for treatment of landfill leachate has been evaluated based upon data obtained during 4 years (2003-2006). It consists of a series of 10 ponds with a total capacity of 52.000 m3 covering 8 ha. Using univariate and multivariate statistics (PCA) the reduction pattern of a large number of chemical parameters including heavy metals has been investigated in 3 parts of the wetland with equal volume. Analyses show that many parameters are removed to the greatest extent in the first part of the system (e.g. many heavy metals, total suspended solids) or the second part of the system (N-NH4) while other parameters such as total nitrogen are more gradually reduced (10 ton/year removed).  Toxicity testing with 5 bioassays showed that toxicity was sometimes observed at the inlet but no toxicity was observed at the outlet for 4 of the test species. The data presented will be used for optimizing the treatment process as well as to improve the monitoring program.

  • 138.
    Wagstaffe, Jessica
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Anthropogenic impacts on an oligotrophic clear water lake in Halland, Sweden, assessed from two different data sets.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lake Skärsjön is a dimictic, oligotrophic, clear water lake with bottom plant communities including the rare Nostoc zetterstedtii. The lake is located in western Sweden, south of Gothenburg. During the late 1970s to mid-1980s, there was fish cage farming located near the outlet of the lake. When the fish farming was first introduced, there was concern over the health of the late which prompted a monitoring study which was conducted from 1980 to 1990 by the County Administration Board (regional governing body of Sweden). Starting in 1983, another National Monitoring study commenced simultaneously with the 10 year study. This monitoring study had one site taking measurements from 0.2-2m and collected the same data as the 10 year study.

    There were notable changes starting in 1985, the year the fish farming was closed down. After these changes, there are patterns indicating the lake returning to similar conditions before 1985. The pH of the lake is increasing and the acidity decreasing which reflects the ongoing decrease in atmospheric sulphur deposition and concentration in the lake.

    Overall, the impacts from the fish farming may have been more intense if it was located farther from the lake outlet. This would have allowed nutrient emissions from the fish cages to influence the lake more severely before exiting through the outlet. The lake is slowly recovering from this anthropogenic event and the current monitoring program, the National Monitoring study, should remain intact. 

  • 139.
    Wang, Qin
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Review on Mechanistic Effect Models Used in Ecological Risk Assessment of Pesticides According to the European Food Safety Authority Guidance2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In ecological risk assessment, mechanistic effect models (MEMs) are thought to overcome the limitation of standard laboratory single species test by accurately extrapolating the models to population-level. This review introduces the basic theory of MEMs-dynamic energy budget theory which can connect with toxicokinetic/ toxicodynamic models to describe the interaction of toxicants and organisms. This review summarizes some typical MEMs which simulate different scenarios, pesticides and species, and compared their modelling performance according to the guidance on good effect models of European Food Safety Authority, in order to judge if it is accounting for all modelling steps. In addition, a summary of the linkage of MEMs in pesticides ecological risk assessment have been discussed, especially evaluating the linkage results of ‘MODELINK’ workshop. However, there is no genuine application of MEMs in pesticides ecological risk assessment in real world today, because there is no validated model built with acceptable predictive power to motivate the ecological assessors or shareholders to use effect models confidently. Therefore, there is still a long way to develop an effect model which is valid enough and has strong prediction power.

  • 140.
    Wang, Tianyi
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Towards the development of an indicator system for  environmental risk assessment of electronic waste: A preliminary study focusing on mobile phones2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, large quantities of waste mobile phones are generated each year due to the large consumption and fast updating speed of this electronic product. This has become a rapidly growing pollution problem as mobile phones contain many harmful substances and these substances will be released to the environment if waste mobile phones are treated improperly. Therefore, it is necessary to develop risk assessment methods to determine the contamination degree of this waste to the environment and then take effective measures to reduce the pollution. Considering the complexity of risk assessment procedure, an indicator system for waste mobile phones is here established instead, consisting of totally 30 indicators. The system is developed as a hierarchy structure and has four layers including object layer, factor layer, indicator layer and sub-indicator layer.

  • 141.
    Wei, Fankai
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    The Impact of Increased Browning on Freshwater Lakes Chemistry: A Mesocosm Study in Bolmen Lake2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, many lakes in the northern hemisphere have faced the problem increased browning. To study the impact of future browning on Bolmen Lake, a mesocosm study was set up to simulate future browning scenarios of the Bolmen Lake (in the 50 years and 100 years) and study its effects on abiotic parameters and biological parameters. The results show that the increased browning will reduce the pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) of Lake Bolmen but will increase the phosphate concentration and chlorophyll a concentration in the water. These results indicate that as browning further increases, the lake will shift to heterotrophic dominated food web, which may influence the future dissolved oxygen level and adversely affect fish production. 

  • 142.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Potential hos våtmarker anlagda för fosfor- och kväveretention i jordbrukslandskapet: analys och tolkning av mätresultat2012Report (Other academic)
  • 143.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Problems in determining the amounts of nutrients removed in wetlands created to abate run-off from agricultural fields without using excessively costly measurements2012In: Proceedings from the 7th SWS 2012 European chapter meeting: Wetland restoration – challenges and opportunities : Programme and abstracts, 17-21 June 2012 / [ed] Brian Kronvang, Carl Christian Hoffmann & Mirela Lăcrămioara Vlad, Aarhus: Aarhus University, DCE - Danish Centre for Environment and Energy , 2012, p. 53-53Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Creation of wetlands in the agricultural landscape has in Sweden been identified as a cost-effective way of decreasing nutrient transports to the Baltic Sea. Approximately 3,000 wetlands have been constructed so far in southern Sweden through different subsidy systems. The purpose is that these wetlands should counteract eutrophication by removing nitrogen and phosphorus while simultaneously contributing to increased biodiversity in the landscape.

    Continuous automatic (flow or time proportional) water sampling for nitrogen and phosphorus removal measurements were carried out in the inlet and outlet of 7 wetlands during 1.5 to 10 years. Strategic grab sampling, also in the inlet and outlet, was conducted in 14 wetlands during 2 years. Flow was measured only in the outlet in most wetlands. The wetlands were all located in agricultural areas and were chosen to represent wetlands with different nutrient loads from agricultural field run-off.

    Large temporal variations in water flows and concentrations complicated the interpretation of data. Analyses of the large dataset, in some cases comprising parallel measurements using different methods, showed that estimations of nutrients removal were, for example, sensitive to if short intensive inflows were adequately captured with the measurements or not. This led in particular to substantial underestimations of phosphorus removal.

    This suggests that removal rates or coefficients used in models to estimate the total amounts of nutrients removed from agricultural run-off in large-scale national programs for creating wetlands may be based on field measurements with severe shortcomings. National assessments may therefore have given misleading results and, at least for phosphorus, seriously underestimated the amount of removal that has been obtained. We need to find ways to accurately determine nutrient removal levels of a large amount of wetlands without using too costly measurements so that created wetlands retain their status as a cost-effective way to reduce nutrient transports from agriculture.

  • 144.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Vilka faktorer styr kväveretentionen ianlagda våtmarker?: Resultat från experimentvåtmarker vid Plönninge2008Report (Other academic)
  • 145.
    Wiborg, Irene
    et al.
    Knowledge Centre for Agriculture, Denmark.
    Sørensen Langvad, Anne Mette
    Knowledge Centre for Agriculture and Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Hansson, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Balskilde Stoltenborg, Trine
    Bridging the gaps between science, regulation and practice in water environment management2011In: Science for the environment - environment for society: Bridging the gap between scientists and practitioners in environmental science, Aarhus: Aarhus University , 2011, p. 31-31Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    AQUARIUS is an interreg North Sea Programme project carried out by 15 partners from 6 countries (Norway, Sweden, Germany, Holland, Scotland, and Denmark) all dealing with the implementation of the Water Frame Directive. A primary objective of the project is to find ways for sustainable water environment management which by AQUARIUS is defined as management that in respect of the rules both leads to “good water environment”, enables continued viable agricultural production, and is cost efficient in the interest of society. AQUARIUS works from social-ecological management perspective emphasizing the intricate linkages between ecological and social systems and the interdependent relationships among humans, that are mediated through interactions with biophysical and non-human biological units. As a project AQUARIUS copies the presently ongoing struggle by all EU member countries to create a public participatory approach to water management planning and implementation such as is launched by the EU Water Water Frame directive. it does so by engaging central water authorities, representatives from agriculture including agricultural advisors as well as research institutions in carrying out localized pilot studies in 7 pilot areas. Drawing on localized experiments with and locally founded experiences with different measures the project derives recommendations that may contribute to an EU policy approach. The special session aims at discussing the preliminary findings of the ongoing project. It includes the presentation of a heuristic tool consisting of relevant considerations to beware of when engaging in stakeholder collaboration on specific measurements whilst acknowledging the farmer as the central water management practitioner. The session also discusses some of the different pilot approaches to bridging the gaps between science, regulation and practice i.e. the concrete challenges faced by the approaches in trying to create outcomes that are mutually beneficial to various stakeholder interests. How can different stakeholders challenges be solved in cooperation creating a win-win situation for all? How can stakeholders (landowners) willingness to participate increase by seeing them as professional providers of eco-system services? When do stakeholders’ overlapping interests allow for collaborative action and when do they hinder it? These questions are among the issues to be addressed. One legal recommendation that may be derived from project experiences is a need to further to take the precautionary principle in public administration into account. In order to make sustainable solutions in an ever changing complexity, authorities need to make room for dynamic collaboration between science and practice.

  • 146.
    Wirman, Elias
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Underlag till en förbättring av skötselplanerna för dagvattendammarna inom industriområden i Ängelholms kommun - med fokus på sedimentation och växtlighet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 147.
    Wobbe, Monica
    Halmstad University.
    Utvärdering av den gröna smileyn inom livsmedelsinspektion: En intervju och enkätstudie i Halmstads kommun2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 148.
    WU, YINING
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Will different pretreatment methods influence the biogas production of seaweeds2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Global warming along with energy demand and rising prices of natural energy resources have motivated studies to find some renewable and clean energy. The use of algae as third generation biofuel can avoid the competition for farmland and algae can be considered as a potential future source of renewable energy. Algae can be used for biogas production through anaerobic digestion (AD). Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus are the two dominating species of brown seaweed growing in the Baltic sea in the southwest of Sweden. Pretreatment can significantly affect the biogas production since hydrolysis of algae cell wall structure is a rate-limiting step in AD process. In this study, four different pretreatments: mechanical, microwave (600W, 2min), ultrasonic (110V, 15min), and microwave combined with ultrasonic (600W, 2min;110V, 15min) were applied to the seaweed and then co-digested with biogas plant leachate. The aim was to investigate the biogas production and methane yield from AD after these pretreatments. The results showed when comparing with mechanical pretreated only, that the ultrasonic, ultrasonic combined with microwave and microwave pretreatments could obtain increased cumulative methane yields with 167%, 185% and 156% , respectively. The maximum methane yield was 260 ml/g∙VS with combined pretreatment after 20 days of digestion. The ultrasonic combined with microwave pretreatment showed a significant improvement of methane yield when comparing with mechanical pretreatment.

  • 149.
    Yang, Menghui
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Wetland plants for biogas: perspectives of species and pretreatments for enhanced methane yield2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis is aimed to find out the performance of Arundo donax, Phragmites australis, Typha angustifolia, Typha latifolia on methane yield for biogas production and the influence of grinding and cutting to these 4 species. The anaerobic digestion results showed that Arundo donax is the most promising species to produce methane, which was 441 L/kg VS after pretreatment with grinding, 355 L/kg VS of cutting. Grinding significantly increased methane production compared to cutting for these wetland plants. The thesis also reviews the performance of 8 species on methane production, treated with different pretreatments. Phalaris arundinacea L. revealed the highest methane yield among the 8 species being reviewed. The sizes of plants after grinding or cutting have significant influences on methane production. Physical pretreatments are worth recommending for environmental benefits and excellent performance on methane yield. More attention ought to be put on techniques of grinding, not only the efficiency-increasing but also the cost-reducing. Moreover, a general evaluation ought to be performed on cost and environmental influences hence we could achieve both the economic and environmental profits from utilizing of different wetland plants.

  • 150.
    Yngve, Christel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Oljeavskiljare SS EN 858 - en inventering av kommunernas kontroll och tillsyn2019Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To avoid harmful substances it is important that emissions such as oil, gasoline, grease and sludge are cleaned by oil separators to reduce damage to the human health and the environment. But also to prevent high levels of oil from waste water to sewage treatment plants which can disturb the purification process. The aim with this work is to find out that the municipalities fulfill the requirements in the environmental framework. By supervising the 5-year inspection of oil separators according to SS EN 858 on the stormwater and wastewater network. To find out this, inquiries were sent by e-mail to all 290 municipalities in Sweden. The results show that the inventories of oil separators have not been carried out to the proper extent. The municipalities can follow the supervision pursued according to the environmental guidelines and environmental goals but an inventory is also needed to know how many oil separators are present in the municipalities. The oil separators are usually controlled with other supervisions. A 5 - year inspection of oil separators that were sufficiently good has only been made by 2 municipalities. 5 – year inspection must be carried out even if the operations have not been running for 5 years. The conclusion from this study is that oil separators have been a neglected area in most municipalities. Hopefully this inquiry can be a reminder to start with inventories in those municipalities.

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