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  • 101.
    Leurent, Martin
    et al.
    Université Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
    Da Costa, Pascal
    Université Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
    Jasserand, Frédéric
    Université Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
    Rämä, Miika
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT, Espoo, Finland.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Cost and climate savings through nuclear district heating in a French urban area2018In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 115, p. 616-630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares the socioeconomic potential of heating systems that could be developed in the Lyon urban area (France). The district heating (DH) systems investigated in this paper use low-carbon heat sources: large-scale heat pumps (LSHP) or nuclear combined heat and power plants (NCHP). They are compared with electric boilers and central gas boilers in terms of greenhouse gas emissions and heating costs. The heating systems are dimensioned to supply the projected 2030 heat loads for two different land surface areas (extensive and compact). The key input data is the empirical residential and tertiary heat demand per square kilometre for 2015, extrapolated to 2030 to account for the potential decrease in the heat demand (energy-efficient buildings). Given the assumptions made in this paper, the heating system that obtains the best balance between CO2 emissions and heating cost relies on an NCHP located about 30 km from Lyon. Cases in which the heat has to be transported over longer distances are considered, hence providing insights for metropolitan areas with similar size and density as the Lyon area. Implications for stakeholders and policy makers are discussed, so that to optimize future French energy systems through the most efficient use of available technologies. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 102.
    Leurent, Martin
    et al.
    Université Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
    Da Costa, Pascal
    Université Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
    Rämä, Miika
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT, Espoo, Finland.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Jasserand, Frédéric
    Université Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
    Cost-benefit analysis of district heating systems using heat from nuclear plants in seven European countries2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 149, p. 454-472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to evaluate and compare the potential cost savings and greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction of district heating (DH) systems using heat from nuclear combined heat and power plants (NCHP) in Europe. Fifteen DH + NCHP systems, spread throughout seven countries, are studied. The selection was made in collaboration with ‘the Ad-Hoc Expert Group on the Role and Economics of Nuclear Cogenerationin a Low Carbon Energy Future’ from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Firstly, the linear heat density of the modelled DH networks was determined, including locations with poorly developed DH networks. A large potential for extending DH networks was identified for France and the United Kingdom despite the expected decrease in the heat demand due to building renovation. Secondly, the costs and GHG emissions of DH + NCHP systems were evaluated via a cost benefit analysis. It concluded that 7 of the 15 projects would be cost-effective if 25% of the total urban heat demand was supplied. Implementing NCHP-based systems would reduce GHG emissions by approximately 10 Mt eCO2/a. Four additional DH + NCHP systems could become competitive if a larger share of the total demand was supplied. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the uncertainty affecting the key parameters. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

  • 103.
    Lindholm, Annelie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Almquist-Tangen, Gerd
    Child Health Care Unit, Region Halland, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Alm, Bernt
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Dahlgren, Jovanna
    Roswall, Josefine
    Staland-Nyman, Carin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Bergman, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Early life risk factors for an elevated waist-to-height ratio at 5 years of ageManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine early life risk factors for an elevated waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) at 5 years of age. A second aim was to examine if the same risk factors also were associated with overweight or obesity at the same age.

    Methods: A population-based longitudinal birth cohort study of 1,540 children, from the southwestern part of Sweden, born between October 2007 and December 2008. The children were classified as having ≥ 1 or < 1 in WHtR standard deviation scores (SDS) at five years of age, according to Swedish reference values and as having overweight/obesity or normal weight/underweight according to the IOTF. 

    Results: At five years of age, 15% of the children had WHtRSDS ³ 1 and 11% had overweight or obesity. In multivariable analyses, RWG during 0-6 months (OR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.23, 2.95), maternal pre- pregnancy BMI (1.06, 1.01,1.11) and paternal BMI (1.11, 1.01-1.21) were associated with a WHtRSDS ³ 1 at five years. RWG during 0-6 months (2.53, 1.53, 4,20), during 6-12 months (2.82, 1.37, 5.79) and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (1.12, 1.06,1.17) was associated with overweight or obesity at 5 years of age.

    Conclusions: Risk factors operating early in life are associated with an elevated WHtR and overweight or obesity at 5 years of age. Preventive interventions should especially address early RWG and parental overweight.

  • 104.
    Lindholm, Annelie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Bergman, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Alm, Bernt
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Dahlgren, Jovanna
    Roswall, Josefine
    Staland-Nyman, Carin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Almquist-Tangen, Gerd
    Child Health Care Unit, Region Halland, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Nutrition- and feeding practice-related risk factors for rapid weight gain during the first year of lifeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Rapid weight gain (RWG) during infancy increases the risk of later adiposity and the association between early nutrition and RWG needs to be further studied.

    Objectives: The present study aimed to examine nutrition- and feeding practice-related risk factors for RWG during the first year. 

    Methods: A population-based longitudinal birth cohort study of 1,869 children, classified as having RWG or non-RWG during 0–6 and 6–12 months. RWG was defined as a change > 0.67 in weight standard deviation scores. Associations between nutrition- and feeding practice-related risk factors and RWG were investigated with logistic regression models.

    Results: In the population, 46% had RWG during 0-6 months and 8% during 6-12 months. In the fully adjusted models, bottle feeding at birth, 3-4 and 6 months and nighttime meals containing formula milk at 3-4 months were positively associated with RWG during 0-6 months (p<0.001). Breastfeeding at 3-4 and 6 months was negatively associated with RWG (p<0.01). During 6-12 months, only bottle feeding at 3-4 months was positively associated with RWG (p<0.05).

    Conclusions: RWG was more common during the first 6 months of life, and bottle feeding and formula milk given at night were risk factors for RWG during this period.

  • 105.
    Lindholm, Annelie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Roswall, Josefine
    Department of Pediatrics, The Institute of Clinical Sciences at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Alm, Bernt
    Department of Pediatrics, The Institute of Clinical Sciences at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Almquist-Tangen, Gerd
    Department of Pediatrics, The Institute of Clinical Sciences at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Dahlgren, Jovanna
    Department of Pediatrics, The Institute of Clinical Sciences at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Staland Nyman, Carin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Bergman, Stefan
    Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, The Primary Health Care Unit at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Body mass index classification misses to identify children with an elevated waist-to-height ratio at 5 years of age2019In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 85, no 1, p. 30-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:  Abdominal adiposity is an important risk factor in the metabolic syndrome. Since BMI does not reveal fat distribution, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) has been suggested as a better measure of abdominal adiposity in children, but only a few studies cover the preschool population. The aim of the present study was to examine BMI and WHtR growth patterns and their association regarding their ability to identify children with an elevated WHtR at 5 years of age.

    Methods: A population-based longitudinal birth cohort study of 1540 children, followed from 0 to 5 years with nine measurement points. The children were classified as having WHtR standard deviation scores (WHtRSDS) <1 or ≥1 at 5 years. Student’s t-tests and Chi-squared tests were used in the analyses.

    Results: Association between BMISDS and WHtRSDS at 5 years showed that 55% of children with WHtRSDS ≥1 at 5 years had normal BMISDS (p < 0.001). Children with WHtRSDS ≥1 at 5 years had from an early age significantly higher mean BMISDS and WHtRSDS than children with values <1.

    Conclusions: BMI classification misses every second child with WHtRSDS ≥1 at 5 years, suggesting that WHtR adds value in identifying children with abdominal adiposity who may need further investigation regarding cardiometabolic risk factors.

    © 2018, International Pediatric Research Foundation, Inc.

  • 106.
    Lindholm, Annelie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Roswall, Josefine
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Alm, Bernt
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Tangen, Gerd Almquist
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Dahlgren, Jovanna
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nyman, Carin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Bergman, Stefan
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Children with Normal Body Mass Index may have an Increased Waist to Height Ratio2017In: Hormone Research in Paediatrics, ISSN 1663-2818, E-ISSN 1663-2826, Vol. 88, p. 525-526Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 107.
    Lund, Henrik
    et al.
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Østergaard, Poul Alberg
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Chang, Miguel
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Svendsen, Svend
    DTU, Denmark Technical University, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Sorknæs, Peter
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Thorsen, Jan Eric
    Danfoss Heating Segment, Nordborg, Denmark.
    Hvelplund, Frede
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Mortensen, Bent Ole Gram
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Mathiesen, Brian Vad
    Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bojesen, Carsten
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Duic, Neven
    University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Zhang, Xiliang
    Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Möller, Bernd
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    The status of 4th generation district heating: Research and results2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 164, p. 147-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review article presents a description of contemporary developments and findings related to the different elements needed in future 4th generation district heating systems (4GDH). Unlike the first three generations of district heating, the development of 4GDH involves meeting the challenge of more energy efficient buildings as well as the integration of district heating into a future smart energy system based on renewable energy sources. Following a review of recent 4GDH research, the article quantifies the costs and benefits of 4GDH in future sustainable energy systems. Costs involve an upgrade of heating systems and of the operation of the distribution grids, while benefits are lower grid losses, a better utilization of low-temperature heat sources and improved efficiency in the production compared to previous district heating systems. It is quantified how benefits exceed costs by a safe margin with the benefits of systems integration being the most important. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

  • 108.
    Lundgren, Lina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Zügner, Roland
    Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Tranberg, Roy
    Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Effect of stance width on kinematics of laboratory landings with fixed feet on a kiteboard2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 109.
    Lygnerud, Kristina
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Challenges for business change in district heating2018In: Energy, Sustainability and Society, ISSN 2192-0567, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Swedish district heating sector is successfully transitioning to a low-carbon energy system. The industry has expanded since the 1950s and currently meets more than half the Swedish heat demand. The heat market was deregulated in 1996, and thereafter, companies have been exposed to an increasing number of challenges related to technology, institutional factors and market. Since municipal ownership dominates, municipal companies must manage these challenges to ensure future competitiveness. However, theory suggests that business change is difficult when the current model is still working. To date, Swedish district heating companies have revisited their price models and customer perceptions. There is limited knowledge on how the business challenges are managed and on the management strategy’s impact on the business. In this paper, new knowledge is generated regarding how the customer and resource-oriented sides of the municipally owned district heating business in Sweden are changing. Methods: A case study approach was adopted. Data were collected by interviews and by review of the national research programme on district heating (Fjärrsyn). The programme served as a proxy for frontline research on Swedish district heating. The data were analyzed through the business model canvas framework. Results: Changes to meet external pressures are identified on the customer side of the business model, but changes are also spreading to other parts of it. However, the key resource component (distribution networks and production unit) and its logic of economics of scale are unchanged and dominate. The logic is not compatible with shrinking heat demand; nevertheless, it is preferred. Conclusions: It is concluded that external challenges have resulted in changes in the customer side of the business model. However, the largest challenge is the transformation of key resources. Accounting for external challenges extends the life of the current business model, but it is not increasing competitiveness. The prolonged life creates a window of opportunity for the companies to begin the needed transformation of their key resources. If the transformation is successful, district heating will have a role in the future energy system. If the transformation is not undertaken, the future is less certain. © 2018, The Author(s).

  • 110.
    Lygnerud, Kristina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Risk assessment of industrial excess heat recovery in district heating systems2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 151, p. 430-441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recovery of industrial excess heat for use in district heating systems can be characterised by great political interest, high potential, low utilisation and often high profitability. These characteristics reveal that barriers are present for its greater utilisation. One identified barrier is the risk that industries with excess heat can terminate their activities, resulting in the loss of heat recovery. Excess heat recovery investments are therefore sometimes rejected, despite them being viable investments. The risk of termination of industrial activities has been assessed by a study of 107 excess heat recoveries in Sweden. The analysis verified that terminated industrial activities are one of two major explanations for terminated heat delivery. The other major reason is substitution by another heat supply. These two explanations correspond to approximately 6% of all annual average heat recoveries. The identified risk factors are small annual heat recovery and the use of heat pumps when low-temperature heat was recovered. The main conclusion is that a small proportion of industrial heat recovery has been lost in Sweden because of terminated industrial activities. The risk premium of losing industrial heat recovery for this specific reason should be considered to be lower than often presumed in feasibility studies. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

  • 111.
    Lygnerud, Kristina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Risk of industrial heat recovery in district heating systems2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 116, p. 152-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial heat recovery can be used in district heating systems. It is a possibility to make use of heat that is otherwise lost. Increased usage of industrial heat recovery reduces the need for fuel combustion lowering green-house gas (GHG) emissions, such as CO2. Industrial companies can, however, move or close down industrial activities. This is apprehended as a risk and lowers the interest of district heating companies to invest in industrial heat recovery.

    In Swedish district heating systems, industrial heat recoveries have been undertaken since 1974. Today, the heat recovery is active in about seventy systems. This leads to the question of how risky it is, for district heating companies, to engage in industrial heat recovery.

    Over forty years of operation statistics have been collected and analyzed in order to estimate the risk of industrial heat recovery to district heating companies. Key results show that the risk is not linked to different industrial branches. Recommendations include suggestions to management on how to consider risk and consequence when assessing potential industrial heat recovery investments. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 112.
    Löfgren, Hans
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    A first order friction model for lubricated sheet metal forming2018In: Theoretical and Applied Mechanics Letters, ISSN 2095-0349, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 57-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the derivation of a first order friction model for lubricated sheet metal forming. Assuming purely plastic real contacts, Newton's law of viscosity, and a square root behavior of the hydrodynamic coefficient of friction with respect to the hydrodynamic Hersey parameter an analytic model is found. The model predicts the coefficient of friction as a function of the relative pressure, the relative Hersey parameter and the real contact coefficient of friction. Questions about local and global friction are raised in the validation of the model against flat tool sheet experiments. For some flat tool sheet experiments reasonable agreements are obtained assuming a rigid punch pressure distribution. The restricted number of user inputs makes the model useful in early tool design simulations. © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of The Chinese Society of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics

  • 113.
    Lööf, Pär-Johan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Dambreville, Lucas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). École Nationale d’Ingénieurs de Saint-Étienne, Saint-Étienne, France.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Nilsson, Per H.
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Evaluation of Surface Changes under Twin Disc Tests2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to choose the right manufacturing process in terms of costs and component performance, three differently manufactured surfaces were investigated: brushed, multiple shot-peened and phosphated surfaces. In-house twin disc tribometer was used to test the wear and fatigue performance of the different surfaces. The evoution of the surface topography has been evaluated by in-line stylus and microscope image measurements as well as interference measurements of replicas taken at various test intervals. The form changes has been assessed by stylus measurements. The results have shown that the surface roughness played the major role to wear and fatigue performance.

  • 114.
    Lööf, Pär-Johan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Cabanettes, Frederic
    ENISE, Saint-Étienne, France.
    Nilsson, Per H.
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology, ATR, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Virtual Evaluation of Gear Manufacture – To Use 3D Surface Data to Predict Performance2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturing and finishing of gears include several processes such as grinding, hobbing, shaving, honing, shot peening and phosphating. For the automotive industry it is a constant challenge to improve the durability and reduce the fuel consumption in a cost effective way by using robust processes for mass manufacturing. A better knowledge of the properties of the manufactured surfaces in gears, and especially how they interact in different combinations is an important knowledge when designing gearboxes for the future. The following paper proposes an efficient way for choosing the better manufacturing and predicting the behavior of new combinations of process parameters in the early stage of the design process based on simulations of 3D surface measurements. The simulation model uses two rough surfaces of counterpart gear teeth contacting and deforming elastically under a typically critical load during operation. Outputs from the simulations are the pressure distribution and real contact area later used for ranking the differently manufactured surfaces. Four different types of surfaces were taken from manufacturing; samples were extracted and measured on a coherence scanning interferometer. Two surface types were ground differently and two were shot-peened with different process parameters. The results show the shot-peened surfaces, especially the double shot-peened type B1, performed better than the ground ones manifested in larger real contact areas and lower/fewer pressure spikes. Based on the correlations of the 3D roughness parameters with the simulation outputs, some roughness parameters are suggested for more robust quality control.

  • 115.
    Lööf, Pär-Johan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Rosén, Bengt Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Nilsson, Per
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Measuring Technique for Characterization of Micropitting2017In: Mets&Props 2017: 16th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces: Conference abstracts, 2017, p. 185-186Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 116.
    Maaroufi, Nadia
    et al.
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden & Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden.
    Palmqvist, Kristin
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science (EMG), Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Bach, Lisbeth H.
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science (EMG), Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Bokhorst, Stef
    Department of Ecological Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Liess, Antonia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Department of Ecology and Environmental Science (EMG), Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Gundale, Michael J.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden.
    Kardol, Paul
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden.
    Nordin, Annika
    Umeå Plant Science Center (UPSC), Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden.
    Meunier, Cédric L.
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science (EMG), Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden & Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung (AWI), Biologische Anstalt Helgoland, Helgoland, Germany.
    Nutrient optimization of tree growth alters structure and function of boreal soil food webs2018In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 428, p. 46-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutrient optimization has been proposed as a way to increase boreal forest production, and involves chronic additions of liquid fertilizer with amounts of micro- and macro-nutrients adjusted annually to match tree nutritional requirements. We used a short-term (maintained since 2007) and a long-term (maintained since 1987) fertilization experiment in northern Sweden, in order to understand nutrient optimization effects on soil microbiota and mesofauna, and to explore the relationships between plant litter and microbial elemental stoichiometry. Soil microbes, soil fauna, and aboveground litter were collected from the control plots, and short- and long-term nutrient optimization plots. Correlation analyses revealed no relationships between microbial biomass and litter nutrient ratios. Litter C:N, C:P and N:P ratios declined in response to both optimization treatments; while only microbial C:P ratios declined in response to long-term nutrient optimization. Further, we found that both short- and long-term optimization treatments decreased total microbial, fungal, and bacterial PLFA biomass and shifted the microbial community structure towards a lower fungi:bacterial ratio. In contrast, abundances of most fungal- and bacterial-feeding soil biota were little affected by the nutrient optimization treatments. However, abundance of hemi-edaphic Collembola declined in response to the long-term nutrient optimization treatment. The relative abundances (%) of fungal-feeding and plant-feeding nematodes, respectively, declined and increased in response to both short-term and long-term treatments; bacterial-feeding nematodes increased relative to fungal feeders. Overall, our results demonstrate that long-term nutrient optimization aiming to increase forest production decreases litter C:N, C:P and N:P ratios, microbial C:P ratios and fungal biomass, whereas higher trophic levels are less affected. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.

  • 117.
    Malm, Karina
    et al.
    Research and Development Centre, Spenshult, Oskarström.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Research and Development Centre, Spenshult, Oskarström & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Andersson, Maria
    Research and Development Centre, Spenshult, Oskarström & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Research and Development Centre, Spenshult, Oskarström.
    BARFOT Study Group,
    Worse physical function at disease onset predicts a worse outcome in physical function, but not in meeting who physical activity recommendations, nine years later2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Long term disease impact on physical functioning in the most affected patients with RA is not well described. Impaired function and inability to be physically active are associated features and it is well known that people with RA are less physically active compared with the general population.

    Objectives: To study predictive variables for a worse outcome in physical function and physical activity measures in a long time follow-up study.

    Methods: Between 1992 and 2005 all patients with newly diagnosed RA according to criteria of the American College of Rheumatology were asked to participate in the BARFOT study, a collaboration between six Swedish rheumatology departments. In 2010 all patients (n=2114) included in the study received a follow-up questionnaire 5-18 years after disease onset. Using logistic regression analyses, the dependent variables physical function (dichotomized by their mean value) were measured with the HAQ (scores 0 to 3, best to worst), the RAOS (Rheumatoid Arthritis Outcome Score) subscales ADL and sport/rec (0-100, worst to best) and meeting vs. not meeting WHO recommendations of physical activity (WHOrec) for a healthy life style (moderate intensity ≥150 min/week or higher intensity for at least 30 minutes 2-3 times/week). Possible predictive variables at baseline were function (HAQ and SOFI, Signals of Functional Impairment, 0-44, best to worse), disease activity (CRP, swollen and tender joints), pain (VAS 0-100, best to worst) and age. We also controlled for sex and disease duration in 2010.

    Results: Questionnaire response was 72% (n=1525), mean (m) age 65 years (SD 14), m follow-up time 9 years (SD 3.7) and 70% (n=1069) were women.

    At inclusion the patients reported a disease duration of m 8 (SD 9) months, HAQ m 1.0 (SD 0.6), VAS pain m 46 (SD24), SOFI m 8.0 (SD6.0). Disease activity was CRP m 30.2 (SD 35.9), swollen joints m 10.2 (SD 5.7) and tender joints m 8.2 (SD 6.2).

    In the 2010 survey, time from inclusion was m 9.4 (SD 3.8) years, the HAQ m 0.6 (SD 0.6), and VAS pain m 35.5 (SD 25.6) had decreased (p<0.001). RAOS ADL was m 71,1 (SD 22.0), RAOS sport/rec m 40.0 (SD 30.0) and 61% (N=894) met the WHOrec.

    Worse scores in the HAQ, VAS pain and SOFI at baseline increased the risk for worse physical function in the 2010 survey measured with the HAQ (VAS pain OR 1.02, SOFI OR 1.09 and HAQ OR 3.98, p<0.000), the RAOS ADL scale (VAS pain OR 1.02, SOFI OR 1,09 and HAQ OR 2.66, p<0.000) and the RAOS sport/rec scale (VAS pain OR 1.02, SOFI OR 1.11 and HAQ OR 2.57, p<0.000). Being a woman, higher age at inclusion and longer disease duration at follow-up also predicted a worse function in the HAQ and both RAOS subscales while none of the studied variables could predict who did/did not meet the WHOrec in 2010.

    Conclusions: Worse physical function and worse pain at disease onset can predict a worse physical function several years later. However, it does not predict the amount of physical activity actually being performed. It is of importance to already at disease onset recognize patients with impaired function and higher pain levels who are in need of multidisciplinary treatments. It is also important to early in the disease recommend a healthy life style according to the WHOrec since measures of function and being physically active are different entities.

    Disclosure of Interest: None Declared

  • 118.
    Malm, Karina
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden; Rheumatology, Capio Movement, Halmstad, Sweden & FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden & The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson, Maria LE
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing. Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Quality of life in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis: A phenomenographic study2017In: SAGE Open Medicine, E-ISSN 2050-3121, Vol. 5, article id 2050312117713647Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis perceive reduced quality of life in several domains, such as physical health, level of independence, environment and personal beliefs, compared with the healthy population. There is an increasing interest in quality of life in clinical and medical interventions. Few studies have explored patients' individual conceptions of quality of life, and interviews can thus complement quantitative studies. There is a need for a deeper understanding of the patients' experiences of quality of life, with regard to living with a long-term condition such as rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of this study was to explore the variation of ways in which patients with established rheumatoid arthritis understand the concept of quality of life.

    METHODS: The study had a qualitative design with a phenomenographic approach, which was used to describe variations in how individuals experience their quality of life. The study is based on interviews with 22 patients with established rheumatoid arthritis enrolled in the BARFOT (better anti-rheumatic pharmacotherapy) study.

    RESULTS: The concept of quality of life could be understood in three different ways: (1) independence in terms of physical functioning and personal finances, (2) empowerment in how to manage life and (3) participation as an experience of belonging in a social context.

    CONCLUSION: The different conceptions of quality of life reflect the complexity in the concept, including physical, psychological and social aspects. This complexity is important to have in mind when health professionals support patients in enhancing their quality of life. © The Author(s) 2017

  • 119.
    Malmborg, Julia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Olsson, Charlotte M.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Pain and its association to health, orthorexia nervosa, sports performance, and physical maturity in sport school adolescents2017In: Proceedings of the Nordic Sport Science Conference – ‘The Double-Edged Sword of Sport: Health Promotion Versus Unhealthy Environments’ / [ed] Hertting, K. & Johnson, U., Halmstad: Halmstad University Press, 2017, p. 56-57Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 120.
    Malmborg, Julia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Olsson, Charlotte M.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bergman, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Health status, physical activity, and orthorexia nervosa: A comparison between exercise science students and business students2017In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 109, p. 137-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Orthorexia nervosa is described as an exaggerated fixation on healthy food. It is unclear whether students in health-oriented academic programs, highly focused on physical exercise, are more prone to develop orthorexia nervosa than students in other educational areas. The aim was to compare health status, physical activity, and frequency of orthorexia nervosa between university students enrolled in an exercise science program (n = 118) or a business program (n = 89). The students completed the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and ORTO-15, which defines orthorexia nervosa as a sensitive and obsessive behavior towards healthy nutrition. The SF-36 showed that exercise science students scored worse than business students regarding bodily pain (72.8 vs. 82.5; p = 0.001), but better regarding general health (83.1 vs. 77.1; p = 0.006). Of 188 students, 144 (76.6%) had an ORTO-15 score indicating orthorexia nervosa, with a higher proportion in exercise science students than in business students (84.5% vs. 65.4%; p = 0.002). Orthorexia nervosa in combination with a high level of physical activity was most often seen in men in exercise science studies and less often in women in business studies (45.1% vs. 8.3%; p < 0.000). A high degree of self-reporting of pain and orthorexia nervosa in exercise science students may cause problems in the future, since they are expected to coach others in healthy living. Our findings may be valuable in the development of health-oriented academic programs and within student healthcare services. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  • 121.
    Malmborg, Julia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bergman, A.-C.
    Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Primary Health Care Unit, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sleeping Problems and Anxiety is Associated to Chronic Multisite Musculoskeletal Pain in Swedish High School Students2018In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 77, no Suppl. 2, p. 226-226, article id OP0361-HPRArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The relationship between chronic multisite musculoskeletal pain (CMP) and sleep is complex, where pain can lead to sleeping problems and lack of sleep can intensify the pain perception. Most previous studies relates to adults, but adolescents may also suffer from CMP, and there is a need for more knowledge regarding the relationships between CMP and sleeping problems, stress, anxiety, depression, and health status.

    Objectives: To study background factors associated to CMP in first year Swedish high school students.

    Methods: First year Swedish high school students (n=296) were invited to complete questionnaires on chronic pain (mannequin with 18 body regions), sleeping problems (Uppsala Sleep Inventory, four items scored from 1–5), stress (ELO questions, scored from 1–5), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, scored from 0–21), health status (EQ-5D, scored from 0 to 1, worst to best) and physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire, categorised into low, moderate and high levels). Stress and sleeping items were dichotomized into 1–3 points (best) vs 4–5 points (worst). Individuals scoring at least severe problems (4 points) at one or more sleeping items were classified as having severe sleeping problems. HADS were categorised as non-cases (0–7), possible7–10 and probable cases (11–21 points). Students were grouped as having CMP (pain present in ≥3 regions) or not (no chronic pain or chronic pain in 1–2 regions). Multiple logistic regression analyses (adjusted for sex) with CMP as dependent variable were performed in SPSS, version 24.

    Results: 254 students (86% of total sample, 87 boys and 167 girls) with a mean age of 16.1 (SD 0.6) years participated in the study. CMP was present in 25 (9.8%) students with no differences between boys and girls (8.0% vs 10.8%; p=0.488). Having CMP was associated with reporting severe sleeping problems (OR 2.49, 95% CI: 1.06 to 5.81, p=0.035) with initiating sleep, maintaining sleep, early morning awakenings and/or not feeling restored after sleep in comparison to the other students. Students with CMP were more likely to be categorised as probable cases for anxiety (OR 3.06, 95% CI: 1.09 to 8.61, p=0.034), but there were no associations for possible cases for anxiety (OR 1.15, 95% CI: 0.38 to 3.51, p=0.800), possible cases (OR 2.03, 95% CI: 0.63 to 6.54), or probable cases for depression (OR 3.35, 95% CI: 0.33 to 33.83). There was a nearly significant association between stress and belonging to the CMP group (OR 2.31, 95% CI: 0.97 to 5.53, p=0.059). A higher self-reported health status was associated to a lower likelihood for CMP (OR 0.04, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.27, p=0.001). Distribution of physical activity levels of low, moderate and high was not significantly associated to having CMP in comparison with not having it.

    Conclusions: One in ten high school students fulfilled criteria for having chronic multisite musculoskeletal pain. CMP was associated to sleeping problems, anxiety, and a worse health status. The results from this study may be used by school health-care professionals in their preventive work to promote student’s health.

    Disclosure of Interest: None declared

  • 122.
    Malmborg, Julia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Olsson, Charlotte M.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bergman, Stefan
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Daily Musculoskeletal Pain Affects Health And Sports Performance Negatively In Youth Athletes2017In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 49, p. 972-972Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In sports, musculoskeletal pain (MSP) is often studied from the perspective of sport specific injuries, why little is known about the prevalence of daily or multisite MSP that does not affect participation in sports. It is also unclear if daily or multisite MSP is a risk factor for worse health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and worse sports performance in youth athletes.

    PURPOSE: To study how HRQoL and sports performance is affected by daily MSP in youth athletes that are able to participate in sports.

    METHODS: 136 Swedish youth athletes attending a sport school (13 to 14 years, boys n=83, girls n=53) completed the EQ-5D measuring HRQoL (range 0 to 1, worst to best), a pain questionnaire including current pain (yes/no), pain in 18 body regions (never to rarely/monthly to weekly/more than once a week to almost daily), and pain intensity in the last week (0 to 10, best to worst), anthropometric measures to estimate biological age, and sports performance tests (grip strength, 20 meter sprint, and countermovement jump(CMJ)).

    RESULTS: 109 to 117 of the 136 students answered the different pain questions. 53 of 113 (47%) reported current MSP, and 28 of 109 (26%) experienced MSP ‘more than once a week to almost daily’ from one or more body regions (frequent MSP group), while 28% (n=30) stated ‘never to rarely’ in MSP (no MSP group). Boys in the frequent MSP group reported worse HRQoL, higher pain intensity, performed worse in all sports performance tests, and had a younger biological age than boys in the no MSP group. Girls in the frequent MSP group reported worse HRQoL and higher pain intensity than the girls in the no MSP group. No other differences were found (table).

    CONCLUSIONS: Every other youth athlete attending a sport school reported current MSP and one out of four reported almost daily MSP. MSP affects HRQoL negatively in both boys and girls, and sports performance negatively in boys. The prevalence of MSP in youth athletes is concerning since pain in younger ages may predict pain in adult ages.

    © 2017 American College of Sports Medicine

  • 123.
    Malmborg, Julia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Malmö Sports Academy, Malmö, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Musculoskeletal pain and its association with maturity and sports performance in 14-year-old sport school students2018In: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine, ISSN 2055-7647, Vol. 4, no 1, article id e000395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: In youth sports, musculoskeletal pain is often studied from the standpoint of sports injuries, but little is known about pain conditions in which athletes still participate. The aim was to study the frequency of pain and associations with maturity offset, health status and sports performance in 14-year-old sport school students.

    Methods: Cross-sectional design. One hundred and seventy-eight students (108 boys and 70 girls) completed anthropometric measures for maturity offset (height, weight and sitting height), questionnaires (pain mannequin and EQ-5D for health status) and sports performance tests (sprint, agility, counter-movement jump and grip strength). Differences between groups were analysed with Student’s t-test and analysis of covariance.

    Results: Thirty-one students (18.6%) reported infrequent pain, 85 (50.9%) frequent pain and 51 (30.5%) constant pain. Students in the constant pain group had worse health status than those in the infrequent pain group. Boys with constant pain (n=27) had a lower mean maturity offset (–0.38 vs 0.07 years; p=0.03) than boys with infrequent pain (n=22), and pain was associated with worse sports performance. There was no difference in maturity or sports performance between girls with constant pain (n=24) and girls with infrequent pain (n=9).

    Conclusion: Musculoskeletal pain is common in sport school students and coincides with worse health status and with a younger biological age in boys. The high prevalence of pain should be acknowledged by coaches and student healthcare workers in order to promote a healthy and sustainable development in young athletes. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2018.

  • 124.
    Mattsson, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Landsbygdsutveckling kan bidra till att uppnå klimatmålen2017In: Så här ligger landet - tankar om landsbygdsprogram och landsbygdsutveckling / [ed] Utvärderingssekretariatet vid Jordbruksverket, Jönköping: Jordbruksverket , 2017, p. 72-76Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 125.
    Matveenko, L.I.
    et al.
    Space Research Institute, Profsojuznaja 84/32, Moscow 117810, Russian Federation.
    Pauliny-Toth, L.I.K.
    Max-Planck-Inst. F. Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn, Germany.
    Bååth, Lars
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Graham, D.A.
    Max-Planck-Inst. F. Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn, Germany.
    Sherwood, W.A.
    Max-Planck-Inst. F. Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn, Germany.
    Kus, A.J.
    Torun Radio Astronomy Observatory, Gagarina 11, PL-87100 Torun, Poland.
    The structure of the quasar 3C345 at lambda 49cm and its relation to low-frequency variability1996In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 312, p. 738-744Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The structure of the quasar 3C345 has been studied at lambda 49cm with a global VLBI network. The core has a low-freuqncy cut off in its spectrum, and is very weak at this wavelength. The most compact bright knot is the part of the jet nearest to the nucleus, with a size of about 5x4 mas and a brightness temperature of Tb about 0.6 10^12 K. Its flux density and solid angle increased by a factor of about 2 during the period 1983.9 to 1990.8, but the birghtness temperature did not change significantly. The emission at millimeter wavelengths decreased by a factor of about 2 during the same period, while the UV emission from the nucleus also dcreased. We suggest that variations in the low-frequency emissions are caused by changes in the absorption by a cocoon - the thermal plasma surrounding the jet. The electron density in the region is Ne about 10^5 cm^-3and the longitudal field is about 40 microG. The emission measure and the rotation measure vary with r, the distance from the nucleus as r^-3. The data at lamda 49cm indi´cate several components in and near the "hotspot" at the end of the arcsec jet.

  • 126.
    Meesters, Jorit J.L.
    et al.
    1ERC Syd, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden & Department of Orthopaedics, Rehabilitation and Physical Therapy, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands & Research and Development, Sophia Rehabilitation Center, The Hague, The Netherlands.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Section of Rheumatology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Primary Health Care Unit, Institute of Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Lennart Th
    Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Petersson, Ingemar F.
    Section of Orthopedics, Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Section of Rheumatology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Prognostic factors for change in self-reported anxiety and depression in spondyloarthritis patients: data from the population-based SpAScania cohort from southern Sweden2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0300-9742, E-ISSN 1502-7732, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 185-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Anxiety and depression symptoms are more common in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA) than in the general population. This study describes prognostic factors for change in self-reported anxiety and depression over 2 years in a well-defined SpA cohort.

    METHOD: In 2009, 3716 adult patients from the SpAScania cohort received a postal questionnaire to assess quality of life (QoL) and physical and mental functioning. A follow-up survey was performed in 2011. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale indicated 'no', 'possible', and 'probable' cases of anxiety and depression. Transitions between the three different categories were analysed and logistic regression analysis determined prognostic factors (patient-reported outcomes and characteristics) for improvement or deterioration.

    RESULTS: In total, 1629 SpA patients responded to both surveys (44%) (mean ± SD age 55.8 ± 13.1 years, disease duration 14.6 ± 11.7 years); 27% had ankylosing spondylitis, 55% psoriatic arthritis, and 18% undifferentiated SpA. The proportion of patients reporting possible/probable anxiety decreased from 31% to 25% over 2 years, while no changes in depression were seen. Factors associated with deterioration or improvement were largely the same for anxiety as for depression: fatigue, general health, QoL, level of functioning, disease activity, and self-efficacy. However, reporting chronic widespread pain (CWP) at baseline increased the risk of becoming depressed and decreased the probability of recovering from anxiety.

    CONCLUSION: Self-reported anxiety and depression is common and fairly stable over time in SpA patients. The association between mental health and CWP indicates that both comorbidities need to be acknowledged and treated in the clinic. © 2018 The Author(s).

  • 127.
    Meunier, Cédric L.
    et al.
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Liess, Antonia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden & Umeå Marine Sciences Centre, Norrbyn, Hörnefors, Sweden.
    Brugel, Sonia
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden & Umeå Marine Sciences Centre, Norrbyn, Hörnefors, Sweden.
    Paczkowska, Joanna
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden & Umeå Marine Sciences Centre, Norrbyn, Hörnefors, Sweden.
    Rahman, Habib
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Skoglund, Björn
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Rowe, Owen F.
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden & Umeå Marine Sciences Centre, Norrbyn, Hörnefors, Sweden.
    Allochthonous carbon is a major driver of the microbial food web - A mesocosm study simulating elevated terrestrial matter runoff2017In: Marine Environmental Research, ISSN 0141-1136, E-ISSN 1879-0291, Vol. 129, p. 236-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change predictions indicate that coastal and estuarine environments will receive increased terrestrial runoff via increased river discharge. This discharge transports allochthonous material, containing bioavailable nutrients and light attenuating matter. Since light and nutrients are important drivers ofbasal production, their relative and absolute availability have important consequences for the base of the aquatic food web, with potential ramifications for higher trophic levels. Here, we investigated the effects of shifts in terrestrial organic matter and light availability on basal producers and their grazers. In twelve Baltic Sea mesocosms, we simulated the effects of increased river runoff alone and in combination. We manipulated light (clear/shade) and carbon (added/not added) in a fully factorial design, with three replicates. We assessed microzooplankton grazing preferences in each treatment to assess whether increased terrestrial organic matter input would: (1) decrease the phytoplankton to bacterial biomass ratio, (2) shift microzooplanlcton diet from phytoplankton to bacteria, and (3) affect microzooplankton biomass. We found that carbon addition, but not reduced light levels per se resulted in lower phytoplanlcton to bacteria biomass ratios. Microzooplankton generally showed a strong feeding preference for phytoplanlcton over bacteria, but, in carbon-amended mesocosms which favored bacteria, microzooplankton shifted their diet towards bacteria. Furthermore, low total prey availability corresponded with low microzooplankton biomass and the highest bacteria/phytoplankton ratio. Overall our results suggest that in shallow coastal waters, modified with allochthonous matter from river discharge, light attenuation may be inconsequential for the basal producer balance, whereas increased allochthonous carbon, especially if readily bioavailable, favors bacteria over phytoplankton. We conclude that climate change induced shifts at the base of the food web may alter energy mobilization to and thebiomass of microzooplankton grazers. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 128.
    Mogard, E.
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, E.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Risk factors for development and persistence of chronic widespread pain, in ankylosing spondylitis and undifferentiated spondyloarthritis2017In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 76, no Suppl. 2, p. 922-922Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Chronic back pain is a prominent symptom in Spondyloarthritis (SpA), and an important contributor to diminished quality of life (1,2). Chronic pain can develop in intensity, become more spread, and progress to chronic widespread pain (2). Mechanisms for this are yet inconsistent (3), and in SpA, knowledge of progression to chronic widespread pain (CWP) is lacking.

    Objectives To study the development of CWP in patients with SpA, and to identify risk factors for development and persistence of CWP.

    Methods A cohort study with baseline and 2.5-year follow-up postal surveys. 644 patients (47% women) with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and undifferentiated spondyloarthritis (SpA) answered both surveys, and were categorized as no chronic pain (NCP), chronic regional pain (CRP), and CWP. Logistic regression analyses, with CWP as the main outcome were performed. Due to multicollinearity, each risk factor candidate (disease duration, BMI, smoking, and different patient-reported outcome measures; PROMs) were analysed in separate logistic regression models together with a base model (age, sex, and SpA-subgroup).

    Results At follow-up, prevalence estimates for NCP, CRP and CWP were similar to those at baseline, but 38% of the patients had transitioned between the groups. A large group, 72% of the patients with initial CWP, also reported persistent CWP at follow-up (Figure). Risk factors (OR and 95% CI) for development of CWP from initial NCP/CRP were more pain regions (1.36; 1.20–1.53), pain intensity (1.35; 1.20–1.52), fatigue (1.25; 1.13–1.38), global health (1.35; 1.19–1.54), EQ-5D (0.05; 0.01 – 0.19), BASDAI (1.25; 1.07 – 1.45), BASFI (1.32; 1.16 – 1.50), ASES pain (0.97; 0.96 – 0.99), ASES symtom (0.98; 0.97 – 0.99), and HADb (1.10; 1.02 – 1.19). The risk factors for persistent CWP, compared to patients transitioning to NCP or CRP, were similar to those predicting development of CWP, but in addition, also higher age (1.02; 1.00–1.04), and female sex (1.82; 1.06–3.10), predicted the outcome. © 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Limited.

  • 129.
    Mogard, E.
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Olofsson, T.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bergman, Stefan
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kristensen, L-E
    Copenhagen University Hospital Fredriksberg and Bispebjerg, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Kvistgaard Olsen, J.
    Copenhagen University Hospital Fredriksberg and Bispebjerg, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wallman, JK
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, E.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Chronic Pain in Patients With Established Axial Spondyloarthritis and Assessment of Pain Sensitivity by Computerized Pneumatic Cuff Pressure Algometry: Results from the Spartakus Cohort2017In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 76, no Suppl. 2, p. 651-651Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Pain is a common symptom in all arthritides, and remains a problem also with better treatment options. In axial spondyloarthritis (ax-SpA), data on chronic pain remain scarce.

    Objectives: To study pain distribution, duration and intensity in ax-SpA, and relate this to disease status and measurement of pressure pain sensitivity.

    Methods: Consecutive patients (n=115) with clinical ax-SpA diagnoses (ankylosing spondylitis (AS) or undifferentiated axial spondyloarthritis (USpA)) were examined and answered pain questionnaires. Patients were categorised as having no chronic pain (NCP), chronic regional pain (CRP) or chronic widespread pain (CWP). Pressure pain sensitivity was assessed by computerized pneumatic cuff pressure algometry (CPA) on the dominant lower leg, and pain threshold, pain tolerance and temporal summation (assessed by the temporal summation index, TSI) were recorded. Differences in disease status and pressure pain sensitivity between patients with CWP versus NCP were assessed (Chi-square or Mann-Whitney U-test). Pressure pain sensitivity was also compared between patients with/without unacceptable pain levels (VAS pain >40 versus ≤40; Mann-Whitney U-test).

    Results: Fifty percent of patients reported CWP, irrespective of clinical diagnosis (AS 47%, USpA 53%), and more women than men reported CWP (59% versus 37%, p<0.001). Only 18% of all patients reported NCP. Overall, higher disease activity, pain intensity, worse fatigue, global health and function were observed among patients with CWP compared to those with NCP. There was a trend towards lower pain tolerance in patients with CWP compared to NCP (Table). Lower pain tolerance and higher TSI scores were observed among patients reporting VAS pain >40 versus those with VAS pain scores ≤40 ((mean (SD)) 51.9 (21.2) versus 68.1 (28.1), p=0.007; 0.73 (0.60) versus 0.55 (0.59), p=0.045). 2017, BMJ Publishing Group Limited.

  • 130.
    Mogard, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Elisabet
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden & The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Spinal Mobility in Axial Spondyloarthritis: A Cross-Sectional Clinical Study2017In: Musculoskeletal Care, ISSN 1478-2189, E-ISSN 1557-0681, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 36-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Research concerning spinal mobility in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) has focused on ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and data on the clinical diagnosis of undifferentiated spondyloarthritis (USpA) are limited. The objective was to study differences in spinal mobility between axSpA subgroups AS and USpA, including gender differences.

    METHODS: A total of 183 patients with axSpA from a rheumatology clinic were included in the study. The earliest recorded spinal mobility measures (cervical rotation/flexion/extension/lateral flexion, tragus-to-wall distance, vital capacity, chest expansion, thoracic flexion, thoracolumbar flexion, lateral spinal flexion, lumbar flexion and intermalleolar distance) were obtained by specialized physiotherapists. Differences between subgroups were analysed using analysis of covariance, controlled for gender and disease duration.

    RESULTS: In the USpA group (n = 57), the mean [standard deviation (SD)] age was 41.6 (11.4) years, and disease duration was 13 (10.6) years, with 54% men. In the AS group (n = 126), the mean (SD) age was 48.4 (13.5) years, and disease duration 24.6 (13.3) years, with 77% men. Spinal mobility was less restricted in USpA versus AS patients (p ≤ 0.05), with a median (interquartile range) tragus-to-wall distance of 11 (10-12) cm versus 13 (11.3-18.5) cm; thoracolumbar flexion 9 (7-10) cm versus 6.5 (4-9) cm; lateral spinal flexion 29 (25-36) cm versus 21.3 (12-31) cm; lumbar flexion 4.5 (3.5-5.0) cm versus 3.5 (2.0-4.5) cm and intermalleolar distance 113 (102-121) cm versus 101 (86-114) cm. There were no differences between the subgroups in cervical mobility, vital capacity, chest expansion or thoracic flexion, and there were few gender differences, besides anthropometric measures.

    CONCLUSION: Patients with USpA and AS had similar cervical and chest mobility, while thoracic and lumbar mobility were more severely restricted in AS. There were few gender differences in either subgroup. Further studies, to understand the full impact of USpA on spinal mobility, are needed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 131.
    Möller, Bernd
    et al.
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Updated Peta atlas for each MS with the final level of district heating recommended in WP6: Deliverable 6.52018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents in brief the development and content of the Pan-European Thermal Atlas (Peta), with focus on the current update in response to project deliverable 6.5, which concerns for the final levels of district heating for each of the 14 member states to be recommended in WP6.

    The update refers to data that has been rendered in work package 2 (WP2) and consists of three main parameters: a high-resolution model of the heat demand and its density; the specific investment costs for district heating systems, and allocated volumes of industrial and energy sector excess heat for current and prospective district heating areas. All of these parameters represent spatially derived information that has been provided as data matrices to the energy systems modelling colleagues in WP6, as a basis for their assessment of national heating and cooling scenarios for the 14 member states (deliverable 6.4).

    In terms of dynamic maps, a new dynamic layer, labelled: Recommended DH levels, has been added to the Peta 4.2 online web map application on August 31, 2018, where it now is publicly available. This new layer contains recommendations to develop district heating at the local scale, based on current heat demand densities, temporally and spatially accessible excess heat from industries, from waste-to-energy facilities, from current power plant locations, and in terms of access to locally available renewable energy resources.

    In November 2018, the Pan-European Thermal Atlas is scheduled for a comprehensive update, rendering the third version (Peta 4.3), to be released at the 4th International Conference on Smart Energy Systems and 4th Generation District Heating conference (SES4GDH) in Aalborg, Denmark, on November 13-14. Apart from several other new dynamic layers to be introduced in this coming update (see sub-section 1.2.3), the new layer on recommended district heating levels, added here to the current Peta 4.2, will also be part of this general update.

  • 132.
    Möller, Bernd
    et al.
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany & Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Wiechers, Eva
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Grundahl, Lars
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Connolly, David
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Heat Roadmap Europe: Identifying local heat demand and supply areas with a European thermal atlas2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 158, p. 281-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2016 the first Strategy for Heating and Cooling of the European Union has shown that district heating and cooling networks can integrate renewable energies in an increasingly energy-efficient built environment. At the same time, the heating and cooling sector is probably the most diverse and least mapped component of the European energy system. The aim of the Pan-European Thermal Atlas is to improve the knowledge base for the geographical distribution of heat and cooling demands across Europe. Demand densities of the demanded thermal services themselves, the spatial coherence of these demands, and their location relative to sources of heating greatly affect the economy of district heating schemes compared to individual solutions. The objective is therefore to develop a comprehensive model, which can be used to a) quantify heat demands by density, b) group coherent areas with demands into prospective supply zones, c) produce supply curves for these zones, and d) ultimately calculate local energy mixes on the basis of allocated excess heat as well as renewable energy sources. The developed method spatially disaggregates national demand data to high-resolution geospatial data on urban structures. The resulting atlas allows for an advanced quantitative screening process, which can establish the basis for energy systems analyses relying on geographically explicit information on the heating demand and supply volumes and costs. The present paper presents version 4 of the Pan-European Thermal Atlas, which takes another step towards higher spatial resolution and confidence in comparison to its predecessors, version 1 to 3. For the first time, a 100m resolution heat atlas of Europe is being presented, which may help describing the heating sector in the required spatial resolution. By means of spatial statistical analyses using ordinary least square linear regressions, multiple spatial inputs such as population, degree of built-up and its derivatives are turned into a coherent model of the urban tissue. Plot ratios form the basis of models of heat demand in single and multi-family residential buildings as well as the service sector. Prospective district heating areas have been delineated, and the resulting zoning of heat supply has been linked to a resource-economic analysis, which allows for cost-supply studies in disaggregated form. The present heat atlas version 4 is now available for 14 countries that altogether represent 90% of the heat demand in the 28 European Union member states. First results are being presented with emphasis on the achieved methodological improvements. Moreover, a newly developed online mapping system is being presented, which will assist in mapping the new geography of heating and cooling demands and supplies. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 133.
    Möller, Bernd
    et al.
    Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems, Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany & Department of Planning, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wiechers, Eva
    Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems, Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Grundahl, Lars
    Department of Planning, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Søgaard Lund, Rasmus
    Department of Planning, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Vad Mathiesen, Brian
    Department of Planning, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Heat Roadmap Europe: Towards EU-Wide, local heat supply strategies2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 177, p. 554-564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper describes a quantitative method for preparing local heat supply strategies. Detailed spatial data on heat demand and supply are generated using combined top-down and bottom-up modelling for 14 member states of the European Union, which constitute 91% of its heat demand in buildings. Spatial analysis is used for zoning of heat supply into individual and collective heating. Continuous cost curves are used to model economically feasible district heating shares within prospective supply districts. Excess heat is appraised and allocated to prospective district heating systems by means of a two-stage network allocation process. Access to renewable energy sources such as geothermal, large-scale solar thermal, as well as sustainable biomass, is analysed. The result is a comprehensive and detailed set of heat supply strategies in a spatially discrete manner. The findings indicate that in the 14 European Union member states, up to 71% of building heat demand in urban areas can be met with district heating. Of this, up to 78% can be covered with excess heat, while the remainder can be covered with low enthalpy renewable energy sources. The conclusion shows the possibility of a largely de-carbonised heat sector as part of a smart energy system for Europe.  © 2019 Elsevier Ltd

  • 134.
    Möllerström, Erik
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Noise, eigenfrequencies and turbulence behavior of a 200 kW H-rotor vertical axis wind turbine2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) have with time been outrivaled by the today more common and economically feasible horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs). However, VAWTs have several advantages which still make them interesting, for example, the VAWTs can have the drive train at ground level and it has been argued that they have lower noise emission. Other proposed advantages are suitability for both up-scaling and floating offshore platforms.

    The work within this thesis is made in collaboration between Halmstad University and Uppsala University. A 200-kW semi-guy-wired VAWT H-rotor, owned by Uppsala University but situated in Falkenberg close to Halmstad, has been the main subject of the research although most results can be generalized to suit a typical H-rotor.

    This thesis has three main topics regarding VAWTs: (1) how the wind energy extraction is influenced by turbulence, (2) aerodynamical noise generation and (3) eigenfrequencies of the semi-guy-wired tower.

    The influence from turbulence on the wind energy extraction is studied by evaluating logged operational data and examining how the power curve and the tip-speed ratio for maximum Cp is impacted by turbulence. The work has showed that the T1-turbine has a good ability to extract wind energy at turbulent conditions, indicating an advantage in energy extraction at turbulent sites for VAWTs compared to HAWTs.The noise characteristics are studied experimentally, and models of the two most likely aerodynamic noise mechanisms are applied. Here, inflow-turbulence noise is deemed as the prevailing noise source rather than turbulent-boundary-layer trailing-edge noise (TBL-TE) which is the most important noise mechanism for HAWTs. The overall noise emission has also been measured and proven low compared to similar sized HAWTs.

    The eigenfrequencies of a semi-guy-wired tower are also studied. Analytical expressions describing the first-mode eigenfrequency of both tower and guy wire has been derived and verified by experiments and simulations.

  • 135.
    Möllerström, Erik
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Wind Turbines from the Swedish Wind Energy Program and the Subsequent Commercialization Attempts – A Historical Review2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 4, article id 690Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes wind turbines of Swedish origin, 50 kW and above. Both the large governmental-funded prototypes from the early 1980s and following attempts to build commercial turbines are covered. After the 1973 oil crisis, a development program for wind turbine technology was initiated in Sweden, culminating in the early 1980s with the 2 and 3-MW machines at Maglarp and Näsudden. However, government interest declined, and Sweden soon lost its position as one of the leading countries regarding wind turbine development. Nevertheless, several attempts to build commercial wind turbines in Sweden were made in the following decades. Most attempts have, like the earlier prototypes, used a two-bladed rotor, which has become synonymous with the Swedish wind turbine development line. The current ongoing Swedish endeavors primarily focus on the niche-concept of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs), which is a demonstration of how far from the broad commercial market of Sweden has moved. Thus far, none of the Swedish attempts have been commercially successful, and unlike countries like Denmark or Germany, Sweden currently has no large wind turbine producer. Suggested reasons include early government interventions focusing on two-bladed prototypes and political disinterest, with wind power grants cut in half by 1985, and the domestic industry not being favored in government policies for deploying wind power.

  • 136.
    Möllerström, Erik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Gipe, Paul
    Wind-works.org, Bakersfield, CA, USA.
    Beurskens, Jos
    SET Analysis, Schagen, the Netherlands.
    Ottermo, Fredric
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    A historical review of vertical axis wind turbines rated 100 kW and above2019In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 105, p. 1-13Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes and introduces all vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) projects where 100 kW or larger turbines have been installed. The basis for the review is both existing literature and personal correspondence with people once involved in the different developments. By citing the most relevant work for each project, the paper will also work as an information hub, making information on these projects more accessible.

    Since the 1970s, there have been several VAWT projects with installed turbines of significant size, either as attempts to commercialize VAWTs, or as university led research projects, or as a combination of the two. Most have involved Darrieus turbines built in North America during the 1980s. However, H-rotors, which have always been a favored concept in Europe, have seen a revival during the 2010s.

    The reason VAWTs have never fully challenged the success of the horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) is too broad a question to answer here. However, the reasons some VAWT projects have failed are addressed in this paper. Besides the fact that many of the prototypes had terminal failures, most of the installed medium or large-scale VAWTs have to some extent had problems with metal fatigue and durability. Additionally, a lack of long-term interest from governmental or private funders, as well as the introduction of reliable HAWTs, was a recurring theme from those involved in VAWT development, regarding the reason VAWTs so far have failed to succeed. © 2018 The Author(s)

  • 137.
    Möllerström, Erik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Ottermo, Fredric
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Comparison of inflow-turbulence and trailing-edge noise models with measurements of a 200-kW vertical axis wind turbine2019In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 1222, article id 012028Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Models of inflow-turbulence noise and turbulent-boundary-layer trailing-edge noise are compared to earlier measurements of a 200-kW vertical axis wind turbine so that conclusions regarding the origin of the aerodynamic noise can be drawn. The measurement campaigns, which aimed at establishing the noise emission value and locating the aerodynamic noise sources with a microphone array, are here both compared to further modified versions of the trailing-edge and inflow-turbulence models respectively. Unlike the case for horizontal axis wind turbine, inflow-turbulence noise is deemed as the prevailing noise mechanism. Reducing the self-induced turbulence could then be an effective way of lowering the noise levels for vertical axis wind turbines. Also, looking at the directivity of the inflow-turbulence noise model which indicate most noise in the cross-wind directions, a deviation from the standard downwind measurement position for measuring noise emission is suggested for the VAWT case.

  • 138.
    Olsson, Charlotte M.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bernhardsson, Lina
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Electromyographic Analysis of Left and Right Side Gluteus Medius in Unilateral and Bilateral Bodyweight Exercises2017In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 49, no 5S, p. 464-465Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 139.
    Olsson, Charlotte M.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Fälth, Jenny
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Ahlebrand, August
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Sex-Differences In Bench Press Muscle Activation With Pre-Exhaustion Of Triceps Brachii2018In: Conference Abstracts, 2018, p. 67-68Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Pre-exhaustion is a resistance training method which activates a stronger single-joint muscle to momentary exhaustion directly before a multi-joint exercise including the pre-exhausted muscle. This results in greater recruitment of muscles in the multi-joint exercise to further increase muscle strength. The pre-exhaustion method in bench press has mainly been studied in men and it is uncertain if sex-differences exists. Men are stronger than women in absolute strength, especially in the upper body but if this holds true for upper body relative strength is debated. The purpose was to investigate muscle activity by surface electromyography (EMG) between women and men in bench press with and without pre-exhaustion of triceps brachii (TB) and to compare relative strength in 10RM bench press between the sexes.

    Methods: 15 women and 15 men in their 20s with weight lifting experience were recruited to the study. During the first session body composition and 10 repetition maximum (10RM) bench press were determined Participants performed both protocol A and B in a cross-over design on separate days. Protocol A began with 10 RM bench press, five minutes recovery, pre-exhaustion exercise (triceps extensions to failure) immediately followed by a second round of bench press with the same 10RM load as before pre-exhaustion. Protocol B started with triceps extensions to failure immediately before bench press at their before established 10RM, five minutes of recovery then they performed 10RM bench press again. IN both protocols, EMG electrodes were attached to TB), pectoralis major (PM) and deltoideus anterior (DA). EMG values were normalized to maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) and expressed as % MVIC.

    Results: Bench press only EMG activity in %MVIC was similar between women and men, but analysis of variance (TB interaction p=0.02) showed that women had higher %MVIC in TB after pre-exhaustion whereas muscle activity decreased in men compared to bench press without pre-exhaustion. Yet, the number of repetitions completed in bench press after pre-exhaustion of TB were the same (women 4.3 ± 2.6 vs men 3.8 ± 2.2; p=0.55). As expected, in 10RM weight men (64.0 ± 7.1 kg) were stronger than women (37.1 ± 6.5 kg; p<0.01), however when related to fat free mass no difference was evident in relative strength between women and men.

    Conclusion: Men and women have similar muscle activation patterns during a 10RM bench press, but TB pre-exhaustion followed by a bench press appears to have a greater effect on TB activation in women compared to men. Absolute strength was greater in men, but normalized to fat free mass women and men had similar upper body relative strength.

  • 140.
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Fälth, Jenny
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Ahlebrand, August
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Sex-Differences In Bench Press Muscle Activation With Pre-Exhaustion Of Triceps Brachii2018In: Conference Abstracts, 2018, p. 67-68Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 141.
    Ottermo, Fredric
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Möllerström, Erik
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nordborg, Anders
    Sound View Instruments, Borrby, Sweden.
    Hylander, Jonny
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Location of aerodynamic noise sources from a 200 kW vertical-axis wind turbine2017In: Journal of Sound and Vibration, ISSN 0022-460X, E-ISSN 1095-8568, Vol. 400, p. 154-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Noise levels emitted from a 200 kW H-rotor vertical-axis wind turbine have been measured using a microphone array at four different positions, each at a hub-height distance from the tower. The microphone array, comprising 48 microphones in a spiral pattern, allows for directional mapping of the noise sources in the range of 500 Hz to 4 kHz. The produced images indicate that most of the noise is generated in a narrow azimuth-angle range, compatible with the location where increased turbulence is known to be present in the flow, as a result of the previous passage of a blade and its support arms. It is also shown that a semi-empirical model for inflow-turbulence noise seems to produce noise levels of the correct order of magnitude, based on the amount of turbulence that could be expected from power extraction considerations.

  • 142.
    Paardekooper, Susana
    et al.
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Søgaard Lund, Rasmus
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Vad Mathiesen, Brian
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Chang, Miguel
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Petersen, Uni Reinert
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Grundahl, Lars
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    David, Andrei
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Dahlbæk, Jonas
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Kapetanakis, John
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Lund, Henrik
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Bertelsen, Nis
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Hansen, Kenneth
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Drysdale, David
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Heat Roadmap Europe 4: Quantifying the Impact of Low-Carbon Heating and Cooling Roadmaps: Deliverable 6.42018Report (Other academic)
  • 143.
    Parker, James
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    A multi-disciplinary approach to studying performance among high-level golfers: physiological and biomechanical aspects2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In competitive golf, the player’s ability to hit the ball a long distance affects the score in a positive way. Swing kinematics is considered an important factor in driver performance; one way of improving swing kinematics is through strength and power training. Subsequently, high-level golfers and their coaches often explore novel ways of increasing the distance of a shot, in particular driver carry distance (CD). This licentiate thesis presents two studies with the overall aim of studying how swing kinematic and physical characteristics are associated with driver performance among intercollegiate golf players. The studies report swing kinematics associated with driver performance (study 1) and the impact of isokinetic rotational training on driver performance and swing kinematic variables (study 2).

    The methods used were (1) a cross-sectional correlation study (n=15) and (2) an open trial intervention study (n=20). The studies investigated (1) the relationship between golf swing kinematics and driver performance, and (2) the impact of strength training on swing kinematics and driver performance variable.

    The results show variables that were distinctive for the club head speed (CHS) were mainly during the downswing: greater X-factor stretch; and higher pelvis peak speed. Whilst, factors distinctive to the regression model for CD were mainly at impact: reduced thorax rotation; and greater thorax lateral bend. Nine weeks of isokinetic training increased seated rotational force and power, peak arm speed and arm acceleration, ball speed, and CD more compared to isotonic training. Even though isokinetic training did not increase CHS, it did result in greater CD.

    This licentiate thesis contributes to the understanding of which variables influence driver performance, in particular CD, among high-level golfers. Segmental interactions (pelvis-thorax), lead arm speed and acceleration, isokinetic and isotonic training. These results may guide training interventions aiming to improve driver and golf performance among high-level golfers, particularly those with a background of strength training. Future studies could investigate how the interaction between swing kinematics, clubhead trajectory, and driver performance variables differ between male and female golfers.

  • 144.
    Parker, James
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Construct validity and test-retest reliability of the force-velocity profile in a golf specific rotation movement2017In: Book of Abstracts of the 22nd Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science – 5th - 8th July 2017, MetropolisRuhr – Germany / [ed] Ferrauti, A., Platen, P., Grimminger-Seidensticker, E., Jitner, T., Bartmus, U., Becher, L., De MArées, M., Muhlbauer, T., Schauterte, A., Wiewelhove, T., Tsolakidis, E., Cologne: European College of Sport Science , 2017, p. 294-294Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Assessing the isoinertial force-velocity (F-V) and power relationships has previously been found valuable to assist the understanding of the underlying mechanisms responsible for maximal power output. Multiple studies have investigated the F-V profile in the lower body, however, few studies have investigated F-V profiling in rotational movements, in particular, the golf swing. There is a need for isoinertial strength assessment protocols which can relate to final swing performance. The specific objective of the study was to investigate if measurements of force, velocity, and power using five different loads in a golf specific rotational movement are valid and reliable. Methods: 12 elite golfers (handicap -1.5±1.2) 8 men and 4 women performed a golf relevant rotational movement using five different loads (2, 6, 10, 14, and18 kg) in a motorised cable machine (1080 Motion AB, Sweden), measuring exercise peak force (PF), peak velocity (PV), and peak power (PP). In addition, normal-swing driver clubhead speed (CHSnor), and maximum clubhead speed (CHSmax) was measured using radar (Trackman, Denmark). The best of three trials for CHSnor, CHSmax, and the golf rotation was used for further analysis. Test-retest occasions were separated by 7-14 days. Statistical analysis: Change in mean (CIM) individual inter-session coefficient of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to analyze test-retest reliability, a Spearman's correlation between the rotation output variables and the CHS was used to assess construct validity.For reliability, an ICC of >0.70 was considered acceptable and results for correlation was considered excellent (≥0.90), good (0.75–0.89), moderate (0.50–0.74), poor (<0.50).was considered to be acceptable. Results: PF, PV, and PP for all of the five loads, apart from PP with 2 kg (CIM=12.2%, CV=14.1%, &ICC= 0.29) and PP with 18kg (CIM=8.6%, CV=19.1%, & ICC= 0.93), showed good reliability (CIM= 0.05-3.6%, CV=1.4-8.5%, & ICC= 0.84-0.97). PF (r=0.780-0.89 & 0.75-0.88), PV (r=0.76-0.86 & 0.78-0.85), and PP (r=0.75-0.84 & 0.76-0.85) for all loads had statistically significant strong correlations with both CHSnor and CHSmax respectively, apart from PF at 2kg (r=0.33). The average day to day variation among all loads for PF, PV and PP were 17.9 ±13.7 N, 0.30 ± 0.23 m/s, and 135.9 ± 128.1 W respectively. Greatest PP was achieved with the 14 kg load, although PP at 6, 10, and 14kg only differed by 90 W (8%) between these loads. Discussion: Isoinertial force-velocity-power profiling in high-level golfers can be assessed after a familiarization session. The strongest correlation among the rotational tests and CHS was between PF at 10 kg and CHSnor (r=0.89) and in general, the PF, PV, and PP variables had a strong relationship with both CHSnor and CHSmax. Such profiling may provide valuable information insight into the neuromuscular capabilities of high-level golfers and may be used to monitor specific training adaptions.

  • 145.
    Parker, James
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Scandinavian College of Sport, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hellström, John
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science. Swedish Golf Federation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Olsson, Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    The Variability in Kinematics and Carry in a Longitudinal Intra-individual Study of Elite Golfers2016In: Abstracts: July 18-22, 2016, 2016, p. 47-48Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To hit further and with high accuracy is important for success in the long game in golf. Even for very accomplished golfers a certain degree of between shot variance is evident even when trying to consistently repeat a successful shot. The consistency is determined by the biomechanics of the golfer, which influences club head speed (CHS) and position, and initial ball launch conditions, which in combination with environmental factors determine shot outcome. Previous research has identified several biomechanical variables associated with variance in CHS, including thorax rotation speed  and lead arm speed (LAS). Pilot data from our laboratory have indicated moderate non-significant relationship between CHS and carry in elite male golfers when studied over time. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the relationship between peak speed of the pelvis, thorax, and lead upper arm and carry over time, investigating both within and between session variability in elite male golfers.

    Methods: Six elite male golfers (handicap range -3 to +0.5) (age range 21-23 years) were included in this study. The golfers were studied on four separate occasions over a year.  Each test occasion included a golf specific warm-up of the golfers’ choice, then subjects were instructed to hit five balls with their driver and use the swing that was as ‘normal ‘as possible. Data on swing kinematics was collected using a four sensor electromagnetic motion capture system at 120Hz (Polhemus Inc. USA). Nine landmarks were digitized to define segment lengths, orientations and joint axes. CHS and carry were collected using a launch monitor (Trackman3e, v.3.2, Trackman, Denmark). The swing events were determined from sensors on the club; top of backswing was determined when the club changes direction from backswing to downswing. Impact was determined when the clubhead reaches the horizontal position equivalent to where it was at address. Angular velocities and displacements of the pelvis, thorax, and lead arm were calculated using standard biomechanics principles in conjunction with advanced motion measurement software (AMM 3D, USA). No data smoothing techniques were used before data analysis. IBM SPSS v.22 was used to analyse the data through hierarchical multilevel modelling (MLM). First a baseline model without predictors was run, then MLM was repeated with predictors where the first level of the data contained carry and kinematic data from each shot (within session level). At the second level, the carry scores were nested within sessions and analysed between sessions. Lastly, at the third level, the sessions were nested within players (between players). Carry was used as outcome variable and kinematics as predictor variables with a probability level of 0.05.

    Results: Initially MLM baseline model for carry only, was tested) without predictors. The results showed a statistical significant intercept (Estimate = 226.24, p<.001). Intraclass correlations (ICC) suggested that 32.5% of the variance in carry were present within sessions (level 1), whilst 38.0% were attributed to differences in carry between sessions (level 2). Results from the second MLM generated an improved model fit (-2 LL & BIC) where peak speeds of the pelvis, thorax, and lead upper arm were included as fixed effect covariates on level 1. The result showed that peak LAS was a statistically significant predictor of carry (β=.17, p=.001) whereas peek speed of neither thorax (β=-.04, p=.364) nor pelvis (β=.02, p=.673) had any statistically significant relationship with carry.

    Discussion: The present study found that 32.5% of variation in shot consistency can be explained at the within session level (influenced by for example variance in centeredness of impact), and 38% of variation in shot consistency can be explained at the between session level (influenced by for example environmental factors). Furthermore, LAS was the only significant predictor of within session variance in carry. Our results indicated peak LAS speed as a predictor of within session variance in carry and this is partly supported by previous research who found golfers with higher arm speed had higher ball velocity than golfers with lower arm speed(Healy et al., 2011). However, results from our pilot study differ from previous research which reports a relationship between peak thorax speed and driver performance. The difference could be due to our results being based on longitudinal data at intra-individual level, whereas previous studies have used a cross-sectional study design, different analysis methods and reported at an inter-individual level. In conclusion, our preliminary data show that within session LAS is a predictor of carry distance when the objective is shot consistency. Practitioners may consider training strategies to optimize arm speed when improve driving consistency among elite golfers. 

    References

    Healy, A., Moran, K. A., Dickson, J., Hurley, C., Smeaton, A. F., O'Connor, N. E., . . . Chockalingam, N. (2011). Analysis of the 5 iron golf swing when hitting for maximum distance. Journal of sports sciences, 29(10), 1079-1088. 

  • 146.
    Parker, James
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Hellström, John
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Swedish Golf Federation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Relationships between golf swing kinematics and driver performance in elite golfersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swing kinematics and driver performance are considered important factors in golf performance. In golf research clubhead speed (CHS) is commonly used as the driver performance measure, whereas carry distance (CD) is less investigated and together with final ball position determine the success of a drive. The aim of this study was to investigate which kinematic factors of the pelvis, thorax, and lead arm explain CHS and/or CD. Swing kinematics data on 15 elite golfers were collected using an electromagnetic 3-D system and a doppler-radar launch monitor system. Variables that emerged as important for both CHS and CD were: reduced pelvis rotation top of backswing (TOB); reduced X-factor TOB; and more thorax lateral bend TOB, along with greater thorax peak speed during the downswing. Variables that were distinctive for the CHS model were mainly during the downswing: greater X-factor stretch; and higher pelvis peak speed. Finally, factors distinctive to the regression model for CD were: reduced thorax rotation; and greater thorax lateral bend. Implications from the results suggest whilst greater peak pelvis speed and x-factor stretch effect CHS they do not significantly influence CD. Likewise, the variables unique to CD do not significantly influence CHS but may be a technical attributes which allow for more optimal clubhead delivery leading to improved CD.

  • 147.
    Parker, James
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Svetoft, Ingrid
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Andersen, Mark
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Schough, Camilla
    Eleiko Sports AB, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Erik
    Eleiko Sports AB, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Viberg, Erik
    Swedish Adrenaline, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bärwald, Anton
    Swedish Adrenaline, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Warpman, Sofia
    Halmstad Municipality, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Is self-determined motivation associated with the effects of an intervention aimed to increase physical activity and exercise levels? An 80-day follow-up2019In: Abstract book for the ISBNPA 2019 Annual Meeting in Prague, International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2019, p. 488-488Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: State-of-the-art technologies, for instance smart watches and smartphones, have the potential to positively influence physical activity and exercise in sedentary populations. Psychological factors, such as self-determined (SD) motivation, might influence the impact state-of-the-art technologies have on level of physical activity and exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate if self-determined motivation influences an intervention on both physical activity (PA) and exercise in a sedentary population.

    Methods: 16 participants (men = 5, women = 11) with a self-reported low level of PA over the last year and predominantly sedentary jobs volunteered to participate in the study. PA data (steps and exercise time) were collected over an 80-day period using a wrist-worn accelerometer (Apple-watch and iPhone). Motivation was measured with the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2. At the start of the study, each participant completed the questionnaire and received their Apple-watches. Data analysis: All PA and exercise data were recorded through the Apple-watch and via Health App. Data for PA (steps) and exercise time were then extracted and aggregated to daily totals. Statistical analysis: Group means and standard deviations were calculated. A linear regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between exercise time, PA, and SD, the R2 value effect size (ES) was used to estimate the magnitude of the differences. All data analyses were performed in MatLab (software, R2016b).

    Results/findings: SD motivation (3.9±0.9) had a medium (R2 = 0.09) but not statistically significant (p = .26) effect on the amount of moderate to high-intensity exercise time (33.3±39.6 minutes) during the 80-day period. There was no statistically significant effect (R2 = 0.003, p = .84) of SD on PA (12953±7717 steps).

    Conclusions: Given the small sample size, achieving a medium effect size has meaningful significance despite not achieving statistical significance. This result suggests that self-determined motivation effects the amount of daily exercise but not PA in a sedentary population. Combining technology and other strategies (e.g., motivational interviewing, coaching) to promote behavior change is promising, and these interventions should include theoretically derived behavior change techniques and take level of SD motivation into account.

  • 148.
    Parker, James
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Is perceived autonomy support provided by a coach related to the frequency of injury preventative behavior among elite golfers?2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that perceived autonomy support can have an indirect effect on behaviors via autonomous motivation (Hagger & Chatzisarantis, 2015). This indirect effect has, for example, been found in relation to injury preventive behaviors within sport (Chan & Hagger, 2012). Overuse and acute injuries are a common problem among golfers (McHardy & Pollard, 2005) and exploring factors that might increase the frequency of preventive behaviors is warranted. The aim of the study was to investigate if perceived autonomy support from the coach has an indirect effect on the self-reported frequency of injury preventive behaviors via the level of autonomous motivation. A total of 59 elite golfers, (handicap M=-1.2, SD=4.9, age M=21, SD=5.5), completed a questionnaire with questions related to autonomy support from the coach, autonomous motivation for injury prevention, and the frequency of five injury preventive behaviors (e.g., how often do you ask for advice about injury preventive exercises, how often to you train to improve your physiological status). A mediation analysis, using Hayes (2012) process macro in SPSS 20.0, was performed. The results showed that perceived autonomy support and autonomous motivation could explain 45% of the variance in the frequency of preventive behaviors, F (1,56) = 22.71, p < .001. The result showed that perceived autonomy support had a statistically significant positive indirect effect on the frequency of preventive behaviors via autonomous motivation (ab = .16, 95% CI = 0.05-0.34, p<.05). Based on the results, coaches should consider giving feedback that supports autonomous motivation among golfers when aiming to encourage injury preventative behavior. Injury prevention programs should include strategies to improve the athlete’s autonomous motivation to carry out preventive activities. Future research should investigate the relationship between estimated and the objective frequency of injury prevention behavior. 

  • 149.
    Parker, James
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Scandinavian College of Sport, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lagerhem, Charlie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Hellström, John
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science. Swedish Golf Federation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olsson, Charlotte M.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Effects of nine weeks isokinetic training on power, golf kinematics, and driver performance in pre-elite golfers2017In: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation, ISSN 2052-1847, Vol. 9, article id 21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    It has previously been shown that isotonic strength training can improve driver performance among golfers, though few studies have investigated effects of strength training on swing kinematics together with driver performance. In this study we investigated whether isokinetic rotational training could improve driver performance and swing kinematic variables amongst elite golfers.

    Methods

    Twenty competitive pre-elite golfers (handicap better than −3.0), 13 men and 7 women, were split into two groups, one group received the isokinetic power training (IK) alongside their normal isotonic pre-season strength-training and the other group continued with their normal isotonic pre-season strength-training regime (IT). The IK group completed 12 sessions of isokinetic power training on a standing rotation exercise (10% body weight at 1 m/s) and barbell squat (25 kg plus 10% body weight at 0.5 m/s). The IT group continued with their normal isotonic pre-season strength-training regime. Participants were tested for rotational power, lower body power, golf swing kinematics, and driver performance before and after a nine-week training period.

    Results

    After the nine-week training period both the IK and the IT groups increased their dominant side rotational force and power (effect sizes between 0.50–0.96) and magnitude based inference indicated that IK had a likely (> 80%) more beneficial increase in dominant side rotational force and power. For swing kinematics, IK had a likely (> 80%) more beneficial improvement in lead arm speed and acceleration compared to the IT group. For driver performance, IK had a possible (65%) beneficial effect on ball speed and likely (78%) beneficial effect on carry distance when compared to IT, whereas neither of the groups improved club head speed.

    Conclusion

    In the present study on pre-elite golfers we found that 9 weeks of isokinetic training increased seated rotational force and power, peak arm speed and arm acceleration, ball speed, and carry distance more compared to isotonic training. Even though isokinetic training did not increase CHS, it did result in greater carry distance. © The Author(s). 2017

  • 150.
    Parker, James
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Lundgren, Lina
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Surfing the Waves of the CMJ: Are There between-Sport Differences in the Waveform Data?2018In: Sports, E-ISSN 2075-4663, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 1-12, article id 168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to analyse countermovement jump (CMJ) waveform data using statistical methods, like principal component analysis, can provide additional information regarding the different phases of the CMJ, compared to jump height or peak power alone. The aim of this study was to investigate the between-sport force-time curve differences in the CMJ. Eighteen high level golfers (male = 10, female = 8) and eighteen high level surfers (male = 10, female = 8) performed three separate countermovement jumps on a force platform. Time series of data from the force platform was normalized to body weight and each repetition was then normalized to 0–100 percent. Principal component analyses (PCA) were performed on force waveforms and the first six PCs explained 35% of the variance in force parameters. The main features of the movement cycles were characterized by magnitude (PC1 and PC5), waveform (PC2 and PC4), and phase shift features (PC3). Surf athletes differ in their CMJ technique and show a greater negative centre of mass displacement when compared to golfers (PC1), although these differences are not necessarily associated with greater jump height. Principal component 5 demonstrated the largest correlation with jump height (R2  = 0.52). Further studies are recommended in this area, to reveal which features of the CMJ thatrelate to jumping performance, and sport specific adaptations. © 2018 by the authors.

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