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  • 1.
    Aksel Jacobsen, Freja
    et al.
    Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark.
    Andersson, Åsa
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Inhibitors of intracellular enzymes for treatment of multiple sclerosis2019Ingår i: Atlas of ScienceArtikel, forskningsöversikt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 2.
    Aksel Jacobsen, Freja
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark.
    Scherer, Alexander N.
    Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Mouritsen, Jeppe
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & Novozymes A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark.
    Bragadóttir, Hera
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & Xelia Pharmaceuticals A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bäckström, B. Thomas
    Novo Nordisk A/S, Måløv, Denmark & BTB Pharma, Malmö, Sweden.
    Sardar, Samra
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holmberg, Dan
    Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Koleske, Anthony J.
    Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Andersson, Åsa
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    A Role for the Non-Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Abl2/Arg in Experimental Neuroinflammation2018Ingår i: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology, ISSN 1557-1890, E-ISSN 1557-1904, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 265-276Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple sclerosis is a neuroinflammatory degenerative disease, caused by activated immune cells infiltrating the CNS. The disease etiology involves both genetic and environmental factors. The mouse genetic locus, Eae27, linked to disease development in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model for multiple sclerosis, was studied in order to identify contributing disease susceptibility factors and potential drug targets for multiple sclerosis. Studies of an Eae27 congenic mouse strain, revealed that genetic variation within Eae27 influences EAE development. The Abl2 gene, encoding the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Arg, is located in the 4,1 megabase pair long Eae27 region. The Arg protein plays an important role in cellular regulation and is, in addition, involved in signaling through the B- and T-cell receptors, important for the autoimmune response. The presence of a single nucleotide polymorphism causing an amino acid change in a near actin-interacting domain of Arg, in addition to altered lymphocyte activation in the congenic mice upon immunization with myelin antigen, makes Abl2/Arg a candidate gene for EAE. Here we demonstrate that the non-synonymous SNP does not change Arg’s binding affinity for F-actin but suggest a role for Abl kinases in CNS inflammation pathogenesis by showing that pharmacological inhibition of Abl kinases ameliorates EAE, but not experimental arthritis. © 2018 The Author(s)

  • 3.
    Algotsson, Marcus
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Construct validity and test-retest reliability of a rotational maximum strength test and rotational power test in 1080 Quantum2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Explosive rotational movements are parts of many sports such as golf, tennis and baseball. Rotational strength and power tests exist, but valid and reliable tests to measure standing rotational strength and standing rotational power are lacking. 1080 Quantum is a machine wich can measure, speed, force and power and has several different resistance modes was used for testing rotational power and strength in this study. Aim: The aim was to investigate the validity and reliability of two new standing Quantum rotational tests; one measuring maximal rotational strength (1RM) and one measuring rotational power. Methods: Fifteen subjects, 8 men and 7 women, with at least one year of experience of resistance training participated in the study. The two new tests were: the Quantum power rotational test (PRT) and the Quantum 1RM rotational test (1RMRT). Testing occured during two sessions and during the first session construct validity of the two new rotational tests was assessed with a standing medicine ball throw (MB) and a sitting rotational power test (SRT). During the second session PRT and 1RMRT were tested for test-retest reliability. To study construct validity á priori hypothesis were stated and data were analyzed with Spearman´s correlation coefficent (rs). Intra correaltion coefficient (ICC) was used for test-retest reliability for PRT and 1RMRT. Results: Priori hypotheses were all fullfilled. Correlations found were considered good between PRT and MB (rs=0.80), moderate between PRT and SRT (rs=0.52), excellent between 1RMRT and MB (rs=0.90), moderate between 1RMRT and SRT (rs=0.73) and good between PRT and 1RMRT (rs=0.81). Excellent test-retest reliability was found for PRT (ICC=0.94, 95% CI (0.80-0.99)) and 1RMRT (ICC=0.98, 95% CI (0.92-0.99)) Conclusion: The two new rotational tests performed in 1080 Quantum both assessed construct validity and test-retest reliability. PRT can be used to measure standing rotational power and 1RMRT can be used to measure standing rotational maximum strength.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Patrik
    et al.
    AstraZeneca R&D, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Kenne, Kerstin
    AstraZeneca R&D, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Glinghammar, Björn
    AstraZeneca R&D, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Pointon, Amy V.
    Global Safety Assessment AstraZeneca, Macclesfield, United Kingdom.
    Åkerblad, Peter
    CVGI iMed AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Lutz, Mareike
    CVGI iMed AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Hovdal, Daniel
    CVGI iMed AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Maxvall, Ingela
    CVGI iMed AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Lindstedt, Eva-Lotte
    CVGI iMed AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Toxicity with LXR agonists – Problem solving activities for mechanistic understanding2012Ingår i: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 211, nr Suppl. (S), s. S39-S39Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Several lines of evidence points toward the potential positive effects of LXR (Liver X Receptor) modulators for effective and safe therapy of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). LXR is a dimeric nuclear hormone receptor that exists as a combination of RXR and one of two subtypes LXR alpha or beta, which act as cholesterol sensors. LXR alpha is highly expressed in the liver, intestine and adipose tissue while LXR beta is ubiquitously expressed. Activation of LXR up-regulates several genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), including ABC transporters. This results in increased efflux of cholesterol from macrophages in atherosclerotic vascular lesions to the circulation and further on to other tissues to ultimately be excreted into the faeces. These effects together with systemic and local anti-inflammatory properties of LXR modulation are likely to contribute to decreased atherosclerosis. The positive effects of LXR activation on RCT and cholesterol balance must be obtained without negative lipid effects, since LXR also activates lipogenic genes. Other types of toxicity and approaches to better understand the mechanism(s) behind these will be presented. Copyright © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Åsa
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Köpenhamns universitet, Köpenhamn, Danmark.
    Abl-tyrosinkinaser och multipel skleros2018Ingår i: BestPractice, Vol. 6, nr 24, s. 14-16Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 6.
    Andersson, Åsa
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Aksel Jacobsen, Freja
    Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    B-cells and Inflammation in the Absence of the Abelson Related Gene (Arg)2016Ingår i: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology, ISSN 2155-9899, E-ISSN 2155-9899, Vol. 7, nr 6, artikel-id 1000470Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Abelson non-receptor tyrosine kinases, c-Abl and Arg, are important regulators of cellular processes in cancer, inflammation, infection, and neuronal dynamics. Recent research on the role for these kinases in processes involving interactions with the cytoskeleton or signaling molecules, may lead to further insight into the pathogenesis of a variety of disorders, including chronic inflammatory diseases. In a mouse model for multiple sclerosis, we recently reported that Arg deficient mice develop T-cell mediated autoimmune neuro-inflammation with the same severity as littermate controls, but display a different B-cell phenotype upon immunization. Here we comment on these results and discuss the role for Arg in B-cell activation and homeostasis.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Åsa
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Sardar, Samra
    Nordic Bioscience, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    A transcriptional regulator controlling severity in experimental arthritis2019Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 78, nr Suppl. 2, s. 667-667, artikel-id FRI0011Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Susceptibility to Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is dependent on complex interactions among genetic and environmental factors. Protein candidates and their role in pathways leading to chronic inflammation of the joints, in addition to their potential as drug targets, can be revealed with the help of experimental models for disease (1). From the results of functional genetic studies, we have recently shown that the T-box gene, TBX3, is a candidate gene in Collagen Induced Arthritis (CIA), an experimental model for RA (2). TBX3 encodes a transcriptional regulator involved in differentiation of several organs, including bone, during embryonic development. It has, in addition, been demonstrated important in oncogenesis (3). Our studies suggest that TBX3 has a role in B-cell activation and is important for the severity of disease in the CIA model (2). Objectives: The objective of this project is to understand the role for the transcriptional regulator TBX3 in development of RA. Methods: Bioinformatics based comparative studies of mouse and human alleles in the regulatory region of TBX3. CRISPR/Cas9-introduced deletions and base modifications in human B-cell lines. Activation of genetically modified B-cells in vitro, followed by analyses of proliferative response and antibody production. Results: Studies of CIA development in mice with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the regulatory region of Tbx3 revealed a significant difference in severity of arthritis. In line with this, the anti-collagen type II antibody titers were shown substantially higher in mice with more severe arthritis, even before onset of disease. In addition, preliminary data shows that the proliferative response to Type II collagen upon re-challenge of lymph node cells in vitro is higher in these mice, suggesting a more active response to the disease-inducing antigen. Because the TBX3 gene is conserved between mouse and human, we are investigating whether similar genetic variations are found in the regulatory region of the human TBX3 gene and whether the putative genetic variation would lead to a distinct B-cell phenotype upon activation in vitro. Conclusion: We suggest that the oncoprotein TBX3 is a novel candidate contributing to disease severity in experimental arthritis. Investigations of genetic variation in the TBX3 gene and its role in the activation of human B-cells will reveal whether this protein is a candidate for influencing also development of RA.

  • 8.
    Atteia, A.
    et al.
    Depto. de Genética Molecular, Inst. de Fisiología Celular, Univ. Nacl. Auton. de Mex., Mexico.
    van Lis, R.
    Depto. de Genética Molecular, Inst. de Fisiología Celular, Univ. Nacl. Auton. de Mex., Mexico.
    Wetterskog, Daniel
    Department of Plant Physiology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Gutiérrez-Cirlos, E.-B.
    Department of Biochemistry, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, United States.
    Ongay-Larios, L.
    Unidad de Biología Molecular, Inst. de Fisiología Celular, Univ. Nacl. Auton. de Mex., Mexico.
    Franzén, Lars-Gunnar
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Växtcellbiologi: Energiomvandling i växtceller.
    González-Halphen, D.
    Depto. de Genética Molecular, Inst. de Fisiología Celular, Univ. Nacl. Auton. de Mex., Mexico.
    Structure, organization and expression of the genes encoding mitochondrial cytochrome c1 and the Rieske iron-sulfur protein in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii2003Ingår i: Molecular Genetics and Genomics, ISSN 1617-4615, E-ISSN 1617-4623, Vol. 268, nr 5, s. 637-644Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The sequence and organization of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii genes encoding cytochrome c 1 ( Cyc1) and the Rieske-type iron-sulfur protein ( Isp), two key nucleus-encoded subunits of the mitochondrial cytochrome bc 1 complex, are presented. Southern hybridization analysis indicates that both Cyc1 and Isp are present as single-copy genes in C. reinhardtii. The Cyc1 gene spans 6404 bp and contains six introns, ranging from 178 to 1134 bp in size. The Isp gene spans 1238 bp and contains four smaller introns, ranging in length from 83 to 167 bp. In both genes, the intron/exon junctions follow the GT/AG rule. Internal conserved sequences were identified in only some of the introns in the Cyc1 gene. The levels of expression of Isp and Cyc1 genes are comparable in wild-type C. reinhardtii cells and in a mutant strain carrying a deletion in the mitochondrial gene for cytochrome b (dum-1). Nevertheless, no accumulation of the nucleus-encoded cytochrome c 1 or of core proteins I and II was observed in the membranes of the respiratory mutant. These data show that, in the green alga C. reinhardtii, the subunits of the cytochrome bc1 complex fail to assemble properly in the absence of cytochrome b.

  • 9.
    Bengtsson, Charlotte
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle (HOS).
    Magnusson, Petra
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle (HOS).
    Överbeläggning: Konsekvenser för patienten2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vårdenheter i dagens sjukvård arbetar ofta och återkommande i överbeläggningssituationer. Detta kan innebära konsekvenser för patientsäkerheten. En litteraturstudie gjordes med granskning av 9 artiklar med syftet att belysa konsekvenser för patienter vid överbeläggningar inom somatisk slutenvård. Som största konsekvenser för patienter vid överbeläggningar identifierades brister i överrapporteringssituationer av patienternas fortsatta vård och konsekvenser av utlokalisering av patienter. För vårdpersonalen innebär utlokaliserade patienter ökade belastningar på flera nivåer, framförallt på grund av skillnader i kompetens och otillräckliga erfarenheter för att kunna tillgodose patienters omvårdnadsbehov. Kommunikationsbrist visades vara en bidragande faktor till vårdskador. Brister i basal omvårdnad kan leda till ökat lidande, förlängd vårdtid och komplikationer. Fortsatt forskning är angelägen, då det finns flera aspekter på ämnet som behöver belysas.

  • 10.
    Bergenblad, Jonas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Validation study of a portable accelerometer to measure muscular power output: Correlation between the Beast Sensor and the linear encoder MuscleLab2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstrakt

    Bakgrund: Förmågan att producera hög effektutveckling (power) kan avgöra vilken idrottare som vinner eller förlorar en tävling. Effektutveckling kan mätas i övningar som knäböj och bänkpress. Detta kan göras med hjälp av en kraftplatta, eller en kraftplatta parad med en linear position transducer. Dessa metoder anses vara ”gold standard”, men linear position transducers eller linear encoders har också ansetts vara valida metoder. Effektutveckling kan även mätas med hjälp av en accelerometer.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att mäta samtidig validitet hos accelerometern Beast Sensor genom att mäta genomsnittlig effektutveckling i explosiva knäböj och bänkpressar vid 40 % och 80 % av en repetition max (1RM). MuscleLab, en linear encoder, användes som referensvärde. 

    Metod: 17 försökspersoner, fem kvinnor och tolv män (medelålder 28 år) rekryterades. Femton av försökspersonerna fullföljde deltagande. Vid det första testtillfället mättes 1RM. Det andra tillfället ägde rum 7-14 dagar senare och mätte genomsnittlig effektutveckling i explosiva knäböj och bänkpressar vid 40 % och 80 % av försökspersonernas uppmätta 1RM. Två set av tre repetitioner mättes vid 40 % och 80 % av 1RM i både knäböj och bänkpress. Repetitionerna mättes samtidigt av MuscleLab och Beast Sensor. För att Beast Sensor skulle anses vara valid behövde en korrelationskoefficient på 0.9 eller högre uppnås.

    Resultat: Beast Sensor uppvisade höga eller väldigt höga korrelationer med MuscleLab för genomsnittlig effektutveckling i explosiva knäböj vid 40 % av 1RM (rs = 0.91) och explosiva bänkpressar vid 40 % (rs = 0.86) och 80 % av 1RM (rs = 0.74). Dock uppmättes en låg korrelation för de explosiva knäböjen vid 80 % av 1RM (rs = 0.42). Alla korrelationer var statistiskt signifikanta med p-värden på < 0.01. Beast Sensor ansågs vara valid för att mäta effektutveckling vid 40 % av 1RM i knäböj, men varken vid 80 % av 1RM i knäböj, eller vid 40 % eller 80 % av 1RM i bänkpressar.

    Slutsats: Beast Sensor visade höga eller väldigt höga korrelationer med referensvärdet från MuscleLab för tre av de fyra uppmätta variablerna. Endast korrelationen för genomsnittlig effektutveckling i explosiva knäböj vid 40 % av 1RM uppnådde den korrelationskoefficient på 0.9 eller högre som krävdes för att Beast Sensor skulle anses vara valid. Förutom vid 40 % av 1RM i knäböj, missade Beast Sensor en väsentlig andel repetitioner. Därför finns det ett behov av fler studier som undersöker reliabiliteten hos Beast Sensor. 

  • 11.
    Bergman, Lina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Biomekanik och biomedicin.
    Algotsson, Marcus
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Biomekanik och biomedicin.
    Effekten av 6 veckor unilaterala knäböj, med eller utan isokinetiskt motstånd, på power och sprinttid på is hos manliga ishockeyspelare2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att kunna prestera bra under fysiskt krävande ishockeymatcher krävs det att spelarna harhög maximal benstyrka och en hög explosiv förmåga. Bilaterala knäböj är en erkänd och välspridd övning för att förbättra power och muskelstyrka i benen. Unilaterala knäböj är än mersportspecifika för ishockeyn. Vid en isokinetisk rörelse är hastigheten förutbestämd ochdärmed konstant medan kraften kan förändras under rörelsen. De flesta isokinetiska systemhar varit designade för unilaterala isolerade övningar, men gällande isokinetiskaflerledsövningar så som knäböj tycks det inte finnas någon forskning om i nuläget.Studiens syfte var att undersöka effekten av sex veckors unilateral styrketräning (knäböj),antingen genom traditionell eller genom isokinetisk träning, på power i unilaterala ochbilaterala jump squats och 17.3 m sprinttid på is hos manliga juniorishockeyspelare.20 manliga ishockeyspelare på elitnivå, 18-19 år gamla, delades slumpmässigt in i två olikaträningsgrupper. Den ena gruppen (QG) utförde isokinetiska unilaterala knäböj i 1080Quantum med 110o vinkel i knäleden, medan den andra gruppen (SG) utförde traditionellaunilaterala knäböj i Smithmaskin med 110o vinkel i knäleden. Träningsperioden varade undersex veckor. Båda grupperna genomförde för- och eftertester bestående av sprinttest på is ochpeak power för unilaterala och bilaterala jump squats.QG visar en signifikant förbättring i peak power utfört på två ben (p=0,004). SG visar ensignifikant förbättring i unilaterala knäböj utfört på höger ben (p=0,018). QG hade en tendenstill signifikant förbättring i issprint (p=0,059).Isokinetiska unilaterala knäböj i Smithmaskin med en koncentrisk hastighet på 0,2meter/sekund och en excentrisk hastighet på maximalt 4,0 meter/sekund och en maximalkraftinsats är ett effektivt sätt att förbättra power på två ben och eventuellt också för attförbättra sprinthastigheten vid issprint för ishockeyspelare. Om isokinetiska unilaterala knäböjär en effektivare metod för att förbättra power jämfört med traditionella unilaterala knäböj iSmithmaskin med maximal hastighet är det svårt att dra slutsatser om från denna studiesresultat.

  • 12.
    Bergqvist, Mathias
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Comparison of ground reaction force and knee angle between parkour precision landing and traditional landing2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Parkour is a sport which has developed its own landing technique, precision landing (PL), which has shown to reduce vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF) in comparison to a more traditional landing (TL). However previous studies lacks control for intra group knee flexion between the TL and PL techniques. Aim. The aim of this study was to analyse the biomechanical differences between a parkour precision landing with a traditional landing in four knee flexion groups (Stiff landing (SL), 25-50o, 50-75o and 75-100o), comparing vGRF, time to peak force and average rate of force development (avgRFD) between both landing techniques within each group as well as between the groups. Method. 42 participants were recruited to participate in a single session of a randomized, experimental study. Participants were randomly placed into one of four groups and performed a practice session of the two different landing techniques at the knee flexion angle given. All participants performed 5 approved landings with a TL technique and thereafter 5 approved landing using PL. Results. A significant increase of vGRF was found with TL compared to PL within all groups (p ≤ 0.05). Reduced time to peak force and increased avgRFD was found in TL compared to PL across all groups (p = 0.01) with the exception of 25-50o (p = 0.27 for time to peak force and p = 0.73 for avgRFD). Conclusion. The results of current study shows that PL reduces vGRF, time to peak force and avgRFD compared to TL in recreationally trained individuals. The results varied when compared between knee flexion groups, however results shows that 50-75o seems to be the more optimal range of knee flexion in terms of reducing ground reaction forces.

  • 13.
    Bergqvist, Mathias
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS).
    Hip strength in Swedish soldiers: A correlation study between gluteus medius muscle strength and development of valgus during 2000 meter run with external load2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 180 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 14.
    Björk, Julia
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    The effect of a weight lifting belt and the use of valsalva maneuver on power output and velocity in a squat2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Det finns många olikheter i litteraturen när det gäller huruvida tyngdlyftarbältet påverkar prestationen och/eller om det minskar skaderisken. En knäböj är en vanlig övning som används inom många områden av styrketräning och för olika ändamål. Användning av andningstekniker är vanligt vid tunga lyft och därför kan utförandet av andningstekniken; valsalvamanövern vara av intresse att studera och om det tillsammans med lyftbältet kan ge effekt på effektutveckling och hastighet i lyft. Syfte: Syftet med studien var att utvärdera hastigheten i en knäböjs olika faser (excentriska, koncentriska och topphastigheten i den koncentriska fasen) och hur effektutvecklingen påverkas av lyftarbälte och valsalvamanövern. Metod: Femton personer (10 män och 5 kvinnor) deltog frivilligt och utförde totalt 12 knäböj i fyra olika sets med tre repetitioner på 75 % av testpersonernas självrapporterade 1RM. De första två seten var utförda antingen med eller utan tyngdlyftarbälte och de tredje och fjärde seten var utförda antingen med eller utan utövande av valsalvamanövern. Dessa tre förhållanden ( med lyftarbälte, med lyftarbälte + VA och VA endast) jämfördes med varandra och med kontrollgruppen ( ingen VM och inget lyftarbälte) med avseende på effektutveckling och hastigheten i den excentriska, koncentriska och topphastighet i knäböjens koncentriska fas. Resultat: Effektutvecklingen gav ingen signifikant skillnad i någon av de fyra olika förutsättningarna (med lyftarbälte, utan lyftarbälte, med bälte och valsalvamanövern och utan bälte och valsalvamanövern). Hastigheten i den excentriska, koncentriska och topphastigheten i den koncentriska fasen visade ingen signifikant skillnad mellan de fyra olika seten. Konklusion: Studien visade ingen skillnad vilket kan jämföras med tidigare litteratur där en skillnad fanns. Lyftarbältet och utförandet av valsalva manövern påverkade inte effektutvecklingen och/eller hastigheten när en knäböj utfördes.

  • 15.
    Björk, Julia
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Upper- & lower body strength and its correlation to performance in swimming2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To learn how to swim with proper technique takes fairly large amount of time and practice to learn and anelite swimmer spends 6-7 days training for improving aerobic capacity, anaerobic capacity and strength training for energy saving technique. Freestyle is the fastest swimming style and is performed in many different distances, 50m is classified as a sprint and the 400m as a middle-distance. The research is inconclusive if there is a correlation in the lower body and the time in 50m and 400m and mostly in the middle distance which gives this study the importance reducing these uncertainties. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the strength of the correlation between the upper- and lower body muscle strengthwith time in 50m and 400m freestyle and to analyze which of the variables of height, sex, upper- and lower body strength contribute to velocity in sprint and middle distance in competitive swimmers. Method:A total of 14 participants (3 men and 11 women) participated in the study. The participants were tested at three occasions. The first was to determine their three-repetition maximum (3RM) in the squat and lat-pulldown. The second occasion was the collection the time in 50m freestyle and the third was to collect the time in 400m freestyle. Relative strength (kg/kg BW; %) and absolute strength (kg) in 1RM was calculated and correlated with the time in 50m and 400m freestyle. Analysis was done to see which variables of height, sex, relative strength in the squat and lat-pulldown contribute the most to the time in freestyle. Result: The result show that there was a high correlation between the absolute strength in the squat and the time in 50m (r=-0.769) a moderate correlation in the absolute strength in lat-pulldown and the 50m freestyle sprint (r=-0.513). There was also a moderate correlation for the relative strength in the lat-pulldown and 50m freestyle (r=-0.599). The 400m correlate with the relative strength in both lat-pulldown(r=-0.563) and the squat (r=-0.555). The lat-pulldown contributed most to the time in 50m freestyle as well as the male sex. Conclusions: The absolute strength in the squat had a high correlation to the time in 50m freestyle swim. The 400m there was a moderate correlation to the relative strength in the squat and lat-pulldown showing that for the overall performance in middle-distance the relative strength has the advantage over absolute strength. The relative and absolute strength in upper body correlated to both 50m and 400m freestyle and could therefore strengthen the importance of upper body strength in sprint and middle distance as previous researchers has stated. The upper body strength is the best predictor of time in 50m.

  • 16.
    Blom, Mathias Carl
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Ashfaq, Awais
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab). Halland Hospital, Region Halland, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Pinheiro Sant'Anna, Anita
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Anderson, Philip D.
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA & Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Lingman, Markus
    Halland Hospital, Region Halland, Sweden & Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine/Cardiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Training machine learning models to predict 30-day mortality in patients discharged from the emergency department: a retrospective, population based registry study2019Ingår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, nr 8, artikel-id e028015Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Aggressive treatment at end-of-life (EOL) can be traumatic to patients and may not add clinical benefit. Absent an accurate prognosis of death, individual level biases may prevent timely discussions about the scope of EOL care and patients are at risk of being subject to care against their desire. The aim of this work is to develop predictive algorithms for identifying patients at EOL, with clinically meaningful discriminatory power.

    Methods: Retrospective, population-based study of patients utilizing emergency departments (EDs) in Sweden, Europe. Electronic health records (EHRs) were used to train supervised learning algorithms to predict all-cause mortality within 30 days following ED discharge. Algorithm performance was validated out of sample on EHRs from a separate hospital, to which the algorithms were previously unexposed.

    Results: Of 65,776 visits in the development set, 136 (0.21%) experienced the outcome. The algorithm with highest discrimination attained ROC-AUC 0.945 (95% CI 0.933 - 0.956), with sensitivity 0.869 (95% CI 0.802, 0.931) and specificity 0.858 (0.855, 0.860) on the validation set.

    Conclusions: Multiple algorithms displayed excellent discrimination and outperformed available indexes for short-term mortality prediction. The practical utility of the algorithms increases as the required data were captured electronically and did not require de novo data collection.

    Trial registration number: Not applicable.

  • 17.
    Boon, Hanneke
    et al.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section for Integrative Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjögren, Rasmus J.O.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section for Integrative Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Massart, Julie
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section for Integrative Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Egan, Brendan
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section for Integrative Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kostovski, Emil
    Section for Spinal Cord Injury, Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital, Nesoddtangen, Norway; Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway & Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Iversen, Per Ole
    Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway & Department of Hematology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Hjeltnes, Nils
    Section for Spinal Cord Injury, Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital, Nesoddtangen, Norway.
    Chibalin, Alexander V
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section for Integrative Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Widegren, Ulrika
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section for Integrative Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zierath, Juleen R.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section for Integrative Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    MicroRNA-208b progressively declines after spinal cord injury in humans and is inversely related to myostatin expression2015Ingår i: Physiological Reports, E-ISSN 2051-817X, Vol. 3, nr 11, artikel-id e12622Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of long‐term physical inactivity on the expression of microRNAs involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass in humans are largely unknown. MicroRNAs are short, noncoding RNAs that fine‐tune target expression through mRNA degradation or by inhibiting protein translation. Intronic to the slow, type I, muscle fiber type genes MYH7 and MYH7b, microRNA‐208b and microRNA‐499‐5p are thought to fine‐tune the expression of genes important for muscle growth, such as myostatin. Spinal cord injured humans are characterized by both skeletal muscle atrophy and transformation toward fast‐twitch, type II fibers. We determined the expression of microRNA‐208b, microRNA‐499‐5p, and myostatin in human skeletal muscle after complete cervical spinal cord injury. We also determined whether these microRNAs altered myostatin expression in rodent skeletal muscle. A progressive decline in skeletal muscle microRNA‐208b and microRNA‐499‐5p expression occurred in humans during the first year after spinal cord injury and with long‐standing spinal cord injury. Expression of myostatin was inversely correlated with microRNA‐208b and microRNA‐499‐5p in human skeletal muscle after spinal cord injury. Overexpression of microRNA‐208b in intact mouse skeletal muscle decreased myostatin expression, whereas microRNA‐499‐5p was without effect. In conclusion, we provide evidence for an inverse relationship between expression of microRNA‐208b and its previously validated target myostatin in humans with severe skeletal muscle atrophy. Moreover, we provide direct evidence that microRNA‐208b overexpression decreases myostatin gene expression in intact rodent muscle. Our results implicate that microRNA‐208b modulates myostatin expression and this may play a role in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass following spinal cord injury. © 2015 The Authors

  • 18.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Biomekanik och biomedicin.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Biomekanik och biomedicin.
    Bengtsson, Oscar
    Petersson, Johan
    Maximal strength in one leg squat correlates with acceleration capacity and agility2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: In many intermittent team sports capacities such as speed, agility and explosiveness are important for performance and are evaluated by sprint-, agility- and strength tests. Earlier studies have shown strong correlations between strength in the two leg squat exercise and sprint performance in various distances but not in sprint performance in agility. Studies evaluating squat strength predominantly perform tests on two legs even when they test athletes involved in intermittent sports where sprinting and agility are common features. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between maximal strength in a one leg squat (Bulgarian split squat) and acceleration capacity in various sprint distances and agility.

    METHODS: The test group consisted of 19 men (mean age 24 ± 2 years ) with experience in intermittent team sports. Acceleration capacity was assessed by sprint tests at 5, 10 and 20 meters and agility was evaluated using the zigzag agility test. The timing was made using photocells (Muscle lab,Ergotest Technology,Norway). The Bulgarian split squat was performed in a smith machine with the barbell on the shoulders to a depth of 110 degrees between tibia and femur.

    RESULTS: The results show significant correlation between maximal strength in the Bulgarian split squat and sprint capacity in the 5 and 10 meter sprint test (Rp= -0,56; p<0.01) as well as the agility test. Maximal strength relative to bodyweight showed significant correlation with the 5 and 20 meter sprint (Rp=-0,62; p< 0,01) as well as the agility test. The zigzag agility test also showed significant correlation between all distances in the sprint tests (p<0.01).

    CONCLUSION: The results from this study show that there maximal strength in one leg correlate significantly with both acceleration capacity and agility. Implementing one leg exercises in the strength and conditioning routine can be useful for athletes in intermittent sports wanting to improve agility and short sprinting capacity. Further implications is that the Bulgarian split squat could be a more functional test for agility performance than the squat on two legs which  predominantly is being used today.

  • 19.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Biomekanik och biomedicin.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Biomekanik och biomedicin.
    Westerberg, Martin
    Maximal multiple repetitions in free weight strength training with different bar sizes2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: An individual’s grip strength is vital for performance of physical demanding tasks such as give some other example here? As well as strength training with free weights. Performing strength training with a thicker grip around the bar may enhance the strength of the grip in the athlete without other special routines for grip strength development. The purpose of this study was a) to examine the difference in performance in multiple repetitions in two strength training exercises using two different sizes on the bar, b) to investigate correlations between hand grip strength and the amount of repetitions performed with two different sizes of the  bar and c) to correlate hand size with the amount of performed repetitions with two different bar sizes.

    METHODS: Fifteen male participants (24 ± 4 years) with at least one year of strength training experience performed bench press and a prone lying rowing exercise with two different bar sizes (normal Olympic lifting bar with and with out Fat Gripz™). The participants performed test of maximal number of repetitions at a level of 80% of one repetition maximum (1RM), hand size was measured as well as maximum grip strength (using JAMAR).

    RESULTS: The use of a thicker diameter bar resulted in 22 % (p<0.01) reduction of weight performance in number of performed repetitions in the bench press compared to the normal diameter of the bar.  When performing lying bench row a 66 % (p<0.01) reduction in number of performed repetitions was seen with the thicker diameter of the bar. There was no significant correlation between hand size and the submaximal strength test (rp = 0,33 ; p = 0,23) or grip strength and submaximal strength test (rp = 0,31 ; p = 0,27).

    CONCLUSION: The results from this study indicated that the size of the bar diameter influences the performance in maximal number of repetitions in a prone lying rowing exercise and bench press.  Further studies have to be done to analyses the effect of strength training with thicker bar.

     

  • 20.
    Cato, Hampus
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS).
    Correlation Between 3000-meter Running Performance, Yo-Yo IR1 & Submaximal Treadmill Jogging Test2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physiologic functional capacity through maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) can be measured in many different ways depending on sport and qualities needed to be assessed.In handball a demanding 3000 meter (m) running test is used to evaluate V̇O2max. If this test is sport specific or if it could be replaced by a less strenuous test is unknown. Aim: The aim ofthis study was to compare performance on 3000-meter running with predicted V̇O2max from a submaximal treadmill jogging test (SMTJ) and performance of the Yo-Yo intermittentrecovery test 1 (IR1). Methods: Male handball players (n = 12) performed the 3000 m running test, the Submaximal Treadmill Jogging test and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery test level 1. Measurements in seconds (s), ml ∙ kg-1 ∙ min-1 and meters where collected and correlated using Pearson r, interclass correlation. Results: A strong significant linear correlation (p < 0.01) was found between performance in 3000 m running (s) and Yo-Yo IR1 performance (m), r = - 0.724 (r2 = 0.524). A weak, not significant linear correlation (p > 0.05)was found between performance in 3000 m running (s) and predicted V̇O2max from submaximal treadmill test (ml ∙ kg-1 ∙ min-1), r = - 0.309 (r2 = 0.095). Conclusion: According to this study the 3000 m running test could be replaced by the Yo-Yo IR1 test or vice versa in adolescent male handball players. The submaximal treadmill test used in this study had several potential errors in estimating V̇O2max, this is probably the reason why only a weak correlation was found between the SMTJ and the 3000 m running test.

  • 21.
    Desbans, Coraline
    et al.
    KaLy-Cell, Plobsheim, France.
    Hilgendorf, Constanze
    UCB Pharma S.A, Braine-l'Alleud, Belgium.
    Lutz, Mareike
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Bachellier, P
    Centre de Chirurgie Viscérale et de Transplantation, Hôpital de Hautepierre, Strasbourg, France.
    Zacharias, T
    Service de Chirurgie Viscérale et Digestive, Centre Hospitalier Emile Muller-Moenchsberg, Mulhouse, France.
    Weber, JC
    Clinique de l'Orangerie, Strasbourg, France.
    Dolgos, Hugues
    UCB Pharma S.A, Braine-l'Alleud, Belgium.
    Richert, Lysiane
    KaLy-Cell, Plobsheim, France.
    Ungell, Anna-Lena
    UCB Pharma S.A, Braine-l'Alleud, Belgium.
    Prediction of fraction metabolized via CYP3A in humans utilizing cryopreserved human hepatocytes from a set of 12 single donors2014Ingår i: Xenobiotica, ISSN 0049-8254, E-ISSN 1366-5928, Vol. 44, nr 1, s. 17-27Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 22.
    Engberg, Amanda
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    The effect of load carriage on aerobic capacity and ventilatory threshold in Swedish soldiers2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Working within the military as a ground combat solider is very physically demanding. Soldiers are required to handle situations ranging from peacekeeping to counterinsurgency and combat, while faced with the task of load carriage either in form of the military gear or other additional loads. Therefore, a good aerobic and anaerobic fitness is necessary. The aerobic and anaerobic fitness can be assessed with a wide range is methods such as measuring the peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), ventilator threshold, blood lactate concentration and heart rate. However research is rather spares regarding the effects of load carriage on the aerobic capacity.

    Aim: The aim of the current study was to investigate if military gear affects VO2peak, ventilatory threshold, blood lactate concentration and heart rate in ground combat soldiers.

    Methods: A total of eight soldiers (seven men and one woman) participated in the current study. All participants completed two biological calibrations and VO2max tests (one without and one with military gear) using a modified Bruce protocol, where VO2 (L/min), absolute and relative VO2peck (L/min and ml/kg/min respectively), heart rate (beats/min) and blood lactate concentration (mM/L) were assessed. After the completion of the tests, the soldier’s individual ventilatory threshold (VT) was visually located using the V-slope method. The Wilcoxon test was used for the not normally distributed variables (blood lactate concentration and stage when VT occurred) and the paired sample t-test for the others. The significance level was set to 0.05.

    Results: The results showed that the soldier had 10.6 % lower absolute VO2peak and 23.7 % lower relative VO2peak while wearing military gear compared to without (p=0.002 and p=0.001 respectively). The soldiers also had 11.8 % higher VO2 at VT with military gear (p=0.003) and reached a higher percentage of the VO2peak (p=0.023) at VT. The blood lactate concentration was significantly higher when marching at 5.4 km/h and a trend of a higher blood lactate concentration while standing was observed without military gear compared to with military gear.

    Conclusion: The findings from the present study shows that performing load carriage in form of the military gear significantly decreased the VO2peak. Wearing a military gear also increased the VO2 at the individual VT and made the soldier reach a higher percentage of the VO2peak at VT. These results can act as guidance when recruiting and training soldiers, along with providing important information to other professions and sports that involve load carriage. 

  • 23.
    Engberg, Amanda
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    The weight lifting belt’s impact on power output, velocity and range of motion in a squat2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: Using a weight lifting belt when performing a variety of resistance exercises is becoming more and more common. The purpose of using a weight lifting belt is its supposed ability to reduce compressive forces on the lumbar spine and enhancement of athletic performance. Although the weight lifting belt has been proven to increase the intra abdominal pressure that helps reduces the shear forces during a squat, little is known about the weight lifting belts effect on the performance.

    Studies have suggested that wearing a weight lifting belt during a squat can increase the vertical velocity and range of motion. Few studies have focused on the power output, but improvements have been seen while wearing a weight lifting belt when performing a deadlift. Variables such as power, velocity and range of motion are of importance for an athlete when making individual training plans as well as measuring the progress. Therefore more research is needed to identify the actual influence of the weight lifting belt on the performance.

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine if weight lifting belts have an impact on an athletes ability to develop power, velocity or improve range of motion in a squat.

    Methods: Fifteen healthy men and women familiar with the squat exercise participated in the study. During the study they performed six repetitions of the squat divided into two sets, one set without a weight lifting belt and one with a weight lifting belt. Power and velocity were measured during every squat with a linear encoder and videotapes were made to later calculate the angles in the hip- and knee joints at the lowest position of the exercise.

    Results: No significant differences were found in power (p = 0.25) or concentric and eccentric velocity (p = 0.61, p = 0.16) with or without a weight lifting belt. Range of motion in the knee joint was greater when not wearing a weight lifting belt (p = 0.03), but no differences in the hip angles were found (p = 0.70).

    Conclusion: The result from the current study shows that when performing a squat the weight lifting belt has little to no effect on power, velocity or range of motion. Although a noticeable change in range of motion of the knee joint were observed, further studies on larger populations are needed to determine if it is of clinical value. 

  • 24.
    Eriksson, K.M.
    et al.
    Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Clarke, A.K.
    Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Franzén, Lars-Gunnar
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Växtcellbiologi: Energiomvandling i växtceller.
    Kuylenstierna, M.
    Department of Marine Ecology, University of Gothenburg, Sven Lovén Centre for Marine Sciences Kristineberg, Fiskebäckskil, Sweden.
    Martinez, K.
    Spanish National Research Council—IIQAB-CSIC, Department of Ecotechnology, Josep Pascual Vila, Barcelona, Spain .
    Blanck, H.
    Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Community-Level Analysis of psbA Gene Sequences and Irgarol Tolerance in Marine Periphyton2009Ingår i: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 75, nr 4, s. 897-906Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes psbA gene sequences, predicted D1 protein sequences, species relative abundance, and pollution-induced community tolerance in marine periphyton communities exposed to the antifouling compound Irgarol 1051. The mechanism of action of Irgarol is the inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport at photosystem II by binding to the D1 protein. The metagenome of the communities was used to produce clone libraries containing fragments of the psbA gene encoding the D1 protein. Community tolerance was quantified with a short-term test for the inhibition of photosynthesis. The communities were established in a continuous flow of natural seawater through microcosms with or without added Irgarol. The selection pressure from Irgarol resulted in an altered species composition and an inducted community tolerance to Irgarol. Moreover, there was a very high diversity in the psbA gene sequences in the periphyton, and the composition of psbA and D1 fragments within the communities was dramatically altered by increased Irgarol exposure. Even though tolerance to this type of compound in land plants often depends on a single amino acid substitution (Ser(264)-> Gly) in the D1 protein, this was not the case for marine periphyton species. Instead, the tolerance mechanism likely involves increased degradation of D1. When we compared sequences from low and high Irgarol exposure, differences in nonconserved amino acids were found only in the so-called PEST region of D1, which is involved in regulating its degradation. Our results suggest that environmental contamination with Irgarol has led to selection for high-turnover D1 proteins in marine periphyton communities at the west coast of Sweden.

  • 25.
    Fernström, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Medicine, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Bakkman, Linda
    Department of Medicine, Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Loogna, Peter
    Bariatric Center, Sophiahemmet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rooyackers, Olav
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svensson, Madeleine
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI). Department of Medicine, Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jakobsson, Towe
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brandt, Lena
    Department of Clinical Medicine, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lagerros, Ylva Trolle
    Department of Medicine, Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden & Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Improved Muscle Mitochondrial Capacity Following Gastric Bypass Surgery in Obese Subjects2016Ingår i: Obesity Surgery, ISSN 0960-8923, E-ISSN 1708-0428, Vol. 26, nr 7, s. 1391-1397Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Weight loss resulting from low-calorie diets is often less than expected. We hypothesized that energy restriction would influence proton leakage and improve mitochondrial efficiency, leading to reduced energy expenditure, partly explaining the difficulties in weight loss maintenance.

    Methods

    Eleven women with a median BMI of 38.5 kg/m2 (q-range 37–40), and referred to gastric bypass surgery participated. Before surgery, and at 6 months of follow-up, muscle biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis muscle. Mitochondria were isolated and analyzed for coupled (state 3) and uncoupled (state 4) respiration and mitochondrial capacity (P/O ratio).

    Results

    At follow-up, the participants had a median BMI of 29.6 kg/m2 (28.3–32.0). State 3 increased from 20.6 (17.9–28.9) to 34.9 nmol O2/min/U citrate synthase (CS) (27.0–49.0), p = 0.01, while state 4 increased from 2.8 (1.8–4.2) to 4.2 nmol O2/min/U CS (3.1–6.1), although not statistically significant. The P/O ratio increased from 2.7 (2.5–2.8) to 3.2 (3.0–3.4), p = 0.02, indicating improved mitochondrial efficiency.

    Conclusions

    Six months after gastric bypass surgery, the mitochondrial capacity for coupled, i.e., ATP-generating, respiration increased, and the P/O ratio improved. Uncoupled respiration was not enhanced to the same extent. This could partly explain the decreased basal metabolism and the reduced inclination for weight loss during energy restriction. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

  • 26.
    Forsström, Jonas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Svensson, Robert
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Periodisk fasta i kombination med styrketräning ökar muskelmassa och minskar fettvikt hos yngre vuxna2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Bakgrund: Dagens stillasittande livsstil med ökat intag av energigivande ämnen resulterar i ett konstant anabolt hormonellt påslag. Detta leder till ökad övervikt och andra välfärdssjukdomar. Det rekommenderas att individer håller sig till en hög måltidsfrekvens med jämna mellanrum under dagen. Detta har börjat ifrågasättas med konkurrerande alternativ som involverar en tidigare samhällslivsstil så långt som 10 000 år sedan, då måltidsfrekvensen inte kunde planeras på samma sätt som idag.

    Syfte: Syftet är att under sju veckor undersöka effekten av två stycken veckovisa 24-timmars periodiska förbud mot intag av energigivande ämnen, med implementering av fysisk styrketräning och dess effekt på lean body mass (LBM) och fettvikt hos yngre individer.

    Metod: Två separata 24-timmars perioder av fasta i samband med tre separata styrketräningstillfällen genomfördes per vecka under sju veckor. Kroppsmått gällande kroppsfett i procent, fettvikt i kilogram (kg), kroppsdimensioner i centimeter (cm), LBM och total kroppsvikt i kg togs innan och efter studiens genomförande. Sju deltagare (två män och fem kvinnor) slutförde sitt deltagande i studien.

    Resultat: Samtliga deltagare ökade i LBM, med en medelökningen på 1,3 kg. Den största ökningen var 2,6 kg, och återfanns hos två deltagare. Samtliga deltagare minskade sitt procentuella kroppsfett. Den högsta minskningen var 4,8 %, den lägsta minskningen var 1 %. Medelminskningen i fettvikt var 2 kg hos individerna. Den största minskningen av fettvikt var 4,2 kg, och den lägsta minskningen var 0,64 kg.

    Slutsats: Periodisk fasta under två stycken 24-timmarsperioder per vecka kan fungera som ett verktyg för att minska fettprocent/fettvikt och samtidigt öka muskelmassan om det görs i kombination med tre stycken styrketräningstillfällen under samma vecka. Denna slutsats ifrågasätter äldre forskning och påståenden om vikten vid att hålla en hög och jämn måltidsfrekvens.

  • 27.
    Hansen, Kirstine M.
    et al.
    Dept. of Drug Design and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Jäger, Anna K.
    Dept. of Drug Design and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Andersson, Åsa
    Dept. of Drug Design and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Mo-clay for treatment of psoriasis2016Ingår i: Planta Medica, Stuttgart: Georg Thieme Verlag KG, 2016, Vol. 82 (S 01), artikel-id P550Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mo-clay was used by German doctors to treat injured soldiers' wounds during the First World War. Today, there are anecdotal cases of mo-clay being beneficial for patients suffering from psoriasis, a chronic, inflammatory disease. There are several histological features in the psoriatic skin, including acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, pararkeratosis and a loss of granular layer. Mo-clay is a unique marine deposit, an Eocene clayed diatomite. It was formed 54 million years ago from deposits of single-celled algae along with clay minerals and volcanic ash. The major elements are silicon, aluminium and iron. It is found in Denmark and Germany. As mo-clay had been used to treat wounds, it was tested for antibacterial activity. Mo-clay did not show any anti-bacterial activity against a battery of Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Mo-clay showed stimulation of cell proliferation at concentrations 39 – 78 µg/ml in splenic mouse lymphocytes, and at 156 µg/ml in HaCat cells, whereas an inhibition of proliferation was observed at 313 µg/ml. Mo-clay was tested for anti-psoriatic activity in vivo using the mouse tail test [1]. This model can be used to investigate agents for effect on psoriasis, since the adult mouse tail has regions of both orthokeratosis and parakeratosis. Mo-clay induced orthokeratosis and showed a significant increase in epidermis thickness. The results suggest that mo-clay may have anti-psoriatic effects.

  • 28.
    Hedin, Dennis
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Relationships of pain experience and aerobic capacity in individuals with chronic pain2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chronic pain is defined as pain for at least 3 months and is highly prevalent in society (10-30%). Individuals with chronic pain are more sensitive to pressure pain and have a disturbed pain perception. Physical activity (PA) has been shown to be a helpful method to treat and decrease disability in these individuals, but the knowledge about the relationship between chronic pain, PA and aerobic capacity is less understood. The aim of this study was to investigate if pain experience is associated with aerobic capacity and physical activity in a population with chronic pain in comparison to a pain free reference group.

    Method: 146 men and women between 40 and 70 years old participated. Pressure pain sensitivity was measured with an Algometer on eight points and aerobic capacity was measured with Ekblom-Bak submaximal test on a bicycle ergometer. A questionnaire was used to gather information about self-reported PA, pain regions and fear-avoidance.

    Result: Individuals with chronic pain had significantly lower pain thresholds (p=0.028) and higher fear-avoidance score (p=0.001), but no difference in aerobic capacity compared to pain-free individuals (p=0.344). Women had lower thresholds compared to men in both chronic pain and pain-free group (p<0.001 and p=0.008). There were no association between aerobic capacity and self-reported moderate PA (r=0.001) or in vigorous PA (r=0.173). Low VO2max has more pain regions (p=0.017) and lower pain thresholds (p=0.001) compared with high VO2max, but no difference in fear-avoidance score (p=0.234).

    Conclusion: Individuals with chronic pain had a higher sensitivity to pressure pain and a higher fear-avoidance compared to pain-free individuals, but no difference in aerobic capacity. There were no associations between self-reported PA and aerobic capacity, and individuals with low VO2max had more pain regions and lower pain thresholds compared with individuals with high VO2max, but no differences in fear-avoidance was found.

  • 29.
    Hellström, Sandra
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle (HOS).
    Nyberg, Frida
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle (HOS).
    Tbc, ett globalt hot: Sjuksköterskans arbete för att främja följsamhet och minska resistensutveckling av mykobakterium tuberkulosis2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tuberkulos (tbc) är en luftburen droppsmitta orsakad av mykobakterium tuberkulosis. Tbc är den sjukdom som efter AIDS orsakar flest dödsfall, trots att botande behandling finns. Behandlingen är krävande för den tbc-smittade att genomgå och bygger på en kombination av en rad antibiotika som måste intas under minst sex månader. Ett avvikande i behandlingen kan resultera i att mykobakterium tuberkulosis blir resistent mot de ordinerade antibiotika. Följsamhet av långtidsbehandlingar som tbc-behandling graderas till 50 %. Syftet med litteraturstudien var att ur ett globalt perspektiv beskriva hur sjuksköterskan kan påverka följsamhet vid tbc-behandling i syfte att minska resistensutvecklingen av mykobakterium tuberkulosis. Studien genomfördes som en litteraturstudie där 12 vetenskapliga artiklar granskades och analyserades. Resultatet visar tydligt att specifika faktorer påverkar följsamhet och därigenom resistensutvecklingen. Faktorerna innefattar patientundervisning, behandlingsstrategier, omgivningens påverkan och stöd.  Undervisningen resulterar i att patienten får ökad förståelse för behandlingen. För att minska stigmatiseringen och det lidande den innebär för den tbc-smittade är även omgivningen i behov av ökad kunskap och information om tbc. Ett flertal studier visar att DOTS-strategin är betydelsefull för ökad följsamhet vid antituberkulos behandling. Litteraturstudien medför ett förslag om att sjuksköterskeprogrammet ska öka fokuseringen på följsamhet vid läkemedelsanvändning. Sjuksköterskan är i behov av att redan under grundutbildningen få kunskap om ansvarsfull antibiotikahantering som leder till en följsamhetsomtanke.

  • 30.
    Horwath, Oscar
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Paulsen, Gøran
    The Norwegian Olympic and Paralympic Committee and Confederation of Sports, Oslo, Norway & Department of Physical Performance, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Esping, Tobias
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Seynnes, Olivier
    Department of Physical Performance, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Isokinetic resistance training combined with eccentric overload improves athletic performance and induces muscle hypertrophy in young ice hockey players.2019Ingår i: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 22, nr 7, s. 821-826Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the combined effects of slow isokinetic resistance training and eccentric overload and compare it to traditional resistance training on strength, power, body composition and muscle hypertrophy in young ice hockey players.

    DESIGN: Experimental, randomized trial.

    METHODS: Twenty-two resistance-trained ice hockey players (18±1year) were assigned to either isokinetic resistance training and eccentric overload (ISO/ECC; n=11) or traditional resistance training (TRAD; n=11). Participants underwent supervised progressive resistance training for 8 weeks (2-3 sessions/week) involving lower body multiple-joint exercises (heavy squats and explosive jump squats). The ISO/ECC group performed their training using a computerized robotic engine system (1080 Quantum synchro, Sweden), whereas the TRAD group performed the same resistance exercises with isotonic loading. Before and after the intervention, participants were evaluated in 1RM back squat, loaded jump squats, sprint- and jump performance, body composition and muscle thickness using ultrasound measurement.

    RESULTS: Similar moderate increases in 1RM back squat and power output in the jump squats were found in both the ISO/ECC and TRAD groups (11-17%, P<0.01), whereas only the ISO/ECC group showed improvements in drop jump performance (9.8%, P=0.01). Moreover, similar trivial changes in body composition were observed in both groups, while only the ISO/ECC training group increased muscle thickness in the vastus intermedius (P=0.01) and rectus femoris muscles (P=0.03).

    CONCLUSIONS: Both modalities effectively increased maximal strength and power output, whereas isokinetic resistance training, combined with eccentric overload, improved drop jump performance and induced greater muscle hypertrophy than traditional training in young ice hockey players. © 2019 Sports Medicine Australia

  • 31.
    Häggblom, Jenny
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Do Compression Garment Maintain Muscular Power from a Strenuous Exercise Session?: A randomized controlled trial2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Compression garments have gained interest over the past ten years, especially when investigating the recovery from a strenuous strength session. Since compression garments have increased in popularity over the past years, scientific results regarding possible benefits are still lacking. 

     

    Aim The aim of the current study was to investigate the recovery from an eccentric exercise session with regards to physiological performance and perceived feelings of muscle soreness, fatigue and recovery in recreational athletes after wearing customized compression garments for 24-hours.

     

    Method Thirteen recreational athletes (age 24.7±4.0 years (mean ± SD), length 171.3±7.0 cm, weight 70.8±9.4 kg), participated in this randomized crossover designed study. After a familiarization trial, participants completed two rounds of testing and exercise in both a control (CON) and a compression condition (CG). Garments were worn for 24-hours post exercise in the compression condition whereas regular clothing were used in the control condition. Performance variables of Wingate Anaerobic cycle Test, agility t-test and broad jump were assessed as well as subjective feelings of muscle soreness, both at baseline and 24-hours post a lower body eccentric exercise session.

     

    Results Muscle soreness was significantly higher 24 hours post recovery (p=0.02) compared to baseline but no difference was seen between groups (p>0.05). There was a significant difference in perceived recovery (increased in CG, p=0.012) and fatigue (increased in CON, p=0.04) between conditions 24-hours post recovery. Physiological performance measured with Wingate, agility t-test and broad jumps were not different among either group or time (p>0.05). Perceived sleep quality was not different from pre-workout or between groups (p>0.05).

     

    Conclusion Based on our findings in the current study, there seems to be no physiological benefit in performance 24-hours after wearing customized compression garments compared to a control condition. However, there seems to be a psychological benefit from wearing the garments with a reduced feeling of fatigue and an improved recovery

  • 32.
    Ivarsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Biomekanik och biomedicin.
    Helgesson, Fredrik
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Biomekanik och biomedicin.
    Stein, Tobias
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Biomekanik och biomedicin.
    Fotbollsskador hos manliga amatörspelare i Halland säsongen 2009: En jämförelse mellan division två, tre och fyra2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fotboll är en intressant idrott att utforska ur skadeperspektiv då det är en av de mest skadedrabbade idrotterna. Fotbollsskador uppkommer antingen akut eller över tid och åtskiljs beroende om de inträffar under träning eller match. Tidigare studier av elitspelare visar att skador främst inträffar under match i form av akuta skador. De visar också att överbelastningsskador är mer träningsrelaterade och att flertalet av dem inträffar under försäsongen. Skadeincidensen beskrivs i antalet skador per 1000 tränings- respektive matchtimmar. Elitnivå har högre incidens än amatörnivå, framförallt under match. Sextio till nittio procent av alla skador drabbar nedre extremitet. Studier visar att de mest skadedrabbade kroppsdelarna är knän, lår och fotleder men även att ljumsk- och vadskador ofta förekommer.

    Syftet med studien var att jämföra olika divisioner inom den manliga amatörfotbollen, för att se hur spelnivån kan inverka på skadebilden. Undersökningen avsåg säsongen 2009 och genomfördes i Halland med spelare från division två, tre och fyra involverade. En enkät användes för att samla in information om spelarnas skadehistorik. Totalt inkluderades 79 spelare i undersökningen och av dessa var 39 skadade och tillsammans hade de 49 skador. Vid beräkning av konfidensintervall för samtliga enkätsvar framkom inga signifikanta skillnader mellan divisionerna. Sextioen procent av skadorna var akuta och 39 % överbelastningsskador. De akuta skadorna var vanligast i division två och tre medan överbelastningsskador var vanligast i division fyra. Den totala skadeincidensen var 7,92 per 1000 matchtimmar och 2,92 per 1000 träningstimmar. Division tre hade högst skadeincidens för match med 10,63 skador och division fyra hade högst skadeincidens för träning med 4,09 skador. Av alla skador resulterade 30,6 % i en frånvaro mellan 1-7 dagar, 32,7 % mellan 8-28 dagar och 36,7 % mer än 28 dagar. Skadorna var främst lokaliserade till knä, lår och fot. Mittfältare var mest skadedrabbade följt av försvarare, anfallare och målvakter. I division två och fyra inträffade skadorna främst under för- och vårsäsongen medan det i division tre var vanligast med skador under höstsäsongen.

  • 33.
    Jacobsen, Freja A.
    et al.
    Dept. of Drug Design and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & Novo Nordisk A/S, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Hulst, Camilla
    Dept. of Drug Design and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & Novo Nordisk A/S, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Bäckström, Thomas
    Novo Nordisk A/S, Måløv, Denmark & BTB Pharma, Malmö, Sweden.
    Koleske, Anthony J.
    Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, USA.
    Andersson, Åsa
    Dept. of Drug Design and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Arg Deficiency Does not Influence the Course of Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein (MOG35-55)-induced Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis2016Ingår i: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology, ISSN 2155-9899, E-ISSN 2155-9899, Vol. 7, nr 3, artikel-id 1000420Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Inhibition of Abl kinases has an ameliorating effect on the rodent model for multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, and arrests lymphocyte activation. The family of Abl kinases consists of the Abl1/Abl and Abl2/Arg tyrosine kinases. While the Abl kinase has been extensively studied in immune activation, roles for Arg are incompletely characterized. To investigate the role for Arg in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, we studied disease development in Arg-/- mice.

    Methods: Arg-/- and Arg+/+ mice were generated from breeding of Arg+/- mice on the C57BL/6 background. Mice were immunized with the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)35-55 peptide and disease development recorded. Lymphocyte phenotypes of wild type Arg+/+ and Arg-/- mice were studied by in vitro stimulation assays and flow cytometry.

    Results: The breeding of Arg+/+ and Arg-/- mice showed skewing in the frequency of born Arg-/- mice. Loss of Arg function did not affect development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, but reduced the number of splenic B-cells in Arg-/- mice following immunization with MOG peptide.

    Conclusions: Development of MOG-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis is not dependent on Arg, but Arg plays a role for the number of B cells in immunized mice. This might suggest a novel role for the Arg kinase in B-cell trafficking or regulation. Furthermore, the results suggest that Arg is important for normal embryonic development. © 2016 Jacobsen FA, et al.

  • 34.
    Johannesson, Petra
    et al.
    Cardiovascular & Metabolic Diseases Innovative Medicines Unit, AstraZeneca R&D Mölndal, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Bratt, Emma
    Cardiovascular & Metabolic Diseases Innovative Medicines Unit, AstraZeneca R&D Mölndal, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Broo, Anders
    Cardiovascular & Metabolic Diseases Innovative Medicines Unit, AstraZeneca R&D Mölndal, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Evertsson, Emma
    Cardiovascular & Metabolic Diseases Innovative Medicines Unit, AstraZeneca R&D Mölndal, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Judkins, Robert
    Cardiovascular & Metabolic Diseases Innovative Medicines Unit, AstraZeneca R&D Mölndal, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Leandersson, Carina
    Cardiovascular & Metabolic Diseases Innovative Medicines Unit, AstraZeneca R&D Mölndal, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Lutz, Mareike
    Cardiovascular & Metabolic Diseases Innovative Medicines Unit, AstraZeneca R&D Mölndal, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Pemberton, Nils
    Cardiovascular & Metabolic Diseases Innovative Medicines Unit, AstraZeneca R&D Mölndal, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Swanson, Marianne
    Cardiovascular & Metabolic Diseases Innovative Medicines Unit, AstraZeneca R&D Mölndal, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Kristina
    Cardiovascular & Metabolic Diseases Innovative Medicines Unit, AstraZeneca R&D Mölndal, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Åkerblad, Peter
    Cardiovascular & Metabolic Diseases Innovative Medicines Unit, AstraZeneca R&D Mölndal, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Lindstedt, Eva-Lotte
    Cardiovascular & Metabolic Diseases Innovative Medicines Unit, AstraZeneca R&D Mölndal, Mölndal, Sweden.
    SAR and optimization of trioxoisothiazole-based liver receptor X (LXR) agonists leading to the clinical candidate AZD39712014Ingår i: Division of Medicinal Chemistry: Scientific Abstracts for the 248th National Meeting and Exposition: August 10-14, 2014: San Francisco, CA, 2014, Vol. 248, s. 247-247Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The liver X receptors (LXRα and LXRβ) are members of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors. The activation of LXR induces genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), which is believed to be the main effect of LXR agonists in the prevention or treatment of atherosclerosis. However LXR agonists have also been shown to cause hepatic steatosis and hypertriglyceridaemia. The ability to separate beneficial effects from negative effects has been a challenge that so far has hampered the development of LXR agonists for human use. We herein describe the SAR and optimization of a series of trioxoisothiazole-based LXR agonists leading to compounds with nanomolar potencies and a separation of beneficial versus negative effects in vivo. This work ultimately led to the nomination of AZD3971 as a candidate for the treatment of atherosclerosis.

  • 35.
    Johansson, Jeanette
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle (HOS).
    Särnbäck, Marie
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle (HOS).
    Polyfarmaci hos äldre:  – ett världsomfattande hälsoproblem   2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Antalet äldre har ökat i hela världen och fortsätter att öka. I takt med stigande ålder ökar risken för sjukdomar och därmed även läkemedelsanvändningen. Personer över 80 år konsumerar i genomsnitt 5,8 läkemedel per person och äldre på sjukhem tio läkemedel per person vilket är en ökning med 60 % sedan slutet av 1980-talet. Anledningen till denna ökning är att det idag finns stora möjligheter att förebygga och behandla många sjukdomar eftersom det hela tiden utvecklas nya läkemedel och behandlingsmetoder. Polyfarmaci och olämplig förskrivning av läkemedel till äldre över 65 år enligt Beers kriterier (se bilaga I) är ett växande och världsomspännande hälsoproblem. Vid polyfarmaci används i genomsnitt fem eller flera olika läkemedel. Polyfarmaci ökar i takt med stigande ålder och är vanligast hos kvinnor samt hos lågutbildade individer. Med ökat antal läkemedel ökar också risken för biverkningar samt interaktioner eftersom äldre är känsligare på grund av åldersförändringar och sjukdom. Syftet med studien var att belysa förekomsten av polyfarmaci och olämplig förskrivning av läkemedel till äldre samt dess konsekvenser. Studien utfördes som en litteraturstudie där 17 vetenskapliga artiklar analyserades. Resultatet visar att en tredjedel av de äldre patienterna konsumerar olämpliga läkemedel, enligt Beers kriterier, vilket leder till onödigt lidande och ökad sjukhusvistelse. Det är därför viktigt att all vårdpersonal är väl insatta i de åldersförändringarna som sker hos den äldre individen samt har god kunskap inom farmakologi. Sjuksköterskor och läkare bör även förbättra samarbetet med farmaceuterna för att öka patientsäkerheten.

     

     

  • 36.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    et al.
    Department of Physical Education and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Camilla
    Institute of Physiology and Pharmacology, Department of Physiology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Britt
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Jennie
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Larval, Maria
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Billig, Håkan
    Institute of Physiology and Pharmacology, Department of Physiology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET). Institute of Physiology and Pharmacology, Department of Physiology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    The effects of physical activity and estrogen treatment on rat fast and slow skeletal muscles following ovariectomy2002Ingår i: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility, ISSN 0142-4319, E-ISSN 1573-2657, Vol. 23, nr 4, s. 335-339Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Decreased estrogen production is associated with changes in the skeletal, cardiovascular and muscular systems. At the level of skeletal muscles, it has been shown that a reduction in force production occurs at menopause but the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of ovariectomy on myosin heavy chain (MyHC) composition. Additionally, we studied the effects of physical activity and the combined effects of physical activity and estrogen treatment on MyHC content in ovariectomised (OX) animals. Twenty-five rats were randomly assigned to five different groups: controls, runners, OX, ovariectomised runners and ovariectomised runners receiving estrogen. Exercise consisted of voluntary running for 5 weeks. Two muscles were analysed: m. extensor digitorum longus, EDL, (fast muscle) and m. soleus (slow muscle). MyHC content was analysed on 8% gel electrophoresis. The level of running activity is reduced in OX animals and estrogen administration is associated with the normalisation of the level of physical activity. Ovariectomy induces a shift from fast to slow MyHC isoforms in both the soleus and EDL. When OX animals are allowed to run, alterations in MyHC isoforms are still observed in the EDL but not in the soleus. When physical activity is combined with estrogen treatment no alterations are observed in both muscles. In conclusion, this study shows that ovariectomy induces alterations in the contractile properties of skeletal muscles and that physical activity in combination with estrogen treatment are associated with the maintenance of slow and fast muscle characteristics.

  • 37.
    Kowalik, Raph
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Biomekanik och biomedicin.
    A review of surface Electromyography used to determine sincerity of effort in Functional Capacity Evaluations2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 38.
    Kroos, G.
    et al.
    Dept. of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hansen, A
    Dept. of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hanskov, D J A
    Dept. of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    Dept. of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Olsen, K.
    Dept. of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hellsten, Y.
    Dept. of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Gene expression of angiogenic factors in muscle tissue during age-related development of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats2008Ingår i: Abstracts 25th Conference of the European Society for Microcirculation: Integrating Vascular Biology and Medicine: Basic and Clinical Science / [ed] Akos Koller, Basel: S. Karger, 2008, Vol. 45, s. 120-120Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Essential hypertension has been associated with capillary rarefaction but little is known about the cellular mechanisms underlying this process. We examined the gene expression of angiogenic factors during age-related development of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Wild-type Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats served as controls. White gastrocnemius muscle was obtained and blood pressure was monitored at 5, 10 and 15 weeks of age. In the SHR group, systolic blood pressure increased from 5 to 10 and 15 weeks of age and the levels were higher than in the WKY group at 10 and 15 weeks (~70%; P<0.05). The mRNA content for MMP-2 was overall lower (P<0.05) in SHR compared to WKY. VEGFmRNA increased (p<0.05) from 5 to 10 weeks in SHR and there was a general increase (P<0.05) in the VEGF receptor flt-1. There was a trend for a lower content of eNOS and CYP 2C11 in the SHR than in WKY group. There were no alterations in the mRNA content of KDR, AMP 5'- nucleotidase, or Cytochrome P450 4A. The results show that the age-related development of hypertension from 5 to 15 weeks in SHR rats is not associated with major changes in mRNA content of the herein included angiogenic factors.

  • 39.
    Larsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Swedish Armed Forces, Eksjö, Sweden.
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Denker, Magnus
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Self-rated physical work demands for ground combat soldiers2018Ingår i: PES 2018 3rd International Conference on Physical Employment Standards, University of Portsmouth, United Kingdom, 17-19 July 2018: Conference Book of Abstracts, 2018, s. 31-31Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Military tasks are physically demanding, and the ability to achieve and maintain the physical capacity required to perform all military tasks are important. Previous studies in other countries have identified the most physically demanding work tasks to be carrying, lifting heavy loads, and digging. The aim of the present study was to identify the most physically demanding work tasks for Swedish ground combat soldiers and to study gender differences in perceived difficulty of the tasks.

    Methods: Based on procedural documentation, field manuals and job analyses, a questionnaire was developed that defined 30 work tasks for ground combat soldiers. To assess face and content validity, an expert focus group was used. The questionnaire was distributed to 231 ground combat soldiers, 165 of whom responded (71.4%), rating the perceived physical strain of the identified work tasks.

    Results: Of the 30 item work tasks included in the survey, five were selected as the most physically demanding. Transport of wounded was rated as the most demanding task both for aerobic endurance and strength. Other highly demanding tasks for aerobic capacity were low/high crawl, dismounted attack in close country, urban and rough terrain, and carrying heavy loads. For muscle strength demands there were a total of 11 different work task ranked for hand-, arm-, leg-, and core strength although many of them only occurred in one of the areas of interest. Carrying heavy loads were ranked in second place except for leg and core strength there it was in third place, instead high and low crawl was ranked very strenuous for leg and core strength. Care of wounded were ranked high for hand strength but not so hard for the rest of the areas.

    Conclusions: Swedish ground combat soldiers rate many tasks as physically demanding. Almost all the identified tasks were physically challenging and contains elements of lifting and carrying, which demand personnel’s muscular strength and muscular endurance capabilities for the soldiers. There were no significant differences in ranked physical requirements between male and female soldiers although they sometimes ranked the tasks in different order. 

  • 40.
    Manasa, Justen
    et al.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Varghese, Vici
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei
    Department of Biology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Rhee, Soo-Yon
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Tzou, Philip
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Fessel, Jeffrey
    Department of Internal Medicine, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, San Francisco Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USA.
    Jang, Karen
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
    White, Elizabeth
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Rögnvaldsson, Thorsteinn
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Katzenstein, David A.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Shafer, Robert A.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Evolution of gag and gp41 in Patients Receiving Ritonavir-Boosted Protease Inhibitors2017Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, nr 1, artikel-id 11559Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Several groups have proposed that genotypic determinants in gag and the gp41 cytoplasmic domain (gp41-CD) reduce protease inhibitor (PI) susceptibility without PI-resistance mutations in protease. However, no gag and gp41-CD mutations definitively responsible for reduced PI susceptibility have been identified in individuals with virological failure (VF) while receiving a boosted PI (PI/r)-containing regimen. To identify gag and gp41 mutations under selective PI pressure, we sequenced gag and/or gp41 in 61 individuals with VF on a PI/r (n = 40) or NNRTI (n = 20) containing regimen. We quantified nonsynonymous and synonymous changes in both genes and identified sites exhibiting signal for directional or diversifying selection. We also used published gag and gp41 polymorphism data to highlight mutations displaying a high selection index, defined as changing from a conserved to an uncommon amino acid. Many amino acid mutations developed in gag and in gp41-CD in both the PI- and NNRTI-treated groups. However, in neither gene, were there discernable differences between the two groups in overall numbers of mutations, mutations displaying evidence of diversifying or directional selection, or mutations with a high selection index. If gag and/or gp41 encode PI-resistance mutations, they may not be confined to consistent mutations at a few sites. © 2017 The Author(s).

  • 41.
    Marx, James O
    et al.
    Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Uppsala University Hospital, 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Larsson, Lars
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Uppsala University Hospital, 751 85, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Scaling of skeletal muscle shortening velocity in mammals representing a 100,000-fold difference in body size2006Ingår i: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0031-6768, E-ISSN 1432-2013, Vol. 452, nr 2, s. 222-230Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To fully understand the effect of scaling on skeletal muscle shortening velocity (V 0), it is important to know which phenotypic characteristics drive the changes between species. The purpose of the current investigation was to compare the effects of body mass and femur length, as an estimate of total limb length, on V 0 in species that cover a 100,000-fold range of body masses. Using the slack test procedure, V 0 was determined for fibers expressing types I and IIa myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms in the mouse, rat, dog, human, horse, and rhinoceros under identical experimental conditions. A significant scaling effect on V 0 was detected when compared to body mass (type I fibers, r=0.95, p<0.01; type IIa fibers, r=0.83, p<0.05). However, the horse's V 0 for both fiber types was faster than the human's, despite having a 5-fold greater body mass than the human. When V 0 was scaled vs limb length, the strength of the relationships improved in fibers expressing both types I and IIa MyHC (r=0.98, p<0.001, and r=0.89, p<0.05, respectively) and scaled with the expected relationship, with the species with the shorter femur, the horse, having the faster V 0. A similar effect can be seen with stride frequency scaling more closely with limb length than body mass. These results suggest that limb length, not body mass, is a more relevant factor driving the scaling effect on skeletal muscle shortening velocity.

  • 42.
    Möller, Malin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Biomekanik och biomedicin.
    Sander, Erik
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Biomekanik och biomedicin.
    Effekt av olika stretchmetoder på agility och rörlighet hos elitinnebandyspelare2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: I många idrotter såsom innebandy används vanligen statisk stretching (SS) som en del av uppvärmningen i tron om att öka prestation trots att statisk stretching har visat sig ha negativ inverkan på aktiviteter som involverar styrka, power, sprint och agility.

    Syfte: Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka om olika stretchmetoder SS, dynamisk stretching (DS) och ingen stretching (IS) som en del av uppvärmningen påverkade agility och/eller rörelseomfång (ROM) i hamstring hos manliga innebandyspelare i superelitligan och om en eventuell effekt varade upp till 10 min in i testtillfället.

    Metod: Vid tre testtillfällen testades de olika stretchmetoderna (SS, DS och IS) efter avslutad uppvärmning. Alla tre stretchmetoderna utfördes vid varje testtillfälle efter randomiserad ordning på tre olika grupper. Agility och rörlighet testades med T-test (s) och passive straight leg raise test (o) vid 0 min, 5 min och 10 min efter avslutad stretching. Totalt 9 testpersoner slutförde studien.

    Resultat: Vid både 0 min och 5 min efter avslutad stretching noterades bäst tid på T-test (s) efter DS (10,20 ± 0,98 samt 9,92 ± 0,49). Vid 10 min noterades bäst tid efter IS (9,68 ± 0,16). Ingen statistisk signifikant skillnad fanns mellan de olika stretchmetoderna och T-test vid varken 0 min (p = 0,93), 5 min (p = 0,90) eller 10 min (p = 0,29). Vid både 0 min och 5 min efter avslutad stretching gav SS det högsta medelvärdet (o) för ROM (73,56 ± 5,79 samt 71,67 ± 7,12). Vid 10 min gav DS det högsta medelvärdet (73,44 ± 8,75). Ingen statistisk signifikant skillnad fanns heller mellan de olika stretchmetoderna och ROM vid varken 0 min (p = 0,92), 5 min (p = 0,94) eller 10 min (p = 0,71).

    Slutsats: Resultaten i denna studie saknar statistisk signifikans men visar på en svag trend att SS skulle kunna försämra agility samtidigt som den ökar ROM i hamstring och att prestationsförsämringarna gradvis stagnerar. Emellertid gav både DS och IS likvärdiga eller bättre resultat på T-test i förhållande till SS och med det i åtanke rekommenderas för utförande av SS att förlägga den vid separata tillfällen eller i anslutning med avslutad aktivitet.

  • 43.
    Nielsen, Isabell
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle (HOS).
    Werner, Hanna
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle (HOS).
    Patientens upplevelse av ett cancerbesked2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Varje år diagnostiseras över 50 000 individer med cancer i Sverige. Ett cancerbesked väcker blandade känslor och associeras ofta med lidande och död. Ett svårt besked kan leda till en förändrad livssituation och kan även ses som början på en lång och mödosam resa. En vetenskaplig litteraturstudie baserad på 15 originalartiklar genomfördes med syftet att belysa patientens upplevelse av ett cancerbesked och därmed öka sjuksköterskans förståelse för patientens situation samt fördjupa kunskaperna inom ämnet. Genom litteraturgranskningen identifierades tre teman: information, emotionella reaktioner samt psykosocialt stöd. Patienten upplever att det är viktigt att informationen ges på ett öppet och ärligt sätt. Vidare framkom det betydelsefullt att uppmärksamma patientens emotionella reaktioner i samband med beskedet. Eftersom upplevelsen av ett cancerbesked påverkar patientens fortsatta upplevelse av sin sjukdom, har sjuksköterskan en viktig roll att fylla genom att erbjuda psykosocialt stöd i de olika tänkbara situationer som kan uppkomma i samband med ett livsavgörande besked. Fortsatt forskning behövs för att jämföra hur de rekommendationer som finns angående delgivandet av ett svårt besked överensstämmer med patienternas egna upplevelser och önskemål.

  • 44.
    Nygren, Jens Martin
    et al.
    Hematopoietic Stem Cell Laboratory, Lund Strategic Research Center for Stem Cell Biology and Cell Therapy, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bryder, David
    Hematopoietic Stem Cell Laboratory, Lund Strategic Research Center for Stem Cell Biology and Cell Therapy, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Jacobsen, Sten Eirik W
    Hematopoietic Stem Cell Laboratory, Lund Strategic Research Center for Stem Cell Biology and Cell Therapy, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Prolonged cell cycle transit is a defining and developmentally conserved hemopoietic stem cell property2006Ingår i: Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0022-1767, E-ISSN 1550-6606, Vol. 177, nr 1, s. 201-208Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Adult mouse hemopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are typically quiescent and enter and progress through the cell cycle rarely in steady-state bone marrow, but their rate of proliferation can be dramatically enhanced on demand. We have studied the cell cycle kinetics of HSCs in the developing fetal liver at a stage when they expand extensively. Despite that 100% of fetal liver HSCs divide within a 48-h period, their average cell cycle transit time (10.6 h) is twice that of their downstream progenitors, translating into a prolonged G(1) transit and a period of relative quiescence (G(0)). In agreement with their prolonged G(1) transit when compared with hemopoietic progenitors, competitive transplantation experiments demonstrate that fetal HSCs are highly enriched in G(1) but also functional in S-G(2)-M. This observation combined with experimental data demonstrating that adult HSCs forced to expand ex vivo also sustain a uniquely prolonged cell cycle and G(1) transit, demonstrate at least in part why purified HSCs at any state of development or condition are highly enriched in the G(0)-G(1) phases of the cell cycle. We propose that a uniquely prolonged cell cycle transit is a defining stem cell property, likely to be critical for their maintenance and self-renewal throughout development.

  • 45.
    Nyman, Kim
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Biomekanik och biomedicin.
    Effekten av styrketräning och energiunderskott på viktminskning hos nybörjarmotionärer2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Effekten av styrketräning och energiunderskott på viktminskning hos nybörjarmotionärer.

    Till dagens datum råder ingen strategi för hur fettförlusten kan maximeras och muskelförlusten minimeras (Katzeff et al, 1995). Lockwood (2008) visar att 50 % av individer som endast använder kostrestriktioner återfår sin ursprungliga vikt igen. Kraemer & Ratamess (2008) visar att regelbunden träning som involverar stora som små muskelgrupper i samma pass frigör mest anabola hormoner. Muskler offras av kroppen eftersom de tar energi och de kan ge energi via glukoneogenes för att ex. jaga byten. I dagens samhälle signalerar stressen ett konstant frigörande av kortisol vilket har en negativ påverkan på bl.a. muskler. Detta hormonpåslag har förstärkts i samband med energiunderskott.

    Är det möjligt att öka styrka med energiunderskott hos nybörjarmotionärer om protein tillförs för optimal kompenseringseffekt efter träningspass?

     4 av 6 överviktiga nybörjarmotionärer genomgick 8 veckor lång träningsperiod med betoning på hypertrofi, energiunderskott och mattiming i denna pilotstudie. 1RM tester har utförts på benpress i maskin, bröstmaskin samt sittande rodd med smalt grepp. Vilopuls har även tagits manuellt på morgonen av varje deltagare vid två tillfällen, före och efter träningsperioden. Testledare har tagit kroppsmått över byst, midja, rumpa samt vardera låren som utvärdering från energiunderskottet. Energiunderskottet har uppskattats till 500 kcal mindre än bibehållandet av ursprunglig vikt.

    Alla deltagare har ökat sina styrkeresultat och minskat alla kroppsmått. En person har någon extra centimeter kring låren, men kan tyda på hypertrofi. Inga signifikans test har utförts.

    BMI har minskat på alla deltagare medan kcalvärde har ökat för varje deltagare enligt BIA våg.

    Ett mål har varit att öka den basala metabolismen i vila via större muskler. Det är främst en ökad fettförbränning som är fördelaktigt för målgruppen, vilket kan uppnås genom en ökad muskelmassa och kolhydratrestriktioner. Trots att pilotstudien har behandlat fysiskt inaktiva nybörjarmotionärer har hypertrofi uppnåtts även efter 4 veckors teknikträning för ökat antal aktiva motorenheter. Inga konkreta slutsatser kan ringas in på en pilotstudie, men positiva resultat har framkommit.

  • 46.
    Olsson, Charlotte M.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Fälth, Jenny
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Ahlebrand, August
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Bremander, Ann
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Sex-Differences In Bench Press Muscle Activation With Pre-Exhaustion Of Triceps Brachii2018Ingår i: Conference Abstracts, 2018, s. 67-68Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Pre-exhaustion is a resistance training method which activates a stronger single-joint muscle to momentary exhaustion directly before a multi-joint exercise including the pre-exhausted muscle. This results in greater recruitment of muscles in the multi-joint exercise to further increase muscle strength. The pre-exhaustion method in bench press has mainly been studied in men and it is uncertain if sex-differences exists. Men are stronger than women in absolute strength, especially in the upper body but if this holds true for upper body relative strength is debated. The purpose was to investigate muscle activity by surface electromyography (EMG) between women and men in bench press with and without pre-exhaustion of triceps brachii (TB) and to compare relative strength in 10RM bench press between the sexes.

    Methods: 15 women and 15 men in their 20s with weight lifting experience were recruited to the study. During the first session body composition and 10 repetition maximum (10RM) bench press were determined Participants performed both protocol A and B in a cross-over design on separate days. Protocol A began with 10 RM bench press, five minutes recovery, pre-exhaustion exercise (triceps extensions to failure) immediately followed by a second round of bench press with the same 10RM load as before pre-exhaustion. Protocol B started with triceps extensions to failure immediately before bench press at their before established 10RM, five minutes of recovery then they performed 10RM bench press again. IN both protocols, EMG electrodes were attached to TB), pectoralis major (PM) and deltoideus anterior (DA). EMG values were normalized to maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) and expressed as % MVIC.

    Results: Bench press only EMG activity in %MVIC was similar between women and men, but analysis of variance (TB interaction p=0.02) showed that women had higher %MVIC in TB after pre-exhaustion whereas muscle activity decreased in men compared to bench press without pre-exhaustion. Yet, the number of repetitions completed in bench press after pre-exhaustion of TB were the same (women 4.3 ± 2.6 vs men 3.8 ± 2.2; p=0.55). As expected, in 10RM weight men (64.0 ± 7.1 kg) were stronger than women (37.1 ± 6.5 kg; p<0.01), however when related to fat free mass no difference was evident in relative strength between women and men.

    Conclusion: Men and women have similar muscle activation patterns during a 10RM bench press, but TB pre-exhaustion followed by a bench press appears to have a greater effect on TB activation in women compared to men. Absolute strength was greater in men, but normalized to fat free mass women and men had similar upper body relative strength.

  • 47.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Department of Neuroscience, Clinical Neurophysiology, Ing 85 3 tr., 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Krüger, Martina
    University of Münster, Physiology and Biophysics Unit, Schlossplatz 5, D-48149 Münster, Germany .
    Meyer, Lars-Henrik
    University of Münster, Physiology and Biophysics Unit, Schlossplatz 5, D-48149 Münster, Germany .
    Ahnlund, Lena
    Rehabilitation Medicine, 75185 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gransberg, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Department of Neuroscience, Clinical Neurophysiology, Ing 85 3 tr., 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Linke, Wolfgang A
    University of Münster, Physiology and Biophysics Unit, Schlossplatz 5, D-48149 Münster, Germany.
    Larsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Department of Neuroscience, Clinical Neurophysiology, Ing 85 3 tr., 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fibre type-specific increase in passive muscle tension in spinal cord-injured subjects with spasticity2006Ingår i: Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0022-3751, E-ISSN 1469-7793, Vol. 577, nr 1, s. 339-352Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 48.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    et al.
    Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, United States.
    Palmer, B M
    Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, United States.
    Stauffer, B L
    Dept. Molec., Cell.,/Devmtl. Biol., University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, United States.
    Leinwand, L A
    Dept. Molec., Cell.,/Devmtl. Biol., University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, United States.
    Moore, R L
    Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, United States.
    Morphological and functional alterations in ventricular myocytes from male transgenic mice with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy2004Ingår i: Circulation Research, ISSN 0009-7330, E-ISSN 1524-4571, Vol. 94, nr 2, s. 201-207Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 49.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    et al.
    Department of Physiology, Univ. Wisconsin Cardiovasc. Res. C., Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53706, United States.
    Patel, J R
    Department of Physiology, Univ. Wisconsin Cardiovasc. Res. C., Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53706, United States.
    Fitzsimons, D P
    Department of Physiology, Univ. Wisconsin Cardiovasc. Res. C., Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53706, United States.
    Walker, J W
    Department of Physiology, Univ. Wisconsin Cardiovasc. Res. C., Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53706, United States.
    Moss, R L
    Department of Physiology, Univ. Wisconsin Cardiovasc. Res. C., Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53706, United States.
    Basal myosin light chain phosphorylation is a determinant of Ca2+ sensitivity of force and activation dependence of the kinetics of myocardial force development2004Ingår i: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology, ISSN 0363-6135, E-ISSN 1522-1539, Vol. 287, nr 6, s. H2712-H2718Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 50.
    Panosyan, Luiza
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
      Impact of vehicle exhaust emitted by the combustion of biofuels on human health2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

     

    Introduction: Significant changes in the global ecosystem, together with a potential shortfall in oil resources, have stimulated intense interest in the development of other sources of energy, and most particularly biofuels since these are basically considered to be less harmful to human health than petroleum-based fuels. However, information about the impact of biofuel-derived vehicle emissions on human health is limited and incomplete.

     

    Aim of the study: To identify those biofuels that are less detrimental to human health on the basis of published results from toxicological and chemical studies of vehicle emission products.

     

    Tasks of the study: To review systematically all conventional and alternative fuels used in internal combustion engines, to identify all known toxic emission products formed by such fuels, to review their toxic effects on human health, and to analyse the data collected in order to develop conclusions concerning the possible health benefits deriving from the use of alternative fuels.

     

    Materials and methods: In order to fulfil the requirements of a complete, comprehensive and up-to-date review of the toxic effects of automotive exhaust, an extensive search of official scientific data sources has been performed. Relevant publications were retrieved from public domain databases with a toxicological focus such as Toxcenter and CAplus, as well as from the websites of the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Keywords employed in the literature search were: petrol, gasoline, diesel exhaust, emission, biofuel, biogas, biodiesel, bioethanol, bioalcohol, toxicity, methanol and ethanol. A total of 295 references were initially selected relating to the period 1962 to 2008, and 142 of these presented titles and abstracts that met the main inclusion criteria, i.e. describing toxicological and epidemiological studies in humans. In cases where eligible studies relating to the goals and tasks of the review were limited or not available, some in vitro or in vivo toxicological studies involving animal models were included.

     

    Results: In comparison with petroleum diesel, the emissions derived from biodiesel contain less particulate matter, carbon monoxide, total hydrocarbons and other toxic compounds including vapour-phase C1-C12 hydrocarbons, aldehydes and ketones (up to C8), selected semi-volatile and particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Whilst sulphur-containing compounds appear to be undetectable in biodiesel, nitrogen oxide and a soluble organic fraction comprising unregulated pollutants including the “aggregated toxics” (i.e., formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, ethylbenzene, n-hexane, naphthalene, styrene, toluene and xylene) are present at elevated levels. Toxicological studies have shown that the mutagenicity of exhaust particles from biodiesel is normally lower than those obtained from petroleum diesel, however, rapeseed oil-derived biodiesel exhibits toxic effects that are 4-fold greater than petroleum diesel. Such enhanced toxicity is probably caused by the presence of carbonyl compounds and unburnt fuel. The toxicity of highly volatile components of biofuel exhaust has not yet been evaluated accurately. A substantial portion of these compounds was apparently lost in the process of preparing the test samples used for the assays (during the evaporation). The overall recoveries of these compounds have not been evaluated and the accuracy of the sample preparation method has not been validated. Hence, it could be that the cytotoxic effect of biodiesel exhaust is higher than that reported. Moreover, compared with fossil diesel, fuel derived from rapeseed oil emits particulate matter with increased mutagenic effects. Epidemiological investigations of the effects of biofuels on humans are very sparse but have revealed dose-dependent respiratory symptoms following exposure to rapeseed oil biodiesel, although the observed differences between this fuel and petroleum diesel are not significant. Such data, however, give rise to serious concerns about the future usage of this plant material as a replacement for established diesel fuels. Combustion of alcohol-based fuels leads to a reduced formation of photochemical smog in comparison with gasoline or diesel, however, the emission of aldehydes (officially classified as carcinogenic or potentially carcinogenic) is several times higher. The toxicity of the exhaust emissions of gasoline-fuelled engines is generally significantly greater than that of alcohol-burning engines. However, some harmful effects from ethanol blends might be expected, such as enhanced emissions of carcinogenic PAHs and increased ozone-related toxicity associated with the high level of aldehydes emitted. The use of ethanol–diesel fuel blends gives rise to increases in regulated exhaust emissions and, possibly, to greater emissions of aldehydes and unburnt hydrocarbons. The most promising fuels, in terms of reduced toxicity and genotoxicity of exhaust emissions, are methanol-containing blends. However, the emission from these fuels still contains formaldehyde, which is a carcinogen. The use of biogas can significantly reduce emissions of total PAHs and formaldehyde and, consequently, the risk of lung toxicity. On the other hand, the emissions of particulate matter by compressed natural gas, and the mutagenic potencies of the exhaust, are similar to those associated with gasoline and diesel fuels.

     

    Conclusions: The use of biofuel is currently viewed very favourably and there are suggestions that the exhaust emissions from such fuel are less likely to present risks to human health in comparison with gasoline and diesel emissions. However, the expectation of a reduction in health effects based on the chemical composition of biodiesel exhaust is far from reality. Thus, although toxicological evidence relating to the effects of biofuels on humans is sparse, it is already apparent that emissions from the combustion of biofuel and blends thereof with petroleum-based fuels are toxic. In addition to the regulated toxic compounds, such as total hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, biofuel emissions contain significant amounts of various other harmful substances that are not regulated, e.g. carbonyls (including formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, 3-butadiene, acrolein, etc.). Whilst biofuels may be potentially less damaging to human health than petroleum fuels, considerable harmful effects must still be expected. Substitution of conventional fuel by biofuel decreases the concentration of regulated toxic pollutants in vehicle exhaust, but increases the concentration of some unregulated toxic pollutants emitted from on-road engines. Generally, the toxicity of biofuels decreases in the order biodiesel>biogas>ethanol>=methanol. In this respect, methanol produced by the oxidation of biogas appears to represent an alternative fuel that exhibits the least potential for damage to human health, however, this alcohol represents a source of formaldehyde pollution and is carcinogenic.

    .

     

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