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  • 1.
    Garthwaite, Taru
    et al.
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Sjöros, Tanja
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Koivumäki, Mikko
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Laine, Saara
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Vähä-Ypyä, Henri
    UKK Institute Finland, Tampere, Finland.
    Saarenhovi, Maria
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Petri
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Löyttyniemi, Eliisa
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Sievänen, Harri
    UKK Institute Finland, Tampere, Finland.
    Houttu, Noora
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Laitinen, Kirsi
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Kalliokoski, Kari
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Vasankari, Tommi
    UKK Institute Finland, Tampere, Finland; Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.
    Knuuti, Juhani
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Heinonen, Ilkka
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för företagande, innovation och hållbarhet, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Standing is associated with insulin sensitivity in adults with metabolic syndrome2021Ingår i: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 24, nr 12, s. 1255-1260Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To determine how components of accelerometer-measured sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA), and fitness are associated with insulin sensitivity in adults with metabolic syndrome. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Target population was middle-aged (40–65 years) sedentary adults with metabolic syndrome. SB, breaks in SB, standing, and PA were measured for four weeks with hip-worn accelerometers. VO2max (ml/min/kg) was measured with maximal cycle ergometry. Insulin sensitivity was determined by hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp (M-value) and fasting blood sampling (HOMA-IR, insulin). Multivariable regression was used for analyses. Results: Sixty-four participants (37 women; 58.3 [SD 6.8] years) were included. Participants spent 10.0 (1.0) h sedentary, 1.8 (0.6) h standing, and 2.7 (0.6) h in PA and took 5149 (1825) steps and 29 (8) breaks daily. In sex-, age- and accelerometer wear time-adjusted model SB, standing, steps and VO2max were associated with M-value (β = −0.384; β = 0.400; β = 0.350; β = 0.609, respectively), HOMA-IR (β = 0.420; β = −0.548; β = −0.252; β = −0.449), and insulin (β = 0.433; β = −0.541; β = −0.252; β = −0.453); all p-values < 0.05. Breaks associated only with M-value (β = 0.277). When further adjusted for body fat %, only standing remained significantly associated with HOMA-IR (β = −0.381) and insulin (β = −0.366); significance was maintained even when further adjusted for SB, PA and fitness. Light and moderate-to-vigorous PA were not associated with insulin sensitivity. Conclusions: Standing is associated with insulin sensitivity markers. The association with HOMA-IR and insulin is independent of adiposity, PA, SB and fitness. Further studies are warranted, but these findings encourage replacing sitting with standing for potential improvements in insulin sensitivity in adults at increased type 2 diabetes risk. © 2021 The Authors.

  • 2.
    Garthwaite, Taru
    et al.
    Turku PET Centre, Turku, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Sjöros, Tanja
    Turku PET Centre, Turku, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Laine, Saara
    Turku PET Centre, Turku, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Koivumäki, Mikko
    Turku PET Centre, Turku, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Vähä-Ypyä, Henri
    UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland.
    Eskola, Olli
    Turku PET Centre, Turku, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Rajander, Johan
    Turku PET Centre, Turku, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Petri
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Saarenhovi, Maria
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Löyttyniemi, Eliisa
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Sievänen, Harri
    UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland.
    Houttu, Noora
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Laitinen, Kirsi
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Kalliokoski, Kari
    Turku PET Centre, Turku, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Vasankari, Tommi
    UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland; University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
    Knuuti, Juhani
    Turku PET Centre, Turku, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Heinonen, Ilkka
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för företagande, innovation och hållbarhet. Turku PET Centre, Turku, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Associations of sedentary time, physical activity, and fitness with muscle glucose uptake in adults with metabolic syndrome2022Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 33, nr 3, s. 353-358Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the associations of sedentary time, physical activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness with skeletal muscle glucose uptake (GU). Methods: Sedentary time and physical activity were measured with accelerometers and VO2max with cycle ergometry in 44 sedentary adults with metabolic syndrome. Thigh muscle GU was determined with [18F]FDG-PET imaging. Results: Sedentary time (β = −0.374), standing (β = 0.376), steps (β = 0.351), and VO2max (β = 0.598) were associated with muscle GU when adjusted for sex, age, and accelerometer wear time. Adjustment for body fat-% turned all associations non-significant. Conclusion: Body composition is a more important determinant of muscle GU in this population than sedentary time, physical activity, or fitness. © 2022 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  • 3.
    Sjöros, Tanja
    et al.
    Turku PET Centre, Åbo, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Laine, Saara
    Turku PET Centre, Åbo, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Garthwaite, Taru
    Turku PET Centre, Åbo, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Vähä-Ypyä, Henri
    The UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland.
    Koivumäki, Mikko
    Turku PET Centre, Åbo, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Eskola, Olli
    Turku PET Centre, Åbo, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Löyttyniemi, Eliisa
    Department of Biostatistics, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Houttu, Noora
    Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Laitinen, Kirsi
    Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Kalliokoski, Kari K.
    Turku PET Centre, Åbo, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Sievänen, Harri
    The UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland.
    Vasankari, Tommi
    The UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland; Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.
    Knuuti, Juhani
    Turku PET Centre, Åbo, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Heinonen, Ilkka H. A.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för företagande, innovation och hållbarhet. Turku PET Centre, Åbo, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    The effects of a 6-month intervention aimed to reduce sedentary time on skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity: a randomized controlled trial2023Ingår i: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0193-1849, E-ISSN 1522-1555, Vol. 325, nr 2, s. E152-E162Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sedentary behavior (SB) and physical inactivity associate with impaired insulin sensitivity. We investigated whether an intervention aimed at a 1-h reduction in daily SB during 6 mo would improve insulin sensitivity in the weight-bearing thigh muscles. Forty-four sedentary inactive adults [mean age 58 (SD 7) yr; 43% men] with metabolic syndrome were randomized into intervention and control groups. The individualized behavioral intervention was supported by an interactive accelerometer and a mobile application. SB, measured with hip-worn accelerometers in 6-s intervals throughout the 6-mo intervention, decreased by 51 (95% CI 22-80) min/day and physical activity (PA) increased by 37 (95% CI 18-55) min/day in the intervention group with nonsignificant changes in these outcomes in the control group. Insulin sensitivity in the whole body and in the quadriceps femoris and hamstring muscles, measured with hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp combined with [18F]fluoro-deoxy-glucose PET, did not significantly change during the intervention in either group. However, the changes in hamstring and whole body insulin sensitivity correlated inversely with the change in SB and positively with the changes in moderate-to-vigorous PA and daily steps. In conclusion, these results suggest that the more the participants were able to reduce their SB, the more their individual insulin sensitivity increased in the whole body and in the hamstring muscles but not in quadriceps femoris. However, according to our primary randomized controlled trial results, this kind of behavioral interventions targeted to reduce sedentariness may not be effective in increasing skeletal muscle and whole body insulin sensitivity in people with metabolic syndrome at the population level.

    NEW & NOTEWORTHY Aiming to reduce daily SB by 1 h/day had no impact on skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity in the weight-bearing thigh muscles. However, successfully reducing SB may increase insulin sensitivity in the postural hamstring muscles. This emphasizes the importance of both reducing SB and increasing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity to improve insulin sensitivity in functionally different muscles of the body and thus induce a more comprehensive change in insulin sensitivity in the whole body.

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