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  • 1.
    Aili, K.
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden & FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Andersson, M.
    FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, S.
    FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sleep problems and fatigue as a predictor for the onset of chronic widespread pain over a 5- and 18-year perspective: a 20-year prospective study2018Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 77, nr Suppl. 2, s. 87-87Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: If localised pain represent one end of a pain spectra, with overall better general health, chronic widespread pain (CWP) and fibromyalgia represent the other end of the spectra with worse general health and more comorbidities with other somatic diseases and mental illness. Sleep problems and fatigue are common among individuals reporting CWP and previous research indicate that sleep problems may be an important predictor for pain prognosis.

    Objectives: The aim of this population-based study was to investigate if sleep problems and fatigue predict the onset of CWP 5 and 18 years later.

    Methods: In order to get more stable baseline classifications of CWP, a wash-out period was used, including only individuals who had not reported CWP (according to ACR 1990 criteria for fibromyalgia) at baseline (−98) and three years prior baseline (−95). In all, data from 1249 individuals entered the analyses for the 5 year follow-up (−03) and 791 entered for the 18 year follow-up (−16). Four parameters related to sleep (difficulties initiating sleep, maintaining sleep, early morning awakening and non-restorative sleep), and one parameter related to fatigue (SF-36 vitality scale) were investigated as predictors for CWP. Binary logistic regression analysis were used for analyses.

    Results: All investigated parameters predicted the onset of CWP five years later (problems with initiating sleep (OR 1.91; 1.16–3.14), maintaining sleep (OR 1.85; 1.14–3.01), early awakening (OR 2.0; 1.37–3.75), non-restorative sleep (OR 2.27; 1.37–3.75) and fatigue (OR 3.70; 1.76–7.84)) in a model adjusted for age, gender, socio-economy and mental health. All parameters except problems with early awakening predicted the onset of CWP also 18 years later. In all, 785 individuals did not report any of the sleeping problems at baseline (fatigue not included), 268 reported one of the problems, 167 two, 128 three and 117 subjects reported to have all four sleep problems. Reporting all four sleep problems was significantly associated with CWP at follow-up at both time points when adjusting for age, gender, socio economy and mental health (OR 4.00; 2.03–7.91 and OR 3.95; 1.90–8.20); adjusting for age, gender, socio economy and number of pain regions (OR 2.94; 1.48–5.82 and OR 2.65; 1.24–5.64) and in a model adjusting for age, gender, socio economy and pain severity (OR 2.97;1.53–5.76; and OR 3.02;1.47–6.21) for the 5 year and 18 year follow-up respectively, compared to not reporting any of the sleep problems at baseline.

    Conclusions: Both sleeping problems and fatigue predicts the onset of CWP 5- and 18 years later. The results highlight the importance of the assessment of sleep quality in the clinic.

  • 2.
    Aili, Katarina
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden & FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Andersson, Maria
    FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sleep problems and fatigue as a predictor for the onset of chronic widespread painover a 5- and 18-year perspective: a 20-year prospective study2018Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 77, s. 87-87, artikel-id OP0072Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: If localised pain represent one end of a pain spectra, with overall better general health, chronic widespread pain (CWP) and fibromyalgia represent the other end of the spectra with worse general health and more comorbidities with other somatic diseases and mental illness. Sleep problems and fatigue are common among individuals reporting CWP and previous research indicate that sleep problems may be an important predictor for pain prognosis.

    Objectives: The aim of this population-based study was to investigate if sleep problems and fatigue predict the onset of CWP 5 and 18 years later.

    Methods: In order to get more stable baseline classifications of CWP, a wash-out period was used, including only individuals who had not reported CWP (according to ACR 1990 criteria for fibromyalgia) at baseline (−98) and three years prior baseline (−95). In all, data from 1249 individuals entered the analyses for the 5 year follow-up (−03) and 791 entered for the 18 year follow-up (−16). Four parameters related to sleep (difficulties initiating sleep, maintaining sleep, early morning awakening and non-restorative sleep), and one parameter related to fatigue (SF-36 vitality scale) were investigated as predictors for CWP. Binary logistic regression analysis were used for analyses.

    Results: All investigated parameters predicted the onset of CWP five years later (problems with initiating sleep (OR 1.91; 1.16–3.14), maintaining sleep (OR 1.85; 1.14–3.01), early awakening (OR 2.0; 1.37–3.75), non-restorative sleep (OR 2.27; 1.37–3.75) and fatigue (OR 3.70; 1.76–7.84)) in a model adjusted for age, gender, socio-economy and mental health. All parameters except problems with early awakening predicted the onset of CWP also 18 years later. In all, 785 individuals did not report any of the sleeping problems at baseline (fatigue not included), 268 reported one of the problems, 167 two, 128 three and 117 subjects reported to have all four sleep problems. Reporting all four sleep problems was significantly associated with CWP at follow-up at both time points when adjusting for age, gender, socio economy and mental health (OR 4.00; 2.03–7.91 and OR 3.95; 1.90–8.20); adjusting for age, gender, socio economy and number of pain regions (OR 2.94; 1.48–5.82 and OR 2.65; 1.24–5.64) and in a model adjusting for age, gender, socio economy and pain severity (OR 2.97;1.53–5.76; and OR 3.02;1.47–6.21) for the 5 year and 18 year follow-up respectively, compared to not reporting any of the sleep problems at baseline.

    Conclusions: Both sleeping problems and fatigue predicts the onset of CWP 5- and 18 years later. The results highlight the importance of the assessment of sleep quality in the clinic.

  • 3.
    Aili, Katarina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Hälsa och idrott. Spenshult Research and Development Center, FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Maria
    Spenshult Research and Development Center, FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Spenshult Research and Development Center, FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sweden & University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark & Syddansk Universitet, Graasten, Danmark.
    Haglund, Emma
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Spenshult Research and Development Center, FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Hälsa och omvårdnad. Spenshult Research and Development Center, FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Sleep problems and fatigue as predictorsfor the onset of chronic widespread painover a 5- and 18-year perspective2018Ingår i: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 1-14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous research suggests that sleep problems may be an important predictor for chronic widespread pain (CWP). With this study we investigated both sleep problems and fatigue as predictors for the onset of CWP over a 5-year and an 18-year perspective in a population free from CWP at baseline.

    Methods: To get a more stable classification of CWP, we used a wash-out period, including only individuals who had not reported CWP at baseline (1998) and three years prior baseline (1995). In all, data from 1249 individuals entered the analyses for the 5-year follow-up and 791 entered for the 18-year follow-up. Difficulties initiating sleep, maintaining sleep, early morning awakening, non-restorative sleep and fatigue were investigated as predictors separately and simultaneously in binary logistic regression analyses.

    Results: The results showed that problems with initiating sleep, maintaining sleep, early awakening and non-restorative sleep predicted the onset of CWP over a 5-year (OR 1.85 to OR 2.27) and 18-year (OR 1.54 to OR 2.25) perspective irrespective of mental health (assessed by SF-36) at baseline. Also fatigue predicted the onset of CWP over the two-time perspectives (OR 3.70 and OR 2.36 respectively) when adjusting for mental health. Overall the effect of the sleep problems and fatigue on new onset CWP (over a 5-year perspective) was somewhat attenuated when adjusting for pain at baseline but remained significant for problems with early awakening, non-restorative sleep and fatigue. Problems with maintaining sleep predicted CWP 18 years later irrespective of mental health and number of pain regions (OR 1.72). Reporting simultaneous problems with all four aspects of sleep was associated with the onset of CWP over a five-year and 18-yearperspective, irrespective of age, gender, socio economy, mental health and pain at baseline. Sleep problems and fatigue predicted the onset of CWP five years later irrespective of each other.

    Conclusion: Sleep problems and fatigue were both important predictors for the onset of CWP over a five-year perspective. Sleep problems was a stronger predictor in a longer time-perspective. The results highlight the importance of the assessment of sleep quality and fatigue in the clinic. © The Author(s). 2018

  • 4.
    Aili, Katarina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI). RandD Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). RandD Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI). RandD Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Passive coping strategies but not physical function are associated with worse mental health, in women with chronic widespread pain – a mixed method study2019Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 78, nr Suppl 2, s. 2159-2159Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chronic widespread pain (CWP) is a common condition (approximately 10% prevalence), that affects women twice as often as men. There is a lack of knowledge in how different coping strategies relates to health status during CWP development in a general population.

    Objectives: To explore different ways of coping with CWP and to relate the different coping strategies to health-related factors, before and after developing CWP.

    Methods: A sequential explorative mixed methods study including 19 women 45-67 of age, who had reported CWP in a survey 2016, but not in 1995. Individual interviews were analysed with a phenomenographic approach, and resulted in four categories of coping strategies. These categories were further explored with regard to four dimensions of health status (physical function, bodily pain, vitality and mental health) as measured by SF-36 (0-100, a lower score indicates more disability) and sleep problems measured both in 1995, and 2016.

    Results: The qualitative analysis revealed four categories representing different coping strategies, where each woman was labelled by the most dominant category; the mastering woman, the persistent woman, the compliant woman and the conquered woman. The first two categories emerged as being active coping strategies, and the latter two as passive. Women with passive strategies reported significantly lower vitality (median 57.5 vs 75, p=0.007) and worse mental health (median 54 vs 93, p=0.021) in 1995, before they had developed CWP compared with those with active coping strategies. No differences were seen between the groups on physical function, bodily pain or sleep.

    In 2016, there were still a difference between the passive and active group regarding mental health (median 56 vs 80, p=0.022), but not for vitality (median 35 vs 40, p=0.707). No differences were seen between the groups on physical function or bodily pain. All eight women with passive strategies reported problems with sleep in 2016, as compared to 6 of the 11 women with active strategies (p=0.045).

    Conclusion: Women that reported CWP in 2016, but not in 1995, described both active and passive coping strategies. The qualitative findings were associated with differences in vitality and mental health already in 1995, before they had developed CWP. Further, those with passive coping strategies reported worse health with regard to mental health and sleep problems in 2016. Interestingly, the groups did not differ in bodily pain or physical function neither in 1995 nor in 2016, which implicates the importance for the clinician to take the typical coping strategy into consideration, when meeting these patients in clinical settings. © Aili, Bergman, Bremander, Haglund & Larsson 2019. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

  • 5.
    Aili, Katarina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Hälsa och idrott.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Bremander, Ann
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense..
    Haglund, Emma
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Larsson, Ingrid
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Hälsa och omvårdnad.
    Passive coping strategies but not physicalfunction are associated with worse mental health, in women with chronicwidespread pain– a mixed method study2019Ingår i: Annual Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 2019, artikel-id A2159Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chronic widespread pain (CWP) is a common condition (approximately 10% prevalence), that affects women twice as often as men. There is a lack of knowledge in how different coping strategies relates to health status during CWP development in a general population.

    Objectives: To explore different ways of coping with CWP and to relate the different coping strategies to health-related factors, before and after developing CWP.

    Methods: A sequential explorative mixed methods study including 19 women 45-67 of age, who had reported CWP in a survey 2016, but not in 1995. Individual interviews were analysed with a phenomenographic approach, and resulted in four categories of coping strategies. These categories were further explored with regard to four dimensions of health status (physical function, bodily pain, vitality and mental health) as measured by SF-36 (0-100, a lower score indicates more disability) and sleep problems measured both in 1995, and 2016.

    Results: The qualitative analysis revealed four categories representing different coping strategies, where each woman was labelled by the most dominant category; the mastering woman, the persistent woman, the compliant woman and the conquered woman. The first two categories emerged as being active coping strategies, and the latter two as passive. Women with passive strategies reported significantly lower vitality (median 57.5 vs 75, p=0.007) and worse mental health (median 54 vs 93, p=0.021) in 1995, before they had developed CWP compared with those with active coping strategies. No differences were seen between the groups on physical function, bodily pain or sleep.

    In 2016, there were still a difference between the passive and active group regarding mental health (median 56 vs 80, p=0.022), but not for vitality (median 35 vs 40, p=0.707). No differences were seen between the groups on physical function or bodily pain. All eight women with passive strategies reported problems with sleep in 2016, as compared to 6 of the 11 women with active strategies (p=0.045).

    Conclusion: Women that reported CWP in 2016, but not in 1995, described both active and passive coping strategies. The qualitative findings were associated with differences in vitality and mental health already in 1995, before they had developed CWP. Further, those with passive coping strategies reported worse health with regard to mental health and sleep problems in 2016. Interestingly, the groups did not differ in bodily pain or physical function neither in 1995 nor in 2016, which implicates the importance for the clinician to take the typical coping strategy into consideration, when meeting these patients in clinical settings.

  • 6.
    Aili, Katarina
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Women’s experiences of coping with chronic widespread pain: – a qualitative study2018Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 77, s. 1815-1815, artikel-id FRI10737-HPRArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Approximately ten percent of the population report chronic widespread pain (CWP), the condition is more common among women than men. For most people, the pain interferes with many aspects of every-day life and implies large consequences. However, the group reporting CWP is heterogeneous and there is a need for better understanding of the different strategies used for coping with pain in every-day life.

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to describe women’s experiences of how to cope with CWP.

    Methods: The study had a descriptive design with a qualitative content analysis approach. Individual interviews were conducted with 19 women, 31–66 of age, who had reported CWP in a survey 2016. CWP was defined according to the 1990 ACR criteria for fibromyalgia. To be considered chronic, the pain should have persisted for more than three months during the last 12 months. A manifest qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the main question “How do you cope with your chronic widespread pain?” The analysis resulted in four categories.

    Results: Women described their coping with CWP in four different ways; to take control, to continue as usual, to follow instructions and to rest. To take control meant to make deliberate decisions to handle everyday day life. It also meant to take care of oneself, to think positive and to exercise at an adequate level. To continue as usual meant not to listen to body signals and either to ignore or accept the pain. To follow instructions meant listening to the health professionals and following advices, but without taking any part of the responsibility for the treatment outcome. To rest meant to perceive an unreasonable need for recovery, to resign and let the pain set the terms for the daily living.

    Conclusions: Women expressed different ways of coping with CWP including both active and passive strategies. The coping strategies included two dimensions, where one ranged from actively taking control over the pain, to passively following instructions and the other from actively continue as usual by either accepting or ignoring the pain to passively rest and being mastered by pain.

  • 7.
    Aili, Katarina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI). Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden & RandD Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    RandD Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Institute of Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Primary Health Care Unit, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). RandD Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Adding information on widespread pain to the start back screening tool when identifying low back pain patients at increased risk for poor prognosis2019Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 78, nr Suppl 2, s. 1457-1457Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    Aksel Jacobsen, Freja
    et al.
    Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark.
    Andersson, Åsa
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Inhibitors of intracellular enzymes for treatment of multiple sclerosis2019Ingår i: Atlas of ScienceArtikel, forskningsöversikt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 9.
    Aksel Jacobsen, Freja
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark.
    Scherer, Alexander N.
    Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Mouritsen, Jeppe
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & Novozymes A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark.
    Bragadóttir, Hera
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & Xelia Pharmaceuticals A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bäckström, B. Thomas
    Novo Nordisk A/S, Måløv, Denmark & BTB Pharma, Malmö, Sweden.
    Sardar, Samra
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holmberg, Dan
    Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Koleske, Anthony J.
    Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Andersson, Åsa
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    A Role for the Non-Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Abl2/Arg in Experimental Neuroinflammation2018Ingår i: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology, ISSN 1557-1890, E-ISSN 1557-1904, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 265-276Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple sclerosis is a neuroinflammatory degenerative disease, caused by activated immune cells infiltrating the CNS. The disease etiology involves both genetic and environmental factors. The mouse genetic locus, Eae27, linked to disease development in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model for multiple sclerosis, was studied in order to identify contributing disease susceptibility factors and potential drug targets for multiple sclerosis. Studies of an Eae27 congenic mouse strain, revealed that genetic variation within Eae27 influences EAE development. The Abl2 gene, encoding the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Arg, is located in the 4,1 megabase pair long Eae27 region. The Arg protein plays an important role in cellular regulation and is, in addition, involved in signaling through the B- and T-cell receptors, important for the autoimmune response. The presence of a single nucleotide polymorphism causing an amino acid change in a near actin-interacting domain of Arg, in addition to altered lymphocyte activation in the congenic mice upon immunization with myelin antigen, makes Abl2/Arg a candidate gene for EAE. Here we demonstrate that the non-synonymous SNP does not change Arg’s binding affinity for F-actin but suggest a role for Abl kinases in CNS inflammation pathogenesis by showing that pharmacological inhibition of Abl kinases ameliorates EAE, but not experimental arthritis. © 2018 The Author(s)

  • 10.
    Al Jawaheri, Raad
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Sahlén, Göran
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Negative impact of lake liming programmes on the species richness of dragonflies (Odonata): a study from southern Sweden2017Ingår i: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 788, nr 1, s. 99-113Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Liming programmes aiming to restore fish populations are being implemented in many acidified aquatic systems in northern Europe. We studied Odonata communities in 47 forest lakes in SW Sweden, 13 that are currently being limed, and 8 that have previously been limed. Thirty-one species were recorded, with the highest mean number in untreated lakes, followed by previously treated lakes and currently treated lakes. Species communities differed between untreated and limed lakes, but only few rare species found in the untreated lakes were absent in the treated lakes. Likewise, species known to thrive in acid environments were either rare or showed no preferences. Comparing the number of records of odonate species within a large regional area to the proportion of lakes inhabited in our study, we found that seven of the most commonly observed species occurred less frequently in limed lakes than in the untreated ones, including two of the three most common taxa. Reduced species numbers in limed lakes might be due to conditions on other trophic levels, including fish predation. We argue that Odonata should be considered when developing new biological indices of water quality, although the causes of the observed occurrence patterns need to be studied further. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

  • 11.
    Albinsson, John
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Biomed Engn, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Rydén Ahlgren, Åsa
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Clin Physiol & Nucl Med Unit, Malmo, Sweden..
    Cinthio, Magnus
    Lund Univ, Dept Biomed Engn, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Improved tracking performance of lagrangian block-matching methodologies using block expansion in the time domain: In silico, phantom and invivo evaluations2014Ingår i: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0301-5629, E-ISSN 1879-291X, Vol. 40, nr 10, s. 2508-2520Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate tracking performance when an extra reference block is added to a basic block-matching method, where the two reference blocks originate from two consecutive ultrasound frames. The use of an extra reference block was evaluated for two putative benefits: (i) an increase in tracking performance while maintaining the size of the reference blocks, evaluated using in silico and phantom cine loops; (ii) a reduction in the size of the reference blocks while maintaining the tracking performance, evaluated using in vivo cine loops of the common carotid artery where the longitudinal movement of the wall was estimated. The results indicated that tracking accuracy improved (mean - 48%, p<0.005 [in silico]; mean - 43%, p<0.01 [phantom]), and there was a reduction in size of the reference blocks while maintaining tracking performance (mean - 19%, p<0.01 [in vivo]). This novel method will facilitate further exploration of the longitudinal movement of the arterial wall. (C) 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology.

  • 12.
    Anderberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Volvo Cars Corporation, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Rosén, Bengt Göran
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Thomas, Tom R.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Low friction and emission cylinder liner surfaces and the influence of surface topography and scale2019Ingår i: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 133, s. 224-229Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A low friction piston ring pack, with tangential load halved, was tested in engines with four different cylinder liner finishes. Oil consumption, oil temperature and liner surface temperature were monitored at different load and speed levels, under similar test conditions. The two smoother surfaces generally kept lower oil consumption compared to the two rougher ones. Results were correlated using an area-fractal analysis. The relative area of the surface was calculated at different scales and the result was compared with the level of oil consumption for the different liner surfaces at different engine speeds. It was found that oil consumption was strongly correlated with scale for areas of above 1000 μm2 and below 20 μm2.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Åsa
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Köpenhamns universitet, Köpenhamn, Danmark.
    Abl-tyrosinkinaser och multipel skleros2018Ingår i: BestPractice, Vol. 6, nr 24, s. 14-16Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 14.
    Andersson, Åsa
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Aksel Jacobsen, Freja
    Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    B-cells and Inflammation in the Absence of the Abelson Related Gene (Arg)2016Ingår i: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology, ISSN 2155-9899, E-ISSN 2155-9899, Vol. 7, nr 6, artikel-id 1000470Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Abelson non-receptor tyrosine kinases, c-Abl and Arg, are important regulators of cellular processes in cancer, inflammation, infection, and neuronal dynamics. Recent research on the role for these kinases in processes involving interactions with the cytoskeleton or signaling molecules, may lead to further insight into the pathogenesis of a variety of disorders, including chronic inflammatory diseases. In a mouse model for multiple sclerosis, we recently reported that Arg deficient mice develop T-cell mediated autoimmune neuro-inflammation with the same severity as littermate controls, but display a different B-cell phenotype upon immunization. Here we comment on these results and discuss the role for Arg in B-cell activation and homeostasis.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Åsa
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Sardar, Samra
    Nordic Bioscience, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    A transcriptional regulator controlling severity in experimental arthritis2019Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 78, nr Suppl. 2, s. 667-667, artikel-id FRI0011Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Susceptibility to Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is dependent on complex interactions among genetic and environmental factors. Protein candidates and their role in pathways leading to chronic inflammation of the joints, in addition to their potential as drug targets, can be revealed with the help of experimental models for disease (1). From the results of functional genetic studies, we have recently shown that the T-box gene, TBX3, is a candidate gene in Collagen Induced Arthritis (CIA), an experimental model for RA (2). TBX3 encodes a transcriptional regulator involved in differentiation of several organs, including bone, during embryonic development. It has, in addition, been demonstrated important in oncogenesis (3). Our studies suggest that TBX3 has a role in B-cell activation and is important for the severity of disease in the CIA model (2). Objectives: The objective of this project is to understand the role for the transcriptional regulator TBX3 in development of RA. Methods: Bioinformatics based comparative studies of mouse and human alleles in the regulatory region of TBX3. CRISPR/Cas9-introduced deletions and base modifications in human B-cell lines. Activation of genetically modified B-cells in vitro, followed by analyses of proliferative response and antibody production. Results: Studies of CIA development in mice with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the regulatory region of Tbx3 revealed a significant difference in severity of arthritis. In line with this, the anti-collagen type II antibody titers were shown substantially higher in mice with more severe arthritis, even before onset of disease. In addition, preliminary data shows that the proliferative response to Type II collagen upon re-challenge of lymph node cells in vitro is higher in these mice, suggesting a more active response to the disease-inducing antigen. Because the TBX3 gene is conserved between mouse and human, we are investigating whether similar genetic variations are found in the regulatory region of the human TBX3 gene and whether the putative genetic variation would lead to a distinct B-cell phenotype upon activation in vitro. Conclusion: We suggest that the oncoprotein TBX3 is a novel candidate contributing to disease severity in experimental arthritis. Investigations of genetic variation in the TBX3 gene and its role in the activation of human B-cells will reveal whether this protein is a candidate for influencing also development of RA.

  • 16.
    Averfalk, Helge
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Enhanced District Heating Technology: Maintaining Future System Feasibility2017Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    When heat demand and high temperature heat supply gradually decreases in the future, then it will effect district heating systems ability to compete on the heat market. A good way to mitigate less district heating feasibility is to operate systems with lower temperature levels and the most conceivable way to achieve lower temperature levels is to decrease return temperatures.

    Thus, this thesis emphasise temperature errors embedded in district heating systems. Only a selection of temperature errors are analysed in this thesis. First, the temperature error that occurs due to recirculation in distribution networks at low heat demands. Second, the temperature error that occurs due to hot water circulation in multi-family buildings. Third, the temperature error that occurs due to less than possible heat transfer in heat exchangers, i.e. too short thermal lengths.

    In order to address these temperature errors three technology changes have been proposed (i) three-pipe distribution network to separate the recirculation return flow from the delivery return flow, (ii) apartment substations to eliminate hot water circulation utilisation, and (iii) improved heat exchangers for lower return temperatures at a constant scenario. Analysis of proposed changes has resulted in annual average return temperatures between 17-21 °C.

    Furthermore, rapid introduction of intermittent renewable electricity supply in the energy system has prompted an increased necessity of power system balancing capacities. Large-scale conversion of power-to-heat in electric boilers and heat pumps is a feasible alternative to achieve such balancing capacities. Analysis of the unique Swedish experience with utilisation of large heat pumps installations connected to district heating systems show that since the 1980s 1527 MW of heat power has been installed, about 80 % of the capacity was still in use by 2013. Thus, a cumulative value of over three decades of operation and maintenance exists within Swedish district heating systems.

    The two papers presented in this thesis are related to future district heating systems through the five abilities of fourth generation district heating (4GDH), which are documented in the definition paper of 4GDH.

  • 17.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Dalman, Bengt-Göran
    BG Dalman AB, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Kilersjö, Christer
    EKSTA, Kungsbacka, Sverige.
    Lygnerud, Kristina
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Welling, Sebastian
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Analys av 4e generationens fjärrvärmeteknik jämfört med 3e generationens: Simulering av sekundärnät i nybyggnationsområde2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrunden till studien är att nya förutsättningar genom energieffektivisering, konkurrens från värmepumpar och nya krav på kundsidan gör en modernisering av fjärrvärmeverksamhet nödvändig. En del av denna modernisering är att kunna dra nytta av de fördelar som lägre temperaturer i näten medför. Därtill skapas genom den nya tekniken förutsättningar för att ta hand om värmekällor som idag inte utnyttjas (t.ex. värme från kylprocesser och annan infrastruktur såsom värme från avloppsvatten och värme från kollektivtrafik).

    Befintlig teknik är beprövad och bygger på att det finns ekonomiska incitament att förbränna biobränsle och avfall. Steget till att pröva en ny teknik där andra värmekällor och en ny gränsdragning gentemot kund blir nödvändig är därför stort och förenat med ett antal frågor. Det är just de frågor som uppkommer i ett fjärrvärmeföretag inför implementering av 4e generationens fjärrvärmeteknik som projektet försöker identifiera. Det blir dock så att enbart en del av frågorna besvaras genom att studien har ett avgränsat fokus. Fokus är på jämförelse mellan ett 3GDHtvårörsystem och ett 4GDH-trerörsystem i ett sekundärnät i ett nybyggnationsområde.

    I projektet simuleras hur utfallet blir för olika parametrar om man hade valt att implementera 4e generationens teknik istället för 3e generationens teknik.

    Resultaten påvisar att:

    • 4e generationens lösning ökar energieffektiviteten i byggnader, detta främst genom att behovet av varmvattencirkulation försvinner.• Beaktas enbart distributionsförluster i näten så är 4e generationen mer effektiv än 3e generationen.• Genom lägenhetsväxlaren i 4e generationens lösning så elimineras risken för Legionella helt. En möjlig barriär för 4e generationens teknik består dock i att boverkets byggregler inte är konstruerade för att varmvattencirkulation inte finns.• Lägenhetsväxlarna innebär en kostnad per lägenhet vilket begränsar lösningens kostnadseffektivitet jämfört med en större värmeväxlare i fastighetens bottenplan. Idag är 4e generationens teknik lämpad för fastigheter med 10-15 lägenheter, är det fler lägenheter blir 4e generationens lösning dyrare än den konventionella 3e generationens lösning.• En viktig aspekt med 4e generationens lösning att värmeförlusten från huset förflyttas från fastighetsägaren till fjärrvärmeföretaget, genom att värmeleverans sker till varje lägenhet och inte vid husvägg. Initialt kan sådan börda på fjärrvärmeföretaget verka negativ med avseende på kostnad. Diskussionerna i projektet mynnade ut i att parterna enas om att affären blir mer rättvisande och att fastighetsägaren får ökad insyn i värmeförbrukningen vilket, med rätt affärsmodell, kan skapa ökat förtroende och en möjlighet att dela på förlusten mellan de två parterna.

    Projektet har omfattat löpande dialog med EKSTAs VD vilket varit värdefullt för att skapa förståelse kring fastighetsägarens perspektiv och frågor rörande 4e generationens teknik. Därtill har en workshop med EKSTAs driftspersonal hållits för att diskutera relevansen i de resultat som tagits fram. I projektet ingår BengtGöran Dalman med över 35 års erfarenhet av fjärrvärmeverksamhet vid Göteborg Energi. Projektets verklighetskoppling leder till slutsatsen att det inte föreligger någon särskild driftsproblematik för implementering av 4e generationens system.

    Som en egen del i projektet uppmärksammas den diskussion som förs i branschen kring möjligheten att dra nytta av billig el, främst under perioder då det blåser mycket och det blir ett överskott av el i elnätet. I studien analyseras möjligheten att inte använda en konventionell pelletspanna som tilläggsvärmekälla utan en eldriven panna. Resultaten visar att med dagens styrning genom skatter och avgifter så är det inte möjligt att dra nytta av att det förekommer perioder med mycket lågt elpris. Rådande regelverk stödjer istället installationer såsom pelletspannor.

    © ENERGIFORSK

  • 18.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Ingvarsson, Paul
    ÅF, Division Industry, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Persson, Urban
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Gong, Mei
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Large heat pumps in Swedish district heating systems2017Ingår i: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 79, s. 1275-1284Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Power-to-heat solutions like heat pumps and electric boilers are foreseen to be possible future tools to stabilise international power markets with high proportions of variable power supply. Temporary low cost electricity can be used for heat generation at times with high availability of wind and solar power through substitution of ordinary heat supply, hence contributing to increased energy system sustainability. Power-to-heat installations in district heating systems are competitive due to low specific investment and installation costs for large electric boilers, heat pumps, and heat storages. Several large-scale heat pumps were installed in Swedish district heating systems during the 1980s, since a national electricity surplus from new nuclear power existed for some years. The aim of this paper is to summarise the accumulated operation experiences from these large Swedish heat pumps to support and facilitate planning of future power-to-heat solutions with heat pumps in district heating systems. Gained experiences consider; installed capacities, capacity utilisation, heat sources used, refrigerant replacements, refrigerant leakages, and wear of mechanical components. The major conclusion is that many of the large thirty-year-old heat pumps are still in operation, but with reduced capacity utilisation due to internal competition from waste and biomass cogeneration plants in the district heating systems.

  • 19.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Ottermo, Fredric
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Pipe Sizing for Novel Heat Distribution Technology2019Ingår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, nr 7, artikel-id 1276Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper assesses pipe sizing aspects for previously proposed, novel, low heat distribution technology with three pipes. Assessment issues include heat loss, pressure loss, and pipe sizing for different typical pipe configurations. This assessment has been provided by the analysis of a case area with single-family houses. Concerning heat loss, the proposed three-pipe solutions have the same magnitude of heat loss as conventional twin pipes, since lower return temperatures compensate for the larger heat loss area from the third pipe. Regarding pressure loss, the main restriction on the size of the third pipe is limited to the pressure loss in the third pipe. Thermostatic valves to manage the flow rate of the third pipe are advocated, since alternative small pumps have not been found to be commercially available. The pipe sizing recommendation is that the third pipe for recirculation purposes can be two to three standard pipe sizes smaller than the corresponding supply and return pipe, if no prosumer is connected in the heat distribution network.

  • 20.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Efficient heat distribution in solar district heating systems2018Ingår i: SDH Solar District Heating: Proceeding, 2018, s. 63-66Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contains a short analysis showing the main benefit for solar district heating when a novel heat distribution concept with low temperatures is applied. The analysis is performed by comparing the annual solar heat output from a solar collector field for current heat distribution temperatures in Sweden with the corresponding output for the novel heat distribution concept. The results show that the new low temperature concept provides 66% more solar heat for a typical solar collector. Hereby, the solar collector field can be reduced with 40%, giving a corresponding cost reduction for solar heat generated. Another result is that the cost gradient for lower costs from lower return temperatures is five times higher for solar district heating compared to current heat supply in Swedish district heating systems. One major conclusion is that high heat distribution temperatures in current European district heating systems are a major barrier for the competitiveness of solar district heating.

  • 21.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Essential improvements in future district heating systems2017Ingår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 116, s. 217-225Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The major common denominator for future efficient fourth generation district heating systems is lower temperature levels in the distribution networks. Higher efficiencies are then obtained in both heat supply and heat distribution. Heat supply becomes more efficient with respect to combined heat and power, flue gas condensation, heat pumps, geothermal extraction, low temperature excess heat, and heat storage. Heat distribution becomes more efficient from lower distribution losses, less pipe expansion, lower scalding risks, and plastic pipes. The lower temperature levels will be possible since future buildings will have lower temperature demands when requiring lower heat demands. This paper aims at providing seven essential recommendations concerning design and construction strategies for future fourth generation systems. The method used is based on a critical examination of the barriers for lower temperature levels and the origins of high return temperatures in contemporary third generation systems. The two main research questions applied are: Which parts of contemporary system design are undesirable? Which possible improvements are desirable? Key results and the corresponding recommendations include temperature levels for heat distribution, recirculation, metering, supervision, thermal lengths for heat exchangers and heat sinks, hydronic balancing, and legionella. The main conclusion is that it should be possible to construct new fourth generation district heating networks according to these seven essential recommendations presented in this paper. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier

  • 22.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Framtida fjärrvärmeteknik: Möjligheter med en fjärde teknikgeneration2017Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 23.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Novel low temperature heat distribution technology2018Ingår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 145, s. 526-539Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Lower future heat demands and lower availability of non-fossil high temperature heat supply are expected future market conditions that restrain the long-term viability of contemporary district heating systems. Hence, current district heating technology should be enhanced to increase system performance in new heat distribution areas. This paper aims to outline a proposal for technical improvements required to achieve lower annual average return temperatures in new residential buildings to improve viability in future market conditions. The proposed technical solution consists of three principle changes: three-pipe distribution networks, apartment substations, and longer thermal lengths for heat exchangers. The three technical modifications aims at addressing system embedded temperature errors. Furthermore, a simulation model was developed to assess the proposed technical solution concerning different energy performances of buildings and different thermal lengths in heat exchangers. The results show that implementation of the three technical modifications reaches time-weighted annual average return temperatures of 17–21 °C with supply temperatures of about 50 °C. The results also verify the increased necessity to separate the network return flows into delivery and recirculation flows in residential substations as energy performance in buildings increase.

  • 24.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Felsmann, Clemens
    Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.
    Rühling, Karin
    Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.
    Wiltshire, Robin
    Building Research Establishment (BRE), Garston, Watford, United Kingdom.
    Svendsen, Svend
    Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Li, Hongwei
    Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Faessler, Jérôme
    University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Floriane, Mermoud
    University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Quiquerez, Loïc
    University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Transformation Roadmap from High to Low Temperature District Heating Systems: Annex XI final report2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 25.
    Barth, Henrik
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Rosén, Bengt Göran
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    The use and abuse of 3D printing - Towards a mobile business model framework2019Ingår i: International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, ISSN 2248-9622, E-ISSN 2248-9622, Vol. 9, nr 11, s. 1-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper aim to clarify changes in user activities and behaviour across different types of actors following the development of 3D printers. It proposes a mobile business model and outlining the features of development for direct digital manufacturing.

    The exploratory study show that the use of 3D printing a) lowers the knowledge and resource barriers for experimentation and entrepreneurial entry, b) increases product and concept prototyping in product development, c) provides a potential for business model innovation by expanding the boundaries of the firm upstream and downstream, and d) becomes a ticket for entrepreneurial entry

  • 26.
    Bauhn, Lovisa
    et al.
    Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nuclear Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ekberg, Christian
    Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nuclear Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fleischer, Siegfried
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Mattsson, Marie
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    On the spot study reveals the missing carbon sink2017Ingår i: / [ed] Martin Novak, 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing amount of CO2 emitted from human activities globally does not add to the increase in the atmosphere. Taking the ocean sink into acount, the fate of about 3 Gt C annually remains to be explained. This huge amount is calculated as the residual from known fluxes1 We present an `on the spot´ study that is based on systematic soil sampling in different regions and over the years since 2004. The difference between gross heterotrophic respiration (GHR) in the soil, and net heterotrophic respiration (NHR) that is the part of the carbon dioxide leaving the ground surface, was analyzed. The accumulated data indicate a within-soil CO2 sink of the same magnitude as the sink derived from different fluxes1 . Both approaches describe the same sink but our results show that the sink is CO2 uptake from the soil atmosphere, not emitted CO2 that is returned to some unknown area on land. The energy yield needed from nitrification to explain the observed reduction of CO2 to organic material is large, and NH4 + is recycled several times. It was unexpectedly observed that O2 was released in this gross nitrification cycle and this was confirmed with H2 18O incubations in soils2 . The large CO2 sink changes between seasons, between sites and even from a sink to an additional source, which may explain why it has so long been ”missing”.

    1 Le Quéré et al. 2015. Global Carbon Budgets 2015. Earth Syst. Sci. Data 7, 349–396

    2 Fleischer S. et al. 2013. Dark oxidation of water in soils. Tellus B 65, 20490

  • 27.
    Bergman, Stefan
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden & University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden & RandD centre Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). RandD centre Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Aili, Katarina
    RandD centre Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olsson, Cecilia
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Lund University, Lund, Sweden & RandD centre Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Chronic widespread pain, sleep problems and pressure pain thresholds in a population sample2018Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 1645-1646Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 28.
    Berrimi, Chihab Eddine
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Chaparala, Anish
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    A STUDY ON THE SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY AND DIMENSIONAL ACCURACY OF FUSED DEPOSITION MODELING: THE EFFECTS OF SURFACE ORIENTATION AND DIFFERENT PRINT SETTINGS2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The ease of manufacturing complex geometries using fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D-Printing reduces the overall production cost compared with the traditional manufacturing techniques. Because of the benefits of 3D printing technologies, it is proposed to be used in the manufacturing of different products. But there is still no definite characterization of the surface quality of objects manufactured by 3D printing. Hence in order to define the texture of the surfaces produced, measurements from different samples are taken and quantified.In this study, a 3D test model consisting of various slopes is printed at different layer thicknesses and different print speeds using different 3D printers.Thus, the effect of the surface orientation on the surface roughness was studied in relation to the different layer thicknesses and different print speeds. The study samples are measured using the state of the art equipment at Halmstad University.This thesis studies the surface roughness at different slopes of FDM models.A related study on the dimensional variation between the CAD model and the actual3D printed model, and causes/reasons for the variations are analyzed.It is observed that FDM produced part surface topography is directly affected by the orientation of the surface. Also, the surface roughness increases with increase in layer thickness. The observed correlations between surface roughness and layer thickness and surface orientation could be used to better understand the behavior of FDM surfaces, thus to better quantify the surface roughness. To improve quality, it must first be quantified. It is well observed that dimensional inaccuracy exists between the CAD model and the printed part. These results suggest that there is a lot of work and improvements to be done in order to close the gap of dimensional inaccuracy and achieve a high precision commercial FDM 3Dprinting.

  • 29.
    Bodin, Hristina
    et al.
    Division of Natural Sciences, Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Weisner, Stefan
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Attenuation of Pharmaceutical Substances: Phytoremediation using Constructed Wetlands2018Ingår i: 13th Society of Wetland Scientists (SWS) Europe Chapter Meeting: Management of Wetland Ecosystem Services: Issues, Challenges and Solutions, 2018, s. 19-22Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Currently, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) do not efficiently remove pharmaceutical substances (PS). Thus, such substances are now frequently found in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Also, concentrations of some PS in treated effluents exceed Environmental Quality Standards proposed by EU legislation. One resource-efficient option for increasing PS removal in WWTP effluents is to use constructed wetlands (CWs) as an attenuation step (Breitholtz et al. 2012; Li et al. 2014). However, very little research has been done on how to maximize the PS attenuation capacity of CWs. Therefore, a project with the aim to investigate reduction of different pharmaceutical substances in CWs with different vegetation compositions and water depths, was performed at the Experimental Wetland Area (EVA) located 20 km north of Halmstad, Sweden. 

  • 30.
    Bonnot, N. C.
    et al.
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan, 730 91, Sweden.
    Bergvall, U. A.
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan, 730 91, Sweden.
    Jarnemo, Anders
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Kjellander, P.
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan, 730 91, Sweden.
    Who’s afraid of the big bad wolf?: Variation in the stress response among personalities and populations in a large wild herbivore2018Ingår i: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 188, nr 1, s. 85-95Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Faced with rapid environmental changes, individuals may express different magnitude and plasticity in their response to a given stressor. However, little is known about the causes of variation in phenotypic plasticity of the stress response in wild populations. In the present study, we repeatedly captured individual roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from two wild populations in Sweden exposed to differing levels of predation pressure and measured plasma concentrations of stress-induced cortisol and behavioral docility. While controlling for the marked effects of habituation, we found clear between-population differences in the stress-induced cortisol response. Roe deer living in the area that was recently recolonized by lynx (Lynx lynx) and wolves (Canis lupus) expressed cortisol levels that were around 30% higher than roe deer in the human-dominated landscape free of large carnivores. In addition, for the first time to our knowledge, we investigated the stress-induced cortisol response in free-ranging newborn fawns and found no evidence for hypo-responsiveness during early life in this species. Indeed, stress-induced cortisol levels were of similar magnitude and differed between populations to a similar extent in both neonates and adults. Finally, at an individual level, we found that both cortisol and docility levels were strongly repeatable, and weakly negatively inter-correlated, suggesting that individuals differed consistently in how they respond to a stressor, and supporting the existence of a stress-management syndrome in roe deer. © 2018, The Author(s).

  • 31.
    Bremander, Ann
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Forslind, K.
    Lund University, Lund and Helsingborg, Sweden & Helsingborg's hospital, Helsingborg, Sweden.
    Eberhardt, K.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Andersson, M.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Devlopment Centre, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Functional Impairment in Patients with RA in an Eight Year Perspective2017Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 76, nr Suppl. 2, s. 1513-1514Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In people with Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) impaired physical functioning is an acute as well as long term effect of the disease. Observational performance tests reflecting range of motion in upper as well as in lower extremities should be easy to perform in the clinic as well as in research as a complement to self-reported measures of physical functioning. The Signal Of Functional Impairment (SOFI)1 is a performance test which so far has been applied only in Sweden but commonly used in the clinic and in long term follow-up clinical studies.

    Objectives: The aim was to study performance-based function assessed with SOFI over 8 years and, secondly, to study which items included in SOFI that were associated with change in functioning over time.

    Methods: An inception cohort of 1 052 patients with early RA, from the BARFOT-study, recruited 1992–2006 was investigated, mean (SD) age was 54 years (14), 70% were women. The patients were followed by a structured protocol at baseline, 3 and 6 months and at 1, 2, 5, and 8 years. SOFI consists of 3 parts measuring hand, arm (upper), and leg (lower) function (1). Hand function is tested by 4 movements; cylinder grip (H1), pen grip (H2), pincer grip (H3) and opposition of the thumb (H4). Arm function is assessed by 3 movements; hand behind the head and the ability to touch the cervical spine processes with fingers (A1), elbow supination (A2) and elbow extension (A3). Leg function is tested by 4 movements; the ability to touch the opposite knee with the heel while sitting (L1), knee extension in supine position (L2), dorsiflexion of the foot standing on a balance board (L3), and the ability to stand on tip toes without shoes (L4). An assessor scores the patient's ability to perform the different tests on an ordinal scale (0=normal, 1= partly impaired and 2= unable to perform). The range of SOFI scores is 0–44 (best to worst).

    Results: At baseline the mean (SD) SOFI was 7.2 (5.8), and at 1 year follow-up the improvement was 2.75 (5.65), p<0.001. From 1 year to 8 year follow-up the deterioration was 1.5 (4.6), p<0.001. When studying hand, upper and lower function separately, the pen grip and the ability to stand on tip toes improves most during the first year. From 1 to 8 year the pincer grip and the ability to stand on tip toes are the items that deteriorate most (Figure). Assessment of the pen grip, the pincer grip and the ability to stand on tip toes explain 58% to 70% of the SOFI score over time, with the highest rate at 5 (65%) and 8 years follow-up (70%).

    Conclusions: Functioning as assessed by SOFI improved during the first year in patients with early RA and then deteriorated slowly. Over a longer period, pincer grip and the ability to stand on tip toes seemed to be the two most important items to measure when assessing functional impairment over time. © 2017, BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  • 32.
    Bremander, Ann
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Lund, Sweden & R&D centre, Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). R&D centre, Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Lund, Sweden & R&D centre, Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Primary Health Care Unit, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Measures of Physical Activity and Fear Avoidance in People with Chronic Pain2018Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 77, nr Suppl. 2, s. 1829-1830, artikel-id SAT0737-HPRArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Lifestyle factors such as physical activity (PA) has the possibility to contribute to improved health and quality of life in the population as well as in chronic diseases. Most often PA is self-reported while measures of the aerobic capacity are more seldom measured in subjects with chronic pain.

    Objectives To describe physical activity levels (self-reported and aerobic capacity) in people with chronic pain classified as regional or widespread and to compare the findings with a group that report no pain.

    Methods From the 2016 follow-up of the Swedish population based Epipain cohort (n 1321), 146 subjects were invited to a clinical assessment where the aerobic capacity was assessed by using a submaximal bicycle test, the Ekblom-Bak test, together with assessment of the Borg scale for perceived exertion (RPE). Aerobic capacity was also classified as low, average or high according to data from the general population. Self-reported physical activity was coded as MVPArec if recommended levels of PA was reported (physically active on a moderate level ≥150 min/week (MPA) or on an vigorous level ≥75 min/week (VPA) or not). The Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire for PA (FABQ-PA, 0–24 best to worst) and for work (FABQ-W, 0–48 best to worst) were also assessed. The participants were classified as having chronic widespread pain (CWP), chronic regional pain (CRP) or no chronic pain (NCP) based on a pain mannequin presenting 0–18 pain regions and if pain had lasted for 3 months or more. Chi2 and Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed to study differences between the three pain groups.

    Results 141/146 (97%) subjects (mean (SD) age 59.4 (8.2) years) whereof 61% were women, could be classified into pain groups; 43 as CWP (84% women), 43 as CRP (42% women) and 55 as NCP (58% women). The group with CWP was slightly older than those with CRP (mean (SD) age 57.0 (7.6) years vs. 61.9 (6.9) years, p 0.02). The CWP group also had lower aerobic capacity (mean (SD) 2.2 (0.5) l/min vs. 2.6 (0.6) l/min, p 0.03), and a larger proportion was classified as having low aerobic capacity (CWP 21%, CRP 7% and NCP 10%, p 0.04). The proportion of MVPArec did not differ between the groups; CWP 70%, CRP 81% and NCP 74% (p 0.5). There was neither a difference between the groups in BMI, RPE or in sitting hours/week (p>0.6). However, differences were found in the FABQ where in the PA scale those with CRP had worse scores compared with NCP (mean (SD) 11.2 (7.3) vs. 6.0 (6.0), p<0.001), the difference between CWP (mean (SD) 8.9 (6.7)) and NCP was p 0.06. In the work subscale of FABQ, CWP had worse scores compared with CRP (mean (SD) 18.9 (15.7) vs. 10.0 (12.5), p 0.002) and CRP had worse scores compared to those with NCP (mean (SD) 10.0 (12.5) vs. 6.5 (9.1), p<0.001).

    Conclusions In this sample of subjects with chronic pain or no pain, having widespread pain tended to affect the aerobic capacity negatively while self-reports of reaching recommended levels of physical activity did not differ between groups. Fear avoidance in relation to physical activity and especially in relation to work was more noticeable in subjects with chronic pain compared to those with no pain. Measures of aerobic capacity and information of fear avoidance beliefs might help health professionals to better tailor the non-pharmacological treatment for subjects with chronic pain.

    Disclosure of Interest None declared

    © 2018, Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited.

  • 33.
    Bremander, Ann
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden & The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ndosi, M.
    University of the West of England, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    The Educational Needs of Patients with Undifferentiated Spondyloarthritis2017Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 76, nr Suppl. 2, s. 1495-1496Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 34.
    Bremander, Ann
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden & Primary Health Care Unit, Department ofPublic Health and Community Medicine,Institute of Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ndosi, Mwidimi E.
    Department of Nursing and Midwifery, University of the West of England, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    The educational needs of patients with undifferentiated spondyloarthritis: Validation of the ENAT questionnaire and needs assessment2018Ingår i: Musculoskeletal Care, ISSN 1478-2189, E-ISSN 1557-0681, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 313-317Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to validate the Swedish version of the educational needs assessment tool (SwENAT) in undifferentiated spondyloarthritis (USpA) and use it to study the educational needs of patients with USpA.

    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study, recruiting a random sample of patients with USpA from a hospital register in Sweden. Educational needs data were collected, together with disease activity and function indices (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index [BASDAI] and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index [BASFI]). Rasch analysis was utilized to evaluate the construct validity, internal consistency and unidimensionality of the SwENAT before studying differences in educational needs between patient subgroups (gender, age and disease severity).

    RESULTS: = 11.488; p = 0.119), including strict unidimensionality. Overall, the mean (SD) SwENAT score was 86 (32). Women reported higher needs than men in the domains of pain (mean [SD] 13.1 [6.8] versus 10.1 [6.0]; p = 0.05); movement (mean [SD] 13.0 [5.5] versus 9.9 [5.7]; p = 0.02) and self-help (mean [SD] 17.0 [5.8] versus 14.1 [5.0]; p = 0.03). Higher disease activity (BASDAI >4) was associated with higher educational needs (mean [SD] 92.6 [31.9] versus 73.7 [29.4]; p = 0.02).

    CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that the SwENAT is valid in USpA. Women and patients with higher disease activity are more likely to have high levels of educational needs, so special attention and strategies to target patient education are warranted. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 35.
    Bååth, Lars
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Mantovani, F.
    Istituto di Radioastronomia del C.N.R., Bologna, Italy.
    Rantakyrö, F.T.
    Istituto di Radioastronomia del C.N.R., Bologna, Italy.
    High resolution interferometry of the QSO 1422+2021997Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. Supplement Series, ISSN 1286-4846, Vol. 125, nr 1, s. 453-458Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present VLA A-array observations at 8.4 and 15GHz and European VLBI Network (EVN) observations at 1.6GHz of the radio source 1422+202. It is suggested that 1422+202 is a Medium-size Object in the evolutionary sequence from Compact Steep-spectrum Sources to larger sized radio sources. The VLBI data were analysed with the phase referencing technique and we show that the EVN can work as a phase stable instrument for separations between the calibrator source and the target source up to ~ 10 degrees. With the VLA and VLBI observations we investigate some of the issues about the nucleus of 1422+202 and we discuss the possible cause for the low frequency variability detected while monitoring the source.

  • 36.
    Cabanettes, Frederic
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Maskinteknisk produktframtagning (MTEK), Funktionella ytor. University of Lyon – ENISE, Saint-Etienne, France.
    Joubert, A.
    University of Lyon – ENISE, Saint-Etienne, France.
    Rech, Joel
    University of Lyon – ENISE, Saint-Etienne, France.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Multi scale analysis of as built surfaces generated in metal additive manufacturing2017Ingår i: Mets&Props 2017: 16th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces: Conference abstracts, 2017, s. 149-150Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 37.
    Cabanettes, Frederic
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Halmstad Univ, Sch Business & Engn, SE-30118 Halmstad, Sweden..
    Rosén, Bengt Göran
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Topography changes observation during running-in of rolling contacts2014Ingår i: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 315, nr 1-2, s. 78-86Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive industry and the design of engines are strongly ruled by performance and legislation demands. In the valve train, besides the main function (transformation of rotation to translation movements) to fulfill, new requirements in environmental demands and performance in terms of wear are leading to more and more detailed studies of the cams and rollers. Wear reduction studies for prolonging lifetime of these components require decreasing the scale of observation down to roughness. Among the different wear stages of a component, the running-in is a crucial period which will greatly influence the lifetime and performance of components. The aim of this paper is to analyze the topography variations observed during the running-in of a camshaft on a valve train rig test. A truck engine's camshaft is run under realistic conditions and 3D surfaces are measured before and after the test by using relocation techniques. By measuring the very same surfaces before and after the experiment, a deep analysis of the running-in effects on surfaces can be performed. 3D surface roughness parameters are used in parallel with new proposed methods of analysis. As a result, the mechanisms involved during running-in are emphasized and can be used for further simulations and optimization of the cam roller contact. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 38.
    Cabanettes, Frédéric
    et al.
    University of Lyon – ENISE, Saint-Etienne, France.
    Faverjon, Pierre
    PCI SCEMM – Tongtai Group, Saint-Etienne, France.
    Sova, A.
    University of Lyon – ENISE, Saint-Etienne, France.
    Dumont, F.
    University of Lyon – ENISE, Saint-Etienne, France.
    Rech, Joel
    University of Lyon – ENISE, Saint-Etienne, France.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Influence of surface topography on starvation of lubricated contacts: application to MQL machining2017Ingår i: Mets&Props 2017: 16th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces: Conference abstracts, 2017, s. 187-189Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 39.
    Cabanettes, Frédéric
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). University of Lyon, ENISE, Laboratoire de Tribologie et Dynamique des Systèmes, Saint-Etienne, France.
    Joubert, A.
    University of Lyon, ENISE, Laboratoire de Tribologie et Dynamique des Systèmes, Saint-Etienne, France.
    Chardon, G.
    University of Lyon, ENISE, Laboratoire de Tribologie et Dynamique des Systèmes, Saint-Etienne, France.
    Dumas, V.
    University of Lyon, ENISE, Laboratoire de Tribologie et Dynamique des Systèmes, Saint-Etienne, France.
    Rech, J.
    University of Lyon, ENISE, Laboratoire de Tribologie et Dynamique des Systèmes, Saint-Etienne, France.
    Grosjean, C.
    Centre Technique des Industries Mécaniques, Saint-Etienne, France.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Topography of as built surfaces generated in metal additive manufacturing: A multi scale analysis from form to roughness2018Ingår i: Precision engineering, ISSN 0141-6359, E-ISSN 1873-2372, Vol. 52, s. 249-265Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Topographies are one of the challenges for the development of the metal additive manufacturing promising technique. The article investigates multi scale topographies (from form to roughness) of as built surfaces generated by selective laser melting (SLM). Different building inclinations of samples were observed both for upskin and downskin surfaces with a wide range of measuring techniques. The two main aims are: (i) to make a critical review of measuring techniques at different scales, (ii) to enlighten the different surface generation phenomena (and the corresponding scale) occurring during additive manufacturing. The effect of heat treatment on each scale of the topography is also discussed. It is found that the focus variation technique is well suited for AM surfaces. Concerning the observation of the inclined surfaces, some parameters are emphasized as good indicators of typical signatures of AM surfaces: isotropy for the weld track component, the skewness and Rsm for the staircase effect, fractal dimension for the presence of partly melted particles. The different parameters studied helps to model and understand the different surface generation phenomena aforementioned. © 2018 Elsevier Inc.

  • 40.
    Calikus, Ece
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Nowaczyk, Sławomir
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Pinheiro Sant'Anna, Anita
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Gadd, Henrik
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap. Öresundskraft, Helsingborg, Sweden.
    Werner, Sven
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    A data-driven approach for discovering heat load patterns in district heating2019Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 252, artikel-id 113409Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the heat usage of customers is crucial for effective district heating operations and management. Unfortunately, existing knowledge about customers and their heat load behaviors is quite scarce. Most previous studies are limited to small-scale analyses that are not representative enough to understand the behavior of the overall network. In this work, we propose a data-driven approach that enables large-scale automatic analysis of heat load patterns in district heating networks without requiring prior knowledge. Our method clusters the customer profiles into different groups, extracts their representative patterns, and detects unusual customers whose profiles deviate significantly from the rest of their group. Using our approach, we present the first large-scale, comprehensive analysis of the heat load patterns by conducting a case study on many buildings in six different customer categories connected to two district heating networks in the south of Sweden. The 1222 buildings had a total floor space of 3.4 million square meters and used 1540 TJ heat during 2016. The results show that the proposed method has a high potential to be deployed and used in practice to analyze and understand customers’ heat-use habits. © 2019 Calikus et al. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 41.
    Cansu Ertem, Funda
    et al.
    Institute of Biotechnology, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Wang, Liqian
    Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Shanghai, China.
    Mattsson, Marie
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Analyzing the impacts of inoculums to substrate ratio and pretreatment methods on the anaerobic biogas production from sugar beets2016Ingår i: ETIKUM 2016: Proceedings, Novi Sad: Faculty of technical sciences department of production engineering , 2016, s. 113-116Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluates the impacts of three different pretreatment methods on the biogas production from sugar beet, when it is anaerobically digested with a variety of inoculum mixing ratios. In this context, this research focuses on the influences of different pretreatment methods and inoculum on the digestibility on the digestibility. Sugar beet was anaerobically digested at 37°C. Actively digested cow manure slurry, vegetable and fruit residues mix was used as inoculum. The series of laboratory experiments using 32 digesters (each 1 L) were performed in batch operation mode. The results prove that inoculum and pretreatments could either enhance the biogas potential or totally inhibit the digestion. Key words: sugar beet, inoculum, pretreatment methods, biogas production.

  • 42.
    Carlzon, Linnéa
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Karlsson, Amanda
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Falk, Knud
    www.vandrefalk.dk, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Liess, Antonia
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Møller, Søren
    Roskilde University Library, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Extreme weather affects Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus tundrius) breeding success in South Greenland2018Ingår i: Ornis Hungarica, ISSN 1215-1610, Vol. 26, nr 2, s. 38-50Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to better understand the potential effects of climate change on the Peregrine Falcon, we investigated the relationship between extreme weather events and Peregrines’ breeding success in South Greenland. We defined three variables – number of days with extremely low temperatures, extreme precipitation, consecutive rainy days – and an additive variable, total days with extreme weather, and tested their relationship with Peregrines’ breeding success (measured as young per site and nest success) over a 33 year study period. Breeding success was negatively influenced by the number of days with extreme weather and extremely low temperature. The strongest relationship found was total days with extreme weather in the entire breeding season, which explained 22% and 27% of the variation in nest success and young per site, respectively. The number of days with extreme weather in our study related to fluctuations in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Thus, with a strengthening of the NAO, linked to climate change, more extreme weather may occur in the Arctic and induce increased variation in Peregrines’ breeding success. Our data did not allow us to pinpoint when in the breeding cycle inclement weather was particularly harmful, and we recommend finer-scale research (e.g. automated nest cameras) to better monitor the species-specific effects of rapidly changing climate.

  • 43.
    Cregård, Anna
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Inter-occupational cooperation and boundary work in the hospital setting2018Ingår i: Journal of Health Organisation & Management, ISSN 1477-7266, E-ISSN 1758-7247, Vol. 32, nr 5, s. 658-673Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to add a little piece to the research on boundary work and inter-occupational cooperation by addressing two questions: how do actors perform boundary work in an inter-occupational cooperation project that seeks to improve the personnel health work in a hospital setting? What impact does the boundary work have on such cooperation in the personnel health project?

    Design/methodology/approach: The study is based on individual, in-depth interviews and participative observations of focus group discussions conducted at a regional municipal organization in Sweden. Respondents are hospital line managers, experts and strategists in the HR departments, and experts from the internal occupational health service.

    Findings: The concepts on boundary work, which include closing/opening boundary strategies, provide the framework for the empirical illustrations. The cooperation runs smoothly in the rehabilitation work because of an agreed upon process in which the professionals’ jurisdictions are preserved through closing strategies. Illness prevention and health promotion are not areas of inter-occupational cooperation because the stronger actors use closing strategies. While the weaker actors, who try to cooperate, use opening boundary strategies in these areas, they are excluded or marginalized.

    Research limitations/implications: The empirical investigation concerns one cooperation project and was completed at one data collection point.

    Originality/value: No similar study of boundary work and inter-occupational cooperation in a hospital setting is available despite the frequency of this professional group configuration in practice. A more inclusive concept of professionalism may facilitate the study of boundary work and inter-occupational cooperation among actors with different professional authority. © Emerald Publishing Limited 2018

  • 44.
    Cregård, Anna
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Investigating the Risks of Spiritual Leadership2017Ingår i: Nonprofit Management & Leadership, ISSN 1048-6682, E-ISSN 1542-7854, Vol. 27, nr 4, s. 533-547Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The spiritual leadership literature suggests that such leadership has a positive influence on organizations' productivity and profitability as well as on employees' enjoyment and well-being. In a qualitative study conducted at a Swedish abbey for nuns, using interviews, observations, correspondence, and documents, this research indicates that spiritual leadership may pose negative risks to organizations and their leaders. Risks in spiritual leadership that are indicated include a culture of narrow-mindedness and leadership rotation failure that can lead to rigidity and to the leader's work overload because of the demand for limitless empathy and for personal sacrifice. The findings should be viewed as an inspiration for further research.

  • 45.
    Cregård, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Berntson, ErikStockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.Tengblad, StefanHögskolan i Skövde, Skövde, Sverige.
    Att leda i en komplex organisation: Utmaningar och nya perspektiv för chefer i offentlig verksamhet2018Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
  • 46.
    Cregård, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Tengblad, Stefan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Skövde, Sverige.
    Andersson, Pia
    Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Lindgren, Hans
    Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sverige.
    En introduktion till ledarskap och organisatorisk komplexitet2018Ingår i: Att leda i en komplex organisation: Utmaningar och nya perspektiv för chefer i offentlig verksamhet / [ed] Anna Cregård, Erik Berntson & Stefan Tengblad, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2018, s. 9-21Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 47.
    Cregård, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Eriksson, Nomie
    Högskolan i Skövde, Skövde, Sverige.
    Chefskap i professionella organisationer: Läkare som chefer2018Ingår i: Att leda i en komplex organisation: Utmaningar och nya perspektiv för chefer i offentlig verksamhet / [ed] Anna Cregård, Erik Berntson & Stefan Tengblad, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2018, s. 71-84Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 48.
    Cregård, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Forsberg, Tina
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Models for cooperation between line-managers and techno structure experts: creating value and professionalization in local government2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years the number of people working within the techno structure in public sector organizations has increased, for example within human resource, communication, financial control, and general administration, just as Mintzberg (1993) foresaw already in the beginning of the 1980’s[1]. Many of these occupations have initiated a professionalization process, which among other things has resulted in an increased focus on developing the profession itself, strengthening boundaries towards other occupations and functions, and elevating the jurisdiction. For example within local government human resource and communication functions the jurisdictional claim has been transferred from the operative, hands-on work to more strategic work and in partnership with strategic management[2]. The techno structure experts can be described as more professional, more knowledgeable and highly skilled, but also more detached from the everyday work of civil servants and operative managers trying to execute the public organization’s mission, hence creating public value.

    Professionalization within the local governments’ techno structure is theoretically interesting. For example there is a matter of gender, since women mostly inhabit the techno structure functions. It is also interesting from a cooperation and boundary work point of view, since different models of cooperation contain different logics of negotiations, conflict and agreements. And cooperation is hard to achieve, since that requires actual prioritization and redistribution of resources[3]. In this study our aim is to develop knowledge on cooperation models between the techno structure experts and line-managers in order to create sustainable and healthy organizing that can foster public value creation. Following Zhou, et al.[4] inter-occupational cooperation is defined here as working together across boundaries in order to achieve common goals, emphasizing the multi-actor and multi-occupational relationships.

    In order to investigate the content and effects of different models of cooperation we have conducted case studies in three Swedish local governments, including focus group interviews, survey data and secondary sources. We have also re-analyzed both survey data and interview data from our previous investigations on related issues in local governments.

    We present three analytical models of cooperation between line-managers and techno structure experts, derived from the empirical investigation. The three models are built up by different logics, and hence create different levels of value to the public organization and common good on the one hand, and to the different functions and professions involved on the other hand. The models may be used as analytical tools for empirical and normative work for the development of the public organization, but also as a foundation for adding a little piece of the theoretical puzzle of how to create cooperation and value within local government organizations. 

      

    [1] Mintzberg, H. (1993). Structure in fives: Designing effective organizations. Prentice-Hall, Inc. 

    [2] Condrey, S.E. (2015). Public Human Resource Management: How We Get Where We are Today. Riccucci, N. M. (ed) Public Personnel Management. 1-13. Routledge. 

    [3] Ashkenas, R. (2015). There’s a Difference Between Cooperation and Collaboration. Harvard Business Review, April 20, 1-6. 

    [4] Zhou, J., et al. (2014). Making collaborators happy: The outcome priming effect in integrative negotiation. Public Personnel Management, 43(3), 290-300.

  • 49.
    Cregård, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Solli, Rolf
    University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Top managerial role in transition – or not? Trajectories during 20 years in Swedish local government2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The top municipal managers – the CEOs – hold an important role in the Swedish municipalities. He or she is the highest non-politically appointed official, in charge of the administration. Often the position has ensured stability in municipalities with high turnover on politicians and changing political majority, and with the position also comes a comprehensive and professional bureaucracy. The municipal services are extensive in Sweden, and are characterized by high competence, independence from state intervention and a wide-ranging scope. Politics and management usually work close to each other. However, this makes the position of the municipal CEO both influential and difficult, as she or he moves in and between major political issues but always has to be perceived as apolitical and objective. The position is formally unregulated and is often described in terms of understanding and making sense about a golden interface. In this paper we analyze the past, present and the future of Swedish municipal administrative governance based on the perspective of the municipal CEO. We also discuss effects of the development of the role and its performance. We conclude by suggesting how the role - and thus also part of the municipal governance - could develop in the future.

    Two theoretical frameworks form the basis of our studies. Institutional theory forms the basis for analyzing path dependencies and change. Theoretical concepts of leadership form the basis for studying the managerial role of the municipal CEO. The framework provides the starting point for our operationalization of questions to a questionnaire sent to all Swedish municipal CEOs every five years for a 20-year period (a total of five times starting in 1995). In addition to the survey data, we use longitudinally collected interview data as well as secondary sources.

    Our investigations reveal that the municipal CEO holds his or her position in a shorter period (increased turnover) grows older and the proportion of women is increasing rapidly and steadily. The CEO puts less emphasis on economic crisis management, but puts more emphasis on ensuring compliance with rules, giving politicians advice and planning for regional development with other municipalities’ CEO. Comparing to other countries' corresponding positions, we notice that the Swedish municipal CEO has much in common with Northern Europe's local administrations, but not with Southern Europe's countries or Great Britain. The leadership style is more participatory than authoritative even if this changes slightly over the years. The CEOs describe their role as difficult, especially in relation to the political level. The changes in the role during the investigated 20 years suggest there are at least three trajectories to choose from in the future: 1) to become increasingly political (and perhaps even politically appointed), 2) to be clearly separated from the political level through increased formal regulation, or 3) to support continued informal interpreting of the mystic and undefined golden interface.

  • 50.
    Cöster, Maria C.
    et al.
    Department of Orthopedics and Clinical Sciences, SUS Malmö, Malmö, Sweden.
    Nilsdotter, Anna
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Brudin, Lars
    Department of Clinical Physiology, Kalmar Hospital, Kalmar, Sweden & Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Linköping University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Minimally important change, measurement error, and responsiveness for the Self-Reported Foot and Ankle Score2017Ingår i: Acta Orthopaedica, ISSN 1745-3674, E-ISSN 1745-3682, Vol. 88, nr 3, s. 300-304Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose: Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are increasingly used to evaluate results in orthopedic surgery. To enhance good responsiveness with a PROM, the minimally important change (MIC) should be established. MIC reflects the smallest measured change in score that is perceived as being relevant by the patients. We assessed MIC for the Self-reported Foot and Ankle Score (SEFAS) used in Swedish national registries.

    Patients and methods: Patients with forefoot disorders (n = 83) or hindfoot/ankle disorders (n = 80) completed the SEFAS before surgery and 6 months after surgery. At 6 months also, a patient global assessment (PGA) scaleas external criterionwas completed. Measurement error was expressed as the standard error of a single determination. MIC was calculated by (1) median change scores in improved patients on the PGA scale, and (2) the best cutoff point (BCP) and area under the curve (AUC) using analysis of receiver operating characteristic curves (ROCs).

    Results: The change in mean summary score was the same, 9 (SD 9), in patients with forefoot disorders and in patients with hindfoot/ankle disorders. MIC for SEFAS in the total sample was 5 score points (IQR: 2-8) and the measurement error was 2.4. BCP was 5 and AUC was 0.8 (95% CI: 0.7-0.9).

    Interpretation: As previously shown, SEFAS has good responsiveness. The score change in SEFAS 6 months after surgery should exceed 5 score points in both forefoot patients and hindfoot/ankle patients to be considered as being clinically relevant.

    © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis on behalf of the Nordic Orthopedic Federation.

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