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  • 1.
    Amal, Mohamed
    et al.
    FURB, Blumenau, Brazil.
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Raboch, Henrique
    FURB, Blumeanau, Brazil.
    Andersson, Svante
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Differences and similarities of the internationalization processes of multinational companies from developed and emerging countries2013Ingår i: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 25, nr 5, s. 411-428Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper aims, by a direct comparison, to address the differences and similarities of the internationalization processes of multinational companies both from developed and emerging countries.

    Design/methodology/approach: This study employed qualitative approach, using an integrated model of internationalization process. Multiple case studies, with two companies with significant involvement in foreign markets and originating in countries with different levels of development, were carried out.

    Findings: The results reveal that the case companies show some differences with regards to their use of ownership advantages to facilitate their internationalization. On the other hand, learning and experience of internationalization, coupled with the use of networks, have been factors that have influenced the pace and the pattern of the case companies' internationalization. An integrated model, which includes variables related to networks and learning/experience, may contribute to the understanding of the case of multinational companies from emerging economies.

    Originality/value: Although the research field of emerging multinationals has been growing lately, very few attempts have been made in the sense of directly comparing the internationalization process of firms from both developed and emerging countries. The authors proposed an integrated analytical model that draws on insights from the eclectic paradigm and the Uppsala internationalization model. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Evers, Natasha
    National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Kuivalainen, Olli
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta, Finland.
    International new ventures: rapid internationalization across different industry contexts2014Ingår i: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 26, nr 5, s. 390-405Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this article is to, first, offer insights into the relationship between industry idiosyncrasies and international new ventures (INVs), and then present a research conceptual framework that identifies the role of industry factors in new venture internationalization processes and strategies. Second, the authors introduce the content of this special issue. Design/methodology/approach – This conceptual article builds on extant studies on INVs operating in different industrial contexts. Particular attention is given to the role of industry influences in the processes of new venture internationalization, in terms of speed, geographical scope and entry strategy. Such factors are discussed to formulate a conceptual framework as a basis for further research. Findings – The conceptual framework identifies key industry factors as well as emergent factors that influence the new venture internationalization process, in terms of speed, geographical scope and entry strategy. Such key influencing factors are competition and structure, industry life cycle, industry concentration, knowledge intensity, local cluster internationalization and global industry integration. Emergent factors are identified as new business models, technology and industry network dynamics. Research limitations/implications – This article is conceptual in nature, and thus empirical research is recommended in diverse contexts. Practical implications – Further analysis of industry factors is a valid research avenue for understanding INVs. Originality/value – This special issue offers new insights into how industry factors influence INVs’ internationalization processes in terms of speed, scope and entry strategy.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Servais, Per
    Department of Marketing and Management, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Combining industrial buyer and seller strategies for international supply and marketing management2010Ingår i: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 64-81Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review international industrial purchasing and marketing literature with a focus on portfolio models, to develop portfolio models for buyers' and sellers' international strategies, and to combine the models so that both the buyer and seller perspectives are dealt with simultaneously. Design/methodology/approach: Literature on international industrial purchasing and marketing is discussed. Dimensions that are important for the buyers' and sellers' strategies are identified. Portfolio models for buyers and sellers are developed and the two perspectives are matched together. Findings: The paper contributes a specification of features that are important for industrial buyers' and sellers' international purchasing and marketing strategies. These dimensions are used to develop a model of supplier relationship management and a marketing management model for supplier strategies. The consequences for the firm's international activities are discussed. A model combining industrial buyers' and sellers' international supply and marketing management strategies is developed. Research limitations/implications: This paper provides a deeper understanding of international exchange processes by combining literature on international industrial purchasing and international marketing. Situations are identified where different areas of theory are applicable. The paper also contributes to the discussion on what should be the conceptual domain of international business. Here, it is argued that international exchange is the product of joint decisions made by two or more actors based in different countries. Earlier academic literature reveals a striking imbalance: while one side of the coin - the exporter side - has been extensively studied, the importer side has largely been neglected. In this paper, it is tried to present a balanced view of both sides. Practical implications: This paper introduces portfolio management models that can be used for both industrial purchasing and marketing management. The paper stresses the importance of finding a fit between the marketing and purchasing strategies within a relationship. If both parties have positioned the relationship in a similar way, there are much greater possibilities for the relationship to create value for both parties. Originality/value: The paper combines international industrial purchasing and international marketing perspectives as few studies have done before. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 4.
    Awuah, Gabriel
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Amal, Mohamed
    Universidade Regional de Blumenau – FURB, Blumenau, Brazil.
    Impact of globalization: The ability of less developed countries' (LDCs') firms to cope with opportunities and challenges2011Ingår i: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 120-132Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to contribute to the debate on the impact of globalization on the competitiveness of firms in least developed countries (LDCs). Two main research questions will be addressed. How does globalization affect the competitiveness of small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in LDCs? How can SMEs handle opportunities and challenges emerging from globalization?

    Design/methodology/approach – The methodology for this study is a conceptual attempt to review the existing literature and make some propositions about how SMEs can handle the opportunities and challenges emerging from globalization.

    Findings – Building on a developed operational framework affecting the competitiveness of firms, some of the expected results are that firms' capabilities with regards to innovation, learning, and internationalization, which increase their competitiveness, are enhanced by institutional setups. Second, establishing relationships with governmental and non-governmental institutions is crucial in terms of accessing resources, innovating, and entering into foreign markets.

    Originality/value – The paper represents a contribution to the debate on the impact of globalization on the competitiveness of firms, particularly SMEs, in LDCs. Although globalization has brought considerable benefits to many actors worldwide, its impact on competitiveness of (SMEs) are controversial. We suggest that globalization's effects depend on the capability of firms to learning, to innovate, and also on the institutional setup in LDCs.

  • 5.
    Brownlie, Douglas
    et al.
    Department of Marketing, University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom.
    Hewer, Paul
    Department of Marketing, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
    Wagner, Beverly
    Department of Marketing, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
    Svensson, Göran
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Management theory and practice: bridging the gap through multidisciplinary lenses2008Ingår i: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 20, nr 6, s. 461-470Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the special issue that critically examines topics informing long-standing disputes concering the status of theory and practice in management studies. Contributions explore the character of the imputed relationship between theory and practice. The editorial introduction sets the discussion of topics in the context of institutional change influencing the production, circulation and consumption of knowledge products in the economy of relevance and reputation. It also presents an overview of the papers included in the special issue. The main themes addressed in the papers represent a call for change; a call to radicalize the approaches to understanding ways of knowing; a call to re-evaluate relations with practitioners; and a call to reimagine ways of representing knowledge to various constituencies, including fellow academic practitioners, management practitioners, students, and policy-makers and other opinion-formers. The key message is one of the importance of encouraging broad discussions concerning the direction and impact of flows of knowledge and the various products in which that knowledge is embedded. It calls for a more market-oriented approach to understanding the knowledge economy and the mediating role of various institutional players, including the academy, in the circulation, creation and destruction of knowledge products. That a more-market oriented approach to arrangements for the distribution of research resources in management studies calls for the development of more market-oriented institutions capable of shaping relationships of collaboration, involvement and accountability. Contributions expand the understanding of the problems and opportunities of imputing links to theory and practice.

  • 6.
    Callaghan, Michael
    et al.
    Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    Lee, Tzong-Ru
    National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan.
    Donmez, Dilek
    Gokceada Vocational School, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Canakkale, Turkey.
    Ulgen Aydinlik, Arzu
    Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Svensson, Göran
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER). Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wood, Greg
    Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    Implementation, communication and the benefits of corporate codes of ethics in Taiwan and Turkey: A comparison across contexts2009Ingår i: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 278-298Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the corporate codes of ethics (CCE) that are put in place by companies in Taiwan and Turkey.

    Design/methodology/approach – This study examines the use of CCE among the top companies in Taiwan and Turkey. It is a replication of a study performed in Australia, Canada and Sweden and a follow-up study.

    Findings – The empirical findings show many similarities with top companies in Australia, Canada and Sweden, but more importantly identify key differences distinctly unique to each of the two countries under investigation. Statistical analysis suggests that the implementation, communication and benefits of CCE are paramount to Turkish companies operating in a domestic environment where the aspiration to participate globally and join the European Union is high, whereas in Taiwan it is low in favor of more traditional business practices (similar to the Chinese concept of guanxi) that focus on individual relationships in favor of formalized regulatory frameworks (such as CCE).

    Originality/value – This study makes a complementary contribution to the accumulated knowledge in the area of CCE, particularly given the cultural and historical differences these countries possess in comparison to each other and those previously studied and documented in the literature.

  • 7.
    Hilmersson, Mikael
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER). Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Pourmand Hilmersson, Firouze
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Political knowledge, political turbulence and uncertainty in the internationalization process of SMEs2015Ingår i: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 27, nr 3, s. 234-252Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of the study is to examine the political sources of uncertainty in the internationalization process of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

    Design/methodology/approach – The authors theoretically derived a research model embracing three hypotheses. These hypotheses are tested on a sample of 203 on-site interviewed SMEs. Regression analysis is used to test two individual hypotheses and one interaction effect.

    Findings – The regression analysis reveals that political knowledge possessed by the firm reduces uncertainty in the internationalization process. Political turbulence is shown to increase uncertainty in the internationalization. The interaction shows that political turbulence obliterates the uncertainty reducing effect by political knowledge.

    Research limitations/implications – The authors identifies two main political sources of uncertainty in the internationalization process of SMEs. For managers and business researchers, it is shown that experiential knowledge is useful under stable conditions. When turbulence increases, however, firms need to develop alternative strategies for uncertainty management.

    Originality/value – This study is the first to test the uncertainty reducing effects of experiential knowledge in turbulent environments. Thus, by running the interaction between political knowledge and political turbulence, the authors shed new light on the usefulness of previous experiences in the internationalization process. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited

  • 8.
    Iddris, Faisal
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Innovation Capability and Product Innovation Performance: The case of low-tech manufacturing firms2016Ingår i: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Despite the growing interest in innovation of low-tech herbal manufacturing industry from strategic and policy standpoints, little empirical research exists on their innovation capability. The purpose of this study is to explore innovation capability and its effect on product innovation performance of small low-tech herbal manufacturing firms. Design/methodology/approach - Innovation capability has been important to large firms in general and to some small firms in particular in order to address the issue of survival and profitability. A case study method is adopted to explore the process of innovation capability of low-tech manufacturing firms. Findings - Analysis of the two case studies reveals that collaborating with institutional actors, customers, suppliers and other competitors in interactive learning, coupled with idea management and idea implementation, has been factors that has influenced innovation capability and the case firms’ product innovation performance (i.e. profitability, market share, sales, return on assets, and return on investment). Research limitations/implications - First, in this study, we analysed two homogenous companies from the same geographical context. It could be fruitful to extend the scope to include firms in other geographical contexts and different industries, where the theoretical arguments advanced in this study can be tested further. Originality/Value - Although the research field of innovation capability is growing lately; few attempts have been made to explore innovation capability and its effect on product innovation performance of small low-tech herbal manufacturing firms.

  • 9.
    Lindholm Dahlstrand, Åsa
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Technology-based entrepreneurship and regional development: the case of Sweden2007Ingår i: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 19, nr 5, s. 373-386Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse technology-based entrepreneurship and its importance for economic growth. Firstly, it discusses the concept of technology-based entrepreneurship, and, secondly, it moves on to question if the phenomenon is important for regional growth. New technology-based firms (NTBFs) can influence economic growth both directly, by their own growth, and indirectly, for example, by providing specialised input to other firms. Quite frequently those indirect effects are established within a regional context.

    Design/methodology/approach: This paper contributes knowledge about the relatively successful Swedish case. Based on several of the author's earlier studies, some empirical data are used to illustrate some characteristics of the Swedish case. The background and origin of Swedish NTBFs, as well as the growth of these firms, are discussed. Since, technology-based entrepreneurship is a strongly regional phenomena special attention will be paid to one of Sweden's major regions; the Gothenburg region.

    Findings: The paper shows that the number of technology-based new firms corresponds to a small share of general entrepreneurship. Technology-based entrepreneurship is a highly regional phenomenon, where local large firms are important for the training and breeding of future entrepreneurs. Spin-off processes are likely to enhance regional knowledge development and learning processes because it involves the diffusion and sharing of technological and managerial expertise within the region.

    Practical implications: The results suggests that a country like Sweden, with high R&D spendings and innovative activities, should be encouraged to increase its entrepreneurial activities in order to benefit even further from its R&D and technology development.

    Originality/value: Is of value by adding to the knowledge on technology-intensive firms - how they tend to grow, how frequent they are and their role in economic growth.

  • 10.
    Padin, Carmen
    et al.
    Department of Applied Economics, Vigo University, Vigo, Spain.
    Svensson, Göran
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    A multi-layer matrix model of sustainable tourism: Process, measurement areas, gap and reconnection analyses2013Ingår i: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 206-216Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    – The objective of this paper is to describe a multi-layer matrix model of sustainable tourism.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – A conceptual discussion and illustration is provided.

    Findings

    – It incorporates multiple layers of a proposed process of sustainable tourism and areas of measurement interconnected through a series of gap and reconnection analyses.

    Research limitations/implications

    – Opportunities for further research are offered.

    Practical implications

    – The paper highlights the importance of linking planning and implementation to evaluation and control, but it also stresses the importance of reconnecting back to ongoing planning and implementation, in order to make necessary revisions in the process of sustainable tourism.

    Originality/value

    – One contribution is that sustainable tourism is not defined as a concept or construct, but as a process, since there are no achievements or progress in sustainable practices without a sequence of inter-connected and measureable doings in the context of markets and societies. Another contribution is that the process of sustainable tourism is continuous and iterative. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 11.
    Pehrsson, Anders
    et al.
    School of Business and Economics, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden .
    Pehrsson, Tobias
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Consistent resource base of a foreign subsidiary’s greenfield expansion: A conceptual framework and propositions2014Ingår i: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 26, nr 1, s. 64-78Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose is to extend the understanding of the resource base of the industrial firm's greenfield expansion on a foreign country market once a wholly owned subsidiary has been established. Design/methodology/approach: A conceptual framework is developed relying on the resource-based theory of strategy. Resource bases in terms of value-adding activities of four Swedish industrial firms' subsidiaries in the USA are analysed. Four theoretical propositions are formulated regarding consistent associations among the activities and contingencies that are relevant to expansion on a foreign country market. Findings: The propositions show how foreign subsidiaries' value-adding activities are aligned with two contingencies: the corporate strategy manifested by the product/market knowledge transferred from the parent firm that enable local expansion and the subsidiary's knowledge of competition barriers that obstruct local expansion. The value-adding activity may be basic or advanced and may repeat the parent firm's activity. Research limitations/implications: US subsidiaries of four Swedish industrial firms were analysed. The propositions may be turned into hypotheses suitable for tests in statistical studies. A test may include firms from different home countries and subsidiaries on different host country markets. Practical implications: The conceptual framework and the propositions provide a ground for an industrial firm's decision to conduct a strategy of greenfield expansion on a foreign country market once a wholly owned subsidiary has been established. Originality/value: The framework is unique and emphasizes that both knowledge stemming from corporate strategy and knowledge of local competition need to be acknowledged in order to understand firm's greenfield expansion on a foreign country market. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 12.
    Pehrsson, Tobias
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Is innovation research contingent on competitive context?: A systematic review of research in the agriculture and forest industry2016Ingår i: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 28, nr 2, s. 225-247Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to extend the understanding of innovation research and its contextual boundaries.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper opts for a systematic review of literature on innovation. Differences between innovation research that is conducted in a competitive context where there is great rivalry is compared with research in a context characterized by strong buyer power are analysed. In particular, the review compares type of innovation under investigation and level of which the innovation occurs.

    Findings – It was found that competitive context significantly separate the type of innovation under investigation and innovation at different levels. Thus, the findings provide insights on the importance of competitive context to innovation research.

    Research limitations/implications The findings have implications for the understanding of the sources and directions of innovation, and the formation of innovation at the level of the firm and the industry. Also, the review provides a relevant foundation for further research.

    Practical implications – The review provides a ground for managerial decision-making regarding innovation. A manager wishing to innovate is advised to evaluate the competitive context. The evaluation is crucial, as the context facilitates different types and levels of innovation.

    Originality/value – The review is unique in its emphasis that reviewing studies of innovation requires the consideration of competitive context. 

  • 13.
    Singh, Jang B.
    et al.
    University of Windsor, Windsor, Canada.
    Wood, Greg
    Kristiania University College, Oslo, Norway.
    Callaghan, Michael
    Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Svensson, Göran
    Kristiania University College, Oslo, Norway.
    Andersson, Svante
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Operationalizing business ethics in organizations: The views of executives in Australia, Canada and Sweden2018Ingår i: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 30, nr 4, s. 494-510Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Codes of ethics have become the mainstay of the ethics programs of corporations. Many studies have explored their contents, but few have examined what makes them effective. This international study aims to identify the measures viewed as being important by top executives in determining the worth to their organizations of corporate codes of ethics. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected by questionnaires sent to the top 500 companies ranked by revenue operating in the private sectors in Australia, Canada and Sweden. By analyzing the survey results from the top corporate executives in these countries, the research team was able to test for a number of determinants of effectiveness for codes of ethics. Findings: In a statistically significant model, it was found that four factors related to the internal management of the corporation are positively correlated to executives’ perceptions of the value of their corporate codes of ethics. Research limitations/implications: Future research may seek to address features of this study that limit its generalizability, as it was conducted on the largest of companies in each country and thus this sample may not reflect the way that business ethics are managed in smaller organizations in those countries. Originality/value: If executives see particular items as important to their business ethics success, one could postulate that this has arisen from a perception that implementing these measures has been effective for their organizations. This provides guidance to other organizations on what items could enhance the effectiveness of their codes of ethics. © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited.

  • 14.
    Solberg Søilen, Klaus
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    The Fallacy of the Service Economy: A Materialist Perspective2012Ingår i: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 308-319Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article, which is tradition of critical theory, is to present a number of reasons for preserving a strong production economy given that the aim of the nation state is to work for improved competitive advantage. The critical theory approach is used in this paper. The paper is also an attempt to show why a majority of Western countries have defended the transformation from a predominant production economy to a service economy by explaining the shift as a result of class interests, using new class theory. It argues for why a materialist perspective in economic theory is relevant today. The Western world should focus more on the production economy and less on the service economy. To the author's knowledge, no other paper has gathered as many arguments on the issue before. © 2012, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

  • 15.
    Svensson, Göran
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    A Counter-Intuitive View of the Deductive Research Process – Clockwise versus Anti-Clockwise Approaches2009Ingår i: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 191-196Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The objective of this paper is to describe a counter-intuitive view of the deductive research process.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper should be seen as addressing a debatable subject where there is no “right” or “wrong”, but one which hopefully will stimulate and/or provoke a certain degree of afterthought and reflection. An applied approach to the research process is presented and discussed.

    Findings – The paper contends that the counter-intuitive approach illustrated may uncover pitfalls and flaws in research endeavours at an early stage of an intended research process.

    Research limitations/implications – It is important that the four elements of idea, support, implications, and contribution are thought through properly in detail before too much investment in time and resources, as well as intellectual effort, has been made, in order to avoid frustration and discontent among involved stakeholders.

    Practical implications – The paper contends that it is essential to dedicate and pay attention to the intended research process as a whole before actually going through with it.

    Originality/value – It is hoped that the presented counter-intuitive view of the deductive research process will assist scholars (e.g. junior faculty and doctoral students) in their efforts to perform research endeavours.

  • 16.
    Svensson, Göran
    Växjö University, Växjö, Sweden & Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    A firm’s driving force to implement and incorporate a business philosophy into its current business activities: the case of ECR2002Ingår i: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 20-29Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Focuses on a business philosophy, usually labelled efficient consumer response (ECR), applied in the retail industry. Its application in a firm’s current business activities may lead to the achievement of substantial business potentials but there can be problems in its implementation. Explores and describes the perceived potentials and obstacles in the implementation of ECR in the Swedish retail industry and introduces a model of a firm’s driving force to implement and incorporate ECR in its current business activities. A firm’s driving force may be in part analysed, if ECR’s achievable and non‐achievable potentials, as well as ECR’s probable and non‐probable obstacles, are simultaneously taken into consideration. Furthermore, a model is introduced in order to analyse the driving force of a business philosophy in a specific firm. The models may be applicable also in the context of classifying, measuring, and evaluating a firm’s driving force to implement and incorporate any other business philosophy.

  • 17.
    Svensson, Göran
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    A formula of consensus in theoretical descriptions of the reality spectrum: The unification of conceptual “halves”2007Ingår i: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 19, nr 3, s. 248-256Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    – The topic of this paper strikes the golden mean rather than the extreme ones. The purpose is to describe frameworks and processes that strive to balance and unite conceptual opposites (so‐called “halves”) of the reality spectrum in different areas of literature.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – Two related frames of reference in the area of inventory management are used to underpin and illustrate the frameworks and the processes to identify and manage conceptual halves in theoretical descriptions of the reality spectrum.

    Findings

    – The tendency to focus on just halves (or lesser pieces) of the reality spectrum in theoretical descriptions of intangibles derived from research efforts creates a kind of blinkers‐syndrome, which is not enough to achieve a thorough understanding of the reality spectrum at hand.

    Research limitations/implications

    – Current and forthcoming theoretical descriptions of intangibles would benefit from paying attention to the underlying message transmitted through the formula of consensus. It is important to remember that the formula of consensus is not only restricted to the counterparts, but also stresses the importance of the reality spectrum between conceptual halves in terms of the compatibility and the complement between the counterparts.

    Originality/value

    – There are numerous halves in theoretical descriptions of the reality spectrum that are related to one another in areas such as constructs, strategies, perspectives, approaches, methodologies and principles. A formula of consensus is therefore introduced which consists of three ingredients (i.e. counterview; compatibility; and complement). It contributes to bridging the dissension of conceptual halves over time and across contexts in theoretical descriptions of the reality spectrum. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 18.
    Svensson, Göran
    School of Management and Economics, Växjö University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Consumer Driven and Bi-directional Value Chain Diffusion Models2003Ingår i: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 15, nr 6, s. 390-400Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides a non‐mainstream discussion on the value chain concept, which challenges generally believed positions in the area of supply chain management. The author argues that the ultimate consumer is the trigger in the supply chain. The article discusses the concept of value and the value chain, and proposes a modified meaning and interpretation of the value chain model from the point of view of a holistic supply chain context. The author proposes a modified consumer driven value chain diffusion model and an extended bi‐directional value chain diffusion model. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 19.
    Svensson, Göran
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Multiple informants and asymmetric interactions of mutual trust in dyadic business relationships2006Ingår i: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 18, nr 2, s. 132-152Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    – The objective of this research is to describe and apply a method with which to measure and evaluate mutual trust in dyadic business relationships with both one‐to‐one and multiple informants, as well as symmetric and asymmetric interactions.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – Application of the perceptual bi‐directionality method, i.e. the PBD‐method, is introduced in this context to measure and evaluate the relationship properties of mutual trust in the context of one‐to‐one and multiple informants, as well as the symmetric and asymmetric interactions, in dyadic business relationships.

    Findings

    – The overall impression of the mutual trust in the studied relationships is that they are well balanced. It may erroneous, since there may be balance deficiencies between the various trust dimensions. The stepwise evaluation of a case example reveals that there are substantial differences between the various trust dimensions measured in the dyadic business relationship.

    Research limitations/implications

    – It is argued that the measurement and evaluation of unidirectional trust issues is not enough in itself to understand the relationship properties of trust between two actors in dyadic business relationships, but that a bi‐directional approach should be applied in terms of the relationship properties of mutual trust. Furthermore, the approach of one‐to‐one key informants might also be insufficient. Instead multiple informants should be used in the measurement and evaluation of the relationship properties of mutual trust in dyadic business relationships and, symmetric, as well as asymmetric, interactions of mutual trust in dyadic contexts should be considered.

    Practical implications

    – The PBD‐method is a formalised and structured method of how to measure and evaluate the mutuality of relationship properties in dyadic contexts. The outcome of the present research is also a set of generic mutuality measures that can be useful in different management and research applications.

    Originality/value

    – The PBD‐method may be used to measure and evaluate multiple key informants' in asymmetric interactions of mutual relationship properties in dyadic contexts, instead of only matching one‐to‐one key informants in symmetric interactions.

    © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 20.
    Svensson, Göran
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Mutual and Interactive Trust in Business Dyads: Condition and Process2005Ingår i: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 17, nr 5, s. 411-427Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The objective of this paper is to describe a conceptual framework that addresses the interactive interface of service quality in service encounters.

    Design/methodology/approach - A conceptual framework is described and discussed in relation to previous research efforts in the field.

    Findings - Service encounters have been largely researched as a non-interactive phenomenon. This means that the complexity and dynamics of the construct have not been sufficiently explored. Researchers have described the construct of service quality in different empirical contexts and have developed different models and dimensions - all of which tend to be derived from the service receiver's perspective.

    Research limitations/implications - In making the description, the framework acknowledges that service encounters and service quality pertain not only to human interactions, but also involve interaction between individuals and self-service technology. It may also to some extent serve as a fundamental to scholars in their quest for generic structures across contexts, and over time to explore the interactive interface of service quality in service encounters. In addition, the framework may be used to position previous, ongoing and forthcoming research efforts of service quality.

    Practical implications - The conceptual framework may contribute to describe and enhance operative service performances in service encounters.

    Originality/value - The framework may contribute to describe and conceptualize the interactive interface of service quality in service encounters. The idea has been to convert some of the theory-oriented knowledge of service performance in literature into a framework applicable to both scholars and practitioners. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 21.
    Svensson, Göran
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway .
    Processes of Substantiations and Contributions through Theory Building towards Theory in Business Research2013Ingår i: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 25, nr 5, s. 466-480Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The objective of this article is to describe processes of substantiations and contributions across contexts and over time through theory building towards theory in business research.

    Design/methodology/approach: The article provides a seed for discussion, debate and consideration regarding scholarly substantiations and contributions through theory building towards business theory.

    Findings: The importance of cumulative processes in terms of substantiations and contributions in business research should not be neglected, but its logic and value is currently argued to be often underestimated or ignored.

    Research limitations/implications: Sound theory requires sound foundations based upon processes of substantiations and contributions. It is essential that the processes of substantiations and contributions are cumulative and parallel through theory building towards theory.

    Practical implications: An important lesson learned is that an original study should not be seen as providing a genuine substantiation and making a solid contribution to business theory until it has been successfully replicated and validated across contexts and over time.

    Originality/value: The author concludes that current practices of substantiations and contributions through theory building towards theory are insufficient and contain fatal flaws potentially undermining the well-being of business research and the perception of business theory being seen as a solid and credible management discipline among other academic disciplines in the worldwide research community. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 22.
    Svensson, Göran
    School of Management and Economics, Växjö University, Växjö, Sweden & School of Economics and Commercial Law, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Re‐evaluating the marketing concept2001Ingår i: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 95-101Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In marketing literature often it is argued that the marketer should pay attention to the customers’ needs and wants in order to achieve and maintain successful business relationships. This fundamental approach is often referred to as the “marketing concept” and is one of the most important and famous concepts ever developed in marketing literature. The article describes a proposed generic deficiency in the usage of the marketing concept in marketing literature. It is also proposed that there is a necessity to extend the marketing concept towards the perspective of a holistic marketing channel context. Therefore, it is argued that the point of departure, in any marketing process of theory building, modeling, and development of conceptual frameworks in marketing, must be from the customer’s perspective and eventually from the ultimate consumer’s perspective.

  • 23.
    Svensson, Göran
    School of Management and Economics, Växjö University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Supply Chain Management: the Reintegration of Marketing Issues in Logistics Theory and Practice2002Ingår i: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 14, nr 6, s. 426-436Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Explores and describes the close interrelationship between marketing and logistics, i.e. the marketing activities and the logistics activities in a marketing channel. The author acknowledges that marketing and logistics were united in the beginning of the twentieth century, but that the two disciplines were in part separated from each other during the evolution of the last century. The topic is a business philosophy that may contribute to the re‐integration of the research disciplines. Usually, from a logistics perspective, the disciplines are treated as separate from each other, while from a marketing perspective the opposite is often acknowledged. In the 1980s, the potential re‐integration between the disciplines from a logistics perspective emerged through the business philosophy labeled as supply chain management (SCM). Both scholars and practitioners in the field of logistics have popularized this business philosophy in recent years. Argues that SCM contributes to the re‐integration of marketing issues in the field of logistics theory and practice. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 24.
    Svensson, Göran
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    The interactive interface of service quality: A conceptual framework2006Ingår i: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 243-257Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    – The objective of this paper is to describe a conceptual framework that addresses the interactive interface of service quality in service encounters.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – A conceptual framework is described and discussed in relation to previous research efforts in the field.

    Findings

    – Service encounters have been largely researched as a non‐interactive phenomenon. This means that the complexity and dynamics of the construct have not been sufficiently explored. Researchers have described the construct of service quality in different empirical contexts and have developed different models and dimensions – all of which tend to be derived from the service receiver's perspective.

    Research limitations/implications

    – In making the description, the framework acknowledges that service encounters and service quality pertain not only to human interactions, but also involve interaction between individuals and self‐service technology. It may also to some extent serve as a fundamental to scholars in their quest for generic structures across contexts, and over time to explore the interactive interface of service quality in service encounters. In addition, the framework may be used to position previous, ongoing and forthcoming research efforts of service quality.

    Practical implications

    – The conceptual framework may contribute to describe and enhance operative service performances in service encounters.

    Originality/value

    – The framework may contribute to describe and conceptualize the interactive interface of service quality in service encounters. The idea has been to convert some of the theory‐oriented knowledge of service performance in literature into a framework applicable to both scholars and practitioners.

    © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 25.
    Svensson, Göran
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Triadic dependencies in business networks2004Ingår i: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 16, nr 5, s. 473-493Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The author argues that the unidirectional measurement and evaluation of the dependence in a specific relationship is not enough to understand the existing dependence between two actors in a dyadic relationship, but a bi-directional approach may be necessary. Furthermore, a bi-directional approach may not always be sufficient to understand the dependencies in a specific relationship. The incorporation of a third actor may improve the understanding of dependencies in dyadic business relationships. Therefore, a method is applied to analyze the dynamics of dependence in triadic business networks.

  • 26.
    Svensson, Göran
    School of Management and Economics, Växjö University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Triadic trust in business networks: a conceptual model and empirical illustration2004Ingår i: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 165-190Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Argues that the unidirectional measurement and evaluation of the trust in a specific business relationship is not enough to understand the trust between two actors in a dyadic business relationship. Furthermore, mutual trust may not always be sufficient to understand the trust in a specific dyadic business relationship. The incorporation of a third actor may improve the understanding of trust in dyadic business relationships. Therefore, a method is applied to analyze the dynamics of trust in triadic business networks.

  • 27.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Helgesson, Thomas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Slåtten, Terje
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Tronvoll, Bård
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Scientific Identity of ‘Top’ Research Journals in the Broader Discipline of Marketing: Findings and Queries2008Ingår i: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 20, nr 5, s. 384-400Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe the “scientific identity” of the “top” research journals in the broader discipline of marketing by examining the methodological approaches and the geographical affiliations of authors published in selected journals. Design/methodology/approach – A sample of “top” research journals in marketing is selected on the basis of expert opinion and journal ranking lists. The selection includes the Journal of Consumer Research (JCR), Journal of Marketing (JM), Journal of Marketing Research (JMR), Journal of Retailing (JR), Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science (JAMS); and Marketing Science (MS). Findings – The “scientific identities” of JCR, JM, JMR, JR, JAMS and MS are revealed as being built on quantitative research designs and the North American paradigm of research values. In fact, all journals are US-based. None was found to be based on a mix of empirical research designs. The selected research journals were found to be narrowly focused, and the lack of variety of “scientific identities” among the journals studied here is discomfiting for the ongoing scientific knowledge building and theory generation in marketing. Research limitations/implications – Further studies of the “scientific identity” of individual research journals are desirable in other sub-disciplines of marketing. A series of questions have been raised that the authors argue are worthy of further attention and debate in the world-wide research community. Practical implications – Researchers will benefit from insights into the “scientific identities” of the “top” research journals in the broader discipline of marketing. In particular, researchers can note the particular feature of dogmatic narrowness of research designs that are present in all of these journals.Originality/value – The study delivers insights into the publishing requirements of “top” research journals in the broader discipline of marketing. It provides some challenging and discomfiting findings.

  • 28.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wagner, Beverly
    University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
    Business Sustainability and E-footprints on Earth’s Life and Ecosystems: Generic Models2012Ingår i: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 24, nr 6, s. 543-552Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Companies and their business networks impact on Earth's life and ecosystems must be seriously addressed and minimized. The purpose of this paper therefore proposes and describes a generic model as well as a network model of business sustainability.

    Design/methodology/approach: "Business sustainability" is defined as a company's or an organization's efforts to manage its impact on Earth's life- and eco-systems and its whole business network. The work concentrates on one research question, namely: how can business sustainability and E-footprints be conceptualised?

    Findings: The model introduced emphasises not only the importance of business networks adopting an E-footprint and an Earth-to-Earth (EE) cradle-to-cradle approach, but also a transformative Earth (E) footprint-model derived and inspired from a causal framework in complexity sciences. Research limitations/implications: Research is rare that simultaneously focuses on EE-approaches, E-footprint stakeholders and zero-sum cycles. The authors have striven to address this gap by introducing a business sustainability model in an EE-approach and with an interconnecting transformative E-footprint-model.

    Practical implications: It is crucial to embed appropriate routines and processes within the company in the first instance with the aim of business sustainability. This may cause a ripple effect in the company's business network as raw material producers, value-adding suppliers and customers become drawn into make appropriate strategic, tactical and operative adaptations in their own business dealings. This stresses the importance of E-footprint stakeholders fostering networks of both interdependent and collaborative corporate efforts aimed at business sustainability.

    Originality/value: The main contribution should be a business sustainability model of life and ecosystems from an EE-approach with a transformative E-footprint.model. Each company within a business network must endeavour to minimise its E-footprint through its zero-sum cycles. These should be seen as interdependent and interconnected thereby contributing to the total E-footprint of the business network. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 29.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wagner, Beverly
    University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
    Transformative Business Sustainability: Multi-Layer Model and Network of E-Footprint Sources2011Ingår i: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 23, nr 4, s. 334-352Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the concept of "transformative business sustainability". "Business sustainability" refers the total effort of a company - including its demand and supply chain network - to reduce the impact on the Earth's life- and eco-systems -, i.e. the total e-footprint. "Transformative" highlights the need for an open minded, dynamic and flexible approach to "business sustainability" not governed by blinkers.

    Design/methodology/approach: This paper discusses a conceptual development of transformative business sustainability, derived from a frame of reference. The essence is the introduction of a multi-layer model of units (i.e. different businesses or other stakeholders), a network of e-footprint sources and a "recovery pool and redistribution buffer" at the interface.

    Findings: Transformative business sustainability is both a theoretical and managerial concept. It could also be seen as a roadmap to plan, implement and evaluate business sustainability.

    Research limitations/implications: Transformative business sustainability provides opportunities for development. Suggestions for further research are presented.

    Practical implications: E-footprint sources in business, applying an Earth-to-Earth approach, are described. The concept of transformative business sustainability contributes by achieving genuine and continuous business sustainability and awareness at strategic, tactical and operative levels of business, avoiding use of buzzwords and window dressing.

    Originality/value: Well-being of the planet Earth has to be at the core of business sustainability. The authors contend that the "recovery pool and redistribution buffer" is crucial in the planning, implementation and evaluation of transformative business sustainability.

    © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 30.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wood, Greg
    Bowater School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    A Model of Cause Related Marketing for ‘Profit-Driven’ and ‘Non-Profit’ Organizations2011Ingår i: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 23, nr 2, s. 203-214Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe a model of cause-related marketing (CRM) for both profit-driven (PD) and non-profit (NP) organizations. Design/methodology/approach:The model consists of two parallel internal and external organizational processes - one representing the process of a NP organization and the other a PD organization. They are interlinked as the outcome of a CRM-partnership is dependent upon their mutual efforts.

    Findings: The authors argue that it is essential to remember that a CRM-partnership is a challenge and risk for both the PD and NP organizations that may harm their reputation and position in the marketplace and/or society. CRM has benefits as well as downsides that should not be underestimated nor neglected.

    Research limitations/implications: Will the involvement of the PD or NP organizations in the resultant partnership be perceived as commercialism, altruism or a combination of both, in the marketplace and society? A focus on both processes opens up opportunities for further research.

    Practical implications: A contribution is that the CRM-model may be used as a guide for both PD and NP organizations in order to reveal whether a CRM-partnership is appropriate for them with a potential partner or not. It may also indicate whether the motives are based upon commercial reasons or altruistic reasons or a combination of both.

    Originality/value: The model enables these organizations to think through the process prior to engaging in CRM. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 31.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wood, Greg
    Faculty of Business and Law, Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    Ethical performance evaluation (EPE) in business practices: framework and case illustrations2007Ingår i: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 19, nr 5, s. 420-430Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: A set of principal parameters (i.e. time, context, gap, outcome, and consequence) influences the ethical performance evaluation (EPE) of business practices in the marketplace and society. The purpose of this paper is to describe a managerial framework of EPE based upon these parameters.

    Design/methodology/approach: Case illustrations are used to underpin the introduced managerial framework of EPE. Findings - The EPE of business practices is not only dependent upon the ethical values and principles of today, but those principles of tomorrow may be equally, or even more, crucial. The EPE of business practices is also dependent upon the surrounding context and its specific ethical values and principles. Furthermore, it is dependent upon the gap between different perceptions of ethical values and principles and if the outcome of the corporation's ethical values and principles are proactive or reactive in relation to the reigning ethical values and principles in the marketplace and society. Finally, it is also dependent upon the potential and eventual consequences of ethical values and principles.

    Research limitations/implications: The only way that we can "objectively" evaluate past ethical values and principles is through the use of ethical values and principles at the time and in respect to the context at hand. Research tends to fail when considering the longitudinal and evolutionary dimensions in the exploration of ethical values and principles in business practices. There is too much focus upon on-the-spot-accounts in the past and in current research efforts. An important area for further research is how to deal with the durability and variability of ethical values and principles in business practices in the marketplace and society. The key may be a stronger emphasis on longitudinal research efforts that may explore them over time and as contexts evolve. Ethical values and principles are connected and re-connected over time and across contexts in one way or another. They have a past, a current status and a future.

    Practical implications: The decision as to whether business practices are ethical or unethical is - relatively speaking - easy to determine from a narrow perspective, however, the decision whether business practices are ethical or unethical becomes complicated as the perspective is widened and deepened. An introduced managerial framework of EPE provides a generic foundation and structure to examine the acceptability versus unacceptability of business practices.

    Originality/value: The paper introduces a managerial framework of EPE, followed by case illustrations. It addresses the impact of time on ethical values and principles in any context on the potential and eventual gaps, outcomes and consequences in business practices. The managerial framework of EPE may also be used in non-business areas whenever found applicable and convenient to use.

    © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 32.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wood, Greg
    Bowater School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    International Standards of Business Conduct: Framework and Illustration2008Ingår i: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 260-274Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe the insights and a proposal into the structure of standards of business conduct and its intended applications. Design/methodology/approach – The case study is based upon an inductive content analysis of corporate ethics artefacts. Findings – It is concluded that the standards of business conduct may be highly prescriptive in world wide corporations, but that there should be an explicit commitment to a flexible and dynamic approach to the application of standards of business conduct. Research limitations/implications – An examination of the actual behaviour of a corporation's operations was beyond the scope of the present research, but such a study has potential for future research. This would open up the wider question of how corporations can minimise the gap between corporate intentions and actual outcomes in business operations across national and cultural boundaries. Practical implications – These diverse national and cultural contexts that world wide corporations encounter must be taken into consideration in the content of their standards of business conduct. Originality/value – The authors emphasise the concern of recognising that the contexts surrounding standards of business conduct are dynamic. Corporate codes of ethics should be regarded as dynamic artefacts. A framework of application is proposed.

  • 33.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Wood, Greg
    Deakin University, Warrnambool, Australia.
    The Pareto Plus Syndrome in Top Marketing Journals: Research and Journal Criteria2006Ingår i: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 18, nr 6, s. 457-467Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Pareto's Law often refers to the theory that a small percentage of a total is responsible for a large proportion of the total outcome. It is commonly known as the 80/20 law or principle. The objective is to review and debate whether there is a "Pareto syndrome" in the distribution of crucial research and journal criteria in top marketing journals.

    Design/methodology/approach - The authors provide a review and a debate based upon previous research on top marketing journals. For this purpose, the Pareto syndrome concept is introduced, based upon a set of research and journal criteria. Their distribution is examined. Findings - The review of research and journal criteria in top marketing journals generated an extremely skewed outcome. When it comes to the criteria, the top journals in marketing tend to be governed by narrow concerns of research rather than broad ones.

    Research limitations/implications - The research and journal criteria that have a skewed outcome may reinforce the rigidity and the lack of innovativeness of the marketing discipline. The evolutionary speed of the discipline may at best be reduced or it may at worst grind to a halt. The authors argue that there are a number of serious concerns to be addressed in the future review and debate of top journals in marketing.

    Practical implications - Editors and editorial boards need seriously to address the concerns reviewed and debated, namely the skewed distribution of criteria, such as affiliation, data and methodology.

    Originality/value - The authors debate that there is evidence that confirms the existence of a Pareto plus syndrome in key research and journal criteria of top marketing journals.

    © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 34.
    Wagner, Beverly
    et al.
    Department of Marketing, Strathclyde Business School, Glasgow, UK.
    Svensson, Göran
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER). Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    A framework to navigate sustainability in business networks: The transformative business sustainability (TBS) model2014Ingår i: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 340-367Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    – The purpose of this paper is to describe a transformative business sustainability (TBS) model of stakeholders and sources in sustainable business practices with an interface and exchange node of resource residuals.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – The research is based upon a grounded methodology drawn from four in-depth case studies, spanning over six years in different countries and industries. Data were gathered from multiple sources, and interview transcriptions were returned to interviewees for clarification, accuracy, final proofreading and approval.

    Findings

    – The TBS model complements existing research by emphasising the importance of commitment to an overarching vision through corporate leadership assigning areas of strategic priority that respond to current and future environmental regulation and social needs.

    Research implications/limitations

    – Efforts aimed towards business sustainability and application of sustainable business practices in business networks include interfaces and interactions between involved stakeholders and sources. We argue that stakeholders and sources should be recognised as intertwined, where resources used in activities in a business network causing resource residuals may be recovered and reused by other actors in the business network.

    Practice implications

    – The TBS model can be used by managers to plan, implement and assess practices to provide a holistic view of sustainable business activities that supports the development of a company and its network. It may also be used to map and navigate interactions between elements within and external to the company.

    Originality/value

    – The principal contribution of the current research is twofold, a TBS model and a tool to map and navigate corporate sustainability efforts. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

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