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  • 1. Pirzadeh, Parndis
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Kerstin
    Woin, Per
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Effects of the brominated flame retardant HBCDD on the structure of natural brackish water plankton communities2004Inngår i: Proc. SETAC conference in Prague, 2004, Setac-Press , 2004, s. 1-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) is a brominated flame retardant which is a prioritised substance within the Programme of Existing Substances in the EU. A recent extensive study in Sweden reported traces of the substance in all analysed media both in the environment and in biota. There are no studies, prior to this, on the effect of the compound on brackish water ecosystems. In this study, the ecotoxicity of the compound was investigated in brackish water microcosms (10 l) with natural plankton communities. The communities emerged from sediment and water collected in Öresund. 7 days after the composition of the test-systems they were exposed to the nominal concentrations 50, 100 and 400 μg/l of HBCDD. The zooplankton community was dominated by calanoid copepods and pelagic and semi-benthic rotifers. The direct toxicity of HBCDD resulted in a significant decrease in the abundance of crustacean zooplankton in all tested concentrations, whereas the rotifers were unaffected by the exposure. The total phytoplankton abundance (here including ciliates) increased for all concentrations of HBCDD, probably due to decreased grazing by zooplankton. In total, 7 species of phytoplankton were affected. We conclude from this study that HBCDD has the potential to induce profound changes in thecomposition of natural plankton communities at low (ppb) concentrations.

  • 2.
    Tønning, Kathe
    et al.
    Teknologisk institut, Danmark.
    Pedersen, Eva
    Teknologisk institut, Danmark.
    Drøjdahl Lomholt, Anette
    Teknologisk institut, Danmark.
    Malmgren-Hansen, Bjørn
    Teknologisk institut, Danmark.
    Woin, Per
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS).
    Møller, Lise
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Bernth, Nils
    Teknologisk institut, Danmark.
    Kortlægning og afgivelse samt sundhedsmæssig vurdering af kemiske stoffer i babyprodukter2008Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Several baby products are intended to more or less to get in direct contact with baby skin or be in close contact to the skin. Moistening in the form of water, saliva, sweat or urine may cause that substances contained in the products, which can be released to these liquids, may get into contact with the skin or mouth of the baby. Besides uptake of chemical substances through the skin and from the baby sucking on the material exposure may also take place by inhaling of gasses slowly released/evaporating from the baby product of dusty particles and fibres released during use. The products included in the examination are primarily baby products intended for at children at the age of 0 to 1 year. Baby products have been deliberately selected that based on information from retailers are sold to a reasonable extent. The project primarily concerned products of textile or plastic with an upholstery or padding. In addition also baby products of flexible foam material were included. Baby clothing, bed linen (bolster case), shaped plastic objects (bath tubs, chamber pots, comforters, and baby plates), baby cutlery, and toys, wooden beds (cots) and baby care agents/remedies were not included in the project.

  • 3.
    Woin, Per
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS).
    Aquatic ecosystems - Reports of the breakout groups2005Inngår i: Effects of Pesticides in the Field / [ed] M. Liess, C. Brown, P. Dohmen, Brussels: Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC), 2005, s. 113-123Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Information in this book was obtained from individual experts and highly regarded sources. It is the publisher’s intent to print accurate and reliable information, and numerous references are cited; however, the authors, editors, and publisher can not be responsible for the validity of all information presented here or for the consequences of its use. Information contained herein does not necessarily reflect the policy or views of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. This book presents the proceedings of a SETAC Workshop convened by the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) and the European Union in Le Croisic, France, in October 2003. The 77 scientists involved in this workshop represented 17 countries from Europe, the United States and Canada and offered expertise in ecology, ecotoxicology, environmental regulation, and risk assessment.

  • 4.
    Woin, Per
    et al.
    Department of Ecology, Chemical Ecology and Ecotoxicology, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden.
    Christoffersen, Kirsten
    Freshwater Biological Laboratory, University of Copenhagen, Hillerød, Denmark.
    Friberg-Jensen, Ursula
    Freshwater Biological Laboratory, University of Copenhagen, Hillerød, Denmark.
    Wendt-Rasch, Lina
    Department of Ecology, Chemical Ecology and Ecotoxicology, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden.
    Effects of the pyrethroid insecticide, cypermethrin, on a freshwater community studied under field conditions: I. Direct and indirect effects on abundance measures of organisms at different trophic levels.2003Inngår i: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 63, nr 4, s. 357-371Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of the pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin on a natural freshwater community were studied in small in situenclosures over an 11-day period. The experiment was conducted in a eutrophic lake using a regression design thatincluded three untreated controls and a gradient of six unreplicated cypermethrin concentrations, ranging from 0.01 to6.1 mg/l. This paper is the first in a series of two, and describes the fate of cypermethrin and its effects on the abundanceof crustaceans, rotifers, protozoans (cilliates and heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF)) and bacteria and the biomass ofperiphytic and planktonic algae. The concentration of cypermethrin decreased quickly during the experiment, with ahalf-life of 48 h for the total and 25 h for the dissolved fractions of cypermethrin, respectively. Cypermethrin proved tobe acutely toxic to crustaceans in enclosures receiving nominal cypermethrin concentrations of ]/0.13 mg/l. No EffectConcentration (NEC) and median Effect Concentration (EC50) for the total crustacean community and cladoceran andcopepod subgroups ranged between 0.02 /0.07 and 0.04 /0.17 mg/l, respectively, with copepods being less sensitive thancladocerans. The abundance of rotifers, protozoans and bacteria and the chlorophyll-a concentration of planktonic andperiphytic algae was significantly related to the concentration of cypermethrin. All groups proliferated within 2 /7 daysafter the cypermethrin application in those enclosures where the abundance of crustaceans was seriously affected bycypermethrin (i.e. ]/0.13 mg/l). We hypothesise that the proliferation of rotifers, protozoans, bacteria and algae was dueto a reduced grazer control from crustaceans and thereby mediated indirectly by cypermethrin. The results of thisexperiment provide knowledge on how an entire microplankton community may respond to pyrethroids in nature, andthe indirect effects observed on the community clearly demonstrates the necessity of multispecies field experiments inecotoxicological risk assessment

  • 5.
    Woin, Per
    et al.
    Department of Ecology, Chemical Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Wendt-Rasch, Lina
    Department of Ecology, Chemical Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Friberg-Jensen, Ursula
    Freshwater Biological Laboratory, Hillerød, Denmark.
    Christoffersen, Kirsten
    Freshwater Biological Laboratory, Hillerød, Denmark.
    Effects of the pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin on a freshwater community studied under field conditions: II. Direct and indirect effects on the species composition2003Inngår i: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 63, nr 4, s. 373-389Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of cypermethrin, a commonly used pyrethroid insecticide, were studied in small in situ enclosures situatedin an eutrophic lake over an 11-day period. The experimental design used a regression principle that included threeuntreated controls and a gradient of six unreplicated cypermethrin concentrations, ranging from 0.01 to 6 mg/l. Thispaper is the second in a series of two and describes the effects on the species composition of the crustacean, rotifer,periphyton and phytoplankton communities. Multivariate ordination technique (redundancy analysis (RDA) combinedwith Monte Carlo permutation tests) showed that exposure to cypermethrin caused significant changes in the speciescomposition of the communities. Changes in the structure of the communities were observed following exposure to anominal concentration of 0.13 mg cypermethrin per litre above. The direct acute effect of exposure to cypermethrin wasa rapid decrease of many species of crustacean zooplankton. The alterations in crustacean species composition wereprobably due to variations in susceptibility to the direct toxic effects of cypermethrin. No effects concentration (NEC)for individual zooplankton species were calculated using inverse regression and revealed that copepod nauplii were themost sensitive (NEC /0.01 mg/l) of the crustacean groups examined. The observed alterations of the speciescomposition of the autotrophic communities as well as of the rotifers were most likely caused indirectly bycypermethrin, mediated through the direct negative effects of the insecticide on the crustacean grazers. The results ofthis experiment provide further knowledge about the direct and indirect effects of pesticide stress on the ecosystem level.They also show that there is a variation in sensitivity between different species of zooplankton under natural conditionsand thus exemplify the necessity of multispecies approaches in the risk assessment of pesticides.

  • 6.
    Woin, Per
    et al.
    Department of Ecology, Chemical Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Wendt-Rasch, Lina
    Department of Ecology, Chemical Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Pirzadeh, P.
    Department of Ecology, Chemical Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Effects of metsulfuron methyl and cypermethrin exposure on freshwater model ecosystems2003Inngår i: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 63, nr 3, s. 243-256Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term (2 weeks) effects of the herbicide metsulfuron methyl alone and in combination with the insecticide cypermethrin in freshwater enclosures (80 l). We used a factorial design with four levels of herbicide (0, 1, 5, 20 mg/l) and two levels of insecticide (0 and 0.05 mg/l). The root growth of the macrophyte species Elodea canadensis and Myriophyllum spicatum decreased following exposure to the lowest concentration of metsulfuron methyl tested. Metsulfuron methyl exposure resulted in a decreased pH in the aquatic enclosure at the lowest concentration tested, which is most likely a further indication of decreased macrophyte primary production. The biomass of periphytic algae growing on the leaves of M. spicatum increased in the enclosures exposed to metsulfuron methyl. The species composition of the periphytic algae differed significantly from the controls in the enclosures exposed to 20 mg/l of the herbicide. The increased biomass of periphytic algae on the leaves of the macrophytes is probably an indirect effect of the herbicide exposure. The exposure to metsulfuron methyl possibly induced a leakage of nutrients from the macrophyte leaves, which promoted an increased algal growth. The exposure to metsulfuron methyl did not alter the biomass or the species composition of the phytoplankton community. The zooplankton communities in the enclosures were dominated by rotifers, which were not affected by the exposure to cypermethrin. However, a cypermethrin exposure of 0.05 mg/l initially decreased the abundance of copepod nauplii. Ten days after exposure, the abundance of nauplii was significantly higher in the insecticide-exposed enclosures compared with the non-exposed enclosures. This might be an indication of a sub-lethal stress response, which either increased the number of offspring produced or induced an increased hatching of copepod resting stages. No combined effects of the herbicide and insecticide exposure, either direct or indirect, were observed in the enclosure study. Significant effects on the macrophytes were observed following exposure to 1 mg metsulfuron methyl per litre in the enclosure study. Furthermore, a single species laboratory assay indicated that the shoot elongation of E. canadensis decreased following exposure to ]/0.1 mg metsulfuron methyl per litre. These concentrations are well within the range of expected environmental concentrations, thus this study shows that aquatic ecosystems, in particular those which are macrophyte- dominated, may be affected by metsulfuron methyl at concentrations that may well occur in water bodies adjacent to agricultural land.

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