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  • 1.
    Bonnot, N. C.
    et al.
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan, 730 91, Sweden.
    Bergvall, U. A.
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan, 730 91, Sweden.
    Jarnemo, Anders
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Kjellander, P.
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan, 730 91, Sweden.
    Who’s afraid of the big bad wolf?: Variation in the stress response among personalities and populations in a large wild herbivore2018Inngår i: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 188, nr 1, s. 85-95Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Faced with rapid environmental changes, individuals may express different magnitude and plasticity in their response to a given stressor. However, little is known about the causes of variation in phenotypic plasticity of the stress response in wild populations. In the present study, we repeatedly captured individual roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from two wild populations in Sweden exposed to differing levels of predation pressure and measured plasma concentrations of stress-induced cortisol and behavioral docility. While controlling for the marked effects of habituation, we found clear between-population differences in the stress-induced cortisol response. Roe deer living in the area that was recently recolonized by lynx (Lynx lynx) and wolves (Canis lupus) expressed cortisol levels that were around 30% higher than roe deer in the human-dominated landscape free of large carnivores. In addition, for the first time to our knowledge, we investigated the stress-induced cortisol response in free-ranging newborn fawns and found no evidence for hypo-responsiveness during early life in this species. Indeed, stress-induced cortisol levels were of similar magnitude and differed between populations to a similar extent in both neonates and adults. Finally, at an individual level, we found that both cortisol and docility levels were strongly repeatable, and weakly negatively inter-correlated, suggesting that individuals differed consistently in how they respond to a stressor, and supporting the existence of a stress-management syndrome in roe deer. © 2018, The Author(s).

  • 2.
    Jarnemo, Anders
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agriculture, SLU, Riddarhyttan, Sweden.
    Jansson, Gunnar
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agriculture, SLU, Riddarhyttan, Sweden.
    Månsson, Johan
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agriculture, SLU, Riddarhyttan, Sweden.
    Temporal variations in activity patterns during rut - Implications for survey techniques of red deer, Cervus elaphus2017Inngår i: Wildlife research (East Melbourne), ISSN 1035-3712, E-ISSN 1448-5494, Vol. 44, nr 2, s. 106-113Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context Intraspecific differences in behaviour can affect censuses and bias population estimates, suggesting that choice and implementation of census methods are fundamental, and need to be adapted to behavioural variations. Aims We investigated temporal variations in activity patterns during the rut among red deer (Cervus elaphus) categories and the implications for two different census methods. Methods We used a long-term dataset collected during 17 consecutive red deer rutting seasons in southernmost Sweden. The two census methods were: (1) a collection of observation ratios; and (2) a count of individuals including identification of males. Both methods are commonly used in ungulate management. Key results There was a difference in activity among age and sex categories, with a temporal variation in activity and/or presence at rutting grounds of adult (≥6 years) and subadult (2-5 years) males. Observation ratios of adult and subadult males increased from low at the start of the rut to a top level during peak rut, with subadults lagging behind adults. Before and during peak rut, the proportion of adult males was higher than that of subadults. After peak rut, the proportion of adult males decreased, whereas subadult males remained high, resulting in a higher number of subadults than of adults. The comparison of the two census methods revealed a strong correlation regarding the trends of population size and for the age and sex categories. There was also a strong consistency concerning the calf/female ratio. The male proportion was, however, consistently lower in the collected observations than in the counts. Conclusions The lower proportion of males in observations compared with counts may be explained by behavioural differences among male age classes, i.e. by temporal variations in presence and activity. That females, calves and yearling males are stationary during the rut, but adult and subadult males arrive and depart the rutting grounds at varying points of time, can lead to an underestimated male proportion in continuously collected observation data. Implications The results suggest that census should be conducted during peak rut, and that incorporating identification of individual males in the monitoring may be beneficiary. © CSIRO 2017.

  • 3.
    Jarnemo, Anders
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-730 91 Riddarhyttan, Sweden.
    Minderman, Jeroen
    Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, United Kingdom.
    Bunnefeld, Nils
    Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, United Kingdom.
    Zidar, Josefina
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping, Sweden.
    Månsson, Johan
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-730 91 Riddarhyttan, Sweden.
    Managing landscapes for multiple objectives: Alternative forage can reduce the conflict between deer and forestry2014Inngår i: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 5, nr 8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Deer (Cervidae) cause considerable damage to forest plantations, crops, and protected habitats. The most common response to this damage is to implement strategies to lower population densities. However, lowering deer density may not always be desirable from hunting, recreational, or conservation perspectives. Therefore, knowledge is needed about additional factors beyond deer density that affect damage levels, and management actions that consider competing management goals. We studied the relationships between levels of bark-stripping by red deer (Cervus elaphus) on Norway spruce (Picea abies) and (1) relative deer density indices (pellet group count and deer harvest data), (2) availability of alternative natural forage (cover of forage species) and (3) proportion forest in the landscape, both at a forest stand scale and at a landscape scale. Extensive variation in damage level was evident between the six study areas. On a stand scale, the proportion of spruce damaged was positively related to pellet group density, indicating the importance of local deer usage of stands. In addition, available alternative forage in the field layer within spruce stands and proportion forest surrounding stands was negatively related to damage level. On the landscape scale, damage level was negatively related to availability of forage in the field and shrub layers and proportion forest, but was not related to any of the relative deer density indices. Increasing alternative forage may thus decrease damage and thereby reduce conflicts. Additionally, the proportion of forest in the landscape affects damage levels and should thus be considered in landscape planning and when forecasting damage risk. The relationship between local deer usage of stands and damage level suggests that future studies should try to separate the effects of local deer usage and deer density. © 2014 Jarnemo et al.

  • 4.
    Wikenros, Camilla
    et al.
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan, Sweden.
    Aronsson, Malin
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan, Sweden.
    Liberg, Olof
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan, Sweden.
    Jarnemo, Anders
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Hansson, Jessica
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Wallgren, Märtha
    3 Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sand, Håkan
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan, Sweden.
    Bergström, Råger
    3 Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fear or food - Abundance of red fox in relation to occurrence of lynx and Wolf2017Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, nr 1, artikkel-id 9059Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Apex predators may affect mesopredators through intraguild predation and/or supply of carrion from their prey, causing a trade-off between avoidance and attractiveness. We used wildlife triangle snow-tracking data to investigate the abundance of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in relation to lynx (Lynx lynx) and wolf (Canis lupus) occurrence as well as land composition and vole (Microtus spp.) density. Data from the Swedish wolf-monitoring system and VHF/GPS-collared wolves were used to study the effect of wolf pack size and time since wolf territory establishment on fox abundance. Bottom-up processes were more influential than top-down effects as the proportion of arable land was the key indicator of fox abundance at the landscape level. At this spatial scale, there was no effect of wolf abundance on fox abundance, whereas lynx abundance had a positive effect. In contrast, at the wolf territory level there was a negative effect of wolves on fox abundance when including detailed information of pack size and time since territory establishment, whereas there was no effect of lynx abundance. This study shows that different apex predator species may affect mesopredator abundance in different ways and that the results may be dependent on the spatiotemporal scale and resolution of the data. © 2017 The Author(s).

  • 5.
    Wikenros, Camilla
    et al.
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan, Sweden; Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Białowieża, Poland.
    Jarnemo, Anders
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Frisén, Marielle
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Kuijper, Dries P. J.
    Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Waszkiewicza 1, Białowieża, Poland.
    Schmidt, Krzysztof
    Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Białowieża, Poland.
    Mesopredator behavioral response to olfactory signals of an apex predator2017Inngår i: Journal of ethology, ISSN 0289-0771, E-ISSN 1439-5444, Vol. 35, nr 2, s. 161-168Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Olfactory signals constitute an important mechanism in interspecific interactions, but little is known regarding their role in communication between predator species. We analyzed the behavioral responses of a mesopredator, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), to an olfactory cue (scat) of an apex predator, the lynx (Lynx lynx) in BiałowieÅŒa Primeval Forest, Poland, using video camera traps. Red fox visited sites with scats more often than expected and the duration of their visits was longer at scat sites than at control sites (no scat added). Vigilant behavior, sniffing and scent marking (including over-marking) occurred more often at scat sites compared to control sites, where foxes mainly passed by. Vigilance was most pronounced during the first days of the recordings. Red fox behavior was also influenced by foxes previously visiting scat sites. They sniffed and scent marked (multiple over-marking) more frequently when the lynx scat had been over-marked previously by red fox. Fox visits to lynx scats may be seen as a trade-off between obtaining information on a potential food source (prey killed by lynx) and the potential risk of predation by an apex predator. © 2017, The Author(s).

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