hh.sePublikasjoner
Endre søk
Begrens søket
1 - 14 of 14
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Treff pr side
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
Merk
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 1.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Novel low temperature heat distribution technology2018Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 145, s. 526-539Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Lower future heat demands and lower availability of non-fossil high temperature heat supply are expected future market conditions that restrain the long-term viability of contemporary district heating systems. Hence, current district heating technology should be enhanced to increase system performance in new heat distribution areas. This paper aims to outline a proposal for technical improvements required to achieve lower annual average return temperatures in new residential buildings to improve viability in future market conditions. The proposed technical solution consists of three principle changes: three-pipe distribution networks, apartment substations, and longer thermal lengths for heat exchangers. The three technical modifications aims at addressing system embedded temperature errors. Furthermore, a simulation model was developed to assess the proposed technical solution concerning different energy performances of buildings and different thermal lengths in heat exchangers. The results show that implementation of the three technical modifications reaches time-weighted annual average return temperatures of 17–21 °C with supply temperatures of about 50 °C. The results also verify the increased necessity to separate the network return flows into delivery and recirculation flows in residential substations as energy performance in buildings increase.

  • 2.
    Leurent, Martin
    et al.
    Université Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
    Da Costa, Pascal
    Université Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
    Rämä, Miika
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT, Espoo, Finland.
    Persson, Urban
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Jasserand, Frédéric
    Université Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
    Cost-benefit analysis of district heating systems using heat from nuclear plants in seven European countries2018Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 149, s. 454-472Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to evaluate and compare the potential cost savings and greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction of district heating (DH) systems using heat from nuclear combined heat and power plants (NCHP) in Europe. Fifteen DH + NCHP systems, spread throughout seven countries, are studied. The selection was made in collaboration with ‘the Ad-Hoc Expert Group on the Role and Economics of Nuclear Cogenerationin a Low Carbon Energy Future’ from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Firstly, the linear heat density of the modelled DH networks was determined, including locations with poorly developed DH networks. A large potential for extending DH networks was identified for France and the United Kingdom despite the expected decrease in the heat demand due to building renovation. Secondly, the costs and GHG emissions of DH + NCHP systems were evaluated via a cost benefit analysis. It concluded that 7 of the 15 projects would be cost-effective if 25% of the total urban heat demand was supplied. Implementing NCHP-based systems would reduce GHG emissions by approximately 10 Mt eCO2/a. Four additional DH + NCHP systems could become competitive if a larger share of the total demand was supplied. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the uncertainty affecting the key parameters. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

  • 3.
    Lund, Henrik
    et al.
    Ålborgs universitet, Ålborg, Danmark.
    Werner, Sven
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Wiltshire, Robin
    Building Research Establishment, Watford, UK.
    Svendsen, Svend
    Danmarks Tekniska Universitet - DTU, Lyngby, Danmark.
    Thorsen, Jan Eric
    Danfoss, Nordborg, Danmark.
    Hvelplund, Frede
    Ålborgs Universitet, Ålborg, Danmark.
    Vad Mathiesen, Brian
    Ålborgs universitet, Köpenhamn, Danmark.
    4th Generation District Heating (4GDH): Integrating smart thermal grids into future sustainable energy systems2014Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 68, s. 1-11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper defines the concept of 4th Generation District Heating (4GDH) including the relations to District Cooling and the concepts of smart energy and smart thermal grids. The motive is to identify the future challenges of reaching a future renewable non-fossil heat supply as part of the implementation of overall sustainable energy systems. The basic assumption is that district heating and cooling has an important role to play in future sustainable energy systems – including 100 percent renewable energy systems – but the present generation of district heating and cooling technologies will have to be developed further into a new generation in order to play such a role. Unlike the first three generations, the development of 4GDH involves meeting the challenge of more energy efficient buildings as well as being an integrated part of the operation of smart energy systems, i.e. integrated smart electricity, gas and thermal grids. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 4.
    Lund, Henrik
    et al.
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Østergaard, Poul Alberg
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Chang, Miguel
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Werner, Sven
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Svendsen, Svend
    DTU, Denmark Technical University, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Sorknæs, Peter
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Thorsen, Jan Eric
    Danfoss Heating Segment, Nordborg, Denmark.
    Hvelplund, Frede
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Mortensen, Bent Ole Gram
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Mathiesen, Brian Vad
    Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bojesen, Carsten
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Duic, Neven
    University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Zhang, Xiliang
    Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Möller, Bernd
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    The status of 4th generation district heating: Research and results2018Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 164, s. 147-159Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This review article presents a description of contemporary developments and findings related to the different elements needed in future 4th generation district heating systems (4GDH). Unlike the first three generations of district heating, the development of 4GDH involves meeting the challenge of more energy efficient buildings as well as the integration of district heating into a future smart energy system based on renewable energy sources. Following a review of recent 4GDH research, the article quantifies the costs and benefits of 4GDH in future sustainable energy systems. Costs involve an upgrade of heating systems and of the operation of the distribution grids, while benefits are lower grid losses, a better utilization of low-temperature heat sources and improved efficiency in the production compared to previous district heating systems. It is quantified how benefits exceed costs by a safe margin with the benefits of systems integration being the most important. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

  • 5.
    Lund, Rasmus
    et al.
    Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Persson, Urban
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Energivetenskap.
    Mapping of potential heat sources for heat pumps for district heating in Denmark2016Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 110, s. 129-138Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ambitious policy in Denmark on having a 100% renewable energy supply in 2050 requires radical changes to the energy systems to avoid an extensive and unsustainable use of biomass resources. Currently, wind power is being expanded and the increasing supply of electricity is slowly pushing the CHP (combined heat and power) plants out of operation, reducing the energy efficiency of the DH (district heating) supply. Here, large heat pumps for district heating is a frequently mentioned solution as a flexible demand for electricity and an energy efficient heat producer. The idea is to make heat pump use a low temperature waste or ambient heat source, but it has so far been very unclear which heat sources are actually available for this purpose.

    In this study eight categories of heat sources are analysed for the case of Denmark and included in a detailed spatial analysis where the identified heat sources are put in relation to the district heating areas and the corresponding demands. The analysis shows that potential heat sources are present near almost all district heating areas and that sea water most likely will have to play a substantial role as a heat source in future energy systems in Denmark.

  • 6.
    Lygnerud, Kristina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Risk assessment of industrial excess heat recovery in district heating systems2018Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 151, s. 430-441Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The recovery of industrial excess heat for use in district heating systems can be characterised by great political interest, high potential, low utilisation and often high profitability. These characteristics reveal that barriers are present for its greater utilisation. One identified barrier is the risk that industries with excess heat can terminate their activities, resulting in the loss of heat recovery. Excess heat recovery investments are therefore sometimes rejected, despite them being viable investments. The risk of termination of industrial activities has been assessed by a study of 107 excess heat recoveries in Sweden. The analysis verified that terminated industrial activities are one of two major explanations for terminated heat delivery. The other major reason is substitution by another heat supply. These two explanations correspond to approximately 6% of all annual average heat recoveries. The identified risk factors are small annual heat recovery and the use of heat pumps when low-temperature heat was recovered. The main conclusion is that a small proportion of industrial heat recovery has been lost in Sweden because of terminated industrial activities. The risk premium of losing industrial heat recovery for this specific reason should be considered to be lower than often presumed in feasibility studies. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

  • 7.
    Möller, Bernd
    et al.
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany & Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Wiechers, Eva
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Persson, Urban
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Grundahl, Lars
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Connolly, David
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Heat Roadmap Europe: Identifying local heat demand and supply areas with a European thermal atlas2018Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 158, s. 281-292Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2016 the first Strategy for Heating and Cooling of the European Union has shown that district heating and cooling networks can integrate renewable energies in an increasingly energy-efficient built environment. At the same time, the heating and cooling sector is probably the most diverse and least mapped component of the European energy system. The aim of the Pan-European Thermal Atlas is to improve the knowledge base for the geographical distribution of heat and cooling demands across Europe. Demand densities of the demanded thermal services themselves, the spatial coherence of these demands, and their location relative to sources of heating greatly affect the economy of district heating schemes compared to individual solutions. The objective is therefore to develop a comprehensive model, which can be used to a) quantify heat demands by density, b) group coherent areas with demands into prospective supply zones, c) produce supply curves for these zones, and d) ultimately calculate local energy mixes on the basis of allocated excess heat as well as renewable energy sources. The developed method spatially disaggregates national demand data to high-resolution geospatial data on urban structures. The resulting atlas allows for an advanced quantitative screening process, which can establish the basis for energy systems analyses relying on geographically explicit information on the heating demand and supply volumes and costs. The present paper presents version 4 of the Pan-European Thermal Atlas, which takes another step towards higher spatial resolution and confidence in comparison to its predecessors, version 1 to 3. For the first time, a 100m resolution heat atlas of Europe is being presented, which may help describing the heating sector in the required spatial resolution. By means of spatial statistical analyses using ordinary least square linear regressions, multiple spatial inputs such as population, degree of built-up and its derivatives are turned into a coherent model of the urban tissue. Plot ratios form the basis of models of heat demand in single and multi-family residential buildings as well as the service sector. Prospective district heating areas have been delineated, and the resulting zoning of heat supply has been linked to a resource-economic analysis, which allows for cost-supply studies in disaggregated form. The present heat atlas version 4 is now available for 14 countries that altogether represent 90% of the heat demand in the 28 European Union member states. First results are being presented with emphasis on the achieved methodological improvements. Moreover, a newly developed online mapping system is being presented, which will assist in mapping the new geography of heating and cooling demands and supplies. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Möller, Bernd
    et al.
    Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems, Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany & Department of Planning, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wiechers, Eva
    Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems, Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Persson, Urban
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Grundahl, Lars
    Department of Planning, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Søgaard Lund, Rasmus
    Department of Planning, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Vad Mathiesen, Brian
    Department of Planning, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Heat Roadmap Europe: Towards EU-Wide, local heat supply strategies2019Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 177, s. 554-564Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper describes a quantitative method for preparing local heat supply strategies. Detailed spatial data on heat demand and supply are generated using combined top-down and bottom-up modelling for 14 member states of the European Union, which constitute 91% of its heat demand in buildings. Spatial analysis is used for zoning of heat supply into individual and collective heating. Continuous cost curves are used to model economically feasible district heating shares within prospective supply districts. Excess heat is appraised and allocated to prospective district heating systems by means of a two-stage network allocation process. Access to renewable energy sources such as geothermal, large-scale solar thermal, as well as sustainable biomass, is analysed. The result is a comprehensive and detailed set of heat supply strategies in a spatially discrete manner. The findings indicate that in the 14 European Union member states, up to 71% of building heat demand in urban areas can be met with district heating. Of this, up to 78% can be covered with excess heat, while the remainder can be covered with low enthalpy renewable energy sources. The conclusion shows the possibility of a largely de-carbonised heat sector as part of a smart energy system for Europe.  © 2019 Elsevier Ltd

  • 9.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Energivetenskap.
    Münster, Marie
    DTU Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Current and future prospects for heat recovery from waste in European district heating systems: a literature and data review2016Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 110, s. 116-128Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Municipal solid waste has seen increasing annual volumes for many decades in contemporary Europe and constitutes, if not properly managed, an environmental problem due to local pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. From an energy perspective, waste is also an alternative fuel for power and heat generation; energy recovery from waste represents an effective measure to reduce landfilling and avoid disposal emissions while simultaneously reducing the equivalent demand for primary energy supply. A key factor for obtaining the full synergetic benefits of this energy recovery is the presence of local heat distribution infrastructures, without which no large-scale recovery and utilisation of excess heat is possible. In this paper, which aims to estimate municipal solid waste volumes available for heat recovery in European district heating systems in 2030, a literature and data review is performed to establish and assess current and future EU (European Union) waste generation and management. Main conclusions are that more heat can be recovered from current Waste-to-Energy facilities operating at low average heat recovery efficiencies, that efficient incineration capacity is geographically concentrated, and that waste available for heat recovery in 2030 is equally determined by total generation volumes by this year as by future EU deployment levels of district heating. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 10.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Wiechers, Eva
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Möller, Bernd
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany & Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Werner, Sven
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Heat Roadmap Europe: Heat distribution costs2019Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 176, s. 604-622Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This analysis elaborates further the concept of physical and economic suitability for district heating in EU28 by an aggregation regarding key dimensions such as land areas, populations, heat demands, and investment volumes. This aggregation is based on a resolution on hectare level by slicing the total land area into 437 million pieces. Results show that heat demands in buildings are present in 9% of the land area. Because of high concentrations in towns and cities, 78% of the total heat demand in buildings originate from dense urban areas that constitute 1.4% of the total land area and 70% of the population. Due to these high heat densities above 50 MJ/m2 per year, the paper evaluates a setting where district heating is individually expanded in each member state for reaching a common 50% heat market proportion in EU28 at lowest cost. At this saturation rate, the aggregated EU28 district heat deliveries would increase to 5.4 EJ/a at current heat demands and represents an expansion investment volume, starting from current level of 1.3 EJ, of approximately 270 billion euro for heat distribution pipes. Given the current high heat densities in European urban areas, this study principally confirms earlier expectations by quantitative estimations. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd

  • 11.
    Sernhed, Kerstin
    et al.
    Department of Energy Sciences, Lund University, Sweden.
    Lygnerud, Kristina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Werner, Sven
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Energivetenskap. Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Synthesis of recent Swedish district heating research2018Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 151, s. 126-132Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, district heating meets currently above half of the heat demands in buildings. District heating research in Sweden has a long tradition dating back to 1975. The latest research program period included 34 projects and was executed between 2013 and 2017. In this paper, a synthesis is performed on the Swedish research frontier by assessing these recent research projects. The three study purposes was to provide an overview over the executed projects, to identify new research questions, and to identify future challenges to the Swedish district heating industry. The assessment was based on six defined key areas, such as demand, resources, system frameworks, technology, cold supply, and international perspective. The subsequent content analysis was performed from three perspectives: the perspective of energy system transition, the customer perspective, and the sustainability perspective. Final conclusions include the three future challenges for the Swedish district heating industry. These are future strategies to communicate the value of district heating, vision for district heating beyond the transition to fossil free supply, and technology development for efficient use of low temperature heat sources. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

  • 12.
    Werner, Sven
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    District heating and cooling in Sweden2017Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 126, s. 419-429Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this review is to provide a presentation of the background and current position for district heating and cooling in Sweden. The review structure considers the market, technical, supply, environmental, institutional, and future contexts. The main conclusions are high utilisation of district heating in Swedish buildings, commitment to the third generation of district heating technology, high proportions of heat recycling and renewable supply, high compliance to European definition of efficient district heating, considerable reductions of fossil carbon dioxide emissions, strong national driving forces from high fossil fuel taxes, and soft district heating regulation based on transparency. District cooling systems are small compared to district heating systems. From strong legislative driving forces, the Swedish heat market became a testing ground for a market situation when fossil fuels are expensive in a heat market. The long-term market solutions have then become district heating in dense urban areas and local heat pumps in suburban and rural areas. © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 13.
    Werner, Sven
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Energivetenskap.
    European space cooling demands2016Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 110, s. 148-156Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Information about European space cooling demands is rare, since cooling demands are not properly measured, when electricity is used for operating space cooling devices. Cooling demands are only measured at deliveries from district cooling systems. However, information about cooling demands by location and country is required for planning district cooling systems and modelling national energy systems. In order to solve this cooling information dilemma, space cooling demands have been assessed for European service sector buildings. These estimations were based on cold deliveries from twenty different European district cooling locations in eight countries. Main findings are that (1) the estimated specific cold deliveries are somewhat lower than other estimations based on electricity inputs and assumed performance ratios, (2) aggregated spacecooling demands are presented by country, and (3) an European contour map is presented for average specific space cooling demands for service sector buildings. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 14.
    Werner, Sven
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    International review of district heating and cooling2017Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 137, s. 617-631Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this review is to provide a presentation of the background for the current position for district heating and cooling in the world, with some deeper insights into European conditions. The review structure considers the market, technical, supply, environmental, institutional, and future contexts. The main global conclusions are low utilisation of district heating in buildings, varying implementation rates with respect to countries, moderate commitment to the fundamental idea of district heating, low recognition of possible carbon dioxide emission reductions, and low awareness in general of the district heating and cooling benefits. The cold deliveries from district cooling systems are much smaller than heat deliveries from district heating systems. The European situation can be characterised by higher commitment to the fundamental idea of district heating, lower specific carbon dioxide emissions, and higher awareness of the district heating and cooling benefits. The conclusions obtained from the six contexts analysed show that district heating and cooling systems have strong potentials to be viable heat and cold supply options in a future world. However, more efforts are required for identification, assessment, and implementation of these potentials in order to harvest the global benefits with district heating and cooling. © 2017 The Author

1 - 14 of 14
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf