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  • 1.
    Bengtsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Protocol for wireless real-time systems1999In: Proceedings of the 11th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems, 1999, Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society , 1999, p. 168-174, article id 777463Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A protocol and a communication mechanism intended for time and safety critical applications using a radio channel for information transport are considered jointly. The protocol is based on a scheme of retransmissions done on demand within a given time window. Each retransmission is coded with a varying number of redundant symbols. The set of blocks used for retransmission is controlled by two quality-of-service parameters: deadline for the transmission and the probability that the correct decoded message will reach the recipient before this deadline. Analysis of a protocol model indicates that it is possible to transmit time critical information in a mobile wireless system with very low error probabilities in an industrial environment.

  • 2.
    Bilstrup, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Bilstrup, Katrin
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    The use of clustered wireless multihop networks in industrial settings2007In: ETFA 2007: IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, Vols 1-3, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2007, p. 211-218Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper suggests a cluster collision avoidance mechanism and a dual transceiver architecture to be used in a clustered wireless multihop network. These two contributions make the clustered wireless multihop network the preferred architecture for future industrial wireless networks. The wireless multihop cluster consists of one master and several slaves, where some of the slaves will act as gateways between different clusters. Frequency hopping spread spectrum is used on a cluster level and to avoid frequency collisions between clusters a "neighbor cluster collision avoidance mechanism" is proposed and evaluated through simulations. To break up the dependence between the clusters, introduced by the gateway nodes, each node is equipped with two transceivers. The paper is concluded with a suggestion to use a clustered wireless multihop network with orthogonal hopping sequences for an industrial setting.

  • 3.
    Bilstrup, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Bilstrup, Katrin
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Using Dual-Radio Nodes to Enable Quality of Service in a Clustered Wireless Mesh Network2006In: IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, 2006. ETFA '06, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2006, p. 54-61Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper some well established wireless technologies are merged into a new concept solution for a future industrial wireless mesh network. The suggested clustered wireless mesh network can handle probabilistic quality of service guarantees and is based on a dual-radio node architecture using synchronized frequency hopping spread spectrum Bluetooth radios. The proposed architecture gives a heuristic solution to the inter-cluster scheduling problem of gateway nodes in clustered architectures and breaks up the dependence between the local medium access schedules of adjacent clusters. The dual-radio feature also enables higher network connectivity, implying, for example, that a higher link redundancy can be achieved.

  • 4.
    Bilstrup, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Sjöberg, Katrin
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    A fault tolerance test enabling QoS in a Bluetooth piconet2004Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    An important trend, in personal area networks, is that time critical application becomes more common, e.g., voice over IP, video phone calls, network games. This segment of applications demands for quality of service (QoS) guarantees, to provide the correct functionality. The Bluetooth standard provides an optional interface to support QoS guarantees, but the standard does not suggest any actual implementation. A wireless communication channel is stochastic by nature, providing QoS guarantees with this precondition make traditional deterministic real-time theory obsolete.  In this paper a probabilistic fault tolerance test enabling quality of service guarantees in a Bluetooth piconet is given. The basic Bluetooth network architecture is based on a master-slave configuration, i.e., a point to point connection. More advanced network architectures are possible where up to eight Bluetooth equipped units can be active members of one network (piconet). Furthermore, several piconets can interconnect and form a so called scatternet.

  • 5.
    Bilstrup, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Sjöberg, Katrin
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Capacity limitations in wireless sensor networks2003In: ETFA 2003: 2003 IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, September 16-19, 2003, Lisbon, Portugal : proceedings, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE , 2003, p. 529-536, article id 1247752Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is expected that wireless sensor network will be used in home automation and industrial manufacturing in the future. The main driving forces for wireless sensor networks are fault tolerance, energy gain and spatial capacity gain. Unfortunately, an often forgotten issue is the capacity limits that the network topology of a wireless sensor network represents. In this paper we identify gains, losses and limitations in a wireless sensor network, using a simplified theoretical network model. Especially, we want to point out the stringent capacity limitations that this simplified network model provide. Where a comparison between the locality of the performed information exchange and the average capacity available for each node is the main contribution.

  • 6.
    Bilstrup, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Sjöberg, Katrin
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    A comparison of spatial energy consumption distribution for single- and mulihop wireless network architectures2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Bilstrup, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Knowledge Horizon - Dynamic limitations in a wireless ad hoc network2003In: SNCNW 2003 Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop 2003 on-line proceedings, 2003, p. 1-3Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate the impact of node mobility in a wireless ad hoc network (WAHN). Especially we investigate the possibility to provide guaranteed services in a WAHN, i.e., the network topology predictability. We combine link expiration time (LET) estimation with information propagation speed (IPS) in a time-space diagram and as result an operation area is revealed. The result gives that a WAHN, where the nodes are mobile, has a knowledge horizon (KH), the distance of which is dependent on the mobility of the nodes. Beyond the KH, knowledge about the network state is impossible to achieve. Thus, we can not predict long distance network topology state when the node mobility is high.

  • 8.
    Bilstrup, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Free2move AB.
    An architecture comparison between a wireless sensor network and an active RFID system2004In: The 29th Annual IEEE International Conference on Local Computer Networks, 2004, IEEE , 2004, p. 583-584Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In This work a new hardware platform for active RFID and wireless sensor network is presented. Furthermore a comparison of these two architectures is performed, i.e., the singlehop and the multihop architecture. The comparison reveals important issues regarding the utilization and energy consumption for the singlehop as well as for the multihop architecture.

  • 9.
    Bilstrup, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    An Implementation of a 3-tier Hierarchical Wireless Sensor Network2006In: 2006 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2006, p. 138-143Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper an implementation of a wireless sensor network is described. The aim with the implementation is to investigate if present design patterns are applicable on wireless sensor networks. A 3-tier model is adopted as a possible candidate for the software as well as for the network architecture. The implemented wireless sensor network consists of a heterogeneous set of hardware devices such as sensors, sensor hubs, beepers, PDAs and connectors. Most of the hardware components are COTS and most of the software is GNU licensed. All these form a 3-tier hierarchical network architecture.

  • 10.
    Bilstrup, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Bluetooth in industrial environment2000In: 2000 IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems: proceedings : 6-8 September, 2000, ISEP, Porto, Portugal / [ed] IEEE, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2000, p. 239-246Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper an initial study of the use of Bluetooth in industrial environment is presented. The tests have been performed at a paper-mill, and in an office environment at Halmstad University. It shows the possibility to use Bluetooth for wireless short range communication in an industrial environment.

  • 11.
    Bilstrup, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Routing protocol for wireless real-time multihop networks1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Wickström, Nicholas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Vision-based low-level navigation using a feed-forward neural network1997In: Proc. International Workshop on Mechatronical Computer Systems for Perception and Action (MCPA'97), Pisa, Italy, Feb. 10-12, 1997, p. 105-111Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we propose a simple method for low-level navigation for autonomous mobile robots, employing an artificial neural network. Both corridor following and obstacle avoidance in indoor environments are managed by the same network. Raw grayscale images of size 32 x 23 pixels are processed one at a time by a feed-forward neural network. The output signals from the network directly control the motor control system of the robot. The feed-forward network is trained using the RPROP algorithm. Experiments in both familiar and unfamiliar environments are reported.

  • 13.
    Larsson, Tony
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Taveniku, Mikael
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Wigren, Christian
    X-Cube Communication Inc., United States.
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Free2move AB, Sweden.
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    T4 - Telematics for Totally Transparent Transports2005In: 2005 IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Conference (ITSC): Vienna, Austria, 13 - 16 September 2005 ; [8th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems], New York: IEEE Press, 2005, p. 467-472Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transports can be made safer, more secure and efficient by help of telemetry and tracking on-line in real time. T4 is a system architecture aimed to support the development of telematic services for transparent tracking and surveillance monitoring of goods transported by different means on a global scale. The main idea is to focus on the transported pallets or parcels instead of the vehicles moving them. To enable rapid response to new customer requirements and to support remote management of field equipment, software implemented services are designed, packaged, deployed and mediated using XML, Java and the OSGi software technology standards.

  • 14.
    Nilsson, Björn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Bilstrup, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Towards an Energy Efficient Protocol for Active RFID2006In: International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems, 2006. IES '06, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2006, p. 1-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of radio frequency identification systems (RFID) is growing rapidly. Today, mostly "passive" RFID systems are used because no onboard energy source is needed on the transponders. However, "active " RFID with onboard power source gives a new range of opportunities not possible with passive systems. To obtain energy efficiency in an active RFID system a protocol should be designed that is optimized with energy in mind. This paper describes the on-going work of defining and evaluating such a protocol. The protocol's performance in terms of energy efficiency, aggregated throughput, delay, and number of air collisions is evaluated and compared to that of the medium-access layer in 802.15.4 Zigbee, and also to a commercially available protocol from Free2move.

  • 15.
    Nilsson, Björn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Bengtsson, Lars
    CERES, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Bilstrup, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    An active backscatter wake-up and tag identification extraction protocol for low cost and low power active RFID2010In: Proceedings of 2010 IEEE International Conference on RFID-Technology and Applications, RFID-TA 2010, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2010, p. 86-91Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) protocol used to wake up and extract the ID of every tag (or a subset thereof) within reach of a reader in an active backscatter RFID system. We also study the effect on tag energy cost and read-out delay incurred when using the protocol, which is based on a frequency binary tree. Simulations show that, when using the 2.45 GHz ISM band, more than 1500 tags can be read per second.With a population of 1000 tags, the average read-out delay is 319 ms, and the expected lifetime of the RFID tags is estimated to be more than 2.5 years, even in a scenario when they are read out very often.

  • 16.
    Nilsson, Björn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Protocols for active RFID - the energy consumption aspect2007In: 2007 Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems Proceedings, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2007, p. 41-48Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of Radio Frequency Identification systems (RFID) is growing rapidly. Today, mostly “passive” RFID systems are used because no onboard energy source is needed on the transponders. However, “active” RFID technology, with onboard power sources in the transponders, gives a range of opportunities not possible with passive systems. To obtain energy efficiency in an Active RFID system the protocol to be used should be carefully designed with energy optimization in mind. This paper describes how energy consumption can be calculated, to be used in protocol definition, and how evaluation of protocol in this respect can be made. The performance of such a new protocol, in terms of energy efficiency, aggregated throughput, delay, and number of air collisions is evaluated and compared to an existing, commercially available protocol for Active RFID, as well as to the IEEE standard 802.15.4 (used e.g. in the Zigbee mediumaccess layer).

  • 17.
    Nilsson, Björn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Selecting back-off algorithm in active RFID Csma/ Ca based medium-access protocols2007Report (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Nilsson, Björn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS). Free2Move, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS). Chalmers university of technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS). Free2Move, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    The Effect of Introducing Carrier Sense in an Active RFID Protocol2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Active Radio Frequency Identification (A-RFID) extends the functionality from the predecessor passive RFID trough adding a power source to the transponder device (device used on a product to identify it). This power source enables more advanced functions in the radio interface such as listening (doing a carrier sense) to the radio channel (carrier of data information) finding out if it is unengaged, and free to use. In this paper we study the carrier sense functionality and its effects in lowering the tag energy consumption. Simulation results show that the life time of a tag, in an A-RFID system, using carrier sense is more than doubled compared to one not using carrier sense. The increased lifetime of the tag is due to the lowered energy consumption caused by the improved throughput and the decreased payload delay, which in turn is thanks to using carrier sense and naturally then give a better utilization of the radio channel.

  • 19.
    Nilsson, Emil
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), MPE-lab.
    Linnér, Peter
    Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg SE-41296, Sweden.
    Sikö, Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Bilstrup, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    A new CMOS radio for low power RFID applications2010In: Proceedings of 2010 IEEE International Conference on RFID-Technology and Applications : June 17-19, 2010 : Dong Fang Hotel, Guangzhou, China., Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2010, p. 106-111Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel radio receiver circuit, functioning as a tuned active, detecting antenna, is described. The receiver is suggested to be part of a new radio system with the potential of competing with the range capability of active RFID-tags and, through its low power and long lifetime, with passive RFID-tags. The circuit is outlined and the functionality is verified by simulations and measurements.

    A 24 MHz discrete prototype showed better than -70 dBm sensitivity and 5 kHz bandwidth, with a power consumption of 102 μW. Simulations of a monolithic implementation were performed at 2.5 GHz. The detector is modeled by using 180 nm CMOS transistors. In simulations the power consumption for the detector is below 125 μW at a sensitivity of -83 dBm and a bandwidth of 9 MHz.

    Our conclusion is that this novel simple circuit architecture is well suited for monolithic implementation of a low power transceiver.

  • 20.
    Nilsson, Emil
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Nilsson, Björn
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Bilstrup, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    A low power-long range active RFID-system consisting of active RFID backscatter transponders2010In: 2010 IEEE International Conference on RFID-Technology and Applications (RFID-TA), Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2010, p. 26-30Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a novel active radio frequency identification system consisting of transponders with low complexity, low power consumption, and long system reading range. The transponder’s low complexity and small circuit integration area indicate that the production cost is comparable to the one of a passive tag. The hardware keystone is the transponder’s radio wake-up transceiver, which is a single oscillator with very low power consumption. The communication protocol, based on frequency signalling binary tree, contributes to the low complexity of the tag architecture. More than 1500 tags can be read per second. The average transponder ID read-out delay is 319 ms when there are 1000 transponders within reach of the interrogator. The calculated expected life time for a transponder is estimated to be almost three years.

  • 21.
    Nilsson, Kenneth
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS). Department of Computer Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Department of Computer Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    A modular, massively parallel computer architecture for trainable real-time control systems1993In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 655-661Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new system-architectural concept for trainable real-time control systems is based on resource adequacy both in processing and communication. Cyclically executing programs in distributed nodes communicate via a shared high-speed medium. Static scheduling of programs and communication implies that the maximum possible work-load can always be handled in a time-deterministic manner. The use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) algorithms and trainability implies a new system development strategy based on a Continuous Development paradigm. An implementation of the Architectural concept is presented. The communication speed is measured in Gbps and the access method is TDMA. An implementation of the system-development strategy is also presented. © 1993.

  • 22.
    Nilsson, Kenneth
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    A modular, massively-parallel computer architecture for trainable real-time control-systems1992In: ALGORITHMS AND ARCHITECTURES FOR REAL-TIME CONTROL (KOREA, 1992) / [ed] Fleming, P.J. and Kwon, W.H., Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1992, p. 43-48Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Razanskas, Petras
    et al.
    Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Verikas, Antanas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Olsson, Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Time Domain Features of Multi-channel EMG Applied to Prediction of Physiological Parameters in Fatiguing Bicycling Exercises2015In: Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, ISSN 0922-6389, E-ISSN 1879-8314, Vol. 278, p. 118-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A set of novel time-domain features characterizing multi-channel surface EMG (sEMG) signals of six muscles (rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, and semitendinosus of each leg) is proposed for prediction of physiological parameters considered important in cycling: blood lactate concentration and oxygen uptake. Fifty one different features, including phase shifts between muscles, active time percentages, sEMG amplitudes, as well as symmetry measures between both legs, were defined from sEMG data and used to train linear and random forest models. The random forests models achieved the coefficient of determination R2 = 0:962 (lactate) and R2 = 0:980 (oxygen). The linear models were less accurate. Feature pruning applied enabled creating accurate random forest models (R2 >0:9) using as few as 7 (lactate) or 4 (oxygen) time-domain features. sEMG amplitude was important for both types of models. Models to predict lactate also relied on measurements describing interaction between front and back muscles, while models to predict oxygen uptake relied on front muscles only, but also included interactions between the two legs. © 2015 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.

  • 24.
    Ražanskas, Petras
    et al.
    Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Verikas, Antanas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research. Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Olsson, Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Swedish Adrenaline, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Predicting Blood Lactate Concentration and Oxygen Uptake from sEMG Data during Fatiguing Cycling Exercise2015In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 15, no 8, p. 20480-20500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a study of the relationship between electromyographic (EMG) signals from vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris and semitendinosus muscles, collected during fatiguing cycling exercises, and other physiological measurements, such as blood lactate concentration and oxygen consumption. In contrast to the usual practice of picking one particular characteristic of the signal, e.g., the median or mean frequency, multiple variables were used to obtain a thorough characterization of EMG signals in the spectral domain. Based on these variables, linear and non-linear (random forest) models were built to predict blood lactate concentration and oxygen consumption. The results showed that mean and median frequencies are sub-optimal choices for predicting these physiological quantities in dynamic exercises, as they did not exhibit significant changes over the course of our protocol and only weakly correlated with blood lactate concentration or oxygen uptake. Instead, the root mean square of the original signal and backward difference, as well as parameters describing the tails of the EMG power distribution were the most important variables for these models. Coefficients of determination ranging from R2 = 0:77 to R2 = 0:98 (for blood lactate) and from R2 = 0:81 to R2 = 0:97 (for oxygen uptake) were obtained when using random forest regressors.

  • 25.
    Svensson, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Optimizing the placement of microphones and loudspeakers in an aeroplane mounted active noise control system using stochastic search methods1998In: Proceedings - National Conference on Noise Control Engineering, ISSN 0736-2935, p. 283-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an aircraft the weight of the active noise control (ANC) system is a critical property. Therefore one aims at minimizing the number of microphones and loudspeakers. In doing so, only a reduced number of sensors and actuators may be used. Only recently has the relevance of placing sensors and actuators, in achieving a good global active noise control system, been considered. In this paper we will present two stochastic search methods for optimally placing the ANC-system -loudspeakers and -control microphones in a turboprop SAAB2000 aeroplane. The problem of optimal placement has not yet been showed to be analytically solvable. The number of possible configurations is large, indicating that stochastic search methods are strong candidates. In this work we show that genetic algorithms outperform simulated annealing in the case of the studied aeroplane. The method using genetic search also outperforms other known non stochastic methods.

  • 26.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Aulin, T.M.
    Department of Computer Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rasmussen, L.K.
    Department of Computer Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden & Institute for Telecommunications Research, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, Australia.
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Concatenated hybrid ARQ - a flexible scheme for wireless real-time communication2002In: Eighth IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium: proceedings : September 25-27, 2002, San Jose, California, Los Alamitos, Calif.: IEEE Computer Society Press , 2002, p. 35-44, article id 1137379Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of deadline dependent coding (DDC) has previously been suggested by the authors for maximizing the probability of delivering the required information before a given deadline in a wireless communication system.. In this paper, these principles are further developed using concatenated codes with iterative decoding, providing a new level of flexibility and robustness for DDC protocols. The strategy of DDC is to combine different coding and decoding methods with automatic repeat request (ARQ) techniques in order to fulfill the application requirements within a wireless realtime communication system. These requirements are formulated as two quality of service (QoS) parameters: deadline (tDL) and probability of correct delivery before the deadline (Pd), leading to a probabilistic view of realtime communication. An application can negotiate these QoS parameters with the DDC protocol, thus creating a flexible and fault-tolerant scheme.

  • 27.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Aulin, Tor M.
    Chalmers University of Tech., Dept. of Computer Eng., SE-412 96 Göteborg.
    Rasmussen, Lars K.
    Chalmers University of Tech., Dept. of Computer Eng., SE-412 96 Göteborg - Univ. of South Australia, Inst. for Telecom. Research, Mawson Lakes, Australia.
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Hybrid ARQ based on serially concatenated block codes using iterative detection for real-time communication2002Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A protocol for real-time communication over a wireless channel, based on concatenated codes using iterative decoding is proposed. The concept of deadline dependent coding (DDC), previously suggested by the authors, to maximize the probability of delivering the information before a given deadline, is further developed to include concatenated codes. The strategy of DDC is to combine different coding and decoding methods with automatic repeat request (ARQ) in order to fulfill the application requirements. These requirements are formulated as two Quality of Service (QoS) parameters: deadline (t_DL) and probability of correct delivery before the deadline (P_d), leading to a probabilistic view of real-time communication. An application can negotiate these QoS parameters with the DDC protocol, thus creating a flexible and reliable scheme.

  • 28.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Aulin, Tor M.
    Department of Computer Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rasmussen, Lars K.
    Department of Computer Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden & Institute for Telecommunications Research, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA, Australia.
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Packet combining and doping in concatenated hybrid ARQ schemes using iterative decoding2003In: The IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking, 2003. WCNC 2003. 2003 IEEE, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE , 2003, p. 849-854Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider serially concatenated block codes in a hybrid ARQ scheme using iterative decoding. The extrinsic information generated in the iterative decoding process is saved and used when a retransmission is decoded. Two different strategies are examined; one using the extrinsic information only in the very first iteration, whereas the other uses it in all subsequent iterations until another retransmission arrives. The latter can be seen as turbo or concatenated code combining whereas the former, where the extrinsic information is used only once may be seen as code doping, providing an alternative perspective. The strategy of saving the extrinsic information is also compared to traditional type-III, equal gain diversity combining. Using the extrinsic information from previous retransmission is shown to improve performance not only in terms of bit error rate but also in terms of throughput and convergence speed and requires only negligible additional decoder complexity. The performance of this strategy is however not as good as simple equal gain combining. As a consequence, the investigated schemes are not competitive alternatives, however, the code doping procedure can be used in conjunction with traditional diversity combining schemes, improving further on convergence speed.

  • 29.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Rasmussen, Lars K.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Grant, Alex J.
    University of South Australia.
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Optimal Incremental-redundancy strategy for type-II hybrid ARQ2003In: ISIT 2003 Yokohama: 2003 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory : proceedings : Pacifico Yokohama, Yokohama, Japan, June 29-July 4, 2003, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE , 2003, p. 448-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given a type-II hybrid ARQ scheme, we propose a general solution to find the optimal partitioning of n-k parity bits over at most M transmissions. The solution is in terms of maximizing the average code rate for a given puncturing pattern.

  • 30.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Rasmussen, Lars K.
    Dept. of Computer Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden - Institute for Telecommunications Research (ITR), University of South Australia, Australia.
    Grant, Alex J.
    Institute for Telecommunications Research (ITR), University of South Australia, Australia.
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Optimal type-II concatenated hybrid ARQ using single parity check codes2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider an incremental redundancy (IR) type-II hybrid ARQ scheme based on multidimensional single parity check (SPC) product codes. Random interleaving is applied between dimensions, resulting in equivalent systematic, parallel or serially concatenated SPC codes. This enables larger interleavers and a larger range of overall code rates. The puncturing pattern used for IR transmissions of the concatenated SPC codes is chosen specifically to reduce decoder complexity for the hybrid ARQ scheme, activating only those constituent decoders for which parity bits have been received. Given the proposed puncturing pattern and a maximum number of allowable transmissions, an approach for determining the optimal number of parity bits per IR transmission in terms of maximizing the overall code rate, is suggested. With this strategy, each data frame is accepted following the transmission of a minimum number of parity bits.

  • 31.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Rasmussen, Lars K.
    Chalmers, Göteborg.
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Wireless Real-Time Communication Using Deadline Dependent Coding2006In: ARTES - A network for Real-Time research and graduate Education in Sweden 1997-2006: MRTC report (197/2006), Uppsala: Department of Information Technology, Uppsala university , 2006, p. 239-256Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The constant evolution of wireless communication, and all the applications this enables, is rapidly increasing our demands on the performance of communication networks. As the transmission speed increases, entirely new applications and services, like for example video streaming, suddenly becomes interesting for wireless systems as well. The expectations of the general user with respect to performance of wireless applications are guided by the current quality of traditional wireline systems. This naturally implies a considerable challenge when designing wireless communication systems. Many of these new wireless applications are based on packet transmissions and are sub ject to time-critical constraints. The ob jective of the deadline dependent coding (DDC) communication protocol presented here is therefore to develop an efficient and fault tolerant real-time link layer foundation, enabling critical deadline dependent communication over unreliable wireless channels.

  • 32.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Aulin, Tor M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rasmussen, Lars R.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Deadline dependent coding-a framework for wireless real-time communication2000In: Seventh International Conference on Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications: proceedings : 12-14 December, 2000, Cheju Island, South Korea, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2000, p. 135-142, article id 896381Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A framework for real-time communication over a wireless channel is proposed. The concept of deadline dependent coding (DDC), previously suggested by the authors, is further developed using soft decision decoding of block codes to maximize the probability of delivering information before a given deadline. The strategy of DDC is to combine different coding and decoding methods with automatic repeat request (ARQ) in order to fulfil the application requirements. These requirements are formulated as two Quality of Service (QoS) parameters: deadline (t_DL) and probability of correct delivery before the deadline (P_d), leading to a probabilistic view of real-time communication. An application can negotiate these QoS parameters with the DDC protocol, thus creating a flexible and dependable scheme.

  • 33.
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Graphical programming of time-deterministic real-time systems1996In: Second IEEE International Conference on Engineering of Complex Computer Systems: Held jointly with 6th CSESAW, 4th IEEE RTAW, and SES'96, Montréal, Québec, Canada, October 21-25, 1996, Los Alamitos, Calif.: IEEE Computer Society, 1996, p. 173-180Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present the Picasso programming language and the underlying design philosophy. Our goal is to provide programmers working with distributed embedded real-time systems with a tool to manage the complexity of this class of systems. The proposed tool allows easy and safe changes of the system software and hardware at any time during the lifetime of the system. This means that even during operation the system can be changed safely. This is not only important for enhancing the design process but is also necessary for a class of systems that need to be in service at all times. We have chosen to call this approach Change-Orientation. The most characteristic properties of the language are that it is graphical and that it shows time explicitly. All processing is described as functional transformations. These transformations are called processes. A very direct way of implementing a process is possible because the semantics of the description maps directly on the computation model of the processor.

  • 34.
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS). Free2move AB.
    Bilstrup, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS). Free2move AB.
    Wireless Technology in Industry – Applications and User Scenarios2001In: 2001 8th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation: Proceedings: ETFA 2001, October 15-18, 2001, Antibes-Juan les Pins, France, vol. 1, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2001, p. 123-131Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we draw a map of the wireless technology landscape, and place different industrial applications in this context. It is clear that in order to implement wireless communication in safety critical applications more research is needed. We describe one approach aiming at the very low bit error rates of these applications.

1 - 34 of 34
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