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  • 1.
    Bengtsson, Sverker
    et al.
    Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Time, Money and Support: Student-Athletes Transition to High Achivement Sport2012In: Athletic Insight: The Online Journal of Sport Psychology, ISSN 1536-0431, E-ISSN 1947-6299, Vol. 4, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the perceptions of within-career transition, as experienced by student-athletes striving to reach the international level. Interviews were used to examine the perceptions of 26 Swedish student-athletes with a mean age of 22.5 years practicing individual sportsatthe national elite level, involved in a career assistance program. Categories identified through thematiccontent analysis were changes experienced in the transition, the career assistance program, resources to adjust to the new level in sport, satisfaction with their current situation, and strategies to adjust to the new level in sport. The athletes highlighted the value of interpersonal support and commitment, and recognized the need to develop further coping strategies, such as stress and time management. Practical implications for promoting successful within-career transitions are discussed. © 2012 Athletic Insight, Inc.

  • 2.
    Carlsson, Björn A.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Center for Sport and Health Science (CIHF).
    Johnson, UrbanHalmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Center for Sport and Health Science (CIHF).Josefsson, KarinHalmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Center for Sport and Health Science (CIHF).Stambulova, NataliaHalmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Center for Sport and Health Science (CIHF).
    Proceedings of the Nordic Conference 2008: Health, Participation and Effects of Sport and Exercise2008Conference proceedings (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Claeson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Psychological perspectives on post-surgery and conservative rehabilitation following along-term sport injury2007In: Svensk idrottspsykologisk förening, SIPF: Årsbok 2007 / [ed] Peter Hassmén & Nathalie Hassmén, Örebro: Svensk idrottspsykologisk förening , 2007, p. 31-46Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to identify which psychological features characterize competitive and recreational athletes suffering from a long-term injury. Moreover, the purpose was also to investigate psychosocial differences between athletes going through postsurgery rehabilitation and conservative rehabilitation, as well as to examine differences in gender. Participants (men=106, women=52) were distributed a questionnaire assessing hedonic tone and four sub categories of coping strategies (self-confidence, problem solving, seeking social support, and wishful thinking) and sociodemographic data. The results revealed that athletes in the post-surgery group were significantly higher on hedonic tone, self-confidence, and problem solving. Men counting for all groups scored higher on hedonic tone and self-confidence whereas women scored higher on seeking social support. These findings are not congruent with earlier studies and will be discussed. 

  • 4.
    Claeson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Psychological risk factors on rehabilitation on post-surgery and conservative rehabilitation after severe sport injury2008In: : Nordic Conference: Health, participation and effects of sport and exercise / [ed] Carlsson, B., Johnson U., Stambulova, N, 2008, p. 24-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Clement, Damien
    et al.
    West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, United Kingdom.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Investigating the influence of intra-individual changes in perceived stress symptoms on injury risk in soccer2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 1461-1466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that high levels of stress and stress responsivity can increase the risk of injuries. However, most of the research that has supported this notion has focused on between-person relationships, ignoring the relationships at the within-person level. As a result, the objective of this study was to investigate if within-person changes in perceived stress symptoms over a 1-month time period could predict injury rates during the subsequent 3 months. A prospective design with two measurement points (Time 1—at the beginning of the season and Time 2—1 month into the season) was utilized. A total of 121 competitive soccer players (85 males and 36 females; Mage = 18.39, SD = 3.08) from Sweden and the United States completed the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (KPDS) and a demographic sheet at Time 1. The KPDS was also completed at Time 2, and all acute injuries that occurred during the subsequent 3-month period were recorded. A Bayesian latent change scores model was used to determine whether within-person changes in stress symptoms could predict the risk of injury. Results revealed that there was a credible positive effect of changes in stress symptoms on injury rates, indicating that an increase in reported stress symptoms was related to an increased risk for injury. This finding highlights the importance of creating caring and supportive sporting environments and relationships and teaching stress management techniques, especially during the earlier portion of competitive seasons, to possibly reduce the occurrence of injuries. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  • 6.
    Edvardsson, Arne
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Is a cognitive-behavioural biofeedback intervention useful to reduce injury risk in junior football players?2012In: Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (JSSM), ISSN 1303-2968, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 331-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Athletes participating in sport are exposed to a relatively high injury risk. Previous research has suggested that it could be possible to reduce sports injuries through psychological skills training. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which a cognitive behavioural biofeedback intervention could reduce the number of sports injuries in a sample of players in Swedish elite football high schools. Participants from four elite football high schools (16-19 years old) were divided into one experiment (n = 13) and one control group (n = 14). Participants were asked to complete three questionnaires to assess anxiety level (Sport Anxiety Scale), history of stressors (Life Event Scale for Collegiate Athletes) and coping skills (Athletic Coping Skills Inventory - 28) in a baseline measure. Mann-Whitney Utests showed no significant differences in pre-intervention scores based on the questionnaires. The experimental group participated in a nine-week intervention period consisting of seven sessions, including: somatic relaxation, thought stopping, emotions/problem focused coping, goal setting, biofeedback training as well as keeping a critical incident diary. A Mann-Whitney U test showed no significant difference between the control and experimental group U (n1 = 13, n2 = 14) = 51.00, p = 0.054. However, considering the small sample, the statistical power (0.05 for present study), to detect effects was low. The results of the study are discussed from a psychological perspective and proposals for future research are given. © Journal of Sports Science and Medicine.

  • 7.
    Ekengren, Johan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Carlsson, Ing-Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Exploring career experiences of Swedish professional handball players: Consolidating firsthand information into an empirical career model2018In: International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1612-197X, E-ISSN 1557-251XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study was aimed at developing the empirical career model of Swedish professional handball players by means of exploring their career experiences in athletic and non-athletic developments through the lens of the holistic athletic career model. Eighteen Swedish professional handball players (nine men and nine women), who had recently terminated or were finishing their careers took part in semi-structured interviews about their careers from the beginning to the end with an interest in both athletic and non-athletic developments. Thematic analysis initially focused on identifying the handball career structure (i.e. stages and sub-stages). Then, the interviews were analysed inductively to identify shared themes in the players’ experiences relevant to each career stage. These themes were incorporated in the relevant stages, and the empirical career model of Swedish professional handball players (further – the empirical model) was finalised. The empirical model describes careers of Swedish handball players as having four athletic stages – initiation, development (with three sub-stages), mastery (with four sub-stages), and discontinuation – complemented by players’ psychological, psychosocial, academic/vocational, and financial developments. Each stage is also aligned with age markers and contains themes describing players’ career experiences from the holistic perspective. The empirical model contributes to contextualised career research and serves as a basis for developing career-long psychological support services in Swedish handball including player/coach/parent education organised by the Swedish Handball Federation.

  • 8.
    Elbe, A.-M.
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Lintunen, T.
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Apitzsch, E.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Strengell, A.-M.
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Alfermann, Dorothee
    University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
    Bakker, F.
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Boen, F.
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Cruz, J.
    Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Gernigon, C.
    University Montpellier 1, Montpellier, France.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Papaioannou, A.
    University of Thessaly, Trikala, Greece.
    Roberts, G.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Serpa, S.
    Technical University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Stelter, R.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Career and Employment Survey for the Former Students of the European Master’s Programme in Sport and Exercise Psychology2009In: Congrès International de Psychologie du Sport, Vincennes, 1-3 juillet 2009: Actes, Paris: Institut National du Sport, de l'Expertise et de la Performance (INSEP) , 2009, p. 121-121Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the European Master’s Programme in Sport and Exercise Psychology (EMPSEP) is to pool expertise of 12 European universities within one Master’s programme (see http://www.fepsac.com/). The 60 ECTS European programme provides students with advanced knowledge and skills. The EMPSEP comprises a joint intensive course, a study module similar in all the participating universities, lectures and seminars, a Master’s thesis, and a mobility period of 4-5 months at an EMPSEP host university. Ten years after the graduation of the first students the EMPSEP consortium conducted an online survey. Seventy of the invited 174 former students participated in the study (mean age 31.5 years, SD= 4.7). The aim of the survey was to discover the participants’ employment status and how their participation in the master’s program was related to this. Results indicate that 86% of the participants have started working since they completed their degree. Forty percent of those participants who have started working in their first job have managed to receive a permanent position, 27% a fixed term or temporary job, 25% a part time job, 6% are self employed and 1 person (2%) was employed by subsidies in his/ her first job after graduation. On a scale from extremely dissatisfied (1) to extremely satisfied (6), the participants rated their satisfaction with the program in relation to their career as 4.72 (SD=1.13) on average. Sixty nine of the participants felt that they had benefited from the international network provided by the students and teachers within the programme, and 94% would recommend the European Master’s program to other students in their field.

  • 9.
    Fallby, Johan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Hagen, Kjetil
    Lilja, Henric
    Parental support as a predictors to success in adolescent male football2011In: Proceedings of the 13th European Congress of Sport Psychology, Madeira, Portugal. FEPSAC on-line publication, 2011, p. 308-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to examine if parental support could predict elite academy participation in an adolescent football population. The participants were 767 adolescent male football players, where 443 represented an academy team and 324 represented lower ranked teams, in age between 11 and 18. The participants were classified into three groups; a) children (11-12 years), b) youth (13-15 years) and c) junior (16-18 years). The questionnaire used was the Swedish health survey developed by the Swedish Health Institute with a number of football specific items added. Parental support was measured with six items that all measured emotional support (for example if the player experience that his parents understand, listen to, and treat him fair).One way ANOVA showed that academy players reported significant higher level of parental support then the non–academy players in children (F(1, 196)= 7,071, p = 0,008) and junior ages (F(1,194) = 10,830, p = 0,001). A logistic regression showed that parental support predicted approximately 68% of the players belonging accurate both in the children- (68,2%) and junior (67,9%) sample.The result supports previous findings showing that adaptive coping resources, such as social support seeking, could predict athletic success (Yperen, 2009). One recommendation for football clubs with youth academies is to involve parents in the social support network in order to give the players more adaptive coping resources. Further, educating parents about demands and career transitions that the players are exposed to in an elite academy could be beneficial in a developmental perspective.

  • 10.
    Fallby, Johan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity. Swedish Football Association, Solna, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Lilja, Henrik
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Hagen, Kjetil
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Psychosocial predictors of well-being among junior players in Swedish football academies2012In: Proceedings of the 3rd Conference on Science and Soccer, 2012, p. 142-142Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Fallby, Johan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Den idrottspsykologiska rådgivaren2004In: Guiden till idrottspsykologisk rådgivning, SISU-förlag , 2004, p. 18-33Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Fallby, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Rådgivarens roll i Sverige och världen2004In: Guiden till idrottspsykologisk rådgivning / [ed] Johan Fallby, Stockholm: SISU idrottsböcker , 2004, p. 68-91Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Gouttebarge, Vincent
    et al.
    Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands & University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Rochcongar, Pierre
    Fédération Française de Football (FFF), Paris, France & France Centre National de Football (FIFA, Medical Centres of Excellence), Clairefontaine, France.
    Rosier, Philippe
    Royal Belgian Football Association, Brussels, Belgium & University Fernando Pessoa, Porto, Portugal.
    Kerkhoffs, Gino
    Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Symptoms of common mental disorders among professional football referees: a one-season prospective study across Europe2017In: Physician and sportsmedicine, ISSN 0091-3847, E-ISSN 2326-3660, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 11-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and one-season incidence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD; distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance, eating disorders, adverse alcohol use) among European professional football referees. A secondary aim was to explore the view of European professional football referees on consequences, support and needs related to these symptoms.

    Methods: An observational prospective cohort study with three measurements over a follow-up period of one season (2015-2016) was conducted among central or assistant professional football referees from Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Norway, Russia, Scotland and Sweden. Using validated questionnaires to assess symptoms of CMD (self-reported and not clinically diagnosed), an electronic questionnaire in English and French was set up and distributed by the eight football federations involved.

    Results: A total of 391 referees (mean age of 33 years old; mean career duration of 7 years) were enrolled, of which 292 completed the follow-up period. Baseline 4-week prevalence rates were 6% for distress, 12% for anxiety/depression, 9% for sleep disturbance, 19% for eating disorders and 17% for adverse alcohol use. The one-season incidence of symptoms of CMD was 10% for distress, 16% for anxiety/depression, 14% for sleep disturbance, 29% for eating disorders and 8% for adverse alcohol use.

    Conclusion: While symptoms of CMD occur among professional football referees and can influence negatively refereeing performances, the development of specific support measures for referees are needed in order to manage properly these symptoms of CMD. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

  • 14.
    Harwood, Chris
    et al.
    School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wylleman, Paul
    Faculty of Physical Education and Physiotherapy, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Training of applied sport psychologists: A critical reflection of issues within Europe2010In: Programme & Abstract Book BASES Annual Conference 2010: Challenging the Dogma, Glasgow: BASES , 2010, p. 34-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Ingrell, Joakim
    et al.
    Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Developmental changes in burnout perceptions among student-athletes: An achievement goal perspective2018In: International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1612-197X, E-ISSN 1557-251XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined (a) the developmental trajectories of student-athlete burnout perceptions and (b) the within-person relationship between achievement goals and burnout perceptions. A three-year and six-wave longitudinal study was conducted with 78 student-athletes (30 young women and 48 young men, Mage at T1 = 12.7 years, SD = 0.44), attending a sport compulsory school. The Athlete Burnout Questionnaire and the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire were used. The results from multilevel growth models revealed that burnout perceptions increased for this age group over the three-year period. Furthermore, task orientation was significantly and negatively related to a reduced sense of accomplishment and sport devaluation. The results from this study underline the advantage of considering developmental processes when studying burnout. Furthermore, by focusing on the within-person effect of achievement goals, this study provides findings that support a motivational approach to the longitudinally study of burnout propensity among young student-athletes. The current study suggests that sport school staff should be aware of their student-athletes’ burnout perceptions and that these could change over time. Results also highlights that task-oriented goals might help decrease burnout perceptions, specifically reduced sense of accomplishment and sport devaluation. © 2018 International Society of Sport Psychology

  • 16.
    Ingrell, Joakim
    et al.
    Department of Sport Sciences, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport. Department of Sport Sciences, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Relationships between ego-oriented peer climate, perceived competence and worry about sport performance: A longitudinal study of student-athlete2016In: Sport Science Review, ISSN 2066-8732, E-ISSN 2069-7244, Vol. 25, no 3/4, p. 225-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a sample of student-athletes’ (N=64) first year (seventh grade) enrolled at a school with a sport profile, the aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate (a) levels and changes as regards to worry about sport performance, perception of peer climate, and perceived competence; and (b) the relationship in levels and changes between these studied variables. The primary results from latent growth models (LGMs) and parallel process LGMs revealed that, during their first year, the student-athletes’ level of worry and perceived ego-oriented peer climate increased, whereas perceived competence decreased. Further, the results showed that perceived competence was negatively associated with worry at the beginning of the students’ first year. The slope of perceived ego-oriented peer climate was positively associated with the slope of worry. Future research in relation to the findings is discussed, and recommendations for future actions are given.

  • 17.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Andersen, Mark B.
    School of Sport and Exercise Science and the Institute of Sport, Exercise and Active Living, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport(s) Science, University of Gothenburg, Sweden;Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    To Adjust or Not Adjust: Nonparametric Effect Sizes, Confidence Intervals, and Real-World Meaning2013In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 97-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The main objectives of this article are to: (a) investigate if there are any meaningful differences between adjusted and unadjusted effect sizes (b) compare the outcomes from parametric and non-parametric effect sizes to determine if the potential differences might influence the interpretation of results, (c) discuss the importance of reporting confidence intervals in research, and discuss how to interpret effect sizes in terms of practical real-world meaning.

    Design: Review.

    Method: A review of how to estimate and interpret various effect sizes was conducted. Hypothetical examples were then used to exemplify the issues stated in the objectives.

    Results: The results from the hypothetical research designs showed that: (a) there is a substantial difference between adjusted and non-adjusted effect sizes especially in studies with small sample sizes, and (b) there are differences in outcomes between the parametric and non-parametric effect size formulas that may affect interpretations of results.

    Conclusions: The different hypothetical examples in this article clearly demonstrate the importance of treating data in ways that minimize potential biases and the central issues of how to discuss the meaningfulness of effect sizes in research. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 18.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity. Department of Psychology, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Andersen, Mark B.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science & Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Things We Still Haven’t Learned (So Far)2015In: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 449-461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) is like an immortal horse that some researchers have been trying to beat to death for over 50 years, but without any success. In this article we discuss the flaws in NHST, the historical background in relation to both Fisher’s and Neyman-Pearson’s statistical ideas, the common misunderstandings of what p < .05 actually means, and the APA Manual’s (2010) clear, but most often ignored, instructions to report effect sizes and interpret what they all mean in the real world. Also, we discuss how Bayesian statistics can be used to overcome some of the problems with NHST. We then analyze quantitative articles in two of the highest impact factor journals in sport and exercise psychology in the last three years (2012–2014) to determine if we have learned what we should have learned decades ago about the use and meaningful interpretations of the statistics we use. © 2015 Human Kinetics, Inc.

  • 19.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Center for Sport and Health Science (CIHF).
    Fallby, Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Center for Sport and Health Science (CIHF).
    Hagen, Kjetil
    Lilja, Henrik
    Psychosocial factors influence on subjective well-being among adolescent football players2011In: 7th ENYSSP Workshop: Book of Abstracts, 2011, p. 19-20Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity. Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Are all predicted relationships linear by nature? A note about quantile regression in sport and exercise psychology2014In: Athletic Insight: The Online Journal of Sport Psychology, ISSN 1536-0431, E-ISSN 1947-6299, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 115-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data in sport and exercise psychology research are often analyzed based on the assumption that the relationships between two or more variables are linear in nature. But are all relationships in sport and exercise settings linear? The aim of this paper is to: a) discuss the potential shortcomings with using linear regression analysis, b) introduce quantile regression analysis (Q-regression) as an alternative to linear regression, and c) give examples of how to use Q-regression analysis in order to overcome some of the shortcomings of linear regression analysis. A comparison between the results from a linear regression analysis and a Q-regression analysis shows differences between the two methods. More specifically, the independent variables in the results of the Q-regression analysis were shown to have non-linear relationships with the dependent variable in given examples. Researchers are encouraged to consider using Q-regression analysis in studies where non-linear relationships could be expected.

  • 21.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Design Issues in Pre-injury Research – A Note on Prediction and Experimental Design2013In: Abstracts of the ISSP 13th World Congress of Sport Psychology: July 21-26, 2013, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, China, Beijing, 2013, p. 40-40Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last three decades, increased attention has been devoted towards psychological variables influencing injury risk (Hackfort & Kleinert, 2007). Of these prediction studies, a majority have used prospective designs with one single measurement point and continuous injury recording over a number of weeks. In order to grasp the changes in those variables, the use of repeated measure designs with multiple measurement points is warranted. Obtaining data from multiple points will enable use of advanced statistics, such as latent growth curve analysis. Unlike regular analyses (e.g., ANOVAs), growth curve analyses focus on within-person change and how within-person changes in state variables could affect injury risk. Based on findings from injury prediction research, investigators have targeted such variables (e.g., daily hassles, coping) in experimental studies aimed at preventing injuries. A meta-analysis, covering seven experimental studies, showed most studies to be effective in decreasing the number of injuries in the experimental groups (overall Hedges g Effect size = .81; Tranaeus, Ivarsson & Johnson, submitted). Even if the experimental studies have used true or quasi-experimental designs, several methodological issues can be addressed. First, in most of the studies a number of different mental skills are included in the intervention approach leading to difficulties in differentiating which specific mental skills may be responsible for producing reductions in injury. Second, since most of the experimental studies conducted used no-attentional control groups (i.e., the participants in these groups will not be given a placebo treatment), it is likely that large effects could be explained by the Hawthorn effect. Third, in most studies, researchers discuss the importance of their results based on suggested cut-off criteria for the p-values and/or effect sizes (ES). This procedure could be addressed as a limitation since p-values and/or effect sizes do not indicate anything about the results’ clinical significance (e.g., Ivarsson, Andersen, Johnson & Lindwall, 2013). Also, the fact that non-adjusted ES, which were reported in all studies providing ES, are positively biased due to sampling error (Synder & Lawson, 1993) might have led to overestimation of the intervention effects. This presentation will (a) highlight the designs of previous prediction studies while focusing on advantages of longitudinal repeated-measure designs (b) discuss different experimental designs that have been used in injury prevention research and, (c) suggest methodological and statistical considerations for future research on injury prevention.

  • 22.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    History of Stressors Impact on Sport Injury Occurrence: A Meta-Analysis2013In: Abstracts of the ISSP 13th World Congress of Sport Psychology: July 21-26, 2013, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, China, Beijing, 2013, p. 275-275Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The probably most frequently cited model in sport injury prediction from a psychological perspective is Williams and Andersen's (1998) “stress injury model”. In the model it is suggested three categories of psychological factors, i.e. personality, history of stressors and coping will influence the athletes’ response to a potentially stressful situation. Most research attention the last 10 years has focused on the category history of stressors. This category includes different types of stressors such as negative life event stress, positive life event stress, hassle and previous injuries. Given that history of stressors has gained most attention in sport injury research the aim of the study was to, in meta-analysis, investigate the joint as well as separate effects of published studies aimed to investigate history of stressors impact on injury occurrence. The literature review resulted in 49 included articles. Of these 49 articles, 36 provided sufficient information for calculation for an r to z-transformation. In the total sample of selected studies, 67 different effect sizes could be calculated. The overall correlation effect size for the relationship between Stressors and injury occurrence were .129 (p<.001), 95 % CI (.096,-.161) using a random effect model. The results indicated heterogeneity between studies (Q = 214.41, df = 66, p < .001). Moreover, the results showed that negative life event stress (r = .184) and previous injuries (r = .225) displayed the strongest correlation with injury occurrence while positive life event stress showed the weakest (r = .023). Last, the result from a meta-regression confirmed that high methodological quality was related to higher correlational effects (β = .018 (.005), p < .001, 95 % CI = .009 - .03). Even if the correlational coefficient only showed a low to moderate overall effect it is suggested that stressors have an important impact on injury risk. This line of argument is for example supported by the calculated fail-and safe number indicating that 3,196 studies with zero effect results would be necessary to decrease the effect to zero. Given that stress seems to influence injury risk athletes are recommended to take part in life style interventions (e.g. mindfulness), to develop effective strategies for decrease their stress levels.

  • 23.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Psychological factors as predictors of injuries among senior soccer players: a prospective study2010In: Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (JSSM), ISSN 1303-2968, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 347-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is reported that between 65–91% of elite soccer players in Sweden have at least one injury per year (Hägglund, 2007). Several studies define different physiological and psychological factors affecting athletic injury-risk. A number of models contain proposals that specify relationships between psychological factors and an increased athletic injury-risk. Examples include Williams and Andersen’s (1998) stress-injury model and Johnson and Ivarsson’s (in press) empirical model of injury risk factors which proposes that factors such as trait anxiety and ineffective coping skills are influential. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between (a) personality factors, b) coping variables, and (c) stress and injury risk. Participants were 48 male soccer players from 3 Swedish teams ranging in age from 16 to 36 years (M = 22 years). Participants completed 5 questionnaires: Football Worry Scale, Swedish universities Scales of Personality, Life Events Survey for Collegiate Athletes, Daily Hassle Scale and Brief COPE. Information on injuries was collected by athletic trainers of the teams over 3-months. Results suggest injury was significantly predicted by 4 personality trait predictors: somatic trait anxiety, psychic trait anxiety, stress susceptibility, and trait irritability. Collectively, the predictors self-blame and acceptance could explain 14.6% of injury occurrence. More injuries were reported among players who score high in daily hassles. These results support previous findings (e.g. Fawkner et al., 1999). Recommendations are given for both the athletes and the trainers on working to prevent sport injuries.

  • 24.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Psychological predictors of injury occurrence: A prospective investigation of competitive Swedish soccer players2011In: Sport and Exercise Psychology: Human Performance, Well-Being and Health : Proceedings of the 13th FEPSAC European Congress of Sport Psychology / [ed] Sidonio Serpa, Nelson Teixeira, Maria Joao Almeida, Antonio Rosado, Funchal: Instituto do Desporto da Região Autónoma da Madeira, IP-RAM (IDRAM, IP-RAM) , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Involvement in competitive soccer is associated with high injury rates (Hägglund, 2007). In an attempt to identify psychosocial injury risk factors, several conceptual models have been developed, for example, Williams and Andersen Stress Injury Model (1998). The aim of the present study was to prospectively examine whether personality variables, stress and coping styles predicted injury occurrence in an elite soccer population. Fifty six soccer players competing in the Swedish Premiere Division completed four questionnaires prior to the start of the competitive season. These included: the Swedish University Scale of Personality, Life Events Survey for Collegiate Athletes, Football Worry Scale, and Brief COPE. Subsequent to the initial data collection, participants completed the Daily Hassle and Uplift Scale, once per week for a 13-week period, and all injuries requiring a minimum 1-day absence from competition were recorded by team physiotherapists. A path analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of specific personality (e.g., somatic trait anxiety), stress and coping variables on injury frequency. Results suggest a model in which daily hassles mediate the relationship between anxiety, negative life event stress, social worry and injury, accounting for 24% of the variance in injury occurrence. This finding supports previous research highlighting the role of anxiety and chronic stress in injury vulnerability (Johnson & Ivarsson, in press). Findings suggest the need for players, coaches and physiotherapists to address both major negative life events and daily hassles in minimizing injury risk. It is also recommended that coaches develop individualized stress monitoring programs for diminishing injury occurrence.

  • 25.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Psychological predictors of sport injuries among soccer players2009In: Book of abstracts / 5 Workshop of the European Network of Young Specialists in Sport Psychology, 2009, p. 34-35Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Between 65 – 91 % of elite soccer players have at least one injury / year (Hägglund, 2007). Several researches have established models that specify psychological factors that could predict sport injuries. Two examples are Rogers and Landers (2005) stress – coping model and Williams and Andersen´s (1998) stress – injury model. The main purpose of the study was to single out significant psychological factors that could lead to an increased injury risk among soccer players. The participants were 152 male and female soccer players (m = 17, 6) studying at soccer high schools in southwest Sweden. Five questionnaires were used STAI, SAS, LESCA, ACSI – 28 and SSP. Continuously injury record was collected by athletic trainers at the school, during a period of six months. The result suggested that there are four significant predictors that in all could explain 23 % of the injuries. The main factors are life event stress, somatic trait anxiety, mistrust and negative coping. These findings are in unison with for example Williams and Andersen´s (1998) stress – injury model and should be considered by coaches when it comes to preventing sport injuries among their athletes.

  • 26.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Upplevd stress ökar risken för fotbollsskada2013In: Idrottsmedicin, ISSN 1103-7652, no 3, p. 21-23Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Andersen, Mark B.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Fallby, Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Altemyr, Mats
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    It Pays to Pay Attention: A Mindfulness-Based Program for Injury Prevention with Soccer Players2015In: Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, ISSN 1041-3200, E-ISSN 1533-1571, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 319-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which a mindfulness-based program could reduce the number of sports injuries in a sample of soccer players. A total of 41 junior elite soccer players were randomly assigned to the treatment or the attentional control group. The treatment group took part in a 7-session program based on the mindfulness, acceptance, and commitment (MAC) approach (Gardner & Moore, 2007). The attentional control group was offered 7 sessions of sport psychology presentations with a particular focus on soccer. There were no statistically significant differences in injury rates between the two groups (U (39) = 149.50, z= −1.77, p = .077), but there was a medium effect size (adjusted Cohen´s d = −0.59, approx. 80% CI for d = −0.37 – −0.74). Moreover, 67% of the players in the mindfulness group remained injury-free in comparison to 40% in the control group. This result suggests that an intervention program focusing on strategies for improving attention could decrease injury risk. Recommendations include applying mindfulness exercises in athletes’ daily training to help lower injury risk. © 2015, Copyright © Association for Applied Sport Psychology.

  • 28.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Andersen, Mark B.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Psychosocial predictors of sport injury rates: A meta-analysis2015In: Proceedings: 14th European Congress of Sport Psychology: Sport Psychology: Theories and Applications for Performance, Health and Humanity: 14-19 July 2015, Bern, Switzerland / [ed] Olivier Schmid & Roland Seiler, Bern: University of Bern , 2015, p. 173-174Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sport injury prediction research has traditionally focused on physiological and physical factors. Nevertheless, during the last 30 years there has been increased interest in psychosocial factors related to sport injuries. The most cited theoretical model developed to explain psychosocial variables’ influences on injury risk is the model of stress and athletic injury (Williams & Andersen, 1998). The model, suggests that personality (e.g., anxiety, hardiness), history of stressors (e.g., life event stress, daily hassles), and coping (e.g., social support resources) will influence athletes’ stress responses (e.g., physiological, attentional changes) that, in turn, are related to injury risk. The aim of the study was to examine the past research on the relationships of the psychosocial variables in the model (i.e., personality, history of stressors, coping, stress responses) on sport injury rates. The literature review resulted in 47 published studies and 180 effect sizes. The results showed that stress responses (r = .22, 80% CI = .14 - .30) had the strongest associations with injury rates. Moreover, history of stressors (r = .12, 80% CI = .11 - .13) and coping (r = -.05, 80% CI = -.03 - -.08) had smaller relationships with injury rates. Finally, the associations of positive (r = .01, 80% CI = -.03 - .04), as well as negative (r = .01, 80% CI = -.01-.03) personality variables on injury rates was marginal. The results support the model’s suggestion that stress responses have a direct relationship with injury, whereas other variables potentially have indirect relationships with injury rates. In line with these findings it is suggested that intervention programs should focus on helping athletes decrease the magnitude of their stress responses. © 2015 University of Bern, Institut of Sport Science 

  • 29.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Andersen, Mark B.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Psychosocial Factors and Sport Injuries: Meta-analyses for Prediction and Prevention2017In: Sports Medicine, ISSN 0112-1642, E-ISSN 1179-2035, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 353-365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Several studies have suggested that psy- chosocial variables can increase the risk of becoming injured during sport participation.

    Objectives: The main objectives of these meta-analyses were to examine (i) the effect sizes of relationships between the psychosocial variables (suggested as injury predictors in the model of stress and athletic injury) and injury rates, and (ii) the effects of psychological interven- tions aimed at reducing injury occurrence (prevention).

    Methods: Electronic databases as well as specific sport and exercise psychology journals were searched. The literature review resulted in 48 published studies containing 161 effect sizes for injury prediction and seven effect sizes for injury prevention.

    Results: The results showed that stress responses (r = 0.27, 80 % CI [0.20, 0.33]) and history of stressors (r = 0.13, 80 % CI [0.11, 0.15]) had the strongest associations with injury rates. Also, the results from the path analysis showed that the stress response mediated the relationship between history of stressors and injury rates. For injury prevention studies, all studies included (N = 7) showed decreased injury rates in the treatment groups compared to control groups.

    Conclusion: The results support the model’s suggestion that psychosocial variables, as well as psychologically, based interventions, can influence injury risk among athletes. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 

  • 30.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Edvardsson, Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Psychologically based programs for injury prevention in football: a meta-analysis2015In: Program and Abstracts: 8th World Congress on Science and Football Copenhagen, Denmark, 20-23 May, 2015 / [ed] Jens Bangsbo and Peter Krustrup, Copenhagen: The WCSF2015 Scientific Committee , 2015, p. 69-70Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have found that stress increases the risk for sport injuries. It is therefore suggested that psychologically based intervention programs, targeting perceived stress, could decrease injury risk. The objective of the study, using a meta-analysis procedure, was to evaluate the effect of psychologically based interventions, performed in football populations and based on documented injury rates. A literature search founded on the electronic databases; PsycINFO, Web of Science, Web of Knowledge, PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar were examined using combinations of key words, such as ‘sports injury’, ‘psychology’, ‘intervention’ ‘prevention’ ‘soccer’ and ‘football’. The literature review resulted in three studies that together contained 100 participants. The interventions were based on different approaches such as mindfulness, and mental skills training. All studies, included in the analysis, reported fewer injuries for the experimental groups in comparison to the control groups (Cohen’s d effect sizes 0.89, 0.59, and 1.27). The overall results correspond to a Cohen’s d effect size of 0.86, p <.001, (95 % CI 0.44-1.28). The result indicated that psychologically based intervention programs have potential to decrease the risk of sport injuries in football populations. These results are in line with intervention studies performed within others sports (e.g. floorball). One reason for the effectiveness of the intervention could be that all three were offering stress management education. Because sport injuries have a negative impact on athletes, teams and communities, athletes are recommended to work with psychological training programs as a part of their injury prevention work. © The WCSF2015 Scientific Committee

  • 31.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Karlsson, Jón
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden & Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden & Football Research Group, Linköping, Sweden.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden & Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Football Research Group, Linköping, Sweden & Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Andersen, Mark
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Waldén, Markus
    Football Research Group, Linköping, Sweden & Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden & Department of Orthopaedics, Hässleholm-Kristianstad-Ystad Hospitals, Sweden.
    Elite female footballers’ stories of sociocultural factors, emotions, and behaviours prior to anterior cruciate ligament injury2018In: International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1612-197X, E-ISSN 1557-251XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to examine how players’ perceptions of sociocultural factors and intra- and interpersonal aspects of sporting experiences may have influenced the emotions, cognitions, and behaviours of elite female soccer players prior to the occurrence of ACL injuries. The research questions guiding the study were: (a) how did female elite soccer players perceive that their psychosocial experiences were related to their cognitive, physiological, and emotional states prior to their ACL injuries, and (b) how did the players feel their perceived states influenced their behaviours prior to injury occurrence. The participants consisted of the total population of female players (N = 18) competing in the Swedish women’s elite league, who incurred a total ACL tear during the 2012 season. Using a semi-structured interview guide, all players were interviewed post-season. We represented the data using a storytelling approach of aggregated creative nonfiction. The aggregated stories showed sociocultural rules and expectations of overtraining and placing pressure on athletes to play even if they were not physically or psychologically fit. Responding to pressures with potentially risk-increasing behaviours might raise the probability of becoming injured through a number of pathways. Team managers, coaches, and members of the medical team are recommended to develop environments that stimulate the players to engage in adaptive stress-recovery and risk-decreasing behaviours.

  • 32.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Could level and change in psychosocial stress during a 7 week period predict sport injuries in a population of professional soccer players?2012In: Proceedings of the 3rd Conference on Science and Soccer, 2012, p. 163-163Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Itroduction: Involvement in competitive soccer is connected with a high injury rate (Hägglund, 2007). Previous research has suggested that a psychosocial stress (both major and minor stressors) have a great impact on injury risk (Rogers & Landers, 2005; Fawkner et al., 1999).

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate if individual level and change in psychosocial stress (daily hassle) during a 7 week period could predict injuries among Swedish Premiere League soccer players.

    Method: The participants were 56 (38 males and 18 females) Swedish Premiere League soccer players. Participants ranged in age from 16 – 36 years (M = 25, 05, SD = 5, 46). Participants completed the Hassle and Uplift Scale once a week for a 7-week period. During the research period, the physiotherapists for each team were asked to record any injuries occurring during the study period. Latent grpwth curve models were used to examine whether the level and change in psychological stress could predict the frequency of injury over the 7 week period.

    Result: The results showed that both high initial levels of daily hassle and negative changes in it were associated with more injuries. Moreover, intra-class correlation showed that 23,4 % of the variance in hassle over the 7 repeated observations could be explained by the within-person variance, whereas the majority of variance (76,6%) could be attributed to between-person variance.

    Discussion: The findings highlight the importance of focusing on state variables using prospective designs and appropriate change analysis in order to detect complex and dynamic associations across time in injury prediction research. It is also important to acknowledging and investigating individual differeces in order to understand how psychosocial stressors influence different athletes. Recommendations for players, coaches and physiotherapies are to be observant of the influence from daily hassles in order to be able to help the athlete to decrease injury risk by for example adjusting his/her training load due to psychological status.

  • 33.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science & Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, Karlstad University & Swedish Winter Sports Research Centre, Mid-Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Altemyr, Mats
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Fatigue as a Predictor of Sport Injuries: A Latent Class Analysis2013In: Abstracts of the ISSP 13th World Congress of Sport Psychology: July 21-26, 2013, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, China, Beijing, 2013, p. 99-100Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has showed that psychosocial factors such as fatigue, could increase risk of injury (Borotikar et al., 2008; Johnson, 2011). Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the potential risk of different developmental trajectory profiles in fatigue, over three weeks, for injury among Swedish junior elite soccer players. Participants were 91 junior elite soccer players at the soccer high schools (64 male and 33 female) aged between 15-18 years (M =16.57, SD = .75). All players were asked, at a weekly basis during the first three weeks of pre-season, to complete the fatigue sub-scale from Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes-Sport (Kellman & Kallus, 2001). Two months after, the athletic trainers of the participants were asked to record any injury that occurred in the last two months. Latent class analysis was performed to analyze the data. Sample adjusted BIC was used to evaluate the goodness-of-fit and to help select the best fitted model (Yang, 1998). Relative risk ratios were calculated to compare the injury risk between participants in various latent classes identified from the latent class analysis. The model with best fit (BIC = 832, entropy .77) contained four different latent classes (i.e., low stable, moderate stable, high increasing, high decreasing). Members of the low stable class characterized by low levels of fatigue over the three-week period (Intercept = 2.5, slope = -.16) were selected as the reference class when calculating relative risk rations. Members of the high increasing class, experiencing high and increasing level of fatigue over the three-week period (Intercept = 4.94, slope = .29), were exposed to the highest risk of injury (RR = 2.53), compared with the reference class, and with other classes. Results from the participants included in the two other classes as (1) the moderate stable, characterized by a stable moderate level of fatigue during the course of assessment (Intercept = 3.78, slope = .14), and (2) the high decreasing, with high but decreasing level of fatigue during the three-week period (Intercept= 5.97, slope = -1.14), were both exposed to a 1.63 greater risk of injury than the reference class. The result indicates that high levels of fatigue might increase the risks of injury among soccer players. In other words, players’ risk in sport might potentially be reduced by proper recovery protocols. It is therefore highly recommended that coaches and medical staff should work actively and continuously with athletes to aid their physical and psychological recovery.

  • 34.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science & Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden; Swedish Winter Sports Research Centre, Mid-Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Altemyr, Mats
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Psychosocial stress as a predictor of injury in elite junior soccer: A latent growth curve analysis2014In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 366-370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate by use of a latent growth curve analysis framework whether athletes' individual levels and changes in hassle and uplift levels over a 10-week period could predict injury outcome in an elite junior soccer population.

    DESIGN: A prospective design with repeated measurement points.

    METHODS: Participants were 101 Swedish elite junior soccer players (67 males and 34 females). Ten sets of measures were taken on a weekly basis during which participants completed the Hassles and Uplifts Scale (HUS). Latent growth curve models were used to examine whether the level and change in psychological stress could predict the frequency of injury over the 10-week period.

    RESULTS: The results show that injury occurrence was significantly associated with both the initial level of daily hassle and the change in daily hassle. High initial daily hassle levels and a smaller decrease in daily hassles were associated with injury occurrence. Moreover, injury occurrence was significantly associated with a greater decrease in daily uplift.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight the importance of focusing on state variables using prospective designs and appropriate analysis of within-person change to detect complex and dynamic associations across time in injury-prediction research.

    Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 35.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Center for Sport and Health Science (CIHF).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Center for Sport and Health Science (CIHF).
    Podlog, Leslie
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Utah, Utah, USA.
    Psychological predictors of injury occurrence: A prospective investigation of professional Swedish soccer players2013In: Journal of sport rehabilitation, ISSN 1056-6716, E-ISSN 1543-3072, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 19-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context:

    Athletes participating in sport are exposed to a high injury risk. Previous research has found a great number of risk factors (both physiological and psychological) that could increase injury risk.1 One limitation in previous studies is that few have considered the complex interaction between psychological factors in their research design.

    Objective: To study whether personality, stress and coping predicted injury occurrence in an elite soccer population based on a hypothesized model.

    Design: Prospective.

    Participants: 56 (n = 38 males, n = 18 females) Swedish Premiere league soccer players were selected based on convenience sampling.

    Intervention: Participants completed four questionnaires including the: Swedish Universities Scales of Personality,2 Life Events Survey for Collegiate Athletes,3 and Brief COPE4 during the initial questionnaire administration. Subsequent to the first meeting, participants also completed the Hassle and Uplift Scale,5 once per week for a 13-week period throughout the competitive season.

    Main Outcome Measures: A path analysis was conducted examining the influence of personality traits (i.e., trait anxiety), state level stressors (i.e., negative life event stress and daily hassles), and coping on injury frequency.

    Results: Results of the path analysis indicated that trait anxiety, negative life event stress, and daily hassle−were significant predictors of injury among professional soccer players accounting for 24% of the variance.

    Conclusion: The findings highlight the need for athletes, coaches and medical practitioners to attempt to reduce state level stressors, especially, daily hassles in minimizing injury risk. Educating and training athletes and coaches in proactive stress management techniques appears warranted.

  • 36.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Injury as a career transition: Experiences of a Swedish elite handball player2015In: Proceedings: 14th European Congress of Sport Psychology: Sport Psychology: Theories and Applications for Performance, Health and Humanity: 14-19 July 2015, Bern, Switzerland / [ed] Olivier Schmid & Roland Seiler, Bern: University of Bern , 2015, p. 241-242Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the career literature, an injury is termed as a non-normative transition (e.g., Stambulova & Wylleman, 2014), and therefore, it is implied that there is a process behind it. But the injury transition process has never been in focus of the career researchers in sport psychology, and therefore this study is a pioneering exploration unpacking this process. The study was designed as a single subject case study based on a constructivist narrative approach with the objectives (1) to explore the athlete’s career development, injuries within the career and their impact, and (2) to explore in detail the athlete’s injury experiences. The participant was a 26 years old former handball player who had experienced two major ACL-injuries during his career. To guide the research process from formulation of the research objectives and to interpretation of narratives, the narrative oriented inquiry framework or NOI (Hiles & Čermak, 2008) was followed. Following combination of the holistic-content and the categorical content analyses allowed conceptualizing injuries as career transition processes embedded into the athlete’s career development. Moreover, the participant’s narratives made possible to identify four phases in the injury transition (i.e., pre-injury, injury and first reactions, diagnosis and treatment, rehabilitation and consequences) with distinct psychological content (e.g., demands, resources, barriers, and coping strategies) relevant to each phase. Based on the results of the study it is possible to anticipate that athletes, sport psychology consultants, coaches, and members of the sport medicine teams might benefit from being aware about specific demands and barriers relevant to the different phases of the injury transition process. This knowledge can be further used to facilitate development of adequate resources and coping strategies to help injured athletes with rehabilitation process and successful comeback to active sport involvement. © 2015 University of Bern, Institut of Sport Science

  • 37.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Injury as a career transition: Experiences of a Swedish elite handball player2018In: International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1612-197X, E-ISSN 1557-251X, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 365-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This single-subject case study adopted a narrative approach and focused on two objectives: (a) to explore an athlete’s career development, including the impact of injuries, and (b) to explore that athlete’s injury experiences in detail. The participant was a 26-year-old former elite handball player who had experienced two major anterior cruciate ligament injuries during his career. To guide the research process from the formulation of its objectives to the interpretation of the participant’s narratives, we followed the narrative-oriented inquiry framework. To collect the participant’s stories, a low-structured interview guide consisting of open questions and requests for information about the participant’s handball career and injury experiences was used. The holistic content analysis allowed us to conceptualise injuries as career transition processes embedded in the athlete’s career development. Moreover, the participant’s narratives made it possible to identify four phases of injury transition and the distinct psychological content (demands, resources, barriers, and coping strategies) relevant to each of the four phases. Based on the results of the study, we anticipate that athletes, sport psychology consultants, coaches, and members of sport medicine teams can benefit from greater awareness of the specific demands and barriers relevant to each phase of the injury transition process. This knowledge can be further used to facilitate the development of adequate resources and coping strategies to help injured athletes navigate the rehabilitation process and successfully return to active sport involvement. © 2016 International Society of Sport Psychology

  • 38.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Fallby, Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Borg, Elin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Johansson, Gunnar
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    The predictive ability of the talent development environment on youth elite football players' well-being: A person-centered approach2015In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 16, no Part 1, p. 15-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The objective of this study was to examine the predictive ability of perceived talent development environment (TDE) on the well-being of youth elite football players.

    Design

    A field-based longitudinal design was employed.

    Method

    The participants were 195 Swedish youth elite football players between 13 and 16 years of age enrolled at Swedish football academies. The players responded to questionnaires regarding their perceptions of their TDE, perceived stress, and well-being in the beginning of the competitive season 2012 (T1). On two more occasions, six and 12 months later, the players completed the stress and well-being questionnaires.

    Results

    A latent class analysis, based on the TDEQ sub-scale scores at T1, revealed three classes of players with different perceptions of their TDE (one high quality, one moderate quality, and one poor quality class). A second-order multivariate latent growth curve model (factor-of-curves model) showed that the class of players perceiving the lowest TDE quality, experienced higher initial level of stress and lower initial level of well-being at T1 compared to the other two classes. Moreover, there were no significant differences in slopes for neither stress nor well-being between classes (the initial difference between the three groups, in well-being, remained stable over time).

    Conclusion

    The results indicate that players perceiving their TDE as supporting and focusing on long-term development seem to be less stressed and experience higher well-being than other players. Hence, in addition to facilitate sport-specific development and performance among youth athletes, high quality TDEs may be important for youth elite athletes' general well-being.

  • 39.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå Universitet Umeå, Sverige.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Fallby, Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Borg, Elin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Johansson, Gunnar
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Kan talangmiljön påverka psykisk hälsa hos unga akademifotbollsspelare?2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    Performance and Training Unit, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (GIH), 3Musculoskeletal & Sports Injury Epidemiology Center, IMM, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Negative psychological responses of injury and rehabilitation adherence effects on return to play in competitive athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis2017In: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 1179-1543, E-ISSN 1179-1543, Vol. 8, p. 27-32Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research offers evidence that psychological factors influence an injured athlete during the rehabilitation process. Our first objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the results from all published studies that examined the relationships among negative affective responses after sport injuries, rehabilitation adherence, and return to play (RTP). The second objective was to use a meta-analytic path analysis to investigate whether an indirect effect existed between negative affective responses and RTP through rehabilitation adherence. This literature review resulted in seven studies providing 14 effect sizes. The results from the meta-analysis showed that negative affective responses had a negative effect on successful RTP, whereas rehabilitation adherence had a positive effect on RTP. The results from the meta-analytic path analysis showed a weak and nonsignificant indirect effect of negative affective responses on RTP via rehabilitation adherence. These results underline the importance of providing supportive environments for injured athletes to increase the chances of successful RTP via a decrease in negative affective responses and increase in rehabilitation adherence.

  • 41.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    A content analysis of a connection between psychosocial antecedents and the occurrence of sport injury among 16 athletes2008In: Proceedings Nordic Conference: Health, participation and effects of sport and exercise / [ed] Carlsson, B., Johnson, U., Stambulova, N, Halmstad: Halmstad university , 2008, p. 23-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    A three-year follow-up of long-term injured competitive athletes: Influence of psychological risk factors on rehabilitation1997In: Journal of sport rehabilitation, ISSN 1056-6716, E-ISSN 1543-3072, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 256-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rehabilitation of 77 competitive athletes with long-term injuries was followed for 2-3 years from the time of the injury with the aim of identifying potential risk factors in rehabilitation. Seven athletes not returning to competitive sport despite favorable physical records were compared with 5 athletes who returned despite unfavorable records and with 65 athletes whose rehabilitation met expectations. Twelve tests were employed on four different occasions. The results suggested that being younger, being female, and having had no previous experience with injury characterized the nonreturning athlete. An insufficient mental plan for rehabilitation and a predominantly negative attitude toward it, as well as restricted social contacts with fellow athletes and a low mood level, appeared to accompany a problematic and prolonged rehabilitation. It was concluded that the nonreturning, long-term injured athlete can be identified as early as the beginning of the rehabilitation process.

  • 43.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    An intervention programfor injured athletes with positive rehabilitation prospect2000Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    About 60-80% of long-term injured athletes pass rehabilitation without psychological or physical problems. Research suggests a need for controlled outcome studies in order to determine the effectiveness of interventions. The current study tested the effectiveness of a short-term intervention program on injured athletes with a positive rehabilitation prospect. Subjects were 58 long-term injured patients on competitive level with traumatic injuries. Fourteen were randomly selected into an experimental group. Of this, 9 (age 25.2) were rated by a physiotherapist as initially having a positive rehabilitation prospect and were physically restored at the end of rehabilitation. In the control group, 34 of 44 (age 22.2) meet the same criteria as the experiment group. A three-session intervention program consisting of stress-management, and cognitive control goal-setting training, and relaxation/guided imagery was employed. Four tests were used, Mood Adjective Check-List (MACL) in the beginning and in the middle, MACL, Diagnostic Check-List 2 (DCL:2) and Patients Self-Rating Questionnaire (PSQ) at the end.

    The experimental group received higher overall scores using ANOVA-analyses on the MACL variable "Hedonic tone" at the second and third test (p=.024), (p=.009) and "Security" at the second test (p=.043) as compared to the control group. The PSQ-test showed that the experimental group to a higher extend rated themselves as physically restored at the third test (p=.044). In addition, the physiotherapist (DCL:2) rated the group as having significantly better physical status (p=.018). No differences appeared concerning the intervention programs.

    Results indicates that a short-term psychological intervention have an elevating effect on the experimental groups mood-level. Possibly leading to high scores in terms of self-rated physical status at the end of rehabilitation. It is concluded that continued research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of short-term intervention.

  • 44.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Athletes’ experiences of psychosocial risk factors preceding injury2011In: Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, ISSN 2159-676X, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 99-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The risk of being injured while engaging in sport and exercise is statistically high. Therefore, it is important to understand the psychosocial mechanisms underlying susceptibility to injury in sport and exercise settings because of the potential to enhance well-being at the individual level and reduce economic costs for society. Existing theoretical models of injury risk point to psychosocial antecedents, such as personality factors, history of stressors, coping resources and peripheral narrowing, as precursors of susceptibility to injury. The aim of the study was to describe and structure athletes' experiences of psychosocial risk factors preceding injury based on existing theoretical models. Twenty competitive athletes (mean age 22.7 years) were interviewed about experiences of psychosocial risk factors and connections between psychosocial risk factors and occurrence of acute injury. Based on a thematic content analysis, four risk factors emerged: history of stressors, person factors, fatigue and ineffective coping. The findings revealed several parallels to existing theoretical models and findings in the previous literature. Three out of four core themes emerged that coincide with Williams and Andersen's stress-injury model. In addition, a not so often discussed finding, fatigue, was identified as a theme in athletes' responses. Several sub-themes are discussed in relation to Rogers and Landers' coping model and Wasserman' stress-vulnerability model. Recommendations are given for individual athletes and for others involved in preventing injury occurrence in sport and exercise settings.

  • 45.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Coping strategies among long-term injured competitive athletes. A study of 81 men and women in team and individual sports1997In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 367-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Differences in personality, mood and coping ability between athletes of a high competitive level with long-term injuries (n=81), with a mean age of 24.4 years, and a matched non-injured group (n=64), with a mean age of 24.2 years, were investigated. Three self-rating scales were employed: mood adjective check-list, general coping questionnaire and Karolinska scales of personality. Although no differences in basic personality traits were found, being injured was found to result in a depressed mood state and in the activation of coping strategies directed at receiving help. Comparisons were made between injured male and female athletes as well as between team-sport and individual-sport athletes. Women were found to become more anxious and tense and to have a stronger inclination to use emotion-focused coping strategies. Team-sport athletes were found to cope more in terms of 'passive acceptance' of help from others, whereas individual athletes were found to activate 'problem-solving' strategies in face of a stressor. The results suggest that social aspects of rehabilitative work are important and support the concept that rehabilitative work with long-term injured athletes should be individualized to be maximally effective. They also support the usefulness of cognitive models of the injured athlete's experience of being long-term injured. Such models, however, do not account for differences between the sexes or between individual and team athletes.

  • 46.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Cultural Challenges Working with a Gymnast and His Coach in Preparation of Olympic Qualification Tournament 2004: A Swedish-Russian Case2008In: Journal of Tianjin University of Sport, ISSN 1005-0000, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 186-187Article, review/survey (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Ethical principles for applied sport psychologists of the European Sport Psychology Federation2011In: Book of Abstracts of the 16th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science in Liverpool, United Kingdom from 6-9 July 2011 / [ed] Cable, N. T. & George, K., European Database of Sport Science , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The term sport psychology refers to psychological aspects of sport, physical recreation, physical education, exercise, health, and related physical activities. The European Sport Psychology Federation (FEPSAC) works for the development of the field of sport psychology and exercise from a European and global perspective. Due to Sport Psychology professionals’ specialised knowledge and the hypothetical potential for harm, the ethical principles are guidelines for FEPSAC professionals to act responsibly and ethically in the provision of professional services. These principles are intended to ensure the dignity and welfare of all groups, organisations and individuals with whom FEPSAC professionals may interact with and provide professional services to. Altogether seven ethical principles is stated that guides FEPSAC research and applied sport psychology. These are: a) Professional and Social Responsibility, b) Competence, c) Consent, d) Confidentiality, e) Integrity, f) Personal Conduct, g) Research. Recommendations: a) FEPSAC members are responsible for safeguarding the public and the FEPSAC from members who are deficient in ethical conduct. They should uphold professional and social standards of conduct and accept appropriate responsibility for their behaviour. b) FEPSAC members should strive to maintain the highest standards of competence in their work. c) No FEPSAC members should undertake any work without first having the informed consent of all participating clients. This is done primarily, through the client signing a document setting detailing all information relevant to the proposed investigation, intervention, treatments or test. d) FEPSAC members should preserve the confidentiality of the information acquired in their work which should not be developed without prior written consent of a client. Clients should be informed that they have a right to a copy of such information relating to them if so requested. f) FEPSAC members should promote integrity in research, teaching, and practice of sport psychology. g) FEPSAC members shall conduct themselves in a manner beneficial to the well-being of their clients and in a way that brings credit to the field of sport psychology. h) FEPSAC members should comply with codes, statements, guidelines and other directives developed. Moreover, they should accurately report the data they have gathered and the results of their research, and state clearly if any data on which the publication is based have been published previously.

  • 48.
    Johnson, Urban
    Department of Applied Psychology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Experience of long-term injury in athletic sports: A study of psychological risk factors during rehabilitation1995In: IXth European Congress on Sport Psychology: Brussels - 4/9 July 1995: Proceedings: Part II / [ed] Renée Vanfraechem-Raway & Yves Vanden Auweele, Brussels: FEPSAC , 1995, p. 611-618Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Injury, prevention and rehabilitation in exercise and sport2011In: Proceedings of the 13th European Congress of Sport Psychology, Madeira, Portugal. FEPSAC on-line publication / [ed] Sidónio Serpa, Nelson Teixeira, Maria Joao, António Rosado, European Federation of Sport Psychology , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is important to understand the psychosocial mechanisms underlying susceptibility to injury in sport settings because of the potential to enhance well-being at the individual level and reduce economic costs for society. Likewise, it is vital to understand psychosocial factors influencing injury rehabilitation among adolescent and senior athletes. Altogether five studies will be presented in this symposium. In a longitudinal and prospective study, Ivarsson et al recorded injury occurrence among elite soccer players. Findings suggest a model in which daily hassles mediate a relationship between anxiety, negative life event stress, social worry and injury accounting for 24% of the variance in injury frequency. Tranaeus & Johnson reported several findings in regards to experience of psychosocial risk factors preceding overuse injury among elite floorball players. For instance, a number of players stated concerns in the private life just prior to the occurrence of injury. While Klienert report significant interactions between psychosomatic complaints and the occurrence of severe injury during tournament among female soccer players, Shipherd et al analysis of the relationship between conformity to the sport ethic and injury in adolescent athletes revealed athletes scoring higher in sport ethic conformity reported incurring a significant great number of injuries than their peers. In the final study Podlog et al reports about self presentation concerns and risky rehabilitation among adolescent athletes. Findings suggest that athletes with greater self-presentational concerns may be more likely to engage in risky rehabilitation behavior. Practical implications for athletes, coaches and sport psychology practitioner will be discussed.

  • 50.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Mental återhämtning och rehabilitering efter idrottsskada2008In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 36-39Article, review/survey (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att etablera sig på hög idrottslig nivå krävs, förutom: talang, hård fysisk träning, positivsocial miljö, god återhämtningsförmåga även att du är mer eller mindre skadefri. Tyvärrdrabbas många lovande idrottsungdomar och senioridrottare av skadeproblem som såvälfördröjer som även i vissa fall omöjliggör återgång till tävlingsidrotten igen. Denna artikeldiskuterar området kring mental återhämtning och rehabilitering efter idrottsskada.

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