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  • 1.
    Sjökvist, Tomas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Copper bioaccumulation in blue mussels and periwinkles from marinas2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Copper (Cu) is a heavy metal that is essential for life but toxic at high concentrations. This toxic effect is used on boats to prevent biofouling on boat hulls by painting the hulls with antifouling paint that contain high levels of Cu. The Cu is slowly diffused out in the water and accumulated by animals higher up in the food chain. In order to test the effects of marinas on Cu bioaccumulation in invertebrates, I sampled molluscs at seven marinas and seven shore sites on the Swedish west coast. Two molluscs with different feeding behaviours, one grazer, the periwinkle (Littorina littorea) and one filter feeder, the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) were used as study organisms. Both species were sampled at each location within 50 m from each other. Body Cu concentration of both species was measured with a Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (FAAS). Cu concentration of periwinkle soft body tissue was generally higher than in mussel soft body tissue. In addition, periwinkle tissue Cu concentration reacted strongly positively to the presence of marinas, whereas mussel tissue Cu concentrations did not. This shows that contamination from marinas affects the grazing periwinkle but not the filter feeding blue mussel. Thus, for biomonitoring purposes, grazers may be more suited as indicator organisms.   

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  • 2.
    Sjökvist, Tomas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Kvibling, Frida
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Kopparnivåer i hamnar och marinor längs med Bohuskusten2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to prevent algae, barnacles and sea poppies from growing on boat bottoms, the hull is painted with antifouling paint each year. Most antifouling paint contains environmentally hazardous, chemically active substances, such as copper. The environmentally hazardous substances then leak into the environment and accumulate in the harbor's bottom sediment. During resuspension through boat traffic and wave action, these substances spread further into the ocean where they may affect other organisms such as fish and algae negatively. In order to detect copper leakage from the boat industry and to increase knowledge about the fate of copper in the sediments on the Swedish west coast our study examined ten ports and marinas along the Swedish west coast and analyzed its copper content in the bottom sediment. In addition, ten bathing areas were investigated as control group. Sediment samples were taken and analyzed in the laboratory for copper content per dry weight of bottom sediment.  Laboratory analyses were conducted using the atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS). Results were analyzed for statistical significance using the IBS SPSS Statistics 24 software. In addition, the measured copper concentration from the various sites were compared with Norwegian copper thresholds in marine waters, as Sweden has no guideline value for the marine environment. The result shows a significant difference (p<0.05) between ports / marinas and bathing areas. Furthermore, a connection between copper concentration in the sediments in marinas and number of berths per marina was found.

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