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  • 1.
    Achtenhagen, Leona
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Laurell, Hélène
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Frühe Internationalisierung eines Unternehemens im Hoch-technologiebereich: Treiber und Hindernisse2011In: ZfKE - Zeitschrift für KMU und Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1860-4633, Vol. 59, no 2, 125-140 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Amal, Mohamed
    et al.
    FURB, Blumenau, Brazil.
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Raboch, Henrique
    FURB, Blumeanu, Brazil.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Differences and similarities of the internationalization processes of multinational companies from developed and emerging countries2013In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 25, no 5, 411-428 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper aims, by a direct comparison, to address the differences and similarities of the internationalization processes of multinational companies both from developed and emerging countries.

    Design/methodology/approach: This study employed qualitative approach, using an integrated model of internationalization process. Multiple case studies, with two companies with significant involvement in foreign markets and originating in countries with different levels of development, were carried out.

    Findings: The results reveal that the case companies show some differences with regards to their use of ownership advantages to facilitate their internationalization. On the other hand, learning and experience of internationalization, coupled with the use of networks, have been factors that have influenced the pace and the pattern of the case companies' internationalization. An integrated model, which includes variables related to networks and learning/experience, may contribute to the understanding of the case of multinational companies from emerging economies.

    Originality/value: Although the research field of emerging multinationals has been growing lately, very few attempts have been made in the sense of directly comparing the internationalization process of firms from both developed and emerging countries. The authors proposed an integrated analytical model that draws on insights from the eclectic paradigm and the Uppsala internationalization model. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    A Network Approach to Marketing Management2002In: Journal of Enterprising Culture, ISSN 0218-4958, Vol. 10, no 3, 209-223 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is an argument in favour of the importance of having different perspectives for different situations in marketing. Since the 1990s, relationship marketing has become an accepted stream in marketing research. However, this type of marketing consists of many different perspectives. Here, the network approach is covered. Its origin and its divergence from the mainstream marketing mix approach are discussed. It is concluded that Swedish culture and context influenced the development of the network approach. However, the network view is not pertinent to all marketing situations in Sweden and the approach is also useful outside of the Swedish context. Finally, it is argued that marketing research should benefit from many different perspectives and approaches that could be applicable to different marketing situations.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Born Globals – Early Internationalizing Firms2006In: Marketing: Broadening the Horizons / [ed] Stefan Lagrosen & Göran Svensson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2006, 235-254 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this book is to provide a wider perspective of the marketing field, particularly at a time when the field of marketing is expanding and developing in new and different directions. Unlike the more traditional literature, this book affords a deeper insight into the new marketing avenues of services marketing, business-to-business marketing and relationship marketing. Several other relevant marketing-related areas are also presented.

    An international team of distinguished authors contribute their expertise, which provides a comprehensive overview of recent marketing developments. (Från förlaget)

  • 5.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Decision-making in born globals - effectuation or causation?2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this study is to enhance the understanding of a born global firm’s early internationalization process and the entrepreneur’s decisions regarding internationalization by using effectuation theory.

    Design/methodology/approach

    An explorative case study is used to explore if effectuation theory is a fruitful alternative perspective compared with the dominant paradigm (causation), which is primarily used in earlier studies on born globals.

    Findings

    The study shows how a born global company could enter many markets in short time, by co-operating with local network partners. The founders’ prior knowledge and networks were important to understand the rapid international expansion. Effectuation theory focuses on the entrepreneurs’ ability to create opportunities together with network partners and is a useful tool to understand the development in the born global firm.

    Research limitations/implications

    The study shows that effectuation theory holds promise for developing the international entrepreneurship area. Future research is recommended to focus not only on the entrepreneur’s competencies but also on the entrepreneur’s behaviour, including during the time before they started the firm.

    Practical implications

    Decision-makers in the early development of born global firms are recommended to use his/her own and his/her company’s resources and network. Also advantage should be taken of opportunities when they are recognized or created, instead of focusing on traditional planning activities.

    Originality/value

    There are few studies which have used effectuation theory as a basis for understanding the early development of a born global firm.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Det växande företaget2001Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad utmärker det växande företaget? Vilken betydelse har entreprenören för det växande företaget? Dessa och många andra frågor besvaras i denna bok.

    Vad utmärker det växande företaget? Varför växer vissa företag medan andra stagnerar eller rent av minskar i storlek? Vilken betydelse har entreprenören för det växande företaget? Agerar växande företag på ett sätt som skiljer dem från andra företag? Använder växande företag speciella strategier och organisationsformer? I vilka miljöer växer företag? Ovanstående frågor – och många andra – besvaras i den här boken.

    Den vänder sig till studenter, praktiker och beslutsfattare som är intresserade av att fördjupa sina kunskaper om växande företag och hur de fungerar. Boken bygger på författarens forskning om svenska snabbväxande företag, och de teoretiska diskussionerna illustreras med exempel från svenska företag.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Early Internationalizing Firms and the Decision to Internationalize: Causation or effectuation2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Entrepreneurs’ influence on firms’ international behavior2007In: The global enterprise: Entrepreneurship and value creation, New York: International Business Press, cop. , 2007, 109-136 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Andersson, Svante
    Entrepreneurship and Small Business Research Institute (ESBRI), Stockholm, Sweden.
    High growth Firms, Internationalization and Job Creation in Sweden1999Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Principal Topic

    High growth firms have shown to be an important factor for creating jobs in the economy at large. It has therefore been an increasing interest in this phenomenon from media, politics and academia. In spite of a large research effort, the knowledge about this phenomenon is still limited because there are few common results regarding the factors of importance for the creation of high growth firms. Some researcher claim that the entrepreneurs’ characteristics and the firms network and microenvironment are important whereas other claim that institutions in society in large are the most important factors. The purpose of this study is to deeper investigate the characteristics of high growth firms and to explore the factors that can explain the development of those firms. As earlier studies about high growth firms in Sweden has shown a strong connection between growth and internationalization, the firms international development will be highlighted.

    Method

    In an earlier study seven different types of firms were identified based on secondary data. In this second study, deep case studies will be conducted to get a deeper understanding of why these firms grow. Here the elite of the elite of the different types, super growers, will be further investigated. Super growers achieve higher growth in sales, organic employment and total employment than other groups in absolute and relative terms. Super growers were over-represented in young and growing industries, such as the business system industry. Three Swedish companies in that industry are chosen as case companies. Historical and a real time information will be collected. Secondary data and personal interviews will be used. The different cases will be confronted with each other and different theoretical approaches will be confronted with the cases in order to generate new knowledge about high growth firms.

    Implications

    This research intends to have implication for academia, practitioners and policy makers. For academia this explorative research intends to identify which factors that are important to understand the phenomenon of high growth firms. Practitioners and policymakers can learn from these findings and if the intention is to create high growth and job creation, concentrate on actions that will favor that development.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    High-growth firms in the Swedish ERP industry2003In: Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, ISSN 1462-6004, E-ISSN 1758-7840, Vol. 10, no 2, 180-193 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses growth patterns in three high-growth Swedish firms (Intentia, IBS, and in the enterprise resource planning (ERP) industry. A multi-theoretical framework is developed and used to analyse the firms' growth. It is concluded that growth is a complex phenomenon that has to be viewed from different theoretical angles to be understood. It is shown that entrepreneurs' intentions, international growth strategies, organic organisations, industry structure and networks, and national cultures are all factors that influence firms' growth.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    How do entrepreneurs create international new ventures – cognition and action2014In: Abstract proceedings: 17th MIE conference @ Research Center for International Competitiveness UAI, Santiago, Chile, September 2-5, 2014, 2014, 16-16 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper continues with a discussion on earlier research on entrepreneurs in international new ventures. It can be concluded that research that has shown that the entrepreneur is an important factor to understand the inception and development of INVs. It can also be concluded that the research, so far, has came up to somewhat different conclusions and focused on different aspects on how entrepreneurs influence firm’s international behaviour. Following the above discussion earlier research on entrepreneurs and firm’s international development is discussed next in this paper. It is concluded that the entrepreneur’s cognition and action is instrumental to understand firm’s international development. To build international ventures the entrepreneurs need to adapt to different context and build an organization that can continue to grow internationally. A global mind-set is important to see and act on international opportunities. The paper concludes with some practical implications.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    International Entrepreneurship and the Theory of Effectuation2010In: Entrepreneurship and the creation of small firms: empirical studies of new ventures / [ed] Carin Holmquist and Johan Wiklund, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2010, 175-191 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    International entrepreneurship, born globals and the theory of effectuation2011In: Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, ISSN 1462-6004, E-ISSN 1758-7840, Vol. 18, no 3, 627-643 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    – The purpose of this study is to enhance the understanding of a born global firm’s early

    internationalization process and the entrepreneur’s decisions regarding internationalization by using

    effectuation theory.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – An explorative case study is used to explore whether

    effectuation theory is a fruitful alternative perspective compared with the dominant paradigm

    (causation), which is primarily used in earlier studies on born globals.

    Findings

    – The study shows how a born global company could enter many markets in a short time,

    by co-operating with local network partners. The founders’ prior knowledge and networks were

    important to understand the rapid international expansion. Effectuation theory focuses on the

    entrepreneurs’ ability to create opportunities together with network partners and is a useful tool to

    understand the development in the born global firm.

    Research limitations/implications

    – The study shows that effectuation theory holds promise for

    developing the international entrepreneurship area. Future research is recommended to focus not only

    on the entrepreneur’s competencies, but also on the entrepreneur’s behavior, including during the time

    before they started the firm.

    Practical implications

    – Decision-makers in the early development of born global firms are

    recommended to use his/her own and his/her company’s resources and network. Also advantage

    should be taken of opportunities when they are recognized or created, instead of focusing on

    traditional planning activities.

    Originality/value

    – There are few studies that have used effectuation theory as a basis for

    understanding the early development of a born global firm.

     

  • 14.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    International Growth Strategies in Consumer and Business-to-Business Markets in Manufacturing and Service Sectors2006In: Journal of Euromarketing, ISSN 1049-6483, Vol. 15, no 4, 35-56 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internationalization of the firm traditionally has been examined using theoretical frameworks that do not focus on the firm's marketing context. In this paper, it is argued that international growth strategies are different for firms in different marketing contexts. Different international growth strategies for manufacturing and service companies in consumer and business-to-business market are studied. Using case studies, the study identifies different barriers in different marketing contexts and identifies different international growth strategies. The study shows that various internationalization theories are appropriate in different marketing contexts.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    International growth strategies in different marketing contexts2011In: International Growth of Small and Medium Enterprises / [ed] Niina Nummela, New York: Routledge, 2011, 97-114 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    International Strategies in firms dominated by marketing and technical entrepreneurs2003In: Proceedings of the 1st Conference on International Entrepreneurship in a European Context, Madrid: Instituto de Empresa , 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Internationalisering av snabbväxande företag2001In: Tillväxtföretagen i Sverige / [ed] Per Davidsson, Frédéric Delmar, Johan Wiklund, Stockholm: SNS förlag, 2001, 294-330 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Internationalization as a Consequence of Entrepreneurial Acting1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Internationalization in consumer and business to business markets in manufacturing and service sectors2005In: CIMAR 2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Internationalization in different industrial contexts2004In: Journal of Business Venturing, ISSN 0883-9026, Vol. 19, no 6, 851-875 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The important questions in a firm's internationalization strategy deal with which national markets they should enter and the order in which the chosen markets should be entered. Different theoretical scenarios provide a range of answers to these questions. In this article, it is argued that the appropriateness of the theories depends on the industrial context to which it is applied. The international development of some Swedish firms in mature and high-growth industries is discussed. Whether a theory is appropriate depends on the firms' degree of internationalization and whether the industry is mature or growing. International entrepreneurship literature has been shown to enhance understanding of the early stages of a firms' internationalization in growing industries.

  • 21.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Internationalization in different marketing contexts2005In: Book of Abstracts and Program: ANZMAC 2005 Conference / [ed] Sharon Purchase, ANZMAC , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Internationalization in Mature and High Growing Industries2000Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Principal Topic

    Why firms choose to establish themselves in certain markets is a question that has been discussed by different researchers. One of the most used concepts when discussing this question is psychic distance. In this article the concept is compared with other researchers’ views of market choice. Moreover, various theories are used to analyze the market choice of different Swedish firms. The international developments of some Swedish firms are shown in case studies, where market choice in mature and high growing industries is discussed. Is psychic distance still relevant to understand firms’ market choice? If not, which other theories can be useful to understand firms’ market choice?

    Method

    Cases from the rubber product industry is chosen to illustrate internationalization in a mature industry and cases from the ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) industry are chosen to illustrate internationalization in a high growing industry. The cases was chosen because their international development illustrated various situation where theories could be compared with the firms’ actual behavior.The case studies are built on secondary data, such as business magazines, annual reports and internal documents, but mainly on personal interviews. I interviewed the individuals that personally took part in the decisions and implementation of the companies’ different establishments abroad, such as chairmen of the boards, presidents, export directors, area managers, export salesmen, presidents of subsidiaries, etc. More than 50 individuals were interviewed. The individuals who had the greatest influence on the internationalization processes were interviewed several times. Former interviews led to the identification of individuals who were central in the internationalization process. The interviewees have had the opportunity to read and comment on the drafts of the different cases.

    Implications

    The conclusion is drawn that different theories are relevant in various situations. Psychic distance is identified as a partial model and different theories are appropriate dependent of the firms’ degree of internationalization and if the industry is mature or growing. Decision-makers are recommended to careful analyze their own situation and use different models in various situations.

  • 23.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Internationalization of the Firm from an entrepreneurial perspective2009In: Entrepreneurship and Globalization / [ed] Rob B. McNaughton and Jim D. Bell, London: Sage Publications, 2009, 105-131 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Job creation in Swedish born globals2018In: European born globals: Job creation in young international businesses / [ed] Irene Mandl & Valentina Patrini, London: Routledge, 2018, 41-62 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has large firms, which are very international (e.g. Electrolux, Volvo, Saab, Scania), however 97 % of Swedish firms are SMEs. Most of these SMEs are focusing on the home market. Although most Swedish SMEs are not focusing on international growth strategies, there are some Swedish new ventures that already from inception regard the world as their market - so called born globals. The number of born globals in Sweden is limited, and these companies only employ 0.75% of the overall number of employees working in Swedish SMEs. Still, born globals are important for the Swedish economy. They show higher willingness to grow and a greater employment growth than other companies Born globals are found in all sectors but are over-represented in high-tech sectors. In this chapter it is shown how born globals can continue to growth and create jobs. It is also illustrated how the growing creative industries sector are creating born globals and jobs. The chapter ends with policy and managerial implications.

  • 25.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Market Choice in Various Situations2000Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Suppliers' international strategies2002In: European Journal of Marketing, ISSN 0309-0566, Vol. 36, no 1-2, 86-110 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A longitudinal study of the international behaviour of Swedish suppliers is presented. Three different types of supplier are identified: simple suppliers, advanced suppliers, and own product suppliers. Factors influencing the internationalisation of these suppliers are discussed. It is concluded that the firms' offer and the customers' buying strategies influence the firms' international behaviour. However, these factors do not determine the international strategies completely. Various entrepreneurs will choose various strategies. Three different types of entrepreneurs are identified: the marketing, technical, and structural entrepreneurs. The type of entrepreneur influences the firms' international strategies in different directions.

  • 27.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The Entrepreneur and Firm's International Strategies1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The Entrepreneur and Firm’s International Strategies1999In: Images of Entrepreneurship and Small Business: Emergent Swedish Contributions to Academic Research / [ed] Bengt Johannisson, Hans Landström, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 1999, 241-265 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The entrepreneur and the internationalization of the firm2003In: 7th Vaasa conference on International Business, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The Entrepreneur's influence on firm's international Strategy2003In: ANZMAC2003, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The Establishment Sequence of Foreign Subsidiaries1995Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    The international entrepreneur – From experience to action2015In: The Routledge Companion to International Entrepreneurship / [ed] Stephanie A. Fernhaber & Shameen Prashantham, Abingdon, Oxon & New York, NY: Routledge, 2015, 70-83 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The Internationalization of the Born Global Firm from an Entrepreneurial Perspective2004In: EIBA Conference, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The internationalization of the firm from an entrepreneurial perspective2000In: International Studies of Management and Organization, ISSN 0020-8825, Vol. 30, no 1, 63-92 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are 2 dominant views in international business research: the economic and the process view. In this study it is shown that these views give some insight into the complex phenomenon of the internationalization of the firm. However, the understanding of various international behaviors in the firm's first international ventures as well as of radical strategic changes is enhanced by an analysis focusing on entrepreneurs.

  • 35.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The Network Perspective: Its origin and differences to the Marketing Management approach1998In: Australia and New Zealand Marketing Academy conference; Marketing connections / [ed] Brendan J. Gray; Kenneth R. Deans, Otago: Department of Marketing, University of Otago , 1998, 62-72 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relationship marketing during the nineties has become an accepted approach in marketing research. This type of marketing, however, consists of many different perspectives. Here, the network approach is covered. This perspective’s origin and its differences to the marketing management approach are discussed. It is concluded that the development of the network perspective was influenced by its Swedish context, however the network view is not pertinent on all marketing situations in Sweden. Finally it is argued that research in marketing should prosper with many different perspectives that could be applicable for different marketing situations.

  • 36.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Born Globals' international growth through networking on institutional distant markets2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to shed light on how a born global can obtain continued growth internationally, in institutionally distant markets. We are seeking a deeper understanding of international growth for born global enterprises by combining theories of networks and institutional perspective. We discuss how institutional distance affects the internationalization processes in born globals. We seek to highlight why and how a born global firm does enter different markets. In this respect, born globals from developed countries and those from emerging markets are compared, leading us to derive some propositions from our discussions. Finally some suggestions for future research are presented.

  • 37.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Aagerup, Ulf
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Customer Value Creation in Mature Born Globals2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION

    Research on firms that already from their inception see the whole world as a market and/or the whole world as a source to access resources, so called born globals (Andersson & Wictor, 2003, Knight & Cavusgil, 2004; Cavusgil & Knight, 2015), has been growing during the last decades  (Servantie, 2016). Born globals are an especially interesting group of firms to study, in regard of value creation, as they have been able to create competitive offers fulfilling the needs of customers on global markets.

     The distinguishing feature of born globals is their international behaviour at birth and soon thereafter. The firms’ behaviour is initiated by the entrepreneurs’ and management’s global mindset and the commitment of resources leading to international growth (Andersson, 2000; Knight & Causgil, 2004). Born globals is, by definition, a born global firm “forever”, as has been characterized by their early years.  We argue that the early years make these firms a special type of firms that will influence their further international development. Firms with a long-term focus on the domestic market must unlearn routines rooted in the domestic context before new, internationally oriented routines can be learned. An early entrance to international markets forces born globals to adopt to new contexts and create new knowledge that leads to new routines and creates a culture in the firms to adapt to new international opportunities (Andersson & Evers, 2015; Autio et al ., 2000, Cavusgil & Knight, 2004).

    There has been extensive research on born globals’ internationalization dealing with which markets, and market channels firms should choose to grow internationally. There has also been extensive research dealing with antecedents and factors influencing these choices. The focus on born global research has also been on the very early stages in the internationalization process. Few studies have captured the long-term behaviour and growth of born globals (2008; Gabrielsson and Gabrielsson, 2013, Melen Hånell, Nordman and Sharma, 2014). A question that has been very little addressed is: what happens to born global firms when they grow up (Cavusgil & Knight, 2015)? In this study we define this grown up born global firms as mature born globals (c. f. Hagen & Zuchella, 2014, maturing born global firms). To succeed with a continued international expansion, the born global firms need to increase sales on international markets. The underlying reason for success on international markets and continuous growth is that the mature born global firms have an offer that gives higher value to the customer than their competitors. However customer value is not explicitly treated in internationalization theories (Axinn & Matthyssen, 2002). To our knowledge there has not been any research that has, in- depth, explored how mature born globals create value for customers to create international growth. In line with the above discussion, the aim of this study is to investigate how mature born global firms create value for customers to create international growth.

    METHOD

    A qualitative approach has been adopted to enable us to investigate, in-depth, an under-researched area (Ghauri and Gronhaug, 2010; and Yin, 1989) “how born global firms create value for customers to create international growth”. In all, the study was conducted with five companies. The key factor underpinning the selection of the five cases was conceptual relevance rather than representative grounds, so we used theoretical sampling (Miles and Huberman 1994). We conducted a review of annual reports, other secondary documentation, and the websites of the case firms. We combined secondary data research and field interviews and workshops with the CEOs in the case firms. The researchers constructed an interview-guide based on earlier literature and discussion on a works-shop. Interviews were carried out with the five CEOs and transcribed. Data analysis included several steps. The information from the interviews, and other sources served as descriptive narratives, which helped us process the large volume of data (Mintzberg and McHugh 1985). This process enabled the unique patterns of each case to emerge before cross-case comparison (Eisenhardt 1989; Yin 1994) was undertaken. Our aim and research question served as the basic structure for data analysis.

    CONCLUSIONS

    We conclude that a strong focus on customer value creation was in focus. To create customer value a combination of proactive and reactive market orientation was implemented built on a competitive offer that was hard to replicate. Depending on the characteristics of the buyer-seller relationship different tools were used to build relationship value. The revenue earned is invested in further international growth, by investing in market driving activities, and entrepreneurial alertness to act on upcoming opportunities was crucial. This study contributes to the international entrepreneurship field by explicitly including marketing literature and empirically investigating how value is created to achieve international growth in born globals. This study also contributes to the industrial marketing field by developing a model that shows how born global firms create value for international customers to generate international growth in a B2B context.

  • 38.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Analyzing Capabilities which Born Global Firms Develop and Implement for their International Growth2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate how born global firms co-operate with local and international network actors to provide innovations for international growth, Consequently, born globals’ use of their own innovation capabilities, stemming from firm-specific advantages, and their access to complementary resources and activities of their network partners, termed here as network capabilities, are analyzed to aid our understanding of the provision of innovative solutions that lead to firms’ international growth. The paper opted for an exploratory study, using a qualitative case study approach of five born global companies. Focus groups, work-shops and interviews with the entrepreneur-CEOs in the companies are used to gain deep insight into innovation and internationalization processes that underlie the case companies’ international growth. The study shows that the entrepreneur-CEOs’ networking and innovation capabilities, have been crucial for the born global firms international growth. A high responsiveness to changes in the environment and incremental rather than radical innovation characterize the firms’ growth. A fruitful relationship between the Born Globals and other actors is crucial for them to be able to get access to resources, which can complement their own to create innovative solutions that will lead to growth. 

  • 39.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Born Global's Use Of Innovative Solutions To Create Sustainable Competitive Advantages As It Expands And Grows In Different International Markets2013In: / [ed] Helen Lawton Smith, Klaus Nielsen & Carlo Milana, London: Centre for Innovation and Management Research , 2013, 1-35 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate born global firms’ use of innovative solutions and their networks to create sustainable competitive advantages as they expand and grow in different international markets. Consequently, born globals’ use of their own firm-specific advantages and their access to complementary resources and activities of their network partners are analyzed to aid our understanding of the provision of innovative solutions that lead to growth. We use a qualitative case study approach of five born global companies. A focus group interview with the CEOs in the companies is used to gain deep insight into innovation and internationalization processes that underlie the case companies’ international growth. The study shows that the use of the entrepreneur-CEOs’ personal networks and business networks have been assets that have accorded the firms’ strong position in international markets. It can be concluded that the born global firm has strategies to tap on complementary assets of external network parties. 

  • 40.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Born global's use of innovative solutions to create sustainable competitive advantages as it expands and grows in different international markets2013In: The 16th Annual McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference: Researching New Frontiers: The Conference Program and Collection of Short Summaries, Montreal, Canada: McGill University , 2013, 16-16 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate born global firms’ use of innovative solutions and their networks to create sustainable competitive advantages as they expand and grow in different international markets. Consequently, born globals’ use of their own firm-specific advantages and their access to complementary resources and activities of their network partners are analyzed to aid our understanding of the provision of innovative solutions that lead to growth. For this purpose we use a qualitative case study approach of five born global companies. A focus group  approach with the CEOs in the companies is used to gain deep insight into innovation and internationalization processes that underlie the case companies’ international growth. The study shows that the use of the entrepreneur-CEOs’ personal networks and business networks have been assets that have accorded the firms’ strong position in international markets. It can be concluded that the born global firm has strategies to tap on complementary assets of external network parties.  The Born global firms learn from own experiences and those of others, with whom the firms interact in foreign markets, to create innovative solutions for international growth.

  • 41.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Aagerup, Ulf
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    International growth in born globals – value creation on international markets2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Importance and key contribution

    Research on firm’s that already from inception see the whole world as a market and/or the whole world as a source to access resources, so called born globals (Andersson & Wictor, 2003), have been growing during the last decades (Jones, Coviello and Tang, 2012).  These firms are characterized of innovative business models that are competitive on the global market already from inception (Hennart, 2013). To succeed with a continued international expansion, the born global firms need to adapt their respective business models for a more complex environment; in more institutionally remote markets. The continued growth phase of born globals are scarcely treated in earlier research (Gabrielsson & Gabrielsson, 2013).

    Earlier studies on Born Globals have focused on Born Globals’ development in western, developed countries. Therefore there is a need to examine Born Globals’ activities on emerging markets (Kiss et al, 2012). The attractiveness and growth opportunities in emerging markets are perceived to be higher than what obtains in other conceivable markets of the world (Cavusgil, Knight, and Risenberger, 2012).

    Important in this stage is handle relationship with different stakeholders on a global base. An important tool to handle this relationship is the companies’ branding strategy. Few studies have combined research on born globals’ internationalization and branding (Gabrielsson, 2005) and there is a need to further develop the knowledge about branding and international growth. This study aims to explore how born global companies are using brand management when growing on emerging markets. This study contributes to the international entrepreneurship field by exploring growth on emerging markets, it also contributes by adding knowledge from the brand management field to explore international growth.

    Theoretical base

    In recent studies the “global” part in the BG has been criticized (Lopez, Kundu and Ciravegena, 2009, Rugman and Almodovar, 2011). Some researchers argue that there a very few really Born Global firms with activities in the three economic and political power bases in the world. NAFTA, EU and the largest eight Asia-Pacific economies (Rugman and Almodovar, 2011). Implicit in research on Born Global firms is that distance (geographic, psychic, cultural, and institutional) is no longer an important issue when the international behaviour and international performance in a Born Global is discussed. We argue that the reason for that is a bias in the research treating Born Global firms with focus on companies that both have their origin and target markets in high-developed economies. Peiris, Akoorie and Sinha (2012) showed that most studies on Born Global firm were done on firms originating in developed countries and only a few studies were done on firms from emerging countries. Studies from emerging countries mainly were done on Chinese firms and very few studies has treated firms from Middle east, Africa or South Asia. Another reason why the Born Global research has not focused on institutional differences can partly be explained by the fact that the Born Global studies have looked internally at firm-specific factors (e.g. using resource-based view and knowledge-based view of the firm as a theoretical domain) (Andersson, Evers and Kuivalainen, 2014; Knight and Cavusgil, 2004).

    We argue that institutional differences affect Born Globals’ international behaviour (scope, speed, and entry mode); and to investigate how institutional distances affect Born Global firms, it is important to include nations with a variety of institutional and cultural characteristics. Born Global firms from developed countries entering institutionally distant markets will meet a context that is different from their home markets. Regulations, culture etc. differ and relationships are often fewer and weaker than, the companies’ relationships with western companies.  Born Global companies from developed countries still first focus on other developed countries, followed by emerging markets (e. g China and Brazil). We argue that institutional distance still matters and that firms from developed countries still have more and stronger networks in other developed countries. More research is needed two explore how this influence Born Global firms’ internationalization processes.

    Most studies on born globals have focused on firms in a business-to business context. Also this study is focusing on this sector. Even if most brand management studies have focus on business-to consumer sectors, there is an increasing stream of literature that has shown the importance of brand management also in business-to business settings (Gabrielsson & Gabrielsson, 2005). Brands are used to build relationships with customers. In emerging markets, western companies have fewer and weaker relationships, as the distance is longer (see the discussion above. Research is needed to explore how brand management can be used to create and sustain relationships on emerging markets. The above discussion lead us to the following research questions.

    Research questions

    How do born globals manage the organization’s international growth in in emerging markets?

    Which role has brand management to create and sustain relationships with internal and external stakeholders on emerging markets?

    Method and Findings

    Emprical data will be gathered during the Spring 2015. A case approach is considered as the most appropriate to catch the complexity of value creating process in international network context (Yin, 1994). The case study approach is under-represented in studies about internationalization and has been recommended as a fruitful way to expand the knowledge in this area (e.g Andersson, 2000, Cavusgil, 1980). Eisenhardt (1989) recommends case studies as a fruitful way to give a deeper insight in conflicting literature, as well as sharpening the generalizability of different theoretical standpoints which is an important goal in this study. There is a need to learn more about special types of firms and not only to look for the average firm (Andriani and McKelvey, 2007). The close relationship already established with the firms will make it possible to receive information that is hard to get access to with other methods (Welch et al, 2002).

    The cases will be built built on action research in co-operation with the partner firms, work-shops, personal interviews and observations but complemented with secondary data, such as, annual reports and internal documents. The individuals who have the greatest influence on the internationalization processes will be interviewed. Interviews and observations will lead to the identification of individuals/actors who are central in the international value creating processes. This includes actors outside the focal company, such as customers, suppliers, and co-operation partners. Our long co-operation with the companies has created trustful relationship between the researchers and the company representatives.

    The analysis of the data will include several steps. The information from interviews and other sources will be written down in descriptive narratives. This process allows the researcher to become intimately familiar with each case and allows the unique patterns of each case to emerge before cross-case comparison (Eisenhardt, 1989). The analysis will be carried out together with companies and results will be a base for decisions in each companies as well as part in academic research.

    Patterns will be identified among the cases (Yin, 1994). Earlier theoretical findings will be compared with the international development in the cases. Thereafter, the theory will be revised and the findings examined again. The reasoning is, in other words, not entirely inductive or deductive (Yin 1989). Following Eisenhardt’s (1989) recommendations, the analysis will include several iterations between theory and data.

    Implications

    The study will also give knowledge about pros and cons with different localisation alternatives on emerging markets. It is easy to just follow management trends (everyone should out-source production and buy supplies from China) and “go with the flock” instead of get knowledge of different alternatives. The comparison between the different firms will increase the knowledge about when different alternatives are suitable.

  • 42.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Innovation in Internationalization of Born Global firms2012In: 15th McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization and increased liberalization of markets have made it possible for many firms, large or Small and Medium –Sized Firms (SMEs), to be in many foreign markets, especially those in the global industries (Czinkota and Ronkainen, 2007; Doole and Lowe, 2008, 2004). Since trade barriers among markets have fallen dramatically, due to the effects of globalization, intense competition in many markets, and the spread of technological improvements in almost all sectors of any economy, many firms (small or large) seek to establish their presence in many foreign markets (Awuah, et. al., 2011; Doole and Lowe, 2008; Driffield and Love, 2007). Studies abound to shed light on why and how firms internationalize their business activities (Andersson, 2011; Moen, et al., 2004; Knight and Cavusgil, 1996; Johanson and Vahlne, 1990, 1977; Johanson and Wiedersheim-Paul, 1975). Although increased globalization, trade liberalization, and technological improvements do enable many firms (e.g. “Mininationals” or “Born Globals”) to serve several markets (Doole and Lowe, 2008; Czinkota and Ronkainen, 2007), there has emerged an intense competition among firms in all countries (Peng et al., 2008; Czinkota and Ronkainen, 2007; Beamish and Lu, 2004). For many SMEs, a number of factors (e.g. lower trade barriers, increased competition, rapid technological developments, shrinking market opportunities in domestic market, and firm-specific advantages combine to drive their rapid entry into foreign markets (Andersson, 2011; Peng et al., 2008; Moen, et al., 2004). SMEs that have, from the very inception of their establishment, had the drive to internationalize their business activities are termed “Born Global Firms”, in the subsequent sections to be addressed just as born globals (Andersson, 2011; Rialp et al., 2005; Knight and Cavusgil, 1996; Madsen and Servias, 1997). 

    Previous studies about a firm’s internationalization has predominantly concentrated on big multinational firms, where their motives for internationalization, the pace and pattern of their internationalization have been widely studied (Qian and Delios, 2008; Johanson and Vahlne, 1990, 1977; Johanson and Wiedersheim-Paul, 1975; Cavusgil, 1984; Coviello, 2006). In recent times studies have emerged, which have found out that the pace and pattern of the internationalization of big multinational firms are not in line with the pace and pattern, through which born globals, for example, internationalize their business activities (Andersson, 2011; Andersson and Wictor, 2003; Moen, et al., 2004; Rialp, et. al., 2005; Knight and Cavusgil, 1996; Madsen and Servais, 1997).  

    However, extant literature is virtually silent on what it takes for a born global (a small international player with limited resources, for example) to compete with big and resourceful multinational enterprises in many international markets. Our contention is that born globals’ ability to use innovative solutions to create sustainable competitive advantages as they aspire to expand and grow in international markets will be very crucial. The pace and pattern at which born globals internationalize their businesses, in the face of intense competition in almost all markets, in order to provide innovative solutions that enable them to achieve competitive advantages in the marketplace is under-researched. This has been an important reason for the study of the present phenomenon.   As stressed by Doole and Lowe (2008), products and services offered by firms, these days, are becoming ‘commodities’ (i.e. ‘me too’ products/services), if firms are not able to differentiate the core product benefit or service by offering a bundle of benefits for target customers or users in a target market. For Porter (1985), the competitive advantage of a firm grows fundamentally out of the value the firm can create for its customers, irrespective of the markets in which a firm operates.  Operating across borders, though offers opportunities, dealing with new set of macro-environmental factors (e.g. politics, laws, economics, cultures, and societies) and intense competition, will demand that a born global, for example, differentiates its products and services that will help it to meet similar needs and wants of its transnational customers, while it adapts to meet different market-specific requirements and/or needs of customers (e.g. Doole and Lowe, 2008). And for Doyle and Stern (2006), a firm that is good at satisfying customer needs, better than its competitors can do, has the best opportunities to grow and expand. Hence, Born Globals and their growth and expansion narratives are worth studying.

    In view of the above, the purpose of the present study is to investigate a born global’s use of innovative solutions to create sustainable competitive advantages as it expands and grows in different international markets. To be able to achieve the above purpose, we seek to address the following research questions:

    1. Why and how does a born global firm enter any chosen foreign market?
    2. Which strategies does the firm develop and implement in order to provide innovative solutions that will help achieve sustainable competitive advantages as the firm strives to grow and expand in the marketplace?
    3. Does the firm use ‘go-alone’ strategies or does it use strategies that influence and are influenced by other actors and the effect thereof? 
  • 43.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Baffour Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    International Growth in Born Globals – Continued Growth through Networking on Institutionally Distant Markets2015In: Handbook On International Alliance and Network Research / [ed] Jorma Larimo, Niina Mummela and Tuija Mainela, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, 139-154 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this chapter is to shed light on how a born global can obtain continued growth internationally, in institutionally distant markets. We are seeking a deeper understanding of international growth for born global enterprises by combining theories of networks and institutional perspective. We discuss how institutional distance affects the internationalization processes in born globals. We seek to highlight why and how a born global firm does enter different markets. In this respect, born globals from developed countries and those from emerging markets are compared, leading us to derive some propositions from our discussions.

    Finally some suggestions for future research are presented. 

  • 44.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Berggren, Eva
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Born Global or Local? Factors influencing the Internationalization of University Spin-Offs - The Case of Halmstad University2016In: Journal of International Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1570-7385, E-ISSN 1573-7349, Vol. 14, no 3, 296-322 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A wealth of research in the past decades has examined born globals or international new ventures, which are firms that from inception view the whole world as a market and as a source to access resources. Many of these firms build their competitive advantage on high-tech knowledge. However, although many studies have shown how born globals can achieve success if they access resources through their relationships from actors in their networks, few studies have explored the relationship between born globals and universities. Universities are important actors in creating new technology knowledge, and many studies have shown how new firms, or so-called university spin-offs (USOs), are formed around universities. The current study explores why some USOs are successful in their international growth strategy and discusses the factors that influence and facilitate the internationalization process. The study investigates 10 USOs around the newly established Halmstad University in Sweden and finds that universities have a positive effect on firm creation and initial international growth. The regional competence base increases from the establishment of a local university, primarily by strengthening the regional human capital and by increasing university research. This study shows that researcher entrepreneurs’ ventures start as born globals, but that these firms do not continue to grow. Born global business models, per se, do not lead to competitive advantage and successful internationalization. Instead, a strategy built on customer focus and an ability to adapt to different customer demands lead to growth, and the location of growth is dependent on the size of the home market. This study also shows that student entrepreneurship can be a successful growth strategy for USOs focusing on both international and local markets. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  • 45.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Berggren, Eva
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Born Globals and Born Locals originating from University Spin-Offs2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on firm’s that already from inception see the whole world as a market and/or the whole world as a source to access resources, so called born globals. Many of these firms, build their competitive advantage on high-tech knowledge. Universities have shown to be an important actor, to create technology knowledge, and numerous studies have shown how new firms are created around universities, so called University Spin-offs (USOs). Earlier research has shown that some USOs are successful with their international growth strategies. This study aims to explore why some USOs are successful in their international growth strategy and some are not. 10 USO around the newly established Halmstad University in Sweden is investigated. Both USOs founded be students and researchers are included in the sample. This study shows the positive influence of a university for firm creation and international growth. The regional competence base has increased by the establishment of a local university, primarily by strengthening the regional human capital, but lately also by an increased amount of university research. This study has showed student entrepreneurs more successful in growth and international development than researcher entrepreneurs, which imply that further development of support for student entrepreneurship is fruitful to create international growing firms.

  • 46.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI). Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China.
    Hanjun, Huang
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Success Factors in Western and Chinese Born Global Companies2015In: iBusiness, ISSN 2150-4075, E-ISSN 2150-4083, Vol. 7, no 1, 25-38 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Born Global firms are becoming increasingly more important in terms of internationalization, innovation, ability to grow and providing employment. Most of the previous research about BornGlobals is done in North America, Europe or Australia, all these being developed industrialized countries but not developing countries or emerging markets. However, the emerging markets in general, and the Chinese in particular, have become very important for the world economy. Our aim is to investigate the differences between Western literature and literature from emerging markets, regarding internationalization process of Born Global firms. We also aim to discuss the various success factors, which underlie Born Globals’ internationalization process, particularly focusing on Born Globals firms in the China. Our methodology in this research has been literature review and interviews with Chinese CEOs of Born Global firms. However, this paper is only based on the litterateur part of our research. Our analysis shows that most of the Chinese Born Globals publications about the internationalization success factors are based on the Western literature and use them as the theoretical platform in the design of their own research strategy and research questions design. The consequence of this observation is important as it indicates that Chinese researchers are reproducing research under different contextual and situational conditions that might lead to unclear conclusions or maybe even wrong conclusions. Furthermore, compared to most Western Born Global companies, which treat innovation as core competence, the innovation culture becomes one of the biggest weaknesses of Chinese manufacturing Born Globals’ internationalization. China has special economic environment. Chinese manufacturing Born Globals not only need to follow the market but also the government policies, since the government greatly influences the industries and the whole economy. To foreign investors who want to exploit Chinese market, they also should take Chinese economic background and government policies into consideration. One important aspect of Chinese born Globals, neglected in previous research on Born Globals, that has been identified in our research, is the critical success factor of Chinese manufacturing Born Globals—the political and economic background and the role of the Chinese Government in the transformation process of Chinese business life, and the Guanxi network.

  • 47.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Eriksson, Martin
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Lundmark, Linda
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Internationalisation in Malaysian furniture firms: gradual or rapid internationalisation?2006In: International Journal of Globalisation and Small Business, ISSN 1479-3067, Vol. 1, no 3, 220-243 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of the initial steps in a firm's international development has traditionally been dominated by various forms of the 'stage theory', but these theories have been challenged more recently by evidence that rapid internationalisation can take place in certain firms contradicting the notion of gradual development that was an essential aspect of the stage-model perspective. Moreover, earlier studies and models have been developed in industrialised countries. The present study examines the internationalisation of Malaysian furniture firms and concludes that the traditional stage models are not suited to understanding the development of these firms. The firms did not expand in a gradual manner, and did not choose markets that were 'psychically close' to Malaysia. The emerging literature on 'born globals' was a better tool for understanding the development of these firms. However, this literature must be complemented with country-specific and industry-specific factors, if full understanding of the international expansion of firms in developing countries, such as Malaysia, is to be achieved.

  • 48.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Evangelista, Felicitas
    School of Marketing and International Business, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    The entrepreneur in the Born Global firm in Australia and Sweden2006In: Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, ISSN 1462-6004, E-ISSN 1758-7840, Vol. 13, no 4, 642-659 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this research is to identify and analyse the common characteristics and behaviour of entrepreneurs that affect the establishment of Born Global firms. The differences between the Australian and Swedish contexts will be scrutinized.

    Design/methodology/approach – This study was designed to be qualitative in nature so that rich insights can be obtained directly from the entrepreneurs themselves. The sample consists of three Born Global firms each from Australia and Sweden.

    Findings – This study shows the importance of entrepreneurs for the rapid internationalization of firms in Australia and Sweden. Different types of entrepreneurs were identified and small but important differences were identified between the two countries and different industries.

    Research limitations/implications – This study shows that analysis on an individual level enhances the understanding of internationalisation in new firms. By using the concept marketing and technical entrepreneur in different industrial contexts a more detailed understanding of different internationalization patterns can be obtained. This study is limited to two countries and six case studies. The findings may be limited to the chosen firms and studies across more countries and industries are needed.

    Practical implications – This study shows that the entrepreneur should be in focus when analysing new firms' possibilities to expand abroad. Entrepreneurs can use their international experience, visions, ambitions and networks as crucial competencies in an international expansion. Different types of entrepreneurs can use different international strategies.

    Originality/value – The focus and detailed analysis on the individual level across different countries make this study original.

  • 49.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Evangelista, Felicitas
    School of Marketing and International Business University of Western Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    The entrepreneur in the Born global Firm in Australia and Sweden2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The most common denominator in Born Global research is probably the importance of the entrepreneur. Following these results this article will go deeper into how the entrepreneur influences the development of a born global firm. Studies have been carried out in many countries. To be able to draw conclusions on how the national context influences the Born Global phenomenon, this study compares findings from both Australia and Sweden.

    Although there are many studies that have identified the impact of entrepreneurs and management on firms’ internationalisation, there is still a need for more research to enhance the understanding of born global firms’ international behaviour. This study aims to go one step further and try to do a more fine-grained analysis. How do entrepreneurs influence the development of Born Global firms in Australia and Sweden? Through a literature review the following points were identified:

    • Number of people in the top management team
    • International experience and industry experience
    • Marketing/Technical entrepreneur and active/reactive internationalization strategy
    • Global mindset
    • Personal network

    Method

    A case approach was considered as the most appropriate to catch the complexity of the Born Global phenomenon. The case studies are mainly built on personal interviews but complemented with secondary data, such as business magazines, annual reports and internal documents. We interviewed the entrepreneurs that were involved in the founding of the Born Global companies.

    The analysis of the data included several steps. The information from interviews and other sources were written down in descriptive narratives. This process allows the researcher to become intimately familiar with each case and allows the unique patterns of each case to emerge before cross-case comparison. To find common patterns, the cases were compared in terms of the issues identified in the literature review. Earlier theoretical findings were compared with the international development in the Australian and Swedish born global firms. Differences and similarities were discussed.

    Conclusions

    In this study we have shown the importance of entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial teams for the rapid internationalization of firms in Australia and Sweden. We can conclude that there were no big differences between the developments of the Born Global firms in the two countries. However one interesting difference turned up. In Australia the country image was negative for selling high-tech products within Australia. The country image has an impact on the company for go abroad. In this case it seemed like the country image was more negative within Australia than overseas. In Sweden, the country image was not a problem for the types of product studied. However, in the Swedish medical II case the company had problem to sell their product within Sweden. It has been very hard to get the product financed by the national health care system in Sweden, as the product cannot be classified as medicine or as a mean for disabled. In Germany this was not a problem. This shows that national differences still exists and it is important to deal with them to succeed. The entrepreneurs in the Born Global firms do not see these problems on the home market as discouraging but go on to fin markets overseas.

    In this study we have focused on the entrepreneurs and found two different types. One common type of Born Global entrepreneur is the experienced employee, who works in a large organization and has ambitions and ideas that he found that he cannot fulfill in the large organisation. He is keen on starting a new business on his own or together with others who share his ideas and ambitions. The other is the younger, not so experienced, but ambitious with new ideas. He/she doesn’t want to be a part of a large organization, but want to fulfill his ideas in an own organisation. Both these types of entrepreneurs have a global mindset that they have acquired in different ways.

    There is also a difference between marketing and technical entrepreneurs. Even if Born Global entrepreneurs have interests and skills in both these areas they are often most interested in one of these areas. In High-tech industries a fast internationalization can be possible without an active internationalization, as the high-tech product often is very specialized and the home market is too small in countries as Sweden and Australia. Internationalization does not have to be an issue in the founding process in a Born Global firm. In a more mature industry, however, an active internationalization is necessary to expand abroad.

    The personal networks were very important for the entrepreneurs in the Born Global firms. The entrepreneurs with industry experience could use their contacts to expand their own business. Personal networks were also important to secure finance and to find partners in other areas. When the Born Global firms are created they are small with few financial resources. To be able to expand abroad they must cooperate with many others and these partners are found in personal networks

  • 50.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Evers, Natasha
    J.E. Cairnes School of Business and Economics, NUI Galway, Galway, Ireland.
    International opportunity recognition in international new ventures—a dynamic managerial capabilities perspective2015In: Journal of International Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1570-7385, E-ISSN 1573-7349, Vol. 13, no 3, 260-276 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to advance theoretical knowledge of the international opportunity recognition in international new ventures (INVs) from a dynamic capabilities perspective with particular focus on the emergent perspective of dynamic managerial capabilities. Building the extant literature on international opportunity recognition, dynamic capabilities theory, this paper presents a conceptual framework explaining how dynamic capabilities of the firm can be created and enacted through the entrepreneur’s dynamic managerial capabilities and actions for international opportunity identification for international firm growth. Drawing on the dynamic capabilities theory and more recent dynamic managerial capabilities perspective, this article enriches understanding of how opportunities are identified for the venture’s international development and growth. The article concludes with theoretical and research implications. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York

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