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  • 1.
    David, Jennifer
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Valencia, Rafael
    Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, USA.
    Philippsen, Roland
    Google Inc.
    Bosshard, Pascal
    V-ZUG.
    Iagnemma, Karl
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.
    Gradient Based Path Optimization Method for Autonomous Driving2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the possibilities of extending and adapting the CHOMP motion planner cite{ratliff2009chomp} to work with a non-holonomic vehicle such as an autonomous truck with a single trailer. A detailed study has been done to find out the different ways of implementing these constraints on the motion planner. CHOMP, which is a successful motion planner for articulated robots produces very fast and collision-free trajectories. This nature is important for a local path adaptor in a multi-vehicle path planning for resolving path-conflicts in a very fast manner and hence, CHOMP was adapted. Secondly, this paper also details the experimental integration of the modified CHOMP with the sensor fusion and control system of an autonomous Volvo FH-16 truck. Integration experiments were conducted in a real-time environment with the developed autonomous truck. Finally, additional simulations were also conducted to compare the performance of the different approaches developed to study the feasibility of employing CHOMP to autonomous vehicles.

  • 2.
    David, Jennifer
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Valencia, Rafael
    Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, USA.
    Philippsen, Roland
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Iagnemma, Karl
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA.
    Local Path Optimizer for an Autonomous Truck in a Harbour Scenario2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, functional gradient algorithms like CHOMP have been very successful in producing locally optimal motion plans for articulated robots. In this paper, we have adapted CHOMP to work with a non-holonomic vehicle such as an autonomous truck with a single trailer and a differential drive robot. An extended CHOMP with rolling constraints have been implemented on both of these setup which yielded feasible curvatures. This paper details the experimental integration of the extended CHOMP motion planner with the sensor fusion and control system of an autonomous Volvo FH-16 truck. It also explains the experiments conducted on the differential-drive robot. Initial experimental investigations and results conducted in a real-world environment show that CHOMP can produce smooth and collision-free trajectories for mobile robots and vehicles as well. In conclusion, this paper discusses the feasibility of employing CHOMP to mobile robots.

  • 3.
    Gholami Shahbandi, Saeed
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Åstrand, Björn
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Philippsen, Roland
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Semi-Supervised Semantic Labeling of Adaptive Cell Decomposition Maps in Well-Structured Environments2015In: 2015 European Conference on Mobile Robots (ECMR), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2015, 7324207Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a semi-supervised approach for semantic mapping, by introducing human knowledge after unsupervised place categorization has been combined with an adaptive cell decomposition of an occupancy map. Place categorization is based on clustering features extracted from raycasting in the occupancy map. The cell decomposition is provided by work we published previously, which is effective for the maps that could be abstracted by straight lines. Compared to related methods, our approach obviates the need for a low-level link between human knowledge and the perception and mapping sub-system, or the onerous preparation of training data for supervised learning. Application scenarios include intelligent warehouse robots which need a heightened awareness in order to operate with a higher degree of autonomy and flexibility, and integrate more fully with inventory management systems. The approach is shown to be robust and flexible with respect to different types of environments and sensor setups. © 2015 IEEE

  • 4.
    Gholami Shahbandi, Saeed
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Åstrand, Björn
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Philippsen, Roland
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Sensor Based Adaptive Metric-Topological Cell Decomposition Method for Semantic Annotation of Structured Environments2014In: 2014 13th International Conference on Control Automation Robotics & Vision (ICARCV), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2014, 1771-1777 p., 7064584Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental ingredient for semantic labeling is a reliable method for determining and representing the relevant spatial features of an environment. We address this challenge for planar metric-topological maps based on occupancy grids. Our method detects arbitrary dominant orientations in the presence of significant clutter, fits corresponding line features with tunable resolution, and extracts topological information by polygonal cell decomposition. Real-world case studies taken from the target application domain (autonomous forklift trucks in warehouses) demonstrate the performance and robustness of our method, while results from a preliminary algorithm to extract corridors, and junctions, demonstrate its expressiveness. Contribution of this work starts with the formulation of metric-topological surveying of environment, and a generic n-direction planar representation accompanied with a general method for extracting it from occupancy map. The implementation also includes some semantic labels specific to warehouse like environments. © 2014 IEEE.

  • 5.
    Joyeux, Sylvain
    et al.
    LAAS-CNRS, Université de Toulouse, Toulouse, France.
    Alami, Rachid
    LAAS-CNRS, Université de Toulouse, Toulouse, France.
    Lacroix, Simon
    LAAS-CNRS, Université de Toulouse, Toulouse, France.
    Philippsen, Roland
    Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States.
    A Plan Manager for Multi-robot Systems2009In: The international journal of robotics research, ISSN 0278-3649, E-ISSN 1741-3176, Vol. 28, no 2, 220-240 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a software component, the plan manager, which provides the services needed to build and execute plans in a multirobot context. This plan manager handles fully dynamic plans (insertion and removal of tasks), provides tools for safe concurrent execution and modification of plans, and handles distributed plan supervision without permanent robot-to-robot communication. The proposed concept is illustrated by a scenario which involves the navigation of a rover and an unmanned aerial vehicle in an initially unmapped environment. © SAGE Publications 2009 Los Angeles, London.

  • 6.
    Lütkebohle, Ingo
    et al.
    Bielefeld University, Germany.
    Philippsen, Roland
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Intelligent systems (IS-lab).
    Pradeep, Vijay
    Willow Garage Inc., Menlo Park, CA, USA.
    Marder-Eppstein, Eitan
    Willow Garage Inc., Menlo Park, CA, USA.
    Wachsmuth, Sven
    Bielefeld University, Germany.
    Generic middleware support for coordinating robot software components: The Task-State-Pattern2011In: Journal of Software Engineering for Robotics, ISSN 2035-3928, Vol. 2, no 1, 20-39 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robot software systems are (again) reaching levels of size and complexity that makes them difficult to construct, evolve, and maintain. One current issue is that systems are increasingly built to perform many different tasks in parallel, each of which must be coordinated and monitored to achieve a goal. If all components were to require different interfaces, system complexity would rapidly grow. General interfaces partially exist on the conceptual level, but their implementations are typically strongly linked to particular architectural proposals, thus reducing re-use and comparability. This paper presents an architecture-agnostic design pattern for the coordination-related component interaction. It results in a simple and clean component interface to invoke specific functionality, monitor task progress, and update the goals of running tasks. It provides an abstract coordination interface with high observability for the development of coordination and architecture. It thus provides value to all stakeholders in the design and implementation of robot software systems: component developers, coordination developers, and system architects. We trace the convergence of concepts and approaches from early coordination systems and through various abstraction proposals. Recently, two very similar realizations were developed independently by the authors. This paper presents the underlying insights and practical experience as a generic software engineering method which we named the Task-State-Pattern. We describe the functionality it provides to component developers and detail the technical steps necessary to implement it in a distributed event-based toolkit for specific application domains. We provide empirical evidence for the relevance and utility of our approach by presenting case studies and discussing how the proposed pattern leads to a flexible system structure with reduced integration effort.

  • 7.
    Macek, Kristijan
    et al.
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich, Switzerland.
    Philippsen, Roland
    Stanford University, California, USA.
    Siegwart, Roland
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich, Switzerland.
    Path Following for Autonomous Vehicle Navigation with Inherent Safety and Dynamics Margin2008In: IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, Proceedings, Vols 1-3, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2008, 910-915 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the path following problem for autonomous Ackermann-like vehicle navigation. A control strategy that takes into account both kinodynamic and configuration space constraints of the vehicle, denoted as Traversability-Anchored Dynamic Path Following (TADPF) controller is presented. It ensures secure vehicle commands in presence of obstacles, based on traversability information given by a global navigation function. By additionally using a reference point on the global smooth path, the local vicinity path configuration with respect to the vehicle is taken explicitly into account to ensure smooth and stable path following. Furthermore, a previously developed Sliding Mode Path Following (SMPF) controller that results in fast convergence rate and low path following error but which does not consider kinodynamic constraints, is augmented by the the kinodynamic and configuration space constraints check of the TADPF controller. The new proposed control strategy denoted as TADPF-SMPF controller thus combines advantageous characteristics of both original control strategies for path following, yielding inherent safety and vehicle dynamics margin. All three control strategies are verified in simulation, whereas the TADPF and TADPF-SMPF path following schemes are also verified experimentally. © 2008 IEEE.

  • 8.
    Madås, David
    et al.
    Volvo Car Corporation, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nosratinia, Mohsen
    HiQ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Keshavarz, Mansour
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sundström, Peter
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Philippsen, Roland
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology.
    Eidehall, Andreas
    Volvo Car Corporation, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dahlén, Karl-Magnus
    HiQ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    On Path Planning Methods for Automotive Collision Avoidance2013In: 2013 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium: IV 2013: Gold Coast City, Australia, 23-26 June 2013, Piscataway: IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, 931-937 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a strong trend for increasingly sophisticated Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) such as Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) systems, Lane Keeping Aid (LKA) systems, or indeed autonomous driving. This trend generates a need for online maneuver generation, for which numerous approaches can be found in the large body of work related to path planning and obstacle avoidance. In order to ease the challenge of choosing a method, this paper reports quantitative and qualitative insights about three different path planning methods: a state lattice planner, model predictive control, and spline-based search tree. Each method is described, implemented and compared on two specific traffic situations. In addition, qualitative merits and drawbacks are discussed for each method. The paper will not provide a final answer about which method is best. This depends on several factors such as computational constraints and the formulation of maneuver optimality that is appropriate for a given assistance or safety function. Instead, the conclusions will provide guidance for choosing a method for a specific application.

  • 9.
    Magnenat, Stéphane
    et al.
    ETH Zentrum, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Philippsen, Roland
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Intelligent Systems´ laboratory.
    Mondada, Francesco
    École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Autonomous construction using scarce resources in unknown environments: Ingredients for an intelligent robotic interaction with the physical world2012In: Autonomous Robots, ISSN 0929-5593, E-ISSN 1573-7527, Vol. 33, no 4, 476-485 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of creating machines that autonomously perform useful work in a safe, robust and intelligent manner continues to motivate robotics research.Achieving this autonomy requires capabilities for understanding the environment, physically interacting with it, predicting the outcomes of actions and reasoning with this knowledge.Such intelligent physical interaction was at the centre of early robotic investigations and remains an open topic.

    In this paper, we build on the fruit of decades of research to explore further this question in the context of autonomous construction in unknown environments with scarce resources.Our scenario involves a miniature mobile robot that autonomously maps an environment and uses cubes to bridge ditches and build vertical structures according to high-level goals given by a human.

    Based on a "real but contrived" experimental design, our results encompass practical insights for future applications that also need to integrate complex behaviours under hardware constraints, and shed light on the broader question of the capabilities required for intelligent physical interaction with the real world.

  • 10.
    Masood, Jawad
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Philippsen, Roland
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Duracz, Jan
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Taha, Walid
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Rice University, Houston, Texas, USA.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    SP Technical Research Institute, Borås, Sweden.
    Grante, Christian
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Domain Analysis for Standardised Functional Safety: A Case Study on Design-Time Verification of Automatic Emergency Breaking2014In: FISITA World Automotive Congress 2014: Maastricht, The Netherlands 2-6 June 2014: Volume 2 of 5, Hague: Royal Netherlands Society of Engineers (KIVI) , 2014, 845-854 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation traditionally computes individual trajectories, which severely limits the assessment of overall system behaviour. To address this fundamental shortcoming, we rely on computing enclosures to determine bounds on system behaviour instead of individual traces. In the present case study, we investigate the enclosures of a generic Automatic Emergency Braking (AEB) system and demonstrate how this creates a direct link between requirement specification and standardized safety criteria as put forward by ISO 26262. The case study strongly supports that a methodology based on enclosures can provide a missing link across the engineering process, from design to compliance testing. This result is highly relevant for ongoing efforts to virtualize testing and create a unified tool-chain for the development of next generation Advanced Driver Assistance Systems.

  • 11.
    Mühlfellner, Peter
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Bürki, Mathias
    ETH, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Bosse, Mike
    ETH, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Derendarz, Wojciech
    Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg, Germany.
    Philippsen, Roland
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Furgale, Paul
    ETH, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Summary Maps for Lifelong Visual Localization2016In: Journal of Field Robotics, ISSN 1556-4959, E-ISSN 1556-4967, Vol. 33, no 5, 561-590 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robots that use vision for localization need to handle environments which are subject to seasonal and structural change, and operate under changing lighting and weather conditions. We present a framework for lifelong localization and mapping designed to provide robust and metrically accurate online localization in these kinds of changing environments. Our system iterates between offline map building, map summary, and online localization. The offline mapping fuses data from multiple visually varied datasets, thus dealing with changing environments by incorporating new information. Before passing this data to the online localization system, the map is summarized, selecting only the landmarks that are deemed useful for localization. This Summary Map enables online localization that is accurate and robust to the variation of visual information in natural environments while still being computationally efficient.

    We present a number of summary policies for selecting useful features for localization from the multi-session map and explore the tradeoff between localization performance and computational complexity. The system is evaluated on 77 recordings, with a total length of 30 kilometers, collected outdoors over sixteen months. These datasets cover all seasons, various times of day, and changing weather such as sunshine, rain, fog, and snow. We show that it is possible to build consistent maps that span data collected over an entire year, and cover day-to-night transitions. Simple statistics computed on landmark observations are enough to produce a Summary Map that enables robust and accurate localization over a wide range of seasonal, lighting, and weather conditions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 12.
    Mühlfellner, Peter
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research. Volkswagen AG.
    Furgale, Paul
    Autonomous Systems Lab, ETH Z¨urich Leonhardstrasse 21, Z¨urich, Switzerland.
    Derendarz, Wojciech
    Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg, Germany .
    Philippsen, Roland
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Designing a Relational Database for Long-Term Visual MappingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a map architecture based on a relational database that helps tackle the challenge of lifelong visuallocalization and mapping. The proposed design is rooted in a set of use-cases that describe the processes necessary for creating, using and analyzing visual maps. Our database and software architecture effectively expresses the requiredinteractions between map elements, such as visual frames generated by multi-camera systems. One of the major strengths of the proposed system is the ease of formulating pertinent and novel queries. We show how these queries can help us gaina better intuition about the map contents, taking into account complex data associations, even as session upon session is added to the map. Furthermore, we demonstrate how referential integrity checks, rollbacks and similar features of relational database management systems are beneficial for building long-term maps. Based on our experience with the proposed system during one year of intensive data collection and analysis, we discuss key lessons learned and indicate directions for evolving its design. These lessons show the importance of using higher relational normal forms to make the database schema even more useful for querying, as well as the need for a distributed, versioned system.

  • 13.
    Mühlfellner, Peter
    et al.
    Volkswagen AG, Group Research, Germany .
    Furgale, Paul Timothy
    Autonomous Systems Lab, ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Derendarz, Wojciech
    Volkswagen AG, Group Research, Germany .
    Philippsen, Roland
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Intelligent systems (IS-lab).
    Evaluation of Fisheye-Camera Based Visual Multi-Session Localization in a Real-World Scenario2013In: Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), 2013 IEEE Workshop on Environment Perception and Navigation for Intelligent Vehicles, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Operations Center , 2013, 57-62 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European V-Charge project seeks to develop fully automated valet parking and charging of electric vehicles using only low-cost sensors. One of the challenges is to implement robust visual localization using only cameras and stock vehicle sensors. We integrated four monocular, wide-angle, fisheye cameras on a consumer car and implemented a mapping and localization pipeline. Visual features and odometry are combined to build and localize against a keyframe-based three dimensional map. We report results for the first stage of the project, based on two months worth of data acquired under varying conditions, with the objective of localizing against a map created offline. © 2013 IEEE.

  • 14.
    Ourique de Morais, Wagner
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Mayr, Matthias
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE). Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Wickström, Nicholas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Philippsen, Roland
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Ambient Intelligence and Robotics: complementing one another to support Ambient Assisted Living2014In: IAS-13: The 13th International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems: July 15-19, 2014: Padova and Venice, Italy: Proceedings of Workshops and Tutorials / [ed] Jangmyung Lee, Philippe Martinet, Marcus Strand, Stefano Ghidoni & Matteo Munaro, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work combines a database-centric architecture, which supports Ambient Intelligence (AmI) for Ambient Assisted Living, with a ROS-based mobile sensing and interaction robot. The role of the active database is to monitor and respond to events in the environment and the robot subscribes to tasks issued by the AmI system. The robot can autonomously perform tasks such as to search for and interact with a person. Consequently, the two systems combine their capabilities and complement the lack of computational, sensing and actuation resources.

  • 15.
    Philippsen, Roland
    Autonomous Systems Lab, EPFL, Switzerland.
    A Light Formulation of the E* Interpolated Path Replanner2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The E* algorithm is a path planning method capable of dynamic replanning and user configurable path cost interpolation, it results in more appropriate paths during gradient descent. The underlying formulation is based on interpreting navigation functions as a sampled continuous crossing-time map that takes into account a risk measure. Replanning means thatchanges in the environment model can be repaired to avoid the expenses of complete planning.This helps compensating for the increased computational effort required for interpolation.

  • 16.
    Philippsen, Roland
    et al.
    LAAS-CNRS, Toulouse, France.
    Jensen, Björn
    Singleton Technology, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Siegwart, Roland
    Autonomous Systems Lab, EPFL, Switzerland.
    Toward Online Probabilistic Path Replanning in Dynamic Environments2006In: IROS 2006: 2006 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2006, 2876-2881 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents work on sensor-based motion planning in initially unknown dynamic environments. Motion detection and modeling are combined with a smooth navigation function to perform on-line path planning in cluttered dynamic environments. The SLIP algorithm, an extension of Iterative Closest Point, combines motion detection from a mobile platform with position estimation. This information is used via probabilistic prediction to estimate a traversal risk function that unifies dynamic and static obstacles. The risk is fed to E* and leads to smooth paths that trade off collision risk versus detours. © 2006 IEEE.

  • 17.
    Philippsen, Roland
    et al.
    LAAS-CNRS, Toulouse, France.
    Jensen, Björn
    Singleton Technology, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Siegwart, Roland
    Autonomous Systems Lab, EPFL, Switzerland.
    Towards Real-Time Sensor-Based Path Planning in Highly Dynamic Environments2007In: Autonomous Navigation in Dynamic Environments / [ed] Christian Laugier and Raja Chatila, New York: Springer-Verlag New York, 2007, 135-148 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents work on sensor-based motion planning in initially unknown dynamic environments. Motion detection and probabilistic motion modeling are combined with a smooth navigation function to perform on-line path planning and replanning in cluttered dynamic environments such as public exhibitions. The SLIP algorithm, an extension of Iterative Closest Point, combines motion detection from a mobile platform with position estimation. This information is then processed using probabilistic motion prediction to yield a co-occurrence risk that unifies dynamic and static elements. The risk is translated into traversal costs for an E* path planner. It produces smooth paths that trade off collision risk versus detours. © Springer.

  • 18.
    Philippsen, Roland
    et al.
    Stanford University, California, USA.
    Kolski, Sascha
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich, Switzerland.
    Macek, Kristijan
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich, Switzerland.
    Jensen, Björn
    Singleton Technology, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Mobile Robot Planning in Dynamic Environments and on Growable Costmaps2008In: Workshop on Path Planning on Costmaps: A half day workshop for ICRA 2008, 2008, 8- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present two applications of path planning oncostmaps: (i) the Probabilistic Navigation Function uses a smoothlyvarying co-occurrence estimation to trade-off collision risk versusdetour lengths, and (ii) a navigation system for exploration ofunknown environment using growable costmaps, interweaving mapping,replanning, and control.By relying on costmaps as a general basis for planning and pathtracking as a generic motion control interface, our approach andimplementation covers a wide range of planners and controllers. Weachieve a relatively general purpose system and introduce a limitedamount of well-defined user-definable heuristics that allow users toadapt the system to a given application. System integration andgenericity is demonstrated by providing three specific implementationsof the planner and controller components, all working withinthe same framework.

  • 19.
    Philippsen, Roland
    et al.
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich, Switzerland.
    Kolski, Sascha
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich, Switzerland.
    Macek, Kristijan
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich, Switzerland.
    Siegwart, Roland
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich, Switzerland.
    Path Planning, Replanning, and Execution for Autonomous Driving in Urban and Offroad Environments2007In: Workshop on Planning, Perception and Navigation for Intelligent Vehicles, 2007, 6- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an autonomous driving system that iscapable of planning, replanning, and executing paths for drivingin urban and offroad environments. For planning, we rely onthe E algorithm which computes a smooth navigation functionthat takes into account traversibility information extracted fromlaser scans. The path execution algorithm is centered arounda kinodynamic controller which follows the gradient of thenavigation function. This work is based on prior experience withthe SmartTer vehicle, which we are in the process of updating,and the focus is on integration.

  • 20.
    Philippsen, Roland
    et al.
    Stanford Robotics and AI Lab, Stanford University, California, USA.
    Nejati, Negin
    Stanford Computational Learning Lab, Stanford University, California, USA.
    Sentis, Luis
    Stanford Robotics and AI Lab, Stanford University, California, USA.
    Bridging the Gap Between Semantic Planning and Continuous Control for Mobile Manipulation Using a Graph-Based World Representation2009In: Proceedings of the HYCAS 2009 workshop: 1st International Workshop on Hybrid Control of Autonomous Systems: Integrating Learning, Deliberation and Reactive Control / [ed] A. Ferrein, J. Pauli, N.T. Siebel and G. Steinbauer, 2009, 77-81 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present our ongoing efforts to create a mobile manipulation database tool, a flexible multi-modal representation supporting persistent life-long adaptation for autonomous service robots in every-day environments. Its application to a prototypical domain illustrates how it provides symbol grounding to a reasoning system capable of learning new concepts, couples semantic planning with whole-body prioritized control, and supports exploration of uncertain and dynamic environments.

  • 21.
    Philippsen, Roland
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Intelligent Systems´ laboratory.
    Sentis, Luis
    University of Texas at Austin.
    Open Source Whole-Body Control Framework for Human-Friendly Robots2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whole-body operational space control is a powerful compliant control approach for robots that physically interact with their environment. The underlying mathematical and algorithmic principles have been laid in a large body of published work, and novel research keeps advancing its formulation and variations. However, the lack of a reusable and robust shared implementation has hindered its widespread adoption. To fill this gap, we present an open-source implementation of whole-body operational space control that provides runtime configurability, ease of reuse and extension, and independence from specific middlewares or operating systems. Our libraries are highly portable. Decoupling from specific runtime platforms (such as RTAI or ROS) is achieved by containing application code in a thin adaptation layer. In this paper, we briefly survey the foundations of whole-body control for mobile manipulation, describe the structure of our software, very briefly present experiments on two quite different robots, and then delve into the bundled tutorials to help prospective new users.

  • 22.
    Philippsen, Roland
    et al.
    Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.
    Sentis, Luis
    University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA.
    Khatib, Oussama
    Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.
    An open-source extensible software package to create whole-body compliant skills in personal mobile manipulators2011In: 2011 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) / [ed] Nancy M. Amato, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2011, 1036-1041 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Philippsen, Roland
    et al.
    Autonomous Systems Lab, EPFL, Switzerland.
    Siegwart, Roland
    Autonomous Systems Lab, EPFL, Switzerland.
    An Interpolated Dynamic Navigation Function2005In: Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2005. ICRA 2005, Vols 1-4, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2005, 3782-3789 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Ez.ast; algorithm is a path planning method capable of dynamic replanning and user-configurable path cost interpolation. It calculates a navigation function as a sampling of an underlying smooth goal distance that takes into account a continuous notion of risk that can be controlled in a fine-grained manner. E* results in more appropriate paths during gradient descent. Dynamic replanning means that changes in the environment model can be repaired to avoid the expenses of complete replanning. This helps compensating for the increased computational effort required for interpolation. We present the theoretical basis and a working implementation, as well as measurements of the algorithm's precision, topological correctness, and computational effort. © 2005 IEEE.

  • 24.
    Sentis, Luis
    et al.
    The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.
    Petersen, Josh
    The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.
    Philippsen, Roland
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Intelligent systems (IS-lab).
    Implementation and stability analysis of prioritized whole-body compliant controllers on a wheeled humanoid robot in uneven terrains2013In: Autonomous Robots, ISSN 0929-5593, E-ISSN 1573-7527, Vol. 35, no 4, 301-319 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we implement the floating base prioritized whole-body compliant control framework described in Sentis et al. (IEEE Transactions on Robotics 26(3):483–501, 2010) on a wheeled humanoid robot maneuvering in sloped terrains. We then test it for a variety of compliant whole-body behaviors including balance and kinesthetic mobility on irregular terrain, and Cartesian hand position tracking using the co-actuated (i.e. two joints are simultaneously actuated with one motor) robot’s upper body. The implementation serves as a hardware proof for a variety of whole-body control concepts that had previously been developed and tested in simulation. First, behaviors of two and three priority tasks are implemented and successfully executed on the humanoid hardware. In particular, first and second priority tasks are linearized in the task space through model feedback and then controlled through task accelerations. Postures, on the other hand, are shown to be asymptotically stable when using prioritized whole-body control structures and then successfully tested in the real hardware. To cope with irregular terrains, the base is modeled as a six degree of freedom floating system and the wheels are characterized through contact and rolling constraints. Finally, center of mass balance capabilities using whole-body compliant control and kinesthetic mobility are implemented and tested in the humanoid hardware to climb terrains with various slopes.

  • 25.
    Sentis, Luis
    et al.
    University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, United States.
    Petersen, Joshua George
    University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, United States.
    Philippsen, Roland
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Intelligent Systems´ laboratory.
    Experiments with Balancing on Irregular Terrains using the Dreamer Mobile Humanoid Robot2013In: Robotics: Science and Systems VIII / [ed] Roy N., Newman P. & Srinivasa S., Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2013, Vol. 8, 393-400 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate controllers for mobile humanoid robots that maneuver in irregular terrains while performing accurate physical interactions with the environment and with human operators and test them on Dreamer, our new robot with a humanoid upper body (torso, arm, head) and a holonomic mobile base (triangularly arranged Omni wheels). All its actuators are torque controlled, and the upper body provides redundant degrees of freedom. We developed new dynamical models and created controllers that stabilize the robot in the presence of slope variations, while it compliantly interacts with humans.

    This paper considers underactuated free-body dynamics with contact constraints between the wheels and the terrain. Moreover, Dreamer incorporates a biarticular mechanical transmission that we model as a force constraint. Using these tools, we develop new compliant multiobjective skills and include self-motion stabilization for the highly redundant robot. © 2013 Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

  • 26.
    Taha, Walid
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Rice University, Houston, USA.
    Cartwright, Robert
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS). Rice University, Houston, USA.
    Philippsen, Roland
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Zeng, Yingfu
    Rice University, Houston, USA.
    A First Course on Cyber Physical Systems2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective and creative CPS development requires expertise in disparate fields that have traditionally been taught in distinct disciplines. At the same time, students seeking a CPS education generally come from diverse educational backgrounds. In this paper we report on our recent experience developing and teaching a course on CPS. The course can be seen as a detailed proposal focused on three three key questions: What are the core elements of CPS? How can these core concepts be integrated in the CPS design process? What types of modeling tools can assist in the design of cyber-physical systems? Experience from the first two offerings of the course is promising, and we discuss the lessons learned. All materials including lecture notes and software used for the course are openly available online.

  • 27.
    Taha, Walid
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.
    Cartwright, Robert
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS). Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.
    Philippsen, Roland
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Zeng, Yingfu
    Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.
    Developing A First Course on Cyber-Physical Systems2014In: Proceedings of the WESE'14: Workshop on Embedded and Cyber-Physical Systems Education / [ed] Martin Edin Grimheden, New York, NY: ACM Press, 2014, 6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective and creative cyber-physical systems (CPS) development requires expertise in disparate fields that have traditionally been taught in several distinct disciplines. At the same time, students seeking a CPS education generally come from diverse educational backgrounds. In this paper, we report on our recent experience developing and teaching a course on CPS. The course addresses the following three questions: What are the core elements of CPS? How should these core concepts be integrated in the CPS design process? What types of modeling tools can assist in the design of cyber-physical systems? Our experience with the first three offerings of the course has been positive overall. We also discuss the lessons we learned from some issues that were not handled well. All material including lecture notes and software used for the course are openly available online. © 2014 ACM.

  • 28.
    Taha, Walid
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Duracz, Adam
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Zeng, Yingfu
    Rice University, Houston TX, USA.
    Atkinson, Kevin
    Rice University, Houston TX, USA.
    Bartha, Ferenc Ágoston
    Rice University, Houston TX, USA.
    Brauner, Paul
    Rice University, Houston TX, USA.
    Duracz, Jan
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Xu, Fei
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Cartwright, Robert
    Rice University, Houston TX, USA.
    Konečný, Michal
    Computer Science Group, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
    Moggi, Eugenio
    University of Genova, Genoa, Italy.
    Masood, Jawad
    Rice University, Houston TX, USA.
    Andreasson, Björn Pererik
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Inoue, Jun
    Rice University, Houston TX, USA.
    Sant'Anna, Anita
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Philippsen, Roland
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Chapoutot, Alexandre
    ENSTA ParisTech - U2IS, Paris, France.
    O'Malley, Marcia
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rice University, Houston TX, USA.
    Ames, Aaron
    School of Mechanical Eng., Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta GA, USA.
    Gaspes, Veronica
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Hvatum, Lise
    Schlumberger, Houston TX, USA.
    Mehta, Shyam
    Schlumberger, Houston TX, USA.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Dependable Systems, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Grante, Christian
    AB Volvo, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Acumen: An Open-source Testbed for Cyber-Physical Systems Research2016In: Internet of Things. IoT Infrastructures: Second International Summit, IoT 360° 2015, Rome, Italy, October 27-29, 2015. Revised Selected Papers, Part I / [ed] Benny Mandler, Johann Marquez-Barja, Miguel Elias Mitre Campista, Dagmar Cagáňová, Hakima Chaouchi, Sherali Zeadally, Mohamad Badra, Stefano Giordano, Maria Fazio, Andrey Somov & Radu-Laurentiu Vieriu, Heidelberg: Springer, 2016, Vol. 169, 118-130 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing Cyber-Physical Systems requires methods and tools to support simulation and verification of hybrid (both continuous and discrete) models. The Acumen modeling and simulation language is an open source testbed for exploring the design space of what rigorous-but-practical next-generation tools can deliver to developers of Cyber-Physical Systems. Like verification tools, a design goal for Acumen is to provide rigorous results. Like simulation tools, it aims to be intuitive, practical, and scalable. However, it is far from evident whether these two goals can be achieved simultaneously.

    This paper explains the primary design goals for Acumen, the core challenges that must be addressed in order to achieve these goals, the "agile research method" taken by the project, the steps taken to realize these goals, the key lessons learned, and the emerging language design. © ICST Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering 2016.

  • 29.
    Taha, Walid
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Philippsen, Roland
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Intelligent systems (IS-lab).
    Modeling Basic Aspects of Cyber-Physical Systems2012In: 3rd International Workshop on Domain-Specific Languages and models for ROBotic systems (DSLRob-12), 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing novel cyber-physical systems entails significant, costly physical experimentation. Simulation tools can enable the virtualization of experiments. Unfortunately, current tools have shortcomings that limit their utility for virtual experimentation. Language research can be especially helpful in addressing many of these problems. As a first step in this direction, we consider the question of determining what language features are needed to model cyber-physical systems. Using a series of elementary examples of cyber-physical systems, we reflect on the extent to which a small, experimental domain-specific formalism called Acumen suffices for this purpose.

  • 30.
    Yuan, Fang
    et al.
    Applied Informatics, Bielefeld University, 33615 Bielefeld, Germany.
    Swadzba, Agnes
    Applied Informatics, Bielefeld University, 33615 Bielefeld, Germany.
    Philippsen, Roland
    Robotics and Artificial Intelligence Lab., Stanford University, Stanford, 94305, United States.
    Engin, Orhan
    Applied Informatics, Bielefeld University, 33615 Bielefeld, Germany.
    Hanheide, Marc
    Applied Informatics, Bielefeld University, 33615 Bielefeld, Germany.
    Wachsmuth, Sven
    Applied Informatics, Bielefeld University, 33615 Bielefeld, Germany.
    Laser-Based Navigation Enhanced with 3D Time-of-Flight Data2009In: Robotics and Automation, 2009. ICRA '09. IEEE International Conference on, Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society, 2009, 2844-2850 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Navigation and obstacle avoidance in robotics using planar laser scans has matured over the last decades. They basically enable robots to penetrate highly dynamic and populated spaces, such as people's home, and move around smoothly. However, in an unconstrained environment the twodimensional perceptual space of a fixed mounted laser is not sufficient to ensure safe navigation. In this paper, we present an approach that pools a fast and reliable motion generation approach with modern 3D capturing techniques using a Timeof-Flight camera. Instead of attempting to implement full 3D motion control, which is computationally more expensive and simply not needed for the targeted scenario of a domestic robot, we introduce a "virtual laser". For the originally solely laserbased motion generation the technique of fusing real laser measurements and 3D point clouds into a continuous data stream is 100% compatible and transparent. The paper covers the general concept, the necessary extrinsic calibration of two very different types of sensors, and exemplarily illustrates the benefit which is to avoid obstacles not being perceivable in the original laser scan.

  • 31.
    Zeng, Yingfu
    et al.
    Rice University, Houston, USA.
    Chad, Rose
    Rice University, Houston, USA.
    Taha, Walid
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Rice University, Houston, USA.
    Duracz, Adam
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Atkinson, Kevin
    Rice University, Houston, USA.
    Philippsen, Roland
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Cartwright, Robert
    Rice University, Houston, USA.
    O'Malley, Marcia
    Rice University, Houston, USA.
    Modeling Electromechanical Aspects of Cyber-Physical Systems2016In: Journal of Software Engineering for Robotics, ISSN 2035-3928, E-ISSN 2035-3928, Vol. 7, no 1, 100-119 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Model-based tools have the potential to significantly improve the process of developing novel cyber-physical systems (CPS). In this paper, we consider the question of what language features are needed to model such systems. We use a small, experimental hybrid systems modeling language to show how a number of basic and pervasive aspects of cyber-physical systems can be modeled concisely using the small set of language constructs. We then consider four, more complex, case studies from the domain of robotics. The first, a quadcopter, illustrates that these constructs can support the modeling of interesting systems. The second, a serial robot, provides a concrete example of why it is important to support static partial derivatives, namely, that it significantly improves the way models of rigid body dynamics can be expressed. The third, a linear solenoid actuator, illustrates the language’s ability to integrate multiphysics subsystems. The fourth and final, a compass gait biped, shows how a hybrid system with non-trivial dynamics is modeled. Through this analysis, the work establishes a strong connection between the engineering needs of the CPS domain and the language features that can address these needs. The study builds the case for why modeling languages can be improved by integrating several features, most notably, partial derivatives, differentiation without duplication, and support for equations. These features do not appear to be addressed in a satisfactory manner in mainstream modeling and simulation tools.

  • 32.
    Zeng, Yingfu
    et al.
    Rice University, Houston, USA.
    Rose, Chad
    Rice University, Houston, USA.
    Brauner, Paul
    Rice University, Houston, USA.
    Taha, Walid
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Rice University, Houston, USA.
    Masood, Jawad
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research. Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Philippsen, Roland
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    O’Malley, Marcia
    Rice University, Houston, USA.
    Cartwright, Robert
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS). Rice University, Houston, USA.
    Modeling Basic Aspects of Cyber-Physical Systems, Part II2013In: Proceedings DSLRob 2013 / [ed] Christian Schlegel, Ulrik Pagh Schultz, Serge Stinckwich, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider the question of what language features are needed to effectively model cyber-physical systems (CPS). In previous work, we proposed a core language called Acumen as a way to study this question, and showed how several basic aspects of CPS can be modeled clearly in a language with a small set of constructs. This paper reports on the result of our analysis of two more complex case studies from the domain of rigid body dynamics. The first one, a quadcopter, illustrates that Acumen can support larger, more interesting systems than previously shown. The second one, a serial robot, provides a concrete example of why explicit support for static partial derivatives can significantly improve the expressivity of a CPS modeling language.

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