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  • 1.
    Cyrén, Oscar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Harryson, Moa
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Development of Methods and Guidelines for Upper Extremity Injury in Car Accidents2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The project focus has been development of guidelines and methods for upper

    extremity injury reduction in car crashes. The safety of the central body parts

    improves which indicates the need to develop methods for avoiding non-life

    threatening injuries such as fracture of the arms. The purpose of the project was to

    study the injury mechanisms for the upper extremity in car crashes, and the aim has

    been to propose methods to reduce the injuries. The project focuses on adult

    occupants inside the vehicles front seat, and frontal and side impacts. The procedure

    began with understanding and identifying the injury mechanisms. Studies show that

    most fractures occur on the forearm (radius and ulna) and on the wrists and hands.

    To determine which injury mechanisms that were most frequent, data were collected

    from 29 computer simulations with 29 different crash scenarios. The most common

    kind of impact was the medial part of the wrist in the central part of the instrument

    panel, combined with the impact of the elbow in the center consol. The results of the

    simulations created a basis for the method of the component test, with focus on the

    injury mechanism i.e. the forward movement of the arms into the instrument panel.

    The component test consisted of a test rig, on which was mounted with a measuring

    arm of a 50th percentile male dummy. The arm dropped into a block of expanded

    polypropylene (EPP-block) for observation and study, and with following variable

    parameters: the impact angle of the surface, velocity and position of the wrist. Then

    also an instrumented measuring arm from a 5th percentile female dummy was

    released into an instrument panel.

    The project contributes to knowledge about the injury mechanism of the upper

    extremity in car crashes. The most frequent injury mechanism is a forward movement

    of the arms resulting in an impact with the interior structure of the car. The most

    frequent injured region is the distal part of the upper extremity. The project has

    developed and suggested the first step to a test method for the specific injury

    mechanism. There is a need of more research on how impact angles and velocity

    affect the violence on the arm.

    Download full text (pdf)
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