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  • 1.
    Turnstedt, Max
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    A comparison between activation of pectoralis major and triceps brachii using different grip widths in the bench press2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Turnstedt, M. – Background. Resistance training has many positive effects on the human body and can be beneficial for people all ages. The bench press exercise is a commonly used exercise that targets many upper body muscles such as pectotralis major, triceps brachii, deltoideus, serratus anterior and the abdominal muscles. Variations of the bench press exercise are common where grip width variations are supposed to largely impact the muscles targeted. Some research has been done to accurately decide whether these theories are true, however more research is needed to definitely decide the effect on muscle activity of grip width in bench press. Aim. The aim of this study was to compare the muscle activity with surface electromyography (EMG) in pectoralis major and triceps brachii between wide, regular and narrow grip width in the bench press exercise. Method. 21 healthy males (23.19 ±2.5 years) volunteered to participate in this study. The raw EMG data from the bench presses were converted to root mean square and then average root mean square. The mean average muscle activation (in µV) was divided by a maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) and expressed as percent MVIC (%MVIC). Result. The results of the present study showed a statistically significantly higher muscle activation in the wide grip width compared to the narrow grip width in pectoralis major (p<0.005) and a statistically significantly higher muscle activation could be found in the narrow grip width compared to the wide grip width in triceps brachii (p<0.033). Conclusion. Practical use of this study is to use the narrow grip width in bench press when increased tricep brachii strength and size is desired and if increased pectoralis major strength and size is desired the wide grip bench press exercise is preferable.

  • 2.
    Turnstedt, Max
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Effects of Load Carriage on Aerobic Capacity and Substrate Utilization in Swedish Ground Combat Soldiers2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Load carriage is a heavy task often performed in soldiers, other professions and sports, and is known to be strenuous on the body. Aerobic capacity which includes oxygen uptake and maximal oxygen uptake is the body’s ability to create energy using different substrates and is for assessing performance in load carriage. Soldiers are known to have a high aerobic capacity but it is not known to what degree load carriage has an effect on aerobic capacity, maximal performance or substrate utilization. Nor is it know how substrate utilization is affected during load carriage in participants with different body compositions. Aim. The aim of the current study was to investigate differences in oxygen consumption and substrate utilization with and without military gear and to study the relationship between body composition and substrate utilization in Swedish ground combat soldiers. Methods. Seven male and one female (24.5±3.5 years) participated in the current study. VO2, VO2peak, Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER) and performance in the form of levels completed in the VO2max test were measured with an Oxycon Pro during a biological calibration and a modified Bruce protocol for VO2max. Body composition was measured with a bioelectrical impedance analysis. Shapiro-Wilks test was used to test for normality, Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used for analysis of the main effects with gear, main effects of the levels and interaction effects between the tests. Paired samples t-test was used to analyze the differences in VO2peak, VO2 and RER. Spearman’s correlation was used for correlations between fat percentage and levels completed in the VO2max test. Results. The results of the current study showed a significantly lower absolute (p=0.02) and relative (p=0.01) VO2peak with gear compared to without gear. Significantly higher submaximal VO2 values with gear were also found in all active levels of the biological calibration and VO2max test as well as significantly higher RER values in all levels of the VO2max test with gear compared to without. A significant decrease in levels completed in the VO2max test (49%) with gear was also found (p<0.001). No correlations between substrate utilization, body composition and levels completed were found. Conclusion. The main findings of the current study were that VO2peak decreased and submaximal VO2 and RER levels were increased when wearing military gear. No correlations between muscle mass, fat mass or fat percentage and RER and levels completed were found. The findings can help better the understanding of the physiological demands during load carriage and can act as a guide for future load carriage workers, trainers and athletes.

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