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  • 1.
    Sporrong, Kristofer
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Harrysson, Mattias
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Elektrisk integrering och projektering av förnybar energi i svagt lokalt elnät2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To achieve a reliable and qualitative power conversion from the wind into electric power, a variety of factors and demands need to be obtained. Climatological and technological factors requires proper dimensioning and adjustment of the conversion technology, to harvest the greatest possible amount of energy and to be converted in a reliable and energy efficient way, that windmill owners, power grid owners require. The wind is as familiar an unpredictable power supply. The variations in intensity over time could mean a number of drive optimization problems with after-effects of the wind turbine, power grid and load. The consequences may depend on which type of technology that is installed in the different parts of the energy system. The area's power grid and varying power needs with characteristics over time, also has a significant importance. The turbulent wind gives deviations of voltage and power flow, especially in various extreme situations in weak power grids. Good interaction between the wind turbine and power grid with varying active and reactive power demand for the energy users, provides conditions for a good power quality and thus, an optimal and safe operation with few interruptions over time. It can be, and often is the mechanics, electro-technical choices in the wind turbine and associated electrical systems that play a critical role in how profitable installation is during the wind turbines technological life. The power grid owner strives for a good interaction between the power grid and electrical generation which rise for few faults between interruptions and errors. In the branch this is known as "Mean time between failures" MTBF. 

    According to the Swedenergy, harmonics, slow and fast voltage variations including required short-circuit power should be investigated and compared with those requirements and terms that prevails with electrical integration of power into the grid. The feasibility study has concluded two suitable power connection proposals including wind mapping research, later in this report it is described and suggested two related Smart Grid variants with energy storage for the two power connection proposals in the existing weak local grid. 

  • 2.
    Sporrong, Kristofer
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Ringvall, Angelica
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Pettersson, Per-Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Smarta lokala energisystem, Vision-Teknik-Tillämpning2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The energy sector is facing an impending paradigm shift. Today’s technology enables the end-user to generate their own energy locally at home. Furthermore, recently developed storage technologies make it possible to balance energy demand with stored energy and integrate district heating with the local power grid. This means that in the future heat and electric power will interact and energy flows is converted over energy boundaries. This places high demands on the energy systems dynamic and adaptive functions as a whole. Distributed System Operator (DSO) will therefore need to transform the local energy system, which requires initial investment of energy technology and intelligent system solutions that are technically efficient, flexible, and economically viable.Halmstad Energi och Miljö (HEM) owns a local energy system that is well prepared to implement the vision of a sustainable energy system. The city of Halmstad has politically established that renewable energy will play a more crucial role in the future. A greater proportion of "locally-generated" renewable energy will be implemented in this reference system that includes about 60 000 inhabitants, a great number of different heating/cooling customers and 40,000 electricity customers.In the future, it will be required by HEM to integrate intelligent energy solutions, where energy consumers are increasingly micro generation and able to control their energy demand patterns according to the most economical forecast. The local energy system needs to be able to handle a larger share of intermittent electricity from solar, wind or hydropower that can automatically interact with thermal energy from biomass and waste in a flexible, efficient and economical manner. The project group therefore advice HEM to urgently take steps to reserve the rights to a future aggregator role within the municipality. For this to be possible, new business models and contracts are examined within the energy branch.This master thesis provides suggestions for an appropriate mix of energy that can be achieved by 2030 for the reference system. The proposed energy mix generates 20% of the electricity demand and 100% heat production (except peak load) locally from Renewable Energy Sources (RES) according to local political goals. It also provides suggestions for alternative technological configurations where electricity and district heating systems interact across system boundaries.

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