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  • 1.
    Amador Molina, Oscar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany.
    A Survey on Remote Operation of Road Vehicles2022In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 10, p. 130135-130154Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the use of remote operation has been proposed as a bridge towards driverless mobility by providing human assistance remotely when an automated driving system finds a situation that is ambiguous and requires input from a remote operator. The remote operation of road vehicles has also been proposed as a way to enable drivers to operate vehicles from safer and more comfortable locations. While commercial solutions for remote operation exist, remaining challenges are being tackled by the research community, who is continuously testing and validating the feasibility of deploying remote operation of road vehicles on public roads. These tests range from the technological scope to social aspects such as acceptability and usability that affect human performance. This survey presents a compilation of works that approach the remote operation of road vehicles. We start by describing the basic architecture of remote operation systems and classify their modes of operation depending on the level of human intervention. We use this classification to organize and present recent and relevant work on the field from industry and academia. Finally, we identify the challenges in the deployment of remote operation systems in the technological, regulatory, and commercial scopes.

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  • 2.
    Amador Molina, Oscar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Calderon, Maria
    ETSI Telecomunicación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Urueña, Manuel
    Universidad Internacional de la Rioja, Logroño, Spain.
    Soto, Ignacio
    ETSI Telecomunicación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Evaluation of Greedy and CBF for ETSI non-area GeoNetworking: The impact of DCC2024In: Computer Communications, ISSN 0140-3664, E-ISSN 1873-703X, Vol. 218, p. 114-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates the performance of the two ETSI non-area forwarding algorithms in the GeoNetworking specification: Greedy Forwarding and Non-Area Contention-Based Forwarding (CBF). Non-area forwarding occurs when a packet is sent to a geographical Destination Area from a node located outside of this area, e.g., when a vehicle wants to alert of hazardous events to other vehicles located in a distant geographical area. The evaluation has been carried out both in urban and highway scenarios and takes into account the complete ETSI Architecture, including the interaction with the Decentralized Congestion Control (DCC) mechanism. We have also compared ETSI-defined mechanisms with optimizations found in the literature. Our main findings are that Greedy Forwarding, when combined with DCC, is extremely ineffective even with optimizations, and Non-Area CBFs (both ETSI CBF and an optimized version called S-FoT+) outperform Greedy Forwarding both in highway and urban scenarios.

  • 3.
    Amador Molina, Oscar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Ronelöv, Erik
    AstaZero AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Boustedt, Katarina
    AstaZero AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Blidkvist, Jesper
    AstaZero AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Protection of Vulnerable Road Users using Hybrid Vehicular Networks2022In: 2022 IEEE International Conference on Vehicular Electronics and Safety (ICVES), Piscataway: IEEE, 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of reactive detection technologies such as passive and active sensors for avoiding car accidents involving pedestrians and other Vulnerable Road Users (VRU) is one of the cornerstones of Cooperative, Connected, and Automated Mobility (CCAM). However, CCAM systems are not yet present in all roads at all times. The use of currently available technologies that are embedded in smartphones, such as location services and Internet access, are enablers for the early detection of VRUs. This paper presents the proof-of-concept of a system that provides vehicles with enough information about the presence of VRUs by using public cellular networks, an MQTT broker, and IEEE 802.11p-enabled hardware (a roadside unit and an on-board unit). The system was tested in an urban environment and in a test track, where its feasibility was evaluated. Results were satisfactory, proving the system is reliable enough to alert of the sudden appearance of a VRU in time for the driver to react. © 2022 IEEE.

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  • 4.
    Amador Molina, Oscar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Soto, Ignacio
    Departamento de Ingeniería de Sistemas Telemáticos, ETSI Telecomunicación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Madrid, 28040, Spain.
    Calderon, Maria
    Departamento de Ingeniería Telemática; Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Madrid, Leganés, 28911, Spain.
    Urueña, Manuel
    Escuela Superior de Ingenieros y Tecnología, Universidad Internacional de la Rioja, La Rioja, Logroño, 26006, Spain.
    Studying and improving the performance of ETSI ITS contention-based forwarding (CBF) in urban and highway scenarios: S-FoT+2023In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069, Vol. 233, article id 109899Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates the performance of ETSI ITS Contention-Based Forwarding (CBF) and ETSI Simple GeoBroadcast forwarding while disseminating warning messages over a Geographical Area in highway and urban scenarios. Our experimental evaluation considers the complete ETSI ITS architecture including the Decentralized Congestion Control (DCC) mechanism. We propose an enhanced CBF mechanism, named S-FOT+, which combines several improvements to the ETSI CBF algorithm. S-FoT+ has a similar or better performance than the ETSI forwarding algorithms regarding both reliability and end-to-end delay while requiring much fewer transmissions. The improvements are equally effective and efficient in both urban and highway scenarios with large Destination Areas. Finally, we evaluate the trade-offs that stem from using multi-hop broadcast mechanisms in urban settings with smaller Destination Areas when compared to single-hop broadcast. Results show that multi-hop mechanisms significantly improve coverage at the cost of an increased number of transmissions. © 2023 The Author(s)

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  • 5.
    Amador, Oscar
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    Urueña, Manuel
    Universidad Internacional De La Rioja, Logroño, Spain.
    Calderon, Maria
    Universidad Carlos III De Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Soto, Ignacio
    Universidad Carlos Iii De Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Evaluation and improvement of ETSI ITS Contention-Based Forwarding (CBF) of warning messages in highway scenarios2022In: Vehicular Communications, ISSN 2214-2096, E-ISSN 2214-210X, Vol. 34, article id 100454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates the performance of the ETSI Contention-Based Forwarding (CBF) GeoNetworking protocol for distributing warning messages in highway scenarios, including its interaction with the Decentralized Congestion Control (DCC) mechanism. Several shortcomings of the standard ETSI CBF algorithm are identified, and we propose different solutions to these problems, which are able to reduce the number of transmissions by an order of magnitude, while reducing the message end-to-end delay and providing a reliability close to 100% in a large area of interest. © 2022 Elsevier Inc.

  • 6.
    Soto, Ignacio
    et al.
    University Carlos III of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Calderon, Maria
    University Carlos III of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Amador Molina, Oscar
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Urueña, Manuel
    International University of La Rioja, Logrono, Spain.
    A survey on road safety and traffic efficiency vehicular applications based on C-V2X technologies2022In: Vehicular Communications, ISSN 2214-2096, E-ISSN 2214-210X, Vol. 33, article id 100428Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the use of cellular network technologies to provide communication-based applications to vehicles has received considerable attention. 3GPP, the standardization body responsible for cellular networks specifications, is developing technologies to meet the requirements of vehicular communication applications, and the research community is testing and validating the ability of those technologies to implement different applications. This survey presents the body of work dealing with the use of cellular technologies to implement communication-based applications for the connected vehicle. We focus on basic and advanced road safety and traffic efficiency applications, which are critically important for the future of vehicular networks. We start by describing the different cellular-related technologies that have a role to play in providing services to the connected vehicle, propose a classification of types of communication used in vehicular applications, and then apply this classification to organize and present recent research work on the topic. Finally, we identify the main challenges in the use of cellular technologies to develop applications for the connected vehicle. © 2021 Elsevier Inc.

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1 - 6 of 6
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