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  • 1.
    Bennike, Søren
    et al.
    The Danish Football Association, Brøndby, Denmark.
    Storm, Rasmus K.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Ottesen, Laila
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Club football in Denmark  – a game between state policy and the DFA2018Ingår i: Sport, Discriminations and Inclusion: Challenges to Face (Book of Abstracts): 15th European Association for Sociology of Sport Conference. Bordeaux, France, 23rd - 26th May 2018, Bordeaux: European Association for the Sociology of Sport , 2018, s. 56-56Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 2.
    Bennike, Søren
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Storm, Rasmus K.
    Danish Institute for Sports Studies, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Ottesen, Laila S.
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & Copenhagen Centre for Team Sport and Health, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    The organization of club football in Denmark – a contemporary profile2020Ingår i: Soccer & Society, ISSN 1466-0970, E-ISSN 1743-9590, Vol. 21, nr 5, s. 551-571Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides an understanding of the organization of Danish club football, including both grassroots and professional activities. We do this by analysing how it has developed and how it relates to four basic social orders viewed as ideal types; civil society, market, state and associations. Our study is grounded in document analysis, a questionnaire survey and existing knowledge of sports clubs and, in particular, football clubs. Our findings show how Danish football is a game that operates between these social orders. We highlight four unique traits: firstly, the existence of an overall formal, bureaucratic, non-profit, rather autonomous associative decentral democratic structure; secondly, a high number of non-profit, democratically organized grassroots clubs of different sizes spread around the country; thirdly, late professionalism; and fourthly, the creation of a certain business model of professional Danish football. © 2019 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 3.
    Bennike, Søren
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & Copenhagen Centre for Team Sport and Health, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & Copenhagen Centre for Team Sport and Health, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Ottesen, Laila Susanne
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & Copenhagen Centre for Team Sport and Health, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Football Fitness – a new version of football?: A concept for adult players in Danish football clubs2014Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 24, nr Suppl. 1, s. 138-146Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores a new Danish football‐based activity for health called Football Fitness (FF). Data are from quantitative and qualitative methods, and the theoretical framework for the analysis of the organizational form of FF is the theory of path dependency (Mahoney) and first‐ and second‐order change (Watzlawick et al.). Theories of Pestoff concerning differences between state, market, and the civil society and theories of voluntary associations in a Danish context (Kaspersen & Ottesen; Ibsen & Seippel) are applied. This article indicates how FF is a result of the changing landscape of sport and argues that it can be beneficial to target sports organizations and include the expertise of non‐profit sports clubs if the goal is to raise the physical activity level of the local community and make these long lasting. But the organizations need to consider how this is to be done. FF, established by the Danish Football Association (FA) and managed by the voluntary clubs, is one example in a Danish context. Data indicate that FF is beneficial to the clubs involved in a number of ways. Among other things, it attracts new user groups and improves the club environment, including social activities and parental environment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  • 4.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    et al.
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Strahler, Katharina
    Institute of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany.
    Krustrup, Peter
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Stelter, Reinhard
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Experiencing flow in different types of physical activity intervention programs: three randomized studies2010Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 20, nr Suppl. 1, s. 111-117Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores whether inactive individuals can experience flow, a rewarding, psychological state, during an exercise intervention and if there are differences according to the type of intervention they perform. Furthermore, the study investigates if experiencing flow is connected to physiological improvements attained during the exercise intervention. The 12‐ to 16‐week interventions included six randomized intervention groups, two female and four male groups performing continuous running, football, interval running and strength training. The results indicate that all six randomized exercise intervention groups experience rather high levels of flow regardless of whether the intervention is a team or individual sport. Differences in experiencing flow, worry and exertion as well as physiological improvements could be found for the different types of sports and the two genders, with the male football group having the highest score for physiological improvement and the lowest score for worry. A connection between experiencing flow and physiological improvement could not be found. Future research should investigate the influence that the participant's gender and also the type of sport have on experiencing flow, worry and perceived exertion. Furthermore, it should be investigated whether experiencing flow is linked to the long‐term compliance of regular physical activity. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S

  • 5.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Copenhagen Centre of Team Sport and Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Copenhagen Centre of Team Sport and Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Zheng, Miky
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Copenhagen Centre of Team Sport and Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Larsen, Malte Nejst
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Copenhagen Centre of Team Sport and Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Glen
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports,, Copenhagen Centre of Team Sport and Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Krustrup, Peter
    Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark & Sport and Health Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom.
    The importance of cohesion and enjoyment for the fitness improvement of 8–10-year-old children participating in a team and individual sport school-based physical activity intervention2017Ingår i: European Journal of Sport Science, ISSN 1746-1391, E-ISSN 1536-7290, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 343-350Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the enjoyment and cohesion of school children participating in a school-based high-intensity physical activity (PA) intervention. Both enjoyment and cohesion have been found to be important factors for adherence to regular physical and sport activity, an important outcome of PA interventions. The sample consisted of 300 pupils (mean age: 9.3 years; 52.7% female) assigned to a team sport intervention, an individual sport intervention, or a control group for 10 months. The Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale and Youth Sport Environment Questionnaire were used to measure enjoyment and cohesion. The Yo-Yo IR1C test determined fitness improvements. Results showed that enjoyment and cohesion (social) measured at the beginning of the intervention significantly predict fitness improvements achieved after 10 months. No differing developmental effects over time could be found in the intervention groups with regard to cohesion and enjoyment when comparing them to the control group. However, enjoyment and cohesion (social) significantly decreased in the groups that performed individual sports. Team sports seem to be more advantageous for the development of enjoyment and cohesion, which are both factors that positively impact the health outcomes of the intervention. © 2016 European College of Sport Science.

  • 6.
    Elholm Madsen, Esben
    et al.
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark; University College Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany.
    Hansen, Tina
    Amager-Hvidovre Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark.
    Damsgaard Thomsen, Sidsel
    University College Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Panduro, Jeppe
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Ermidis, Georgios
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Krustrup, Peter
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Randers, Morten B.
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Hvid Larsen, Carsten
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany.
    Wikman, Johan
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd.
    Can psychological characteristics, football experience, and player status predict state anxiety before important matches in Danish elite-level female football players?2022Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 32, nr S1, s. 150-160Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Elite football can make players feel nervous, and personality characteristics, as well as experience, affect how well pressure is handled before important games. Studying the psychological characteristics of female football players can provide information on how well psychological pressure is handled and generate knowledge on how to support players in order to improve performance. Based on a sample of 128 female elite football players from 8 top-level teams, the present study investigates whether psychological characteristics and football experience/player stus in elite female football players can predict state anxiety before important matches. Our results outline that high age and national team experience negatively predicted most of the trait anxiety subscales. In line with previous research, no psychological differences were found between goalkeepers, defenders, midfielders, and strikers while starting players revealed to have significantly lower trait anxiety. When measuring before important matches, we found that somatic state anxiety was negatively associated with senior national team experience and positively associated with worry trait anxiety and fear of failure. Cognitive state anxiety was negatively associated with hope for success and positively associated with somatic and worry trait anxiety. Self-confidence was positively associated with youth national team experience and negatively associated with worry trait anxiety. It can be concluded that psychological characteristics and national team experience are both important for optimal state anxiety before important matches in elite-level women's football. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. © 2020 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  • 7.
    Elholm Madsen, Esben
    et al.
    Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark; University College Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany.
    Krustrup, Peter
    University College Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Danish Institute for Advanced Study (DIAS), University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Hvid Larsen, Carsten
    Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany.
    Wikman, Johan
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Hälsa och idrott.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Hälsa och idrott.
    Lautenbach, Franziska
    Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany; Humboldt-Universität Zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Resilience as a protective factor for well-being and emotional stability in elite-level football players during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic2021Ingår i: Science and medicine in football, ISSN 2473-3938, E-ISSN 2473-4446, Vol. 5, nr sup1, s. 62-69Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Denmark, the first COVID-19 pandemic lockdown resulted in a compact season finisher for elite footballers, potentially impacting their mental health.Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the protective role of resilience and the impeding role of trait anxiety on elite footballers’ level and variability of well-being and emotional stability. Material and Methods: One hundred and twenty-five male elite-level players (Mage = 25.04 ± 4.82) completed baseline measures on trait anxiety and resilience. Additionally, well-being and positive and negative affect were assessed before games (n = 24) over 62 days. Separate two-level regression analysis using Bayesian statistics was conducted to test potential relationships. Results: Results show a credible positive relationship between the average level of well-being and within-person variability over time as well as the average level in positive affect. This indicates that resilience might be a protector for mental health. In addition, higher levels of trait anxiety (i.e., subscale concentration disruption) were associated with higher levels of negative affect and higher variability over time. This indicates that trait anxiety might facilitate negative affect. No other credible relationships were found. Conclusion: High resilience and low trait anxiety are identified as relevant factors for mental health within elite footballers during COVID-19. Implications for practice are discussed. © 2021 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 8.
    Elsborg, Peter
    et al.
    Center for Clinical Research and Prevention, Copenhagen University Hospital - Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Appleton, Paul R.
    Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, United Kingdom; .
    Pons, Joan
    Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Wikman, Johan M.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd.
    Bentsen, Peter
    Center for Clinical Research and Prevention, Copenhagen University Hospital - Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg, Denmark; University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Glen
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Factorial validity, predictive validity and measurement invariance of the Danish version of the coach-created Empowering Disempowering Motivational Climate Questionnaire (EDMCQ-C)2023Ingår i: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 41, nr 8, s. 715-726Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to translate and validate a Danish version of the coach-created Empowering and Disempowering Motivational Climate Questionnaire (EDMCQ-C), retest the factor structure and provide further investigation into the psychometric properties in terms of measurement invariance across gender, age and competitive level, reliability and predictive validity. Methods: The participants were 1719 male and 551 female Danish football players 12–20 years of age (M = 14.81) playing at recreational, medium and elite levels. Participants filled in EDMCQ-C as well as questionnaires measuring psychological needs (BPNESS) and behaviour regulation (BRSQ). Factor structure of the EDMCQ-C was tested using Exploratory Structural Equation Modelling. To test whether the factor structure differed across gender, age group and competitive level, an invariance analysis comparing configurational, metric and scalar models was conducted. Results: EDMCQ-C showed good psychometric properties and measurement invariance across age, gender and competitive level. Both dimensions of EDMCQ-C were associated to needs satisfaction and behaviour regulation in expected directions and had high internal consistency. Conclusion: This study provides evidence for the reliability of the two dimensions of EDMCQ-C, their predictive validity and for measurement invariance across age, gender and competitive level and provides a Danish version of the EDMCQ with sound psychometric properties. © 2023 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 9.
    Elsborg, Peter
    et al.
    Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark; Center for Clinical Research and Prevention, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Appleton, Paul
    Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, United Kingdom; University Institute of Sport, Manchester, United Kingdom.
    Wikman, Johan
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd.
    Nielsen, Glen
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    The associations between motivational climate, basic psychological needs and dropout in volleyball – A comparison across competitive levels2023Ingår i: European Journal of Sport Science, ISSN 1746-1391, E-ISSN 1536-7290, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 393-403Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance of motivational climate for the satisfaction of psychological needs and dropout in recreational, intermediate and elite volleyball. Seven thousand nine hundred thirty six volleyball players from all 321 volleyball clubs across Denmark were invited to participate in the study. Three thousand three thirty answered the questionnaire and 2150 were included in the analysis. Dropout from Volleyball was measured as the proportion of players that had stopped playing volleyball over the last year. The coach-created motivational climate was measured using the Motivational Climate Scale for Youth Sports. The satisfaction of players’ psychological needs was measured using an adapted version of the basic psychological needs in exercise scale. The psychometric scales were validated and showed good model fit. For volleyball players of all levels, the degree of mastery climate predicted the satisfaction of the players’ basic psychological needs satisfaction during volleyball which was, in turn, associated with lower dropout rates. Performance climate had a weak negative association with the satisfaction of psychological needs on the intermediate level only. When adjusting the models for the negative association between performance climate and mastery climate this negative association became nonsignificant and a weak positive association to needs satisfaction emerged for players at the elite level. Findings confirm that the coach-created mastery climate in volleyball teams is important for the satisfaction of players’ basic psychological needs and continuation within the sport across the recreational, intermediate and elite levels. Highlights Coach-created mastery climate in volleyball teams was positively associated with the satisfaction of the players’ basic psychological and negatively associated with dropout. These associations between coach created climate, need satisfaction and dropout were similar across different sporting levels. Performance orientation had little influence and seemed mainly problematic if it was at the expense of mastery climate. © 2022 European College of Sport Science.

  • 10.
    Elsborg, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise, and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise, and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Glen A.
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise, and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Tolver, Anders
    Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise, and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Development and Initial Validation of the Volition in Exercise Questionnaire (VEQ)2017Ingår i: Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, ISSN 1091-367X, E-ISSN 1532-7841, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 57-68Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study describes the development and validation of an instrument to measure volition in the exercise context. Volition describes an individual’s self-regulatory mental processes that are responsible for taking and maintaining a desirable action (e.g., exercising regularly). The scale structure was developed in an exploratory factor analysis which resulted in a reliable structure of the following six factors: Volitional Inhibition—Reasons, Volitional Inhibition—Postponing Training, Volitional Facilitation—Self-Confidence, Volitional Inhibition—Unrelated Thoughts, Volitional Inhibition—Approval From Others, and Volitional Facilitation—Coping with Failure. A sound theoretical explanation for these six factors is based on the Personal System Interaction Theory. This six-factor structure was also confirmed in a new sample in a confirmatory factor analysis, delivering an 18-item questionnaire with strong model fit and good internal consistency. In addition, the Volition in Exercise Questionnaire showed convergent validity because it was able to predict exercise participation. It showed incremental validity by explaining additional variance to the Sport Motivation Scale’s well-established predictors of exercise participation. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.

  • 11.
    Fristrup, Bjørn
    et al.
    Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Ryom, Knud
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Madsen, Mads
    Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark & Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Randers, Morten
    Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Larsen, Malte
    Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark & Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Recreational football for adolescent boys enhance muscle strength in lower limbs2017Ingår i: Proceedings of World Conference on Science and Soccer: 31st May - 2nd June 2017, 2017, s. 176-176Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 12.
    Henriksen, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Syddansk Universitet, Odense, Danmark, Team Danmark, Brøndby, Danmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    Institut for Idræt, Københavns Universitet, København, Danmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    Institut for Idræt, Københavns Universitet, København, Danmark.
    Højintensitetssportsgrene i et psykologisk perspektiv2010Ingår i: Elitesport med høj intensitet: anbefalinger der fremmer toppræstationer / [ed] Eva W. Helge, Brøndby: Institut for Idræt, Københavns Universitet , 2010, s. 5-8Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 13.
    Hornstrup, Therese
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Fristrup, Bjørn
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Póvoas, Susana
    Research Center in Sports Sciences, Health Sciences and Human Development, CIDESD, University Institute of Maia, ISMAI, Maia, Portugal.
    Helge, Eva W.
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Fitness and health benefits of team handball training for young untrained women - A cross-disciplinary RCT on physiological adaptations and motivational aspects2018Ingår i: Journal of Sport and Health Science, ISSN 2095-2546, E-ISSN 2213-2961, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 139-148Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The present study evaluated the effects of regular participation in small-sided team handball training on body composition, osteogenic response, physical performance, and cardiovascular risk factors, as well as well-being and motivation, in young untrained women.

    Methods: Twenty-eight untrained 20- to 30-year-old women were randomized to a handball training group (HG; n = 14, height 170 ± 5 cm, weight 73 ± 11 kg, VO2peak 37.7 ± 4.1 mL/min/kg) that trained 1.7 ± 0.3 times per week over 12 weeks (70 min 4 v 4 handball sessions) or an inactive control group (CG; n = 14, 169 ± 5 cm, 71 ± 12 kg, 38.1 ± 3.7 mL/min/kg). Physiological and psychological and motivational training adaptations were assessed pre- and post-intervention by dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scans, blood sampling, physical tests, and questionnaires.

    Results: The average heart rate (HR) over all training sessions was equal to 85% ± 6% HRmax. Between-group intervention effects were observed in favor of HG for muscle mass (2.1%, p = 0.024), proximal femur bone mineral density (0.8%, p = 0.041), Yo-Yo IE1 intermittent endurance test level 1 (IE1) performance (35%, p < 0.001), and incremental treadmill test performance (11.5%, p = 0.003), but not total fat mass (p = 0.176), mean arterial blood pressure (p = 0.328), resting HR (p = 0.219), or blood lipids (p = 0.298–0.854). In CG, no changes were observed in any of the measured physiological variables after the training period. Compared to CG, HG had an increase in intrinsic motivation (p < 0.001) and in the well-being subscale “energy” (p = 0.010).

    Conclusion: Participation in regular recreational team handball training organized as small-sided games has marked beneficial effects on physical performance, musculoskeletal fitness, well-being, and motivation in untrained young women. © 2018 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Shanghai University of Sport. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.

  • 14.
    Lind, Rune Rasmussen
    et al.
    Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark & Department of Nutrition, Exercise & Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Beck, Mikkel Malling
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise & Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Malarski, Krzysztof
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise & Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Krustrup, Peter
    Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise & Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Geertsen, Svend Sparre
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise & Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Acute high-intensity football games can improve children's inhibitory control and neurophysiological measures of attention2019Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 29, nr 10, s. 1546-1562Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies suggest that a single bout of exercise can lead to transient performance improvements in specific cognitive domains in children. However, more knowledge is needed to determine the key exercise characteristics for obtaining these effects and how they translate into real-world settings. In the present study, we investigate how small-sided football games of either high-or moderate-intensity affect measures of inhibitory control in a school setting. Eighty-one children (mean age 11.8, 48 boys) were randomly allocated to three groups performing 20-minute of high-intensity small-sided real football games (SRF), moderate-intensity small-sided walking football games (SWF) or resting (RF). Behavioral measures of inhibitory control and neurophysiological measures of attention (P300 latency and amplitude) were obtained during a flanker task performed at baseline and 20 minutes following the intervention. Retention of declarative memory was assessed in a visual memory task 7 days after the intervention. Measures of inhibitory control improved more in children performing SRF compared to SWF 19 ms, 95% CI [7, 31 ms] (P = 0.041). This was paralleled by larger increases in P300 amplitudes at Fz in children performing SRF compared both to RF in congruent (3.54 mu V, 95% CI [0.85, 6.23 mu V], P = 0.039) and incongruent trials (5.56 mu V, 95% CI [2.87, 8.25 mu V], P < 0.001) and compared to SWF in incongruent trials (4.10 mu V, 95% CI [1.41, 6.68 mu V], P = 0.010). No effects were found in measures of declarative memory. Together this indicates that acute high-intensity small-sided football games can transiently improve measures of inhibitory control and neurophysiological correlates of attention. Intense small-sided football games are easily implementable and can be employed by practitioners, for example, during breaks throughout the school day. © 2019 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  • 15.
    Madsen, Mads
    et al.
    Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, SDU Sport and Health Sciences Cluster (SHSC), University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    Institute of Sport Psychology and Physical Education, Faculty of Sport Science, Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany.
    Madsen, Esben Elholm
    Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, SDU Sport and Health Sciences Cluster (SHSC), University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark, Department of Midwifery, Physiotherapy, Occupational Therapy and Psychomotor Therapy, University College Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Ermidis, Georgios
    Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, SDU Sport and Health Sciences Cluster (SHSC), University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark, Department of Movement Sciences and Wellness, “Parthenope” University of Naples, Naples, Italy.
    Ryom, Knud
    Department of Public Health, Section of Health Promotion and Global Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Rasmussen Lind, Rune
    Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, SDU Sport and Health Sciences Cluster (SHSC), University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Larsen, Malte Nejst
    Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, SDU Sport and Health Sciences Cluster (SHSC), University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Krustrup, Peter
    Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, SDU Sport and Health Sciences Cluster (SHSC), University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark, Sport and Health Sciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK, Shanghai University of Sport (SUS), Shanghai, China.
    The “11 for Health in Denmark” intervention in 10- to 12-year-old Danish girls and boys and its effects on well-being—A large-scale cluster RCT2020Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 30, nr 9, s. 1787-1795Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The present study investigates the well‐being effects for 10‐ to 12‐year‐old children  who participated in the school‐based intervention “11 for Health in Denmark,” which comprises physical activity (PA) and health education. Subgroup analyses were carried out for boys and girls.

    Method: Three thousand sixty‐one children were randomly assigned to an intervention group (IG) or a control group (CG) by 5:1 cluster randomization by school. 2533 children (mean age 11.5 ± 0.4; 49.7% boys) were assigned to IG and 528 children (mean age 11.4 ± 0.5; 50.8% boys) were assigned to CG. IG participated in the “11 for Health in Denmark” 11‐week program, consisting of 2 × 45 min per week of football drills, small‐sided games, and health education. CG did not participate in any intervention and continued with their regular education. Before and after the intervention period, both groups answered a shortened version of the multidimensional well‐being questionnaire KIDSCREEN‐27.

    Results: The “11 for Health in Denmark” intervention program had a positive effect on physical well‐being in girls (IG: 48.6 ± 8.5 to 50.2 ± 9.3), whereas the improvement was not significant in boys. The program also had a positive impact on well‐being scores for peers and social support (IG: 50.2 ± 10.2 to 50.8 ± 10.1), though when analyzed separately in the subgroups of boys and girls the changes were not significant. No between‐group differences were found for psychological well‐being or school environment.

    Conclusion: The intervention program had a positive between‐group effect on physical well‐being in girls, whereas the change was not significant in boys. The overall scores for peers and social support improved during the intervention period, but no subgroup differences were found.

     © 2020 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  • 16.
    Madsen, Mads
    et al.
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Larsen, Malte N.
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Cyril, Rasmus
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Møller, Trine K.
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Madsen, Esben E.
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark; University College Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Ørntoft, Christina
    Team Denmark, Brøndby, Denmark.
    Lind, Rune R.
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Ryom, Knud
    Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Christiansen, Søren R.
    Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd.
    Elbe, Anne Marie
    Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany.
    Krustrup, Peter
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark; Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, China.
    Well-Being, Physical Fitness, and Health Profile of 2,203 Danish Girls Aged 10-12 in Relation to Leisure-time Sports Club Activity-With Special Emphasis on the Five Most Popular Sports2022Ingår i: Strength and conditioning journal, ISSN 1524-1602, E-ISSN 1533-4295, Vol. 36, nr 8, s. 2283-2290Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the relationship between leisure-time sports club activities and well-being as well as physical health parameters in 10-12-year-old Danish girls. Two thousand two hundred three girls took part in the study, which included questionnaires on participation in leisure-time sports clubs, well-being, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test, long jump, balance tests, body composition, blood pressure (BP), and resting heart rate (RHR). Data were analyzed according to whether the girls participated in leisure-time sport and according to the 5 most frequently reported sports. Girls enrolled in leisure-time sports had higher physical well-being (49.3 ± 8.6 vs. 45.2 ± 8.3), psychological well-being (50.4 ± 9.0 vs. 49.4 ± 9.8), experienced more peer and social support (50.2 ± 10.0 vs. 48.9 ± 10.7), and perceived a more positive school environment (52.5 ± 8.0 vs. 50.5 ± 9.3), as well as showing higher Yo-Yo (+39%), long jump (+10%), and balance performance (+15%) than girls not involved in sport clubs. The girls active in sports clubs had higher relative muscle mass (+5%), lower fat percentage (-11%), body mass index (-5%), RHR (-3.4 b·min-1), and diastolic BP (-1.4 mm Hg) compared with girls not involved in sport (p<0.05). Girls who played soccer showed higher aerobic fitness compared with inactive girls (+67%), dancers (+39%), swimmers (+38%), and gymnasts (+16%). Gymnasts had a lower fat percentage than inactive girls (-19%), team handballers (-10%), swimmers (-12%), and soccer players (-4%). Girls participating in club-based leisure-time sports showed higher well-being and better fitness and health profiles than girls not involved in any sports club activities. Girls involved in soccer had better aerobic fitness and gymnasts a lower fat percentage. Copyright © 2020 National Strength and Conditioning Association.

  • 17.
    Moesch, Karin
    et al.
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hauge, Marie-Louse Trier
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Late specialization: the key to success in centimeters, grams, or seconds (cgs) sports2011Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 21, nr 6, s. 282-290Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A controversial question within elite sports is whether young athletes need to specialize early, as suggested by Ericsson et al., or if it is more beneficial to follow the path of early diversification proposed by Côté et al., which includes sampling different sport experiences during childhood and specializing later on during adolescence. Based on a Danish sample of 148 elite and 95 near‐elite athletes from cgs sports (sports measured in centimeters, grams, or seconds), the present study investigates group differences concerning accumulated practice hours during the early stages of the career, involvement in other sports, career development, as well as determining whether or not these variables predict membership in the elite group. The results clearly reveal that elite athletes specialized at a later age and trained less in childhood. However, elite athletes were shown to intensify their training regime during late adolescence more than their near‐elite peers. The involvement in other sports neither differs between the groups nor predicts success. It can be concluded that factors related to the organization of practice during the mid‐teens seem to be crucial for international success within cgs sports. Future research should adopt a longitudinal design with means of drawing causal inferences. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S

  • 18.
    Moesch, Karin
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Mayer, Cecilie
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Reasons for career termination of female Danish elite athletes2011Ingår i: Sport and Exercise Psychology: Human Performance, Well-Being and Health : Proceedings of the 13th FEPSAC European Congress of Sport Psychology / [ed] Sidónio Serpa, Nelson Teixeira, Maria João Almeida, António Rosado, Madeira: Institute of Sport of the Autonomous Region of Madeira , 2011, s. 193-193Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past, career termination research has focused on many different aspects (e.g. cultural differences, transitional phases, adaptation processes, psychological problems, etc.). Research on gender differences of these aspects, however, is rather scarce.The aim of this study is to investigate gender-specific reasons for why elite athletes competing at the highest international level stop their careers. In one of the few existing studies on the topic Reints and Wylleman (2010) identified gender differences concerning career lengths as well as reasons for career termination.The purpose of this study is to analyze the lengths of the different career stages as well as career end of 32 female and 38 male Danish top-level athletes who all achieved either a medal at European level or placed among the top ten at world level.The data was collected in an online study in 2009. Results indicate that on average Danish female elite athletes end their career at the age of 28.5 years and that the three most frequent reasons for ending are injury (28%), starting a family (22%) and lack of motivation / achieved it all (17%). No gender differences appear concerning career length or length of the different career stages. However, females and males differ on reasons for career termination.These differences will be discussed on the basis of how to improve the situation of female athletes ending their career and how career support services could be better designed to match their needs.

  • 19.
    Moesch, Karin
    et al.
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Trier Hauge, Marie-Louise
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Talent Development in Danish Elite Athletes2011Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 20.
    Moesch, Karin
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Trier Hauge, Marie-Louise
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Volition distinguishes elite football players from near elites and talented dropouts2011Ingår i: Sport and Exercise Psychology: Human Performance, Well-Being and Health: Proceedings of the 13th FEPSAC European Congress of Sport Psychology / [ed] Sidónio Serpa, Nelson Teixeira, Maria João Almeida, António Rosado, Madeira: Institute of Sport of the Autonomous Region of Madeira , 2011, s. 155-155Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivational and volitional characteristics are considered important factors for athletic success but can also be connected to drop-out from elite sports (Elbe et al., 2003; Ericsson et al., 1993). This study investigates volitional and motivational factors of top-level Danish football players. Sixty five female and 42 male players (N = 107; age: M = 21.03 years, SD = 4.89) completed an online survey requesting information about sport success, career development and reasons for retirement (if applicable). In addition they filled in the short version of the Achievement Motives Scale -Sport (Elbe & Wenhold, 2005) and four scales of the Volitional Components Questionnaire-Sport (Wenhold et al., 2009).The sample was divided into elite (n = 23), near-elite (n = 65) and dropouts (n = 19) based on athletic success and reasons for retirement. A one-way between-subjects ANOVA was used to calculate differences between these three groups concerning motivational and volitional factors. The ANOVA revealed significant differences regarding the volitional scales self-determination (p < .05), avoiding effort (p < .01) and postponing training (p < .01).The elite athletes showed the most beneficial values in all three scales, whereas the dropouts showed the lowest scores. No significant differences were found regarding the other variables. The results identify volition as a crucial personality factor for elite football players, which might also be connected to dropping out of sport.

  • 21.
    Moesch, Karin
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hauge, Marie-Louise Trier
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Making It to the Top in Team Sports: Start Later, Intensify, and Be Determined!2013Ingår i: Talent Development and Excellence, ISSN 1869-0459, E-ISSN 1869-2885, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 85-100Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is debated whether young athletes need to specialize early, or if it is more beneficial to follow the path of early diversification. The present study investigates the career paths and related motivational and volitional factors of Danish elite and nearelite team sport athletes. Seventy-six athletes matched by sport, age and sex participated in the study. Elite athletes started their career later and showed higher self-determination and lower values in postponing training. The logistic regression showed that fewer accumulated training hours up to age 12, but more up to age 15 significantly predicted elite group membership. All other investigated variables did not show significant results. It is concluded that there are more similarities than differences between the two groups. © 2013 International Research Association for Talent Development and Excellence

  • 22.
    Moesch, Karin Silvia
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Trier Hauge, Marie-Louise
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Is late specialization the key to success in CGS sports?2010Ingår i: Sport Science: Where the Cultures Meet: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Feza Korkusuz, Hayri Ertan & Elias Tsolakidis, Antalya: European College of Sport Science , 2010, s. 511-512Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 23.
    Moesch, Karin
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Trier Hauge, Marie-Louise
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Do elite and sub-elite athletes show different career development paths? A study with Danish athletes involved in individual sports2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 24.
    Nielsen, Glen
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd.
    Appleton, Paul R.
    Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, United Kingdom.
    Bentsen, Peter
    Copenhagen University Hospital, Frederiksberg, Denmark; University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elsborg, Peter
    Copenhagen University Hospital, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Predicting adolescents' continuation in club sports: A prospective cohort study of the importance of personal and contextual motivational factors in five sports in Denmark2024Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 34, nr 4, artikel-id e14616Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the influence of types of motivation, basic psychological needs satisfaction and of a coach-created motivational climate on continued participation in youth sports across types of sport, competitive levels, ages, and gender. Methods: Participants were 7110 adolescent (age 12–20 years) members of leisure time club organized in basketball, handball, football, badminton, and gymnastics in Denmark. Motivational regulation was measured with BRSQ-6, basic psychological needs satisfaction and frustration were measured with PNSS-S, and coach-created climate was measured with the EDMCQ-C. The participants' continuation or dropout was measured at the beginning of the following season with a short electronic questionnaire. Results: Intrinsic motivation, identified behavior regulation, experiences of competence, relatedness, and autonomy, as well as a coach-created empowering motivational climate, were associated with continuation both in the sport and in the club the following season across different sports, genders, age groups, and competitive levels. Introjected and external behavior regulation, frustrations with the need to experience competence, relatedness, and autonomy, as well as a disempowering coach-created climate, were associated with dropout. Conclusion: In Danish youth sports, autonomous motivation, satisfaction of basic psychological needs, and an empowering coach-created motivational climate have a positive impact on the continuation of the sport and the club the following season. In contrast, controlled types of motivation, needs frustration, and a disempowering coach-created climate are associated with dropout. This is the case at both elite and recreational levels, for boys and girls, adolescents, and youth. © 2024 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  • 25.
    Nielsen, Glen
    et al.
    Copenhagen Centre for Team Sport and Health, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    Copenhagen Centre for Team Sport and Health, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Jensen, Christian Jais
    Copenhagen Centre for Team Sport and Health, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Schmidt, Jakob Friis
    Copenhagen Centre for Team Sport and Health, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Gliemann, Lasse
    Copenhagen Centre for Team Sport and Health, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard
    Copenhagen Centre for Team Sport and Health, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Health promotion: The impact of beliefs of health benefits, social relations and enjoyment on exercise continuation2014Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 24, nr Suppl. 1, s. 66-75Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore how and why participants in structured exercise intervention programs continue or stop exercising after the program is finished. We conducted four focus group interviews with four groups of middle-aged and elderly men (total n=28) who had participated in exercise interventions involving playing either a team sport (football) or a more individually focused activity (spinning and crossfit). Our results show that different social, organizational and material structures inherent in the different activities shape the subjects' enjoyment of exercise participation, as well as their intention and ability to continue being active. In conclusion, team sport activities seem to be intrinsically motivating to the participants through positive social interaction and play. They are therefore more likely to result in exercise continuation than activities that rely primarily on extrinsic motivation such as the expectation of improved health and well-being. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  • 26.
    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen
    et al.
    Section of Integrated Physiology, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Copenhagen Centre of Team Sport and Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen N, Denmark.
    Vorup, Jacob
    Section of Integrated Physiology, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Copenhagen Centre of Team Sport and Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen N, Denmark.
    Nistrup, Anne
    Section of Members of Sport, Individual & Society, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Copenhagen Centre of Team Sport and Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen N, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    Section of Members of Sport, Individual & Society, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Copenhagen Centre of Team Sport and Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen N, Denmark.
    Alstrøm, Joachim Meno
    Section of Integrated Physiology, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Copenhagen Centre of Team Sport and Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen N, Denmark.
    Sandfeld Melcher, Pia
    Section of Integrated Physiology, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Copenhagen Centre of Team Sport and Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen N, Denmark.
    Pfister, Gertrud Ursula
    Section of Members of Sport, Individual & Society, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Copenhagen Centre of Team Sport and Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen N, Denmark.
    Bangsbo, Jens
    Section of Integrated Physiology, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Copenhagen Centre of Team Sport and Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen N, Denmark.
    Effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, quality of life, and motivation in older adults2017Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 27, nr 8, s. 852-864Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, psychological health, quality of life, and motivation in older untrained adults. Twenty‐five untrained men and forty‐seven untrained women aged 80 (range: 67‐93) years were recruited. Fifty‐one were assigned to a training group (TRG) of which twenty‐five performed team training (TG) and twenty‐six resistance training (RG). The remaining twenty‐one were allocated to a control group (CG). TRG trained for 1 hour twice a week for 12 weeks. Compared with CG, TRG improved the number of arm curls within 30 seconds (P<.05) and 30‐seconds chair stand (P<.05) during the intervention. In TRG, participation in training led to higher (P<.05) scores in the subscales psychological well‐being, general quality of life, and health‐related quality of life, as well as decreased anxiety and depression levels. No differences between changes in TG and RG were found over the intervention period, neither in physical function tests nor psychological questionnaires. Both TG and RG were highly motivated for training, but TG expressed a higher degree of enjoyment and intrinsic motivation mainly due to social interaction during the activity, whereas RG was more motivated by extrinsic factors like health and fitness benefits. In conclusion, both team training and resistance training improved physical function, psychological well‐being, and quality of life. However, team sport training motivated the participants more by intrinsic factors than resistance training. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd

  • 27.
    Ryom, Knud
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Elsborg, Peter
    Steno Diabetes Centre Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    SJSEP – new winds from the north2020Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 2596-741X, Vol. 2, s. 1-1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 28.
    Ryom, Knud
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Elsborg, Peter
    Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Scandinavian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology – new winds from the north2019Ingår i: Abstract book: The 15th European Congress of Sport and Exercise Psychology – Building the Future of Sport and Exercise Psychology / [ed] B. Strauss et al., 2019, s. 174-174Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In a rapidly changing world, with an increasing pragmatic attitude towards knowledge, we find it important to create a space for reflection of sports psychological interest in Scandinavia. Hence, the purpose of the Scandinavian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology (SJSEP) is to collect and disseminate knowledge and experience between researchers, practitioners, athletes, coaches and others with an interest in sports psychology. SJSEP is an open access journal, published annually by the Danish Sports Psychological Forum, and published its first issue in 2018. SJSEP aims to publish high quality articles through two sections: 1) a section disseminating research results relevant to sports and exercise psychology in Scandinavia, and 2) a section presenting applied work within sport and exercise psychology in Scandinavia. SJSEP will publish in Danish, Swedish, Norwegian and English. The editors of the journal have identified key goals for SJSEP in the coming years. First, a double-blinded peer review process has been established, from which reviewer comments from the review phase itself will be published, to give readers the full picture of the submission process. Second, SJSEP wishes to be internationally acknowledged as peer-reviewed. Third, SJSEP aims to be included in the most important search databases. Fourth, SJSEP will aim to have an impact factor included. With time, the editors of SJSEP hope that the journal will be primarily chosen for publishing high quality research and applied practice papers, and in particular within Scandinavia.

  • 29.
    Ryom, Knud
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Stelter, Reinhard
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Developing self-concept through team sport and coaching/mentoring in an immigrant setting2019Ingår i: Abstract book: The 15th European Congress of Sport and Exercise Psychology – Building the Future of Sport and Exercise Psychology / [ed] B. Strauss et al., Muenster: Department of Sport and Exercise Psychology, University of Muenster , 2019, s. 305-305Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a team sport (football) and coaching intervention on the self-concept of N = 129 male school students (aged 12-16) from a socially deprived area. The study took place in Copenhagen, Denmark, in an area of primarily immigrant families and families of lower socioeconomic status. Over the two-year intervention period, participants participated in weekly football training sessions and a coaching session (on personal development) every second week. In a quasi-experimental mixed methods design, the Self-Description Questionnaire II (SDQ-II) and the Youth Sport Environment Questionnaire (YSEQ) were distributed at baseline as well as at end of the intervention to investigate the effects of the intervention. Interviews with the participants at the end of the intervention were used to investigate participants’ experiences of the intervention. Linear regression analyses performed on questionnaire data showed a significant improvement on a) the general self-concept, b) physical skills, and c) social relations. Qualitative interviews showed that participants experienced a) a stronger and more confident self, b) a better physical condition, and c) a stronger and more supportive social environment as the result of their participation. Implications of the results are discussed alongside strategies for working with football/team sport and coaching as a way of addressing behavioural problems in school settings in socioeconomically deprived areas.

  • 30.
    Ryom, Knud
    et al.
    Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Stelter, Reinhard
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Supporting Self-Concept in School Settings Targeting Migrant Background Boys2021Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 65, nr 4, s. 676-692Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the experience of and effect created by a team sport and coaching intervention upon the self-concept of male school students (age: 12–16; n = 129) from diverse backgrounds. A convergent parallel mixed-method design was used to compare and relate a questionnaire study and an interview study in a quasi-experimental design, based on a two-year intervention period. Quantitative results showed a significant effect on (1) general self-concept, (2) physical skills, and (3) social relations. Qualitative interviews showed participants experiencing (1) a stronger and more confident self, (2) a better physical condition, and (3) a stronger and more supportive social environment. Implications of the results are discussed alongside strategies for working with self-concept in school settings targeting migrant background boys. © 2020 Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research.

  • 31.
    Stelter, Reinhard
    et al.
    Coaching Psychology Unit, Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Glen
    Coaching Psychology Unit, Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    Coaching Psychology Unit, Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Narrative-collaborative group coaching develops social capital – a randomised control trial and further implications of the social impact of the intervention2011Ingår i: Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice, ISSN 1752-1882, E-ISSN 1752-1890, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 123-137Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of narrative-collaborative group coaching on career development, self-reflection and the general functioning of young sports talents with the goal of achieving integration of their sports careers, educational demands and private lives. The intervention was based on a narrative-collaborative approach, with the intention of inviting the participants to share with and learn from each other. The randomised control design was based on 77 participants (questionnaire measuring recovery/stress, motivation and action control). A qualitative interview study included six participants. The group-coaching intervention had a significant effect on the scores for social recovery and general well-being. The qualitative study showed that group-coaching participants valued the shared process of meaning-making as especially valuable. Narrative-collaborative group coaching can be understood as a community psychological intervention that helps to support the development of durable social networks and the increase of social capital. © Taylor & Francis.

  • 32.
    Stelter, Reinhard
    et al.
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Glen
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    Narrativ-samskabende gruppecoaching udvikler social kapital: Kvantitative og kvalitative resultater understreger interventionens sociale indvirkning2011Ingår i: Coaching Psykologi: the Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology, ISSN 2244-9698, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 67-77Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 33.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sport, Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Development of an Evidence-Based Sport Psychological Training Program for Young Elite Athletes2015Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Sport psychological training seems to be a viable way of facilitating development and performance for adult athletes, and even though sport psychological training for young athletes is less investigated, research indicates that talented athletes can benefit from sport psychological training as well. The aim of this thesis is to review and add to the current knowledge on sport psychological training for young elite athletes, and to investigate sport psychological interventions for young elite athletes. This will aid the development of sport psychological training programs for young elite athletes.

    This thesis investigates sport psychological training for young elite athletes through two approaches. First, three reviews are performed: a review of psychological skills and characteristics needed for successful talent development, a review of current talent development theories and models, and a review of sport psychological interventions for young athletes. Second, four research studies are reported. These studies investigate sport psychological interventions for young elite athletes.

    In the chapter entitled “Sport Psychological Training for Young Elite Athletes”, the three reviews of the literature are conducted. First, a review of studies investigating sport psychological skills and characteristics needed for successful development reveals three skills/characteristics that seems to be mentioned repeatedly in the literature, namely motivation, social skills, and self-regulation. Second, a theoretical introduction to current talent development theories and models is given. Here, the Theory of Deliberate Practice (Ericsson, Krampe, & Tesch-Römer, 1993), the Developmental Model of Sport Participation (Côté, Baker, & Abernethy, 2007), the Lifespan Model (Wylleman & Reints, 2010), and the normative transitions faced by the athlete (Stambulova, 1994) are viewed with a focus on sport psychological training, with the aim of uncovering which psychological skills and characteristics, young athletes need to possess in order to develop and become successful elite 6 athletes. The result is an overview of the psychological skills and characteristics, an overview which supports the conclusions from the first review of psychological skills and characteristics needed for successful talent development – that motivation, social skills and self-regulation are important for successful development.

    Third, a review of sport psychological interventions for young athletes is performed. The review reveals 37 studies, of which 10 used a sample that can be viewed as elite. Furthermore, the review reveals that interventions targeting the important skills and characteristics for talent development, motivation, social skills and self-regulation, are not thoroughly investigated with young participants. Therefore, it is decided to conduct four studies targeting motivation, social skills and self-regulation.

    In the chapter entitled “Methodology”, the methodology of the intervention studies in this thesis is discussed. The chapter starts with discussing important points regarding intervention studies, namely the theoretical underpinning of the intervention, randomised control trials compared with quasi-experimental studies, length of the intervention, whether the intervention had an effect, and the dual position of the researcher.

    This is followed by an introduction to mixed methods, namely the ontology, epistemology, and methodology of using both quantitative and qualitative methods to obtain data about the phenomenon under scrutiny, and it is defined, which methodological standpoint has supported the methods of this thesis, namely the pragmatic standpoint. Two mixed methods frameworks are presented (Leech & Onwuegbuzie, 2007; Östlund, Kidd, Wengström, & Rowa-Dewar, 2011), and the studies in the thesis are placed in these frameworks.

    Lastly, measurement issues of questionnaire studies are discussed, with focus on reliability and validity of the data produced with questionnaires. The “Methodology” chapter is then followed by the four research studies.

    Study 1 describes the effects of a three-month goal setting intervention on fear of failure in talented swimmers and track and field athletes. The goal setting group participated in 12 weekly goal setting sessions, while the control group did not. The effects were investigated primarily through questionnaire data gathered at baseline and at the end of the intervention, but qualitative interviews were also conducted to capture the participants’ experience of the intervention. It was concluded that goal setting can be used to decrease fear of failure in young elite athletes. This research article also includes a validation of the Achievement Motive Scale-Sport (Elbe & Wenhold, 2005) through confirmatory factor analysis.

    Study 2 describes the effects of a three-month team building intervention on social cohesion in young elite football players. The intervention group participated in 12 weekly team building sessions, while the control group did not. Effects were investigated with questionnaire data gathered at baseline and end of the intervention, as well as with qualitative interviews. Statistical results suggested that social cohesion increased in the intervention group compared with the control group, and qualitative interviews supported this conclusion. Cohesion seems to be a possible target for interventions, even with teams that spend a lot of time together. The Group Cohesion Questionnaire (Carron, Widmeyer, & Brawley, 1985), which was used in this study, seemed to have problems with reliability, and possible reasons for this are discussed.

    Study 3 describes the effects of a three-month relaxation intervention on levels of recovery in talented athletes attending high school. The effects in the intervention group compared with the control group were investigated via questionnaire data gathered with the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (Kellmann & Kallus, 2001) at baseline and at the end of the intervention, as well as with qualitative interviews with the intervention participants. While the statistical results indicated that there was no effect of the intervention, analysis of the qualitative interviews 8 suggested that the intervention had an impact on the participants. It was concluded that the intervention was effective. Suggestions for future interventions are given.

    Study 4 describes the effects of a narrative-collaborative group coaching intervention on the recovery levels in young elite athletes in high school. The intervention group participated in eight 90-minute group coaching sessions distributed over 12 weeks, while the control group did not. Questionnaire data was gathered with the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (Kellmann & Kallus, 2001) at baseline and at end of the intervention, and qualitative interviews were conducted with the participants in the coaching groups. Statistical analyses suggested that the coaching intervention had an effect on social recovery and general well-being. These results were supported by the analysis of the qualitative interviews.

    In the chapter “Main Findings”, the primary findings of the three reviews of current literature as well as the four intervention studies are reported. This is followed by the chapter “General Discussion”. Here, the four research studies are discussed in relation to existing literature, as well as in relation to the current talent development theories and models. This is followed by a general discussion not related to the literature reviews in the thesis. Limitations of the current thesis are described, as well as implications for future research and practice in talent development and sport psychological training.

    Findings suggest that sport psychological training for young elite athletes is possible and important in order to give young athletes the best conditions to develop successfully into elite athletes. The reviews of psychological skills and characteristics, talent development theories and models, and sport psychological interventions for young athletes, as well as the four research studies can be used to inform research and practice in the future. © 2015, Johan Michael Wikman

  • 34.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    Department of Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Study, Research and Careers at the Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark2008Ingår i: Ze-phir – Informationen für den sportwissenschaftlichen Nachwuchs, E-ISSN 1438-4132, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 18-20Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 35.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    et al.
    Institute of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    Institute of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Stelter, Reinhard
    Institute of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Can goal setting training reduce fear of failure in young elite athletes?2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 36.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Stelter, Reinhard
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    The effects of a team building intervention on group integration - social in young elite football2011Ingår i: Sport and Exercise Psychology Human Performance, Well-Being and Health: Proceedings of the 13th FEPSAC European Congress of Sport Psychology / [ed] Sidonio Serpa, Nelson Teixeira, Maria Joao Almeida, Antonio Rosado, Madeira: Institute of Sport of the Autonomous Region of Madeira , 2011, s. 156-157Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Group cohesion has shown to positively correlate with adherence in sport teams, role involvement, adherence to group norms, collective efficacy and team performance.The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of a team building intervention on team cohesion in teams of young elite football players.

    Method: One hundred and fifty two male football players aged 12 to 19 were enrolled in the study (mean age = 15.69, SD = 1.75). Four teams were assigned to an intervention group (n = 74) and four teams to a control group (n = 78). A Danish version of the Group Environment Questionnaire (Carron, Widmeyer & Brawley, 2002) measures four dimensions of team cohesion, one of these being Group Integration - Social, and it was administered at baseline (T1), six weeks after intervention start (T2), and at the end of the intervention, after twelve weeks (T3).The intervention sessions took place once per week for 12 weeks and lasted 60 minutes each.The aim of the sessions was to increase overall team cohesion through individual exercises, discussions in small groups, discussions with the whole team and team building exercises.

    Results: A paired samples t-test revealed that Group Integration - Social significantly increased from T2 to T3 in the intervention group, but not in the control group (0.33, p = 0.46, r = 0.25).

    Discussion: The results suggest that team building can be used as an effective method to increase social group integration in young elite football teams.

  • 37.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Elsborg, Peter
    Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark.
    About SJSEP2018Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, E-ISSN 2596-741X, Vol. 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 38.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    et al.
    Centre for Team Sports and Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elsborg, Peter
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Ryom, Knud
    Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark & University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Psychological benefits of team sport2017Ingår i: Sport and Health: Exploring the Current State of Play / [ed] Daniel Parnell & Peter Krustrup, London: Routledge, 2017, 1, s. 132-146Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this chapter is to discuss if team sport offer psychological benefits above and beyond the benefits that can be acquired through individual physical activity. Psychological benefits of physical activity in general are compared to benefits of team sport. It is concluded that team sport holds an unused potential for psychological health improvement. This potential stems from the social qualities of team sport that both have a direct impact on psychological health and are indirectly important because it elicits higher motivation than individual physical activity. The chapter concludes with implications for practice and research.

  • 39.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nistrup, Anne
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Vorup, Jacob
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Pedersen, Mogens T.
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Melchor, Pia S.
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bangsbo, Jens
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Pfister, Gertrud
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    The Effect of Floorball Training on Health Status, Psychological Health and Social Capital in Older Men2017Ingår i: AIMS Public Health, E-ISSN 2327-8994, Vol. 4, nr 4, s. 364-382Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary study which investigated the effects of a period with floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital of older men. Thirty-nine untrained men aged 69.9 ± 0.6 (range: 65–76) were randomized into a group playing floorball (n = 22) or a group playing petanque (n = 17) one hour twice a week for 12 weeks. Both groups filled out the Health Survey Short Form (SF-12) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) before and after the 12-week intervention. Linear regression analyses with bootstrapping showed that the men in the floorball group improved in the SF-12 composite score for mental health, as well as the HADS subscales anxiety and depression, compared to the men in the petanque group. In addition, 21 interviews were conducted with a sample of the men engaged in floorball. According to the statements in the interviews, the men in the floorball group experienced a high degree of solidarity and group cohesion which seemed to have increased their social capital during the intervention. In particular, the fun and joyful experiences of playing led to a high degree of social connectedness, which were mentioned by many of the men as the main reason for their participation throughout the 12-week period. The statistical results and the interview findings suggest that participation in a ball game such as floorball has several benefits regarding health status, psychological health and social capital and in addition that playing floorball is experienced as enjoyable amongst older men. Thus, it can be concluded that floorball is an activity that benefits older men and should be provided in relevant contexts, such as e.g. sport clubs or centres for seniors. © 2017, Johan M. Wikman, et al., licensee AIMS Press.

  • 40.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Ryom, Knud
    Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Melby, Paulina S.
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elsborg, Peter
    Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Health Promotion Research, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany.
    Motivational aspects of Football as Medicine2020Ingår i: Football as Medicine: Prescribing Football for Global Health Promotion / [ed] Peter Krustrup; Daniel Parnell, London: Routledge, 2020, 1, s. 102-115Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In order for football to be effective as medicine it is important that participants actively engage in playing football on a regular basis. One of the key factors for regular participation in football activities is the participant’s motivation. As motivation is an interplay between the person and situation, the chapter is divided into two major sections: Personal motivational factors and situational motivational sectors. The first section, focusing on personal motivational factors, gives an overview of two frequently used motivational frameworks in physical activity, namely the Self-Determination Theory and the flow concept. It is then argued that football and similar team sports elicit more intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, as well as more flow experiences, compared to individual physical activity. Lastly, it is investigated why football and similar team sports are more motivating, and suggested that it is due to a higher degree of satisfaction of the basic psychological needs, a higher degree of social relations and better conditions for eliciting flow. The second section, focusing on situational motivational factors, starts by giving an overview of the mastery and performance climate distinction in the Achievement Goal Theory. It is subsequently argued that the theory-driven TARGET and Empowering Coaching frameworks can inform football as medicine activities that will engage participants and contribute to their long-term participation in recreational football activities.

  • 41.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    et al.
    Department for Nutrition, Exercise and Sports University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Ryom, Knud
    Department of Public Health, Humanistic Sport Research, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Stelter, Reinhard
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sport, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Effects of a School-Based Relaxation Intervention on Recovery in Young Elite Athletes in High School2016Ingår i: Sport Science Review, ISSN 2066-8732, E-ISSN 2069-7244, Vol. 25, nr 3-4, s. 199-224Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports the effects of a recovery intervention in young elite athletes in high school. The scissors model (Kellmann & Kallus, 2001) was used as a theoretical foundation for the intervention. An intervention group (n = 40) participated in 12 weekly intervention sessions, while the control group (n = 58) did not. A Danish version of the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes measured recovery levels in the participants, at baseline and at the end of intervention. Qualitative interviews were conducted with four of the participants. Quantitative results did not show an improvement in recovery and stress levels. Qualitative results showed that the intervention had an effect on the participants, and also revealed areas, in which the intervention could be improved. Suggestions for future interventions are given.

  • 42.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    et al.
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Stelter, Reinhard
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Melzer, Marcus
    AMEOS Clinic for Psychiatry, Ueckermuende, Germany.
    Trier Hauge, Marie-Louise
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Effects of goal setting on fear of failure in young elite athletes2014Ingår i: International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1612-197X, E-ISSN 1557-251X, Vol. 12, nr 3, s. 185-205Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports the effects of a goal-setting intervention on fear of failure in young elite athletes. Using the hierarchical model of approach and avoidance motivation as a theoretical vantage point, a goal-setting intervention using mastery-approach goals and existing goalsetting recommendations was used as intervention. The goal-setting group (n = 33) attended 12 weekly, one-hour goal-setting sessions, while the control group (n = 16) did not. A Danish version of the short form of the Achievement Motives Scale-Sport was tested with a confirmatory factor analysis and showed good fit. It was used to measure fear of failure at baseline, at the end of intervention and at follow-up, 12 weeks after intervention had ended. Results showed that in the goal-setting group, fear of failure decreased significantly from baseline to end of intervention, but increased again from end of intervention to follow-up. This indicates that fear of failure is an achievement motive disposition that can be changed through certain achievement experiences. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. © 2014 International Society of Sport Psychology.

  • 43.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Stelter, Reinhard
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Petersen, Niklas Kaysen
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Effects of a team building intervention on social cohesion in adolescent elite football players2017Ingår i: Swedish Journal of Sport Research, ISSN 2001-6018, E-ISSN 2001-9475Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes a team building intervention and the effects on team cohesion in adolescent elite football players. The team building group (3 teams, n = 55) attended 12 weekly 60-minute team building sessions, while the control group (3 teams, n = 57) did not. The intervention used the work of Carron and Spink (1993) and Carron, Widmeyer and Brawley (1985) to plan and conduct a practically sound and effective intervention. A Danish version of the Group Environment Questionnaire was used to measure social and task cohesion at baseline and at the end of the intervention, and qualitative interviews with the participants were conducted. Results show that the sub-variable group integration–social increased significantly from baseline to end of intervention in the intervention group compared to the control group. The qualitative analysis indicated that the intervention had an effect on the intervention group. Results are discussed regarding practical implications and research.

  • 44.
    Wikman, Johan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Ryom, Knud
    University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Elsborg, Peter
    Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Introduktion2018Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 2596-741X, Vol. 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [da]

    Introduktion til DIFO tidsskriftet Scandinavian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology (SJSEP).

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