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  • 1.
    Atiq, Ferdows
    et al.
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Van De Wouw, Jens
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Sorop, Oana
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Heinonen, Ilkka
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    De Maat, Moniek P. M.
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Merkus, Daphne
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands; Klinikum der Universität München, Munich, Germany; Deutsches Zentrum für Herz-Kreislauf-Forschung e. V., Berlin, Germany.
    Duncker, Dirk J.
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Leebeek, Frank W. G.
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Endothelial Dysfunction, Atherosclerosis, and Increase of von Willebrand Factor and Factor VIII: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Swine2021In: Thrombosis and Haemostasis, ISSN 0340-6245, E-ISSN 2567-689X, Vol. 121, no 5, p. 676-686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All rights reserved.It is well known that high von Willebrand factor (VWF) and factor VIII (FVIII) levels are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. It is still debated whether VWF and FVIII are biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis or whether they have a direct causative role. Therefore, we aimed to unravel the pathophysiological pathways of increased VWF and FVIII levels associated with cardiovascular risk factors. First, we performed a randomized controlled trial in 34 Göttingen miniswine. Diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced with streptozotocin and hypercholesterolemia (HC) via a high-fat diet in 18 swine (DM + HC), while 16 healthy swine served as controls. After 5 months of follow-up, FVIII activity (FVIII:C) was significantly higher in DM + HC swine (5.85 IU/mL [5.00-6.81]) compared with controls (4.57 [3.76-5.40], p = 0.010), whereas VWF antigen (VWF:Ag) was similar (respectively 0.34 IU/mL [0.28-0.39] vs. 0.34 [0.31-0.38], p = 0.644). DM + HC swine had no endothelial dysfunction or atherosclerosis during this short-term follow-up. Subsequently, we performed a long-term (15 months) longitudinal cohort study in 10 Landrace-Yorkshire swine, in five of which HC and in five combined DM + HC were induced. VWF:Ag was higher at 15 months compared with 9 months in HC (0.37 [0.32-0.42] vs. 0.27 [0.23-0.40], p = 0.042) and DM + HC (0.33 [0.32-0.37] vs. 0.25 [0.24-0.33], p = 0.042). Both long-term groups had endothelial dysfunction compared with controls and atherosclerosis after 15 months. In conclusion, short-term hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia increase FVIII, independent of VWF. Long-term DM and HC increase VWF via endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Therefore, VWF seems to be a biomarker for advanced cardiovascular disease. © 2021 Georg Thieme Verlag. 

  • 2.
    Garthwaite, Taru
    et al.
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Sjöros, Tanja
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Koivumäki, Mikko
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Laine, Saara
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Vähä-Ypyä, Henri
    UKK Institute Finland, Tampere, Finland.
    Saarenhovi, Maria
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Petri
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Löyttyniemi, Eliisa
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Sievänen, Harri
    UKK Institute Finland, Tampere, Finland.
    Houttu, Noora
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Laitinen, Kirsi
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Kalliokoski, Kari
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Vasankari, Tommi
    UKK Institute Finland, Tampere, Finland; Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.
    Knuuti, Juhani
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Heinonen, Ilkka
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Standing is associated with insulin sensitivity in adults with metabolic syndrome2021In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 24, no 12, p. 1255-1260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To determine how components of accelerometer-measured sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA), and fitness are associated with insulin sensitivity in adults with metabolic syndrome. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Target population was middle-aged (40–65 years) sedentary adults with metabolic syndrome. SB, breaks in SB, standing, and PA were measured for four weeks with hip-worn accelerometers. VO2max (ml/min/kg) was measured with maximal cycle ergometry. Insulin sensitivity was determined by hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp (M-value) and fasting blood sampling (HOMA-IR, insulin). Multivariable regression was used for analyses. Results: Sixty-four participants (37 women; 58.3 [SD 6.8] years) were included. Participants spent 10.0 (1.0) h sedentary, 1.8 (0.6) h standing, and 2.7 (0.6) h in PA and took 5149 (1825) steps and 29 (8) breaks daily. In sex-, age- and accelerometer wear time-adjusted model SB, standing, steps and VO2max were associated with M-value (β = −0.384; β = 0.400; β = 0.350; β = 0.609, respectively), HOMA-IR (β = 0.420; β = −0.548; β = −0.252; β = −0.449), and insulin (β = 0.433; β = −0.541; β = −0.252; β = −0.453); all p-values < 0.05. Breaks associated only with M-value (β = 0.277). When further adjusted for body fat %, only standing remained significantly associated with HOMA-IR (β = −0.381) and insulin (β = −0.366); significance was maintained even when further adjusted for SB, PA and fitness. Light and moderate-to-vigorous PA were not associated with insulin sensitivity. Conclusions: Standing is associated with insulin sensitivity markers. The association with HOMA-IR and insulin is independent of adiposity, PA, SB and fitness. Further studies are warranted, but these findings encourage replacing sitting with standing for potential improvements in insulin sensitivity in adults at increased type 2 diabetes risk. © 2021 The Authors.

  • 3.
    Garthwaite, Taru
    et al.
    Turku PET Centre, Turku, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Sjöros, Tanja
    Turku PET Centre, Turku, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Laine, Saara
    Turku PET Centre, Turku, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Koivumäki, Mikko
    Turku PET Centre, Turku, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Vähä-Ypyä, Henri
    UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland.
    Eskola, Olli
    Turku PET Centre, Turku, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Rajander, Johan
    Turku PET Centre, Turku, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Petri
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Saarenhovi, Maria
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Löyttyniemi, Eliisa
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Sievänen, Harri
    UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland.
    Houttu, Noora
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Laitinen, Kirsi
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Kalliokoski, Kari
    Turku PET Centre, Turku, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Vasankari, Tommi
    UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland; University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
    Knuuti, Juhani
    Turku PET Centre, Turku, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Heinonen, Ilkka
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. Turku PET Centre, Turku, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Associations of sedentary time, physical activity, and fitness with muscle glucose uptake in adults with metabolic syndrome2022In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 353-358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the associations of sedentary time, physical activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness with skeletal muscle glucose uptake (GU). Methods: Sedentary time and physical activity were measured with accelerometers and VO2max with cycle ergometry in 44 sedentary adults with metabolic syndrome. Thigh muscle GU was determined with [18F]FDG-PET imaging. Results: Sedentary time (β = −0.374), standing (β = 0.376), steps (β = 0.351), and VO2max (β = 0.598) were associated with muscle GU when adjusted for sex, age, and accelerometer wear time. Adjustment for body fat-% turned all associations non-significant. Conclusion: Body composition is a more important determinant of muscle GU in this population than sedentary time, physical activity, or fitness. © 2022 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  • 4.
    Garthwaite, Taru
    et al.
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Sjöros, Tanja
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Laine, Saara
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Vähä-Ypyä, Henri
    Ukk Institute For Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland.
    Löyttyniemi, Eliisa
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Sievänen, Harri
    Ukk Institute For Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland.
    Houttu, Noora
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Laitinen, Kirsi
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Kalliokoski, Kari
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Vasankari, Tommi
    Ukk Institute For Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland; University Of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
    Knuuti, Juhani
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Heinonen, Ilkka
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Effects of reduced sedentary time on cardiometabolic health in adults with metabolic syndrome: A three-month randomized controlled trial2022In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 579-585Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate if reducing sedentary behavior improves cardiometabolic biomarkers in adults with metabolic syndrome. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Methods: Sixty-four sedentary middle-aged adults with metabolic syndrome were randomized into intervention (INT; n = 33) and control (CON; n = 31) groups. INT was guided to limit sedentary behavior by 1 h/day through increased standing and light-intensity physical activity. CON was instructed to maintain usual habits. Sedentary behavior, breaks in sedentary behavior, standing, and physical activity were measured with hip-worn accelerometers for three months. Fasting blood sampling and measurements of anthropometrics, body composition, and blood pressure were performed at baseline and at three months. Linear mixed models were used for statistical analyses. Results: INT reduced sedentary behavior by 50 (95% CI: 24, 73) min/day by increasing light-intensity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (19 [8, 30] and 24 [14, 34] min/day, respectively). Standing increased also, but non-significantly (6 [−11, 23] min/day). CON maintained baseline activity levels. Significant intervention effects favoring INT occurred in fasting insulin (INT: 83.4 [68.7, 101.2] vs. CON: 102.0 [83.3, 125.0] pmol/l at three months), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; 3.2 [2.6, 3.9] vs. 4.0 [3.2, 4.9]), HbA1c (37 [36, 38] vs. 38 [37, 39] mmol/mol), and liver enzyme alanine aminotransferase (28 [24, 33] vs. 33 [28, 38] U/l). Conclusions: Reducing sedentary behavior by 50 min/day and increasing light-intensity and moderate-to-vigorous activity showed benefits in several cardiometabolic biomarkers in adults with metabolic syndrome. Replacing some of the daily sedentary behavior with light-intensity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity may help in cardiometabolic disease prevention in risk populations. © 2022 The Authors

  • 5.
    Haapala, Eero A.
    et al.
    University Of Jyväskylä, Jyvaskyla, Finland; University Of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Sjöros, Tanja
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Laine, Saara
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Garthwaite, Taru
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Petri
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Saarenhovi, Maria
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Vähä-Ypy, Henri
    Ukk Institute For Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland.
    Löyttyniemi, Eliisa
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Sievänen, Harri
    Ukk Institute For Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland.
    Houttu, Noora
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Laitinen, Kirsi
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Kalliokoski, Kari
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Knuuti, Juhani
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Vasankari, Tommi
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland; University Of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
    Heinonen, Ilkka
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Association between cardiorespiratory fitness and metabolic health in overweight and obese adults2022In: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, ISSN 0022-4707, E-ISSN 1827-1928, Vol. 62, no 11, p. 1526-1533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) has been inversely associated with insulin resistance and clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors among overweight and obese individuals. However, most previous studies have scaled CRF by body mass (BM) possibly inflating the association between CRF and cardiometabolic health. We investigated the associations of peak oxygen uptake (V?O2peak) and peak power output (Wpeak) scaled either by BM-1, fat free mass (FFM-1), or by allometric methods with individual cardiometabolic risk factors and clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors in 55 overweight or obese adults with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: VO2peak and Wpeak were assessed by a maximal cycle ergometer exercise test. FFM was measured by air displacement plethysmo- graph and glucose, insulin, HbA1c, triglycerides, and total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol from fasting blood samples. HOMA-IR and metabolic syndrome score (MetS) were computed. RESULTS: VO2peak and Wpeak scaled by BM-1 were inversely associated with insulin (β=-0.404 to -0.372, 95% CI: -0.704 to -0.048), HOMAIR (β=-0.442 to -0.440, 95% CI: -0.762 to -0.117), and MetS (β=-0.474 to -0.463, 95% CI: -0.798 to -0.127). Other measures of CRF were not associated with cardiometabolic risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that using BM-1 as a scaling factor confounds the associations between CRF and cardiometabolic risk in overweight/obese adults with the metabolic syndrome. © 2022 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA.

  • 6.
    Heinonen, Ilkka
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Univ Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Cardiac function of humans and other large laboratory mammals at rest and during exercise2019In: Acta Physiologica, ISSN 1748-1708, E-ISSN 1748-1716, Vol. 227, p. 27-27Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Heinonen, Ilkka
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Division of Experimental Cardiology, Department of Cardiology, Thoraxcenter, Cardiovascular Research School COEUR, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland, Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Sorop, Oana
    Division of Experimental Cardiology, Department of Cardiology, Thoraxcenter, Cardiovascular Research School COEUR, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    van Dalen, Bas M.
    Division of Experimental Cardiology, Department of Cardiology, Thoraxcenter, Cardiovascular Research School COEUR, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Wüst, Rob C. I.
    Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Physiology, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Department of Human Movement Sciences, Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    van de Wouw, Jens
    Division of Experimental Cardiology, Department of Cardiology, Thoraxcenter, Cardiovascular Research School COEUR, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    de Beer, Vincent J.
    Division of Experimental Cardiology, Department of Cardiology, Thoraxcenter, Cardiovascular Research School COEUR, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Octavia, Yanti
    Division of Experimental Cardiology, Department of Cardiology, Thoraxcenter, Cardiovascular Research School COEUR, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    van Duin, Richard W. B.
    Division of Experimental Cardiology, Department of Cardiology, Thoraxcenter, Cardiovascular Research School COEUR, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Hoogstrate, Youri
    Department of Urology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Blonden, Lau
    Division of Experimental Cardiology, Department of Cardiology, Thoraxcenter, Cardiovascular Research School COEUR, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Alkio, Milla
    Department of Biology, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Anttila, Katja
    Department of Biology, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Stubbs, Andrew
    2 Clinical Bioinformatics Unit, Department of Pathology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    van der Velden, Jolanda
    Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Physiology, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Netherlands Heart Institute, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Merkus, Daphne
    Division of Experimental Cardiology, Department of Cardiology, Thoraxcenter, Cardiovascular Research School COEUR, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Walter Brendel Center of Experimental Medicine (WBex), LMU Munich, Munich, Germany, German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK), Partner Site Munich, Munich Heart Alliance (MHA), Munich, Germany.
    Duncker, Dirk J.
    Division of Experimental Cardiology, Department of Cardiology, Thoraxcenter, Cardiovascular Research School COEUR, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Cellular, mitochondrial and molecular alterations associate with early left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in a porcine model of diabetic metabolic derangement2020In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 13173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of diabetic metabolic derangement (DMetD) has increased dramatically over the last decades. Although there is increasing evidence that DMetD is associated with cardiac dysfunction, the early DMetD-induced myocardial alterations remain incompletely understood. Here, we studied early DMetD-related cardiac changes in a clinically relevant large animal model. DMetD was established in adult male Göttingen miniswine by streptozotocin injections and a high-fat, high-sugar diet, while control animals remained on normal pig chow. Five months later left ventricular (LV) function was assessed by echocardiography and hemodynamic measurements, followed by comprehensive biochemical, molecular and histological analyses. Robust DMetD developed, evidenced by hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. DMetD resulted in altered LV nitrosoredox balance, increased superoxide production—principally due to endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling—reduced nitric oxide (NO) production, alterations in myocardial gene-expression— particularly genes related to glucose and fatty acid metabolism—and mitochondrial dysfunction. These abnormalities were accompanied by increased passive force of isolated cardiomyocytes, and impaired LV diastolic function, evidenced by reduced LV peak untwist velocity and increased E/e′. However, LV weight, volume, collagen content, and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area were unchanged at this stage of DMetD. In conclusion, DMetD, in a clinically relevant large-animal model results in myocardial oxidative stress, eNOS uncoupling and reduced NO production, together with an altered metabolic gene expression profle and mitochondrial dysfunction. These molecular alterations are associated with stifening of the cardiomyocytes and early diastolic dysfunction before any structural cardiac remodeling occurs. Therapies should be directed to ameliorate these early DMetDinduced myocardial changes to prevent the development of overt cardiac failure. © 2020, The Author(s).

  • 8.
    Koivula, Tiia
    et al.
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Lempiäinen, Salla
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Laine, Saara
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Sjöros, Tanja
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Vähä-Ypyä, Henri
    Ukk Institute For Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland.
    Garthwaite, Taru
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Löyttyniemi, Eliisa
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Sievänen, Harri
    Ukk Institute For Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland.
    Vasankari, Tommi
    Ukk Institute For Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland.
    Knuuti, Juhani
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Heinonen, Ilkka
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Cross-Sectional Associations of Body Adiposity, Sedentary Behavior, and Physical Activity with Hemoglobin and White Blood Cell Count2022In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 19, no 21, article id 14347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This study examined whether hemoglobin (Hb) and white blood cell count (WBC) associate with body adiposity and other cardiometabolic risk factors, as well as accelerometer-measured sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA), when adjusted for body mass index (BMI). Methods: The cross-sectional analysis included 144 participants (42 men) with a mean age of 57.0 years and a mean BMI of 31.7 kg/m2. SB and standing time, breaks in sedentary time and PA were measured during four consecutive weeks with hip-worn accelerometers. A fasting blood sample was collected from each participant during the 4-week measurement period and analyzed using Sysmex XN and Cobas 8000 c702 analyzers. Associations of WBC, Hb and other red blood cell markers with cardiometabolic risk factors and physical activity were examined by Pearson’s partial correlation coefficient test and with linear mixed regression models. Results: In sex- and age-adjusted correlation analyses both BMI and waist circumference correlated positively with Hb, WBC, red blood cell count (RBC), and hematocrit. Hb was also positively correlated with systolic blood pressure, insulin resistance scores, liver enzymes, LDL, and triglyceride levels. Sedentary time correlated positively with WBC, whereas standing time correlated negatively with WBC. Lying time correlated positively with WBC, RBC, hematocrit, and Hb. Regarding SB and PA measures, only the association between lying time and RBC remained significant after adjustment for the BMI. Conclusion: We conclude that body adiposity, rather than components of SB or PA, associates with Hb levels and WBC, which cluster with general metabolic derangement. © 2022 by the authors.

  • 9.
    Koivula, Tiia
    et al.
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Lempiäinen, Salla
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Rinne, Petteri
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Rannikko, Jenna H.
    Research Centre Of Applied And Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, Turku, Finland.
    Hollmén, Maija
    Research Centre Of Applied And Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, Turku, Finland.
    Sundberg, Carl Johan
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rundqvist, Helene
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Minn, Heikki
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Heinonen, Ilkka
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    The effect of acute exercise on circulating immune cells in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients2023In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 6561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of exercise in cancer prevention and control is increasingly recognized, and based on preclinical studies, it is hypothesized that mobilization of leukocytes plays an important role in the anti-tumor effect. Thus, we examined how 10-min acute exercise modulates immune cells in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. Blood samples were taken at rest, immediately after exercise and 30 min after exercise and phenotypic characterization of major leukocyte subsets was done using 9-color flow cytometry. Total leukocyte count increased by 29%, CD8+ T cell count by 34%, CD19+ B cell count by 18%, CD56+CD16+ NK cell count by 130%, and CD14+CD16+ monocyte count by 51% immediately after acute exercise. Mobilization of CD45+, CD8+, CD19+, and CD56+CD16+ cells correlated positively with exercising systolic blood pressure, heart rate percentage of age predicted maximal heart rate, rate pressure product, and mean arterial pressure. Our findings indicate that a single bout of acute exercise of only 10 min can cause leukocytosis in breast cancer patients. Mobilization of leukocytes appear to be directly related to the intensity of exercise. It is possible that the positive effect of exercise on oncologic outcome might be partly due to immune cell mobilization as documented in the present study. © 2023, The Author(s).

  • 10.
    Koivula, Tiia
    et al.
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Neuvonen, Joona
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Sucksdorff, Marcus
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Kapanen, Jukka
    Paavo Nurmi Centre, Turku, Finland.
    Heinonen, Olli J.
    Paavo Nurmi Centre, Turku, Finland.
    Rissanen, Eero
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Heinonen, Ilkka
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Sex comparison of white blood cell responses to acute vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise2023In: Acta Physiologica, ISSN 1748-1708, E-ISSN 1748-1716, Vol. 239, no S728, p. 44-45, article id e14044Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is widely accepted that exercise alters the number and function of circulating leukocytes, and many factors are suggested to influence this phenomenon. The aim here was to compare white blood cell mobilization between sexes after acute vigorous-intensity exercise bout.

    Methods: The study included healthy and physically active subjects, 10 men (aged 26 (SD 7) years) and 10 women (aged 33 (SD 8) years). Participants performed a 30-min cycling ergometer exercise at 70% VO2max. Blood samples were drawn at rest and 3 min, 1 and 2 h post-exercise. Changes in total leukocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, and basophil count were analyzed and corrected for plasma volume change.

    Results: Women had higher lymphocyte counts and lower eosinophil proportion of total leukocytes compared to men at all time points. Acute exercise significantly increased the number of total leukocytes and all leukocyte subpopulations excluding eosinophils in both women and men. The mobilization of all leukocyte subpopulations was similar in both sexes, but mobilization of total leukocytes, as a percentage change from rest, was greater in men. Increase in total leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts correlated positively with lactate concentration at 3-min timepoint and decrease in lymphocyte and basophil count after exercise correlated negatively with mean exercising heart rate in both sexes.

    Conclusion: Our findings indicate that mobilization of total leukocytes is greater in men. The sex-difference however is small and not observed in any leukocyte subpopulations. Further, exercise intensity driven physiological perturbation has a role in immune cell mobilization.

  • 11.
    Kudomi, Nobuyuki
    et al.
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland & Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa, Japan.
    Kalliokoski, Kari K.
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Oikonen, Vesa J.
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Han, Chunlei
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Kemppainen, Jukka
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland & Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Sipila, Hannu T.
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Knuuti, Juhani
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland & Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Heinonen, Ilkka
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland & Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Myocardial Blood Flow and Metabolic Rate of Oxygen Measurement in the Right and Left Ventricles at Rest and During Exercise Using 15O-Labeled Compounds and PET2019In: Frontiers in Physiology, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 10, article id 741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Simultaneous measurement of right (RV) and left ventricle (LV) myocardial blood flow (MBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and oxygen consumption (MVO2) non-invasively in humans would provide new possibilities to understand cardiac physiology and different patho-physiological states. Methods: We developed and tested an optimized novel method to measure MBF, OEF, and MVO2 simultaneously both in the RV and LV free wall (FW) using positron emission tomography in healthy young men at rest and during supine bicycle exercise. Results: Resting MBF was not significantly different between the three myocardial regions. Exercise increased MBF in the LVFW and septum, but MBF was lower in the RV compared to septum and LVFW during exercise. Resting OEF was similar between the three different myocardial regions (similar to 70%) and increased in response to exercise similarly in all regions. MVO2 increased approximately two to three times from rest to exercise in all myocardial regions, but was significantly lower in the RV during exercise as compared to septum LVFW. Conclusion: MBF, OEF, and MVO2 can be assessed simultaneously in the RV and LV myocardia at rest and during exercise. Although there are no major differences in the MBF and OEF between LV and RV myocardial regions in the resting myocardium, MVO2 per gram of myocardium appears to be lower the RV in the exercising healthy human heart due to lower mean blood flow. The presented method may provide valuable insights for the assessment of MBF, OEF and MVO2 in hearts in different pathophysiological states.

  • 12.
    Laine, Saara
    et al.
    urku PET Centre, Turku University Hospital, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; MediCity Research Laboratory, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Högel, Heidi
    Turku Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku, Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland; Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Jokioinen, Finland.
    Ishizu, Tamiko
    Turku PET Centre, Turku University Hospital, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; MediCity Research Laboratory, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; TuDMM Doctoral Programmes, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Toivanen, Jussi
    urku PET Centre, Turku University Hospital, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; MediCity Research Laboratory, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Yli-Karjanmaa, Minna
    urku PET Centre, Turku University Hospital, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; MediCity Research Laboratory, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Grönroos, Tove J
    urku PET Centre, Turku University Hospital, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; MediCity Research Laboratory, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Rantala, Juha
    Misvik Biology, Turku, Finland.
    Mäkelä, Rami
    Misvik Biology, Turku, Finland.
    Hannukainen, Jarna C
    Turku PET Centre, Turku University Hospital, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Kalliokoski, Kari K
    Turku PET Centre, Turku University Hospital, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Heinonen, Ilkka
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Effects of Different Exercise Training Protocols on Gene Expression of Rac1 and PAK1 in Healthy Rat Fast- and Slow-Type Muscles.2020In: Frontiers in Physiology, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 11, article id 584661Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Rac1 and its downstream target PAK1 are novel regulators of insulin and exercise-induced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. However, it is not yet understood how different training intensities affect the expression of these proteins. Therefore, we studied the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on Rac1 and PAK1 expression in fast-type (gastrocnemius, GC) and slow-type (soleus, SOL) muscles in rats after HIIT and MICT swimming exercises.

    Methods: The mRNA expression was determined using qPCR and protein expression levels with reverse-phase protein microarray (RPPA).

    Results: HIIT significantly decreased Rac1 mRNA expression in GC compared to MICT (p = 0.003) and to the control group (CON) (p = 0.001). At the protein level Rac1 was increased in GC in both training groups, but only the difference between HIIT and CON was significant (p = 0.02). HIIT caused significant decrease of PAK1 mRNA expression in GC compared to MICT (p = 0.007) and to CON (p = 0.001). At the protein level, HIIT increased PAK1 expression in GC compared to MICT and CON (by ∼17%), but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.3, p = 0.2, respectively). There were no significant differences in the Rac1 or PAK1 expression in SOL between the groups.

    Conclusion: Our results indicate that HIIT, but not MICT, decreases Rac1 and PAK1 mRNA expression and increases the protein expression of especially Rac1 but only in fast-type muscle. These exercise training findings may reveal new therapeutic targets to treat patients with metabolic diseases.

  • 13.
    Laine, Saara
    et al.
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Sjöros, Tanja
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Garthwaite, Taru
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Saarenhovi, Maria
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland; University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Petri
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Löyttyniemi, Eliisa
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Vähä-Ypyä, Henri
    Ukk Institute For Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland.
    Sievänen, Harri
    Ukk Institute For Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland.
    Vasankari, Tommi
    Ukk Institute For Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland; University Of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
    Laitinen, Kirsi
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Houttu, Noora
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Saukko, Ekaterina
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Knuuti, Juhani
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Saunavaara, Virva
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Heinonen, Ilkka
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Relationship between liver fat content and lifestyle factors in adults with metabolic syndrome2022In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 17428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between liver fat content (LFC), sedentary behaviour (SB), physical activity (PA), fitness, diet, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with metabolic syndrome. A total of 44 sedentary adults (mean age 58 [SD 7] years; 25 women) with overweight or obesity participated. LFC was assessed with magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging, SB and PA with hip-worn accelerometers (26 [SD 3] days), fitness by maximal bicycle ergometry, body composition by air displacement plethysmography and nutrient intake by 4-day food diaries. LFC was not independently associated with SB, PA or fitness. Adjusted for sex and age, LFC was associated with body fat%, body mass index, waist circumference, triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, and with insulin resistance markers. There was and inverse association between LFC and daily protein intake, which persisted after further adjusment with body fat%. LFC is positively associated with body adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors, and inversely with daily protein intake. SB, habitual PA or fitness are not independent modulators of LFC. However, as PA is an essential component of healthy lifestyle, it may contribute to liver health indirectly through its effects on body composition in adults with metabolic syndrome. © 2022, The Author(s).

  • 14.
    Laine, Saara
    et al.
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Sjöros, Tanja
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Vähä-Ypyä, Henri
    The UKK-Institute for Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland.
    Garthwaite, Taru
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Löyttyniemi, Eliisa
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Sievänen, Harri
    The UKK-Institute for Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland.
    Vasankari, Tommi
    The UKK-Institute for Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland; Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.
    Knuuti, Juhani
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Heinonen, Ilkka
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Body Adiposity, But Not Elements of Objectively Measured Sedentary Behavior or Physical Activity, Is Associated With Circulating Liver Enzymes in Adults With Overweight and Obesity2021In: Frontiers in Endocrinology, E-ISSN 1664-2392, Vol. 12, article id 655756Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: We studied the associations between accelerometer-measured sedentary behavior (SB) and habitual physical activity (PA) as well as markers of body adiposity and other cardiometabolic risk factors with liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT). Methods: A total of 144 middle-aged adults (mean age 57 (SD 6.5) years) with overweight or obesity (mean body mass index [BMI] 31.8 [SD 3.9] kg/m2) participated. Different components of SB (sitting, lying) and PA (standing, breaks in SB, daily steps, light PA, moderate-to-vigorous PA and total PA) were measured with validated hip-worn accelerometers for four consecutive weeks (mean 25 days, [SD 4]). Fasting venous blood samples were analysed using standard assays. The associations were examined with Pearson’s partial correlation coefficient test and linear mixed model. Results: Among 102 women and 42 men accelerometer measured SB or the elements of PA were not associated with circulating liver enzymes. When adjusted for age and sex, liver enzymes correlated positively with BMI and waist circumference (WC) (ALT r=0.34, p<0.0001, r=0.41, < 0.0001, AST r=0.17, p=0.049, r=0.26, p=0.002, GGT r=0.29, p=0.0005, r=0.32, p < 0.0001, respectively). SB proportion associated positively with BMI (r=0.21, p=0.008) and WC (r=0.27, p=0.001). Components of PA associated negatively with BMI (MVPA r=-0.23, p=0.005, daily steps r=-0.30, p<0.0001 and breaks in sedentary time r=-0.32, p<0.0001), as well as with WC (breaks in SB r=-0.35, p<0.0001, MVPA r=-0.26, p=0.002, daily steps r=-0.31, p<0.0001, standing time r=-0.27, p=0.001). Liver enzymes associated positively with common cardiometabolic markers such as resting heart rate (ALT; β=0.17, p=0.03, AST; β=0.25, p=0.002, GGT; β=0.23, p=0.004) and systolic/diastolic blood pressure (ALT β=0.20, p=0.01, β=0.22, p=0.005, AST (only diastolic) β=0.23, p=0.006, GGT β=0.19, p=0.02, = 0.23, p=0.004, respectively), fasting insulin (ALT β=0.41, p<0.0001, AST β=0.36, p=0.0003, GGT β=0.20, p=0.04) and insulin resistance index (ALT β=0.42, p<0.0001, AST β=0.36, p=0.0003, GGT β=0.21, p=0.03), even after adjustment with BMI. Conclusions: Liver enzymes correlate with body adiposity and appear to cluster with other common cardiometabolic risk factors, even independently of body adiposity. SB and PA appear not to be essential in modulating the levels of circulating liver enzymes. © Copyright © 2021 Laine, Sjöros, Vähä-Ypyä, Garthwaite, Löyttyniemi, Sievänen, Vasankari, Knuuti and Heinonen.

  • 15.
    Leskinen, Tuija
    et al.
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Suorsa, Kristin
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Tuominen, Miika
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Pulakka, Anna
    Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Pentti, Jaana
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland; Clinicum, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Löyttyniemi, Eliisa
    Department of Biostatistics, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Heinonen, Ilkka
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Turku Pet Centre, Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Vahtera, Jussi
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Stenholm, Sari
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    The Effect of Consumer-based Activity Tracker Intervention on Physical Activity among Recent Retirees - An RCT Study2021In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 53, no 8, p. 1756-1765Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The randomized controlled trial REACT (NCT03320746) examined the effect of a 12-month consumer-based activity tracker intervention on accelerometer-measured physical activity among recent retirees. Methods Altogether 231 recently retired Finnish adults (age, 65.2 ± 1.1 yr, mean ± SD; 83% women) were randomized to intervention and control groups. Intervention participants were requested to wear a commercial wrist-worn activity tracker (Polar Loop 2; Polar, Kempele, Finland) for 12 months, to try to reach the daily activity goals shown on the tracker display, and to upload their activity data to a Web-based program every week. The control group received no intervention. Accelerometer-based outcome measurements of daily total, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate to vigorous (MVPA) physical activity were conducted at baseline and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month time points. Hierarchical linear mixed models were used to examine the differences between the groups over time. All analyses were performed by intention-to-treat principle and adjusted for wake wear time. Results The use of a commercial activity tracker did not increase daily total activity, LPA, or MVPA over the 12-months period when compared with nonuser controls (group-time interaction, P = 0.39, 0.23, and 0.77, respectively). There was an increase in LPA over the first 6 months in both the intervention (26 min·d-1, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 13 to 39) and the control (14 min·d-1, 95% CI = 1 to 27) groups, but the difference between the groups was not significant (12 min·d-1, 95% CI = -6 to 30). In both groups, LPA decreased from 6 to 12 months. Conclusion The 12-month use of a commercial activity tracker does not appear to elicit significant changes in the daily total activity among a general population sample of recent retirees, thus highlighting the need to explore other alternatives to increase physical activity in this target group. © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  • 16.
    Mawhinney, C.
    et al.
    Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom | College of Sports Science and Technology, Mahidol University, Salaya, Thailand.
    Heinonen, Ilkka
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Low, D. A.
    Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
    Han, C.
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Jones, H.
    Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
    Kalliokoski, K. K.
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Kirjavainen, A.
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Kemppainen, J.
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Di Salvo, V.
    Football Performance and Science Department, Aspire Academy, Doha, Qatar.
    Weston, M.
    School of Health and Social Care, Teesside University, Middlesbrough, United Kingdom | Football Performance and Science Department, Aspire Academy, Doha, Qatar.
    Cable, T.
    School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
    Gregson, W.
    Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom | Football Performance and Science Department, Aspire Academy, Doha, Qatar.
    Changes in quadriceps femoris muscle perfusion following different degrees of cold-water immersion2020In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 128, no 5, p. 1392-1401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the influence of graded cold-water immersion (CWI) on global and regional quadriceps muscle perfusion with positron emission tomography (PET) and [15O]H2O. In 30 healthy men [33 ± 8 yr; 81 ± 10 kg; 184 ± 5 cm; percentage body fat: 13 ± 5%; peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak): 47 ± 8 mL·kg-1·min-1] quadriceps perfusion, thigh and calf cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC), intestinal, muscle, and local skin temperatures, thermal comfort, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate were assessed before and after 10 min of CWI at 8°C, 15°C, or 22°C. Global quadriceps perfusion did not change beyond a clinically relevant threshold (0.75 mL·100 g·min-1) in any condition and was similar between conditions {range of differences [95% confidence interval (CI)]: 0.1 mL·100 g·min-1 (-0.9 to 1.2 mL·100 g·min-1) to 0.9 mL·100 g·min-1 (-0.2 to 1.9 mL·100 g·min-1)}. Muscle perfusion was greater in vastus intermedius (VI) compared with vastus lateralis (VL) (2.2 mL·100 g·min-1; 95% CI 1.5 to 3.0 mL·100 g·min-1) and rectus femoris (RF) (2.2 mL·100 g·min-1; 1.4 to 2.9 mL·100 g·min-1). A clinically relevant increase in VI muscle perfusion after immersion at 8°C and a decrease in RF muscle perfusion at 15°C were observed. A clinically relevant increase in perfusion was observed in VI in 8°C compared with 22°C water (2.3 mL·100 g·min-1; 1.1 to 3.5 mL·100 g·min-1). There were no clinically relevant between-condition differences in thigh CVC. Our findings suggest that CWI (8-22°C) does not reduce global quadriceps muscle perfusion to a clinically relevant extent; however, colder water increases (8°C) deep muscle perfusion and reduces (15°C) superficial muscle (RF) perfusion in the quadriceps muscle. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Using positron emission tomography, we report for the first time muscle perfusion heterogeneity in the quadriceps femoris in response to different degrees of cold-water immersion (CWI). Noxious CWI temperatures (8°C) increase perfusion in the deep quadriceps muscle, whereas superficial quadriceps muscle perfusion is reduced in cooler (15°C) water. Therefore, these data have important implications for the selection of CWI approaches used in the treatment of soft tissue injury, while also increasing our understanding of the potential mechanisms underpinning CWI. Copyright © 2020 the American Physiological Society.

  • 17.
    Mawhinney, Chris
    et al.
    Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom; Mahidol University, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand.
    Heinonen, Ilkka
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland; University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Low, David A.
    Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
    Han, Chunlei
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Jones, Helen
    Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
    Kalliokoski, Kari K.
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Kirjavainen, Anna
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Kemppainen, Jukka
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Di Salvo, Valter
    University Of Rome Foro Italico, Rome, Italy; Aspire Academy, Doha, Qatar.
    Lolli, Lorenzo
    Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom; Aspire Academy, Doha, Qatar.
    Cable, N. Tim
    Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, United Kingdom.
    Gregson, Warren
    Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom; Aspire Academy, Doha, Qatar.
    Cool-Water Immersion Reduces Postexercise Quadriceps Femoris Muscle Perfusion More Than Cold-Water Immersion2022In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 54, no 7, p. 1085-1094Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The muscle perfusion response to postexercise cold-water immersion (CWI) is not well understood. We examined the effects of graded postexercise CWI upon global and regional quadriceps femoris muscle perfusion using positron emission tomography and [15O]H2O. Methods: Using a matched-group design, 30 healthy men performed cycle ergometer exercise at 70% VO2peak to a core body temperature of 38°C, followed by either 10 min of CWI at 8°C, 22°C, or seated rest (control). Quadriceps muscle perfusion; thigh and calf cutaneous vascular conductance; intestinal, muscle, and local skin temperatures; thermal comfort; mean arterial pressure; and heart rate were assessed at preexercise, postexercise, and after CWI. Results: Global quadriceps perfusion was reduced beyond the predefined minimal clinically relevant threshold (0.75 mL per 100 g·min-1) in 22°C water versus control (difference (95% confidence interval (CI)), -2.5 (-3.9 to -1.1) mL per 100 g·min-1). Clinically relevant decreases in muscle perfusion were observed in the rectus femoris (-2.0 (-3.0 to -1.0) mL per 100 g·min-1) and vastus lateralis (-3.5 (-4.9 to -2.0) mL per 100 g·min-1) in 8°C water, and in the vastus lateralis (-3.3 (-4.8 to -1.9) mL per 100 g·min-1) in 22°C water versus control. The mean effects for vastus intermedius and vastus medialis perfusion were not clinically relevant. Clinically relevant decreases in thigh and calf cutaneous vascular conductance were observed in both cooling conditions. Conclusions: The present findings revealed that less noxious CWI (22°C) promoted clinically relevant postexercise decreases in global quadriceps muscle perfusion, whereas noxious cooling (8°C) elicited no effect. © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  • 18.
    Norha, Jooa
    et al.
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyvaskyla, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Hautala, Arto J.
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyvaskyla, Finland; University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Sjöros, Tanja
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Laine, Saara
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Garthwaite, Taru
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Knuuti, Juhani
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Löyttyniemi, Eliisa
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Vähä-Ypyä, Henri
    UKK Institute Finland, Tampere, Finland.
    Sievänen, Harri
    UKK Institute Finland, Tampere, Finland.
    Vasankari, Tommi
    UKK Institute Finland, Tampere, Finland; Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.
    Heinonen, Ilkka
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Standing time and daily proportion of sedentary time are associated with pain-related disability in a one month accelerometer measurement in adults with overweight or obesity2022In: Scandinavian Journal of Pain, ISSN 1877-8860, E-ISSN 1877-8879, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 317-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The association between the subjective experience of pain-related disability (PRD) and device-measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) in overweight and obese adults is not well known. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of pain markers with accelerometer-measured SB duration and different intensities of PA among physically inactive middle-aged adults with overweight or obesity. This cross-sectional analysis included 72 subjects (27 men) with mean age of 57.9 (SD 6.7) years and mean BMI of 31.6 (SD 4.1) kg/m2. SB and standing time (ST), breaks in sedentary time, light physical activity (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were measured for four consecutive weeks (mean 25 days, SD 4) with a hip-worn triaxial accelerometer. Headache, musculoskeletal pain, back pain, and PRD were assessed by visual analog scales (VAS) and using the Oswestry disability index (ODI). RAND-36 questionnaire was applied to assess health-related quality of life. The associations were studied by linear models. ST was positively and SB proportion was negatively associated with PRD when adjusted for age, sex, BMI, accelerometry duration, MVPA, pain medication use, and general health perceptions assessed by RAND-36. No associations were found between ST and back pain. SB or different PA intensities were not associated with pain experience at specific sites. Longer daily ST, but not LPA or MVPA is associated with higher level of PRD. Correspondingly, higher proportion of SB is associated with lower level of PRD. This suggests that individuals with PRD prefer to stand, possibly to cope with pain. These results may highlight the importance of habitual standing behaviors in coping with experienced PRD in adults with overweight or obesity. © 2021 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.

  • 19.
    Norha, Jooa
    et al.
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Sjöros, Tanja
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Garthwaite, Taru
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Laine, Saara
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Saarenhovi, Maria
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Petri
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Laitinen, Kirsi
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Houttu, Noora
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Vähä-Ypyä, Henri
    Ukk Institute For Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland.
    Sievänen, Harri
    Ukk Institute For Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland.
    Löyttyniemi, Eliisa
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Vasankari, Tommi
    Ukk Institute For Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland; University Of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
    Knuuti, Juhani
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Kalliokoski, Kari K.
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Heinonen, Ilkka
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Effects of reducing sedentary behavior on cardiorespiratory fitness in adults with metabolic syndrome: A 6-month RCT2023In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 33, no 8, p. 1452-1461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction:

    Poor cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with adverse health outcomes. Previous observational and cross-sectional studies have suggested that reducing sedentary behavior (SB) might improve CRF. Therefore, we investigated the effects of a 6-month intervention of reducing SB on CRF in 64 sedentary inactive adults with metabolic syndrome in a non-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Materials and Methods:

    In the intervention group (INT, n = 33), the aim was to reduce SB by 1 h/day for 6 months without increasing exercise training. Control group (CON, n = 31) was instructed to maintain their habitual SB and physical activity. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was measured by maximal graded bicycle ergometer test with respiratory gas measurements. Physical activity and SB were measured during the whole intervention using accelerometers.

    Results:

    Reduction in SB did not improve VO2max statistically significantly (group × time p &gt; 0.05). Maximal absolute power output (Wmax) did not improve significantly but increased in INT compared to CON when scaled to fat free mass (FFM) (at 6 months INT 1.54 [95% CI: 1.41, 1.67] vs. CON 1.45 [1.32, 1.59] Wmax/kgFFM, p = 0.036). Finally, the changes in daily step count correlated positively with the changes in VO2max scaled to body mass and FFM (r = 0.31 and 0.30, respectively, p &lt; 0.05).

    Discussion:

    Reducing SB without adding exercise training does not seem to improve VO2max in adults with metabolic syndrome. However, succeeding in increasing daily step count may increase VO2max. © 2023 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  • 20.
    Rebelos, Eleni
    et al.
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Bucci, Marco
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Karjalainen, Tomi
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Oikonen, Vesa
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Bertoldo, Alessandra
    University of Padova, Padua, Italy.
    Hannukainen, Jarna C.
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Virtanen, Kirsi A.
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland; University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Latva-Rasku, Aino
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Hirvonen, Jussi
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Heinonen, Ilkka
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Parkkola, Riitta
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Laakso, Markku
    University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Ferrannini, Ele
    CNR, Pisa, Italy.
    Iozzo, Patricia
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland; CNR, Pisa, Italy.
    Nummenmaa, Lauri
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Nuutila, Pirjo
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Insulin resistance is associated with enhanced brain glucose uptake during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia: A large-scale PET cohort2021In: Diabetes Care, ISSN 0149-5992, E-ISSN 1935-5548, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 788-794Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE Whereas insulin resistance is expressed as reduced glucose uptake in peripheral tissues, the relationship between insulin resistance and brain glucose metabolism remains controversial. Our aim was to examine the association of insulin resistance and brain glucose uptake (BGU) during a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp in a large sample of study participants across a wide range of age and insulin sensitivity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) data from 194 participants scanned under clamp conditions were compiled from a single-center cohort. BGU was quantified by the fractional uptake rate. We examined the association of age, sex,Mvalue from the clamp, steady-state insulin and free fatty acid levels, C-reactive protein levels, HbA1c, and presence of type 2 diabetes with BGU using Bayesian hierarchical modeling. RESULTS Insulin sensitivity, indexed by theMvalue, was associated negatively with BGU in all brain regions, confirming that in insulin-resistant participants BGU was enhanced during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia. In addition, the presence of type 2 diabetes was associated with additional increase in BGU. On the contrary, age was negatively related to BGU. Steady-state insulin levels, C-reactive protein and free fatty acid levels, sex, and HbA1c were not associated with BGU. CONCLUSIONS In this large cohort of participants of either sex across a wide range of age and insulin sensitivity, insulin sensitivity was the best predictor of BGU. © 2021 by the American Diabetes Association.

  • 21.
    Sjöros, Tanja
    et al.
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Laine, Saara
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Garthwaite, Taru
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Vaha-Ypya, Henri
    The UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland.
    Loyttyniemi, Eliisa
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Koivumaki, Mikko
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Houttu, Noora
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Laitinen, Kirsi
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Kalliokoski, Kari K. K.
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Sievanen, Harri
    The UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland.
    Vasankari, Tommi
    The UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland; Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.
    Knuuti, Juhani
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Heinonen, Ilkka
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Reducing Sedentary Time and Whole-Body Insulin Sensitivity in Metabolic Syndrome: A 6-Month Randomized Controlled Trial2023In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 342-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate whether a reduction in daily sedentary behavior (SB) improves insulin sensitivity in adults with metabolic syndrome in 6 months, without adding intentional exercise training.

    Methods: Sixty-four sedentary inactive middle-age adults with overweight and metabolic syndrome (mean (SD) age, 58 (7) yr; mean (SD) body mass index, 31.6 (4.3) kg.m(-2); 27 men) were randomized into intervention and control groups. The 6-month individualized behavioral intervention supported by an interactive accelerometer and a mobile application aimed at reducing daily SB by 1 h compared with baseline. Insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, body composition by air displacement plethysmography, and fasting blood samples were analyzed before and after the intervention. SB and physical activity were measured with hip-worn accelerometers throughout the intervention.

    Results: SB decreased by 40 (95% confidence interval, 17-65) min.d(-1), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity increased by 20 (95% confidence interval, 11-28) min.d(-1) on average in the intervention group with no significant changes in these outcomes in the control group. After 6 months, fasting plasma insulin decreased (similar to 1 mU.L-1) in the intervention group compared with the control group (time-group, P = 0.0081), but insulin sensitivity did not change in either group. The changes in body mass or adiposity did not differ between groups. Among all participants, the changes in SB and body mass correlated inversely with the change in insulin sensitivity (r = -0.31, -0.44; P = 0.025, 0.0005, respectively).

    Conclusions: An intervention aimed at reducing daily SB resulted in slightly decreased fasting insulin, but had no effects on insulin sensitivity or body adiposity. However, as the change in insulin sensitivity associated with the changes in SB and body mass, multifaceted interventions targeting to weight loss are likely to be beneficial in improving whole-body insulin sensitivity. © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  • 22.
    Sjöros, Tanja
    et al.
    Turku PET Centre, Åbo, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Laine, Saara
    Turku PET Centre, Åbo, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Garthwaite, Taru
    Turku PET Centre, Åbo, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Vähä-Ypyä, Henri
    The UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland.
    Koivumäki, Mikko
    Turku PET Centre, Åbo, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Eskola, Olli
    Turku PET Centre, Åbo, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Löyttyniemi, Eliisa
    Department of Biostatistics, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Houttu, Noora
    Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Laitinen, Kirsi
    Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Kalliokoski, Kari K.
    Turku PET Centre, Åbo, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Sievänen, Harri
    The UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland.
    Vasankari, Tommi
    The UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland; Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.
    Knuuti, Juhani
    Turku PET Centre, Åbo, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Heinonen, Ilkka H. A.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. Turku PET Centre, Åbo, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    The effects of a 6-month intervention aimed to reduce sedentary time on skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity: a randomized controlled trial2023In: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0193-1849, E-ISSN 1522-1555, Vol. 325, no 2, p. E152-E162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sedentary behavior (SB) and physical inactivity associate with impaired insulin sensitivity. We investigated whether an intervention aimed at a 1-h reduction in daily SB during 6 mo would improve insulin sensitivity in the weight-bearing thigh muscles. Forty-four sedentary inactive adults [mean age 58 (SD 7) yr; 43% men] with metabolic syndrome were randomized into intervention and control groups. The individualized behavioral intervention was supported by an interactive accelerometer and a mobile application. SB, measured with hip-worn accelerometers in 6-s intervals throughout the 6-mo intervention, decreased by 51 (95% CI 22-80) min/day and physical activity (PA) increased by 37 (95% CI 18-55) min/day in the intervention group with nonsignificant changes in these outcomes in the control group. Insulin sensitivity in the whole body and in the quadriceps femoris and hamstring muscles, measured with hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp combined with [18F]fluoro-deoxy-glucose PET, did not significantly change during the intervention in either group. However, the changes in hamstring and whole body insulin sensitivity correlated inversely with the change in SB and positively with the changes in moderate-to-vigorous PA and daily steps. In conclusion, these results suggest that the more the participants were able to reduce their SB, the more their individual insulin sensitivity increased in the whole body and in the hamstring muscles but not in quadriceps femoris. However, according to our primary randomized controlled trial results, this kind of behavioral interventions targeted to reduce sedentariness may not be effective in increasing skeletal muscle and whole body insulin sensitivity in people with metabolic syndrome at the population level.

    NEW & NOTEWORTHY Aiming to reduce daily SB by 1 h/day had no impact on skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity in the weight-bearing thigh muscles. However, successfully reducing SB may increase insulin sensitivity in the postural hamstring muscles. This emphasizes the importance of both reducing SB and increasing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity to improve insulin sensitivity in functionally different muscles of the body and thus induce a more comprehensive change in insulin sensitivity in the whole body.

  • 23.
    Sjöros, Tanja
    et al.
    University of Turku; Turku University Hospital.
    Vähä-Ypyä, Henri
    The UKK-Institute, Tampere, Finland.
    Laine, Saara
    University of Turku; Turku University Hospital.
    Garthwaite, Taru
    University of Turku; Turku University Hospital.
    Lahesmaa, Minna
    University of Turku; Turku University Hospital.
    Laurila, Sanna M
    University of Turku; Turku University Hospital.
    Latva-Rasku, Aino
    University of Turku; Turku University Hospital.
    Savolainen, Anna
    University of Turku; Turku University Hospital.
    Miikkulainen, Annika
    University of Turku; Turku University Hospital.
    Löyttyniemi, Eliisa
    Department of Biostatistics, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Sievänen, Harri
    The UKK-Institute, Tampere, Finland.
    Kalliokoski, Kari K
    University of Turku; Turku University Hospital.
    Knuuti, Juhani
    University of Turku; Turku University Hospital.
    Vasankari, Tommi
    The UKK-Institute, Tampere, Finland.
    Heinonen, Ilkka
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Both sedentary time and physical activity are associated with cardiometabolic health in overweight adults in a 1 month accelerometer measurement2020In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 20578Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations of cardiometabolic health markers with device-measured sedentary behavior (SB) duration and different intensities of physical activity (PA) among overweight working-aged adults with low self-reported PA levels. This cross-sectional analysis included 144 subjects (42 men) with mean age of 57 (SD 6.5) years and mean BMI of 31.7 (SD 4) kg/m2. SB and standing time, breaks in sedentary time, light PA (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) were measured for 4 consecutive weeks (mean 25 days, SD 4) with hip-worn accelerometers. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HbA1c, triglycerides and total cholesterol, HDL and LDL were measured from venous blood samples. HOMA-IR index was calculated as a surrogate of insulin resistance. The associations were examined using linear models. LPA, MVPA, and daily steps associated with better insulin sensitivity and favorable plasma lipid profile, when adjusted for age, sex and BMI, whereas greater proportion of SB associated with insulin resistance and unfavorable lipid profile. As all PA intensities associated with better cardiometabolic health, the total daily duration of PA may be more relevant than intensity in maintaining metabolic health in overweight adults, if the current guidelines for PA are not met.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03101228, registered 05/04/2017, https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT03101228 .

  • 24.
    Sjöros, Tanja
    et al.
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Vähä-Ypyä, Henri
    The UKK-Institute for Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland.
    Laine, Saara
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Garthwaite, Taru
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Löyttyniemi, Eliisa
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Sievänen, Harri
    The UKK-Institute for Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland.
    Kalliokoski, Kari K
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Knuuti, Juhani
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Vasankari, Tommi
    The UKK-Institute for Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland; Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.
    Heinonen, Ilkka
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Influence of the Duration and Timing of Data Collection on Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activity, Sedentary Time and Associated Insulin Resistance2021In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 18, no 9, article id 4950Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accelerometry is a commonly used method to determine physical activity in clinical studies, but the duration and timing of measurement have seldom been addressed. We aimed to evaluate possible changes in the measured outcomes and associations with insulin resistance during four weeks of accelerometry data collection. This study included 143 participants (median age of 59 (IQR9) years; mean BMI of 30.7 (SD4) kg/m2; 41 men). Sedentary and standing time, breaks in sedentary time, and different intensities of physical activity were measured with hip-worn accelerometers. Differences in the accelerometer-based results between weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4 were analyzed by mixed models, differences during winter and summer by two-way ANOVA, and the associations between insulin resistance and cumulative means of accelerometer results during weeks 1 to 4 by linear models. Mean accelerometry duration was 24 (SD3) days. Sedentary time decreased after three weeks of measurement. More physical activity was measured during summer compared to winter. The associations between insulin resistance and sedentary behavior and light physical activity were non-significant after the first week of measurement, but the associations turned significant in two to three weeks. If the purpose of data collection is to reveal associations between accelerometer-measured outcomes and tenuous health outcomes, such as insulin sensitivity, data collection for at least three weeks may be needed © 2021 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  • 25.
    Suorsa, Kristin
    et al.
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Leskinen, Tuija
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Pulakka, Anna
    Finnish Institute For Health And Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Pentti, Jaana
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Löyttyniemi, Eliisa
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Heinonen, Ilkka
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Vahtera, Jussi
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Stenholm, Sari
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    The Effect of a Consumer-Based Activity Tracker Intervention on Accelerometer-Measured Sedentary Time Among Retirees: A Randomized Controlled REACT Trial2022In: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, ISSN 1079-5006, E-ISSN 1758-535X, Vol. 77, no 3, p. 579-587Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Effective strategies to reverse the increasing trend of sedentary behavior after retirement are needed. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of 12-month activity tracker-based intervention on daily total and prolonged sedentary time (≥60 minutes) among recent retirees.

    METHODS: Randomization to intervention and control groups was performed to 231 retirees (mean age 65.2 [SD 1.1] years, 83% women). Intervention participants wore a consumer-based wrist-worn activity tracker (Polar Loop 2, Polar, Kempele, Finland), including daily activity goal, every day and night for 12 months. The activity tracker also gave vibrating reminders to break up uninterrupted inactivity periods after 55 minutes. A wrist-worn triaxial ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometer was used to measure sedentary time at baseline and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month time points.

    RESULTS: The use of an activity tracker did not reduce daily total or prolonged sedentary time over 12 months (p values for time * group interaction 0.39 and 0.27, respectively). In the post hoc analysis focusing on short- and medium-term effects on prolonged sedentary time, no differences between the intervention and control groups over 3 months were found, but a tendency for a greater decrease in prolonged sedentary time in the intervention group over 6 months was seen (mean difference in changes between the groups 29 minutes, 95% CI -2 to 61).

    CONCLUSIONS: The activity tracker with inactivity alerts did not elicit changes in sedentary time over 12 months among recent retirees. Alternative approaches may be needed to achieve long-term changes in sedentary time among retirees.

    Clinical Trials registration Number: NCT03320746. © The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  • 26.
    Suorsa, Kristin
    et al.
    Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Pulakka, Anna
    Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Leskinen, Tuija
    Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Heinonen, Ilkka
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Heinonen, Olli J.
    Department of Health and Physical Activity, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Stenholm, Sari
    Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Objectively Measured Sedentary Time Before and After Transition to Retirement: The Finnish Retirement and Aging Study2020In: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, ISSN 1079-5006, E-ISSN 1758-535X, Vol. 75, no 9, p. 1737-1743Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Retirement is associated with an increase in self-reported daily sedentary time, but no longitudinal evidence exists on how objectively measured sedentary time changes during retirement transition. The aim of this study was to compare objectively measured daily and hourly sedentary time before and after retirement and examine whether these changes differ by gender and occupational status.

    Methods: The study population consisted of 478 participants (mean age 63.2 years, standard deviation 1.7, 85% women) from the Finnish Retirement and Aging Study. Sedentary time was measured using a wrist-worn triaxial ActiGraph accelerometer before and after transition to retirement with 1 year interval. Preretirement occupational status was categorized as manual and non-manual.

    Results: Daily sedentary time was 8 hours 10 minutes in women and 9 hours 49 minutes in men before retirement. Considering all measurement days before and after retirement, daily sedentary time increased in women by 29 minutes (95% confidence interval [CI]: 20 to 38). Especially women retiring from manual occupations showed marked increase in sedentary time (63 minutes, 95% CI: 50 to 77). When only non-working days before retirement were considered, increase in daily sedentary time among women was less marked (16 minutes, 95% CI: 7 to 25). Among men, daily sedentary time did not change in retirement transition (−7 minutes, 95% CI: −26 to 12).

    Conclusions: Objectively measured sedentary time increases among women and remains at high level among men during the retirement transition. Attention should be paid to reduce daily sedentary time in retiring women and men.

  • 27.
    Uurasmaa, Tytti Maria
    et al.
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Streng, Tomi
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Alkio, Milla
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland; Poznan University Of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland.
    Karikoski, Marika
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Heinonen, Ilkka
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Anttila, Katja
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Subcutaneous B16 melanoma impairs intrinsic pressure generation and relaxation of the heart, which are not restored by short-term voluntary exercise in mice2022In: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology, ISSN 0363-6135, E-ISSN 1522-1539, Vol. 322, no 6, p. H1044-H1056Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether subcutaneous melanoma impairs intrinsic cardiac function and hypoxia tolerance in mice. In addition, it was investigated whether these changes could be prevented by voluntary wheel-running exercise. The roles of different molecular pathways were also analyzed. Male mice (C57Bl/6NCrl) were divided into unexercised tumor-free group, unexercised melanoma group, and exercised melanoma group. The experiment lasted 2.7 ± 0.1 wk (determined by the tumor size) after which the heart function was measured in different oxygen levels ex vivo using Langendorff method. All the melanoma mice had lower pressure amplitude (50.3%), rate of pressure production (54.1%), and decline (52.5%) in hearts ex vivo when compared with tumor-free group. There were no functional differences between the two melanoma groups. All the groups had similar weight changes, heart weights, cardiomyocyte sizes, levels of Ca2+ channels, energy metabolism enzyme activities, lipid peroxidation, and reactive oxygen species in their cardiac tissue homogenates. However, all the melanoma mice had 7.4% lower superoxidase dismutase activity compared with the control animals, which might reduce the ability of the heart to react to changes in oxidative stress. The exercising melanoma group had a 28.6% higher average heart capillary density compared with the unexercised melanoma group. Short-term wheel running did not affect the tumor growth. In conclusion, subcutaneous melanoma seems to impair intrinsic heart function even before cachexia, and these functional alterations were not caused by any of the measured molecular markers. Short-term voluntary wheel-running exercise was insufficient to alleviate the intrinsic cardiac impairments caused by melanoma.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Melanoma has been shown to induce cardiac atrophy and impair cardiac function in vivo, however, it has not been investigated how melanoma affects the intrinsic heart function. Here, we showed that subcutaneous melanoma can impair intrinsic heart function in noncachectic mice, decreasing the heart's pressure production and relaxation. In addition, we investigated whether short-term voluntary wheel-running exercise could attenuate the impairment of intrinsic cardiac function. However, our results do not seem to support this hypothesis. © 2022 the American Physiological Society.

  • 28.
    Uurasmaa, Tytti-Maria
    et al.
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Streng, Tomi
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Alkio, Milla
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland.
    Heinonen, Ilkka
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Anttila, Katja
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Short-term exercise affects cardiac function ex vivo partially via changes in calcium channel levels, without influencing hypoxia sensitivity2021In: Journal of physiology and biochemistry, ISSN 1138-7548, E-ISSN 1877-8755, Vol. 77, no 4, p. 639-651Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exercise is known to improve cardiac recovery following coronary occlusion. However, whether short-term exercise can improve cardiac function and hypoxia tolerance ex vivo independent of reperfusion injury and the possible role of calcium channels in improved hypoxia tolerance remains unknown. Therefore, in the current study, heart function was measured ex vivo using the Langendorff method at different oxygen levels after a 4-week voluntary wheel-running regimen in trained and untrained male mice (C57Bl/6NCrl). The levels of cardiac Ca2+-channels: L-type Ca2+-channel (CACNA1C), ryanodine receptor (RyR-2), sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2), and sodium-calcium exchanger were measured using western blot. Trained mice displayed lower cardiac afterload pressure generation capacity (rate and amplitude), but unaltered hypoxia tolerance when compared to untrained mice with similar heart rates. The level of CACNA1C positively correlated with the pressure generation rate and amplitude. Furthermore, the CACNA1C-RYR-2 ratio also positively correlated with the pressure generation rate. While the 4-week training period was not enough to alter the intrinsic cardiac hypoxia tolerance, interestingly it decreased pressure generation capacity and slowed pressure decreasing capacity in the mouse hearts ex vivo. This reduction in pressure generation rate could be linked to the level of channel proteins in sarcolemmal Ca2+-cycling in trained mice. However, the Ca2+-channel levels did not differ significantly between the groups, and thus, the level of calcium channels cannot fully explain all the functional alterations, despite the detected correlations. Therefore, additional studies are warranted to reveal further mechanisms that contribute to the reduced intrinsic capacity for pressure production in trained mouse hearts. © 2021, The Author(s).

  • 29.
    Uurasmaa, Tytti-Maria
    et al.
    Laboratory of Animal Physiology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Streng, Tomi
    Laboratory of Animal Physiology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Alkio, Milla
    Laboratory of Animal Physiology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland.
    Karikoski, Marika
    Faculty of Medicine University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Heinonen, Ilkka
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. Turku PET Centre University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Anttila, Katja
    Laboratory of Animal Physiology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Melanoma Impairs Mouse Heart Function Which Short-Term Exercise Cannot Restore2022In: The FASEB Journal, ISSN 0892-6638, E-ISSN 1530-6860, Vol. 36, no S1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether melanoma impairs intrinsic heart function in mice and whether short-term voluntary running wheel exercise could reduce the possible negative effects. Additionally, we investigated whether changes in cell size, capillary density, calcium channel levels, metabolic enzyme activities or oxidative stress could explain the possible changes in heart function. Advanced melanoma has been shown to cause cardiac muscle wasting and influence heart function in vivo, we hypothesized that melanoma would also impair intrinsic heart function, which has not been investigated previously. We also hypothesized that voluntary short-term exercise could reduce the effects of melanoma on cardiac function since exercise training is known to improve cardiovascular function and reduce the negative effects of some cancers. Male mice were divided into untrained tumor-free group (control) and untrained melanoma group and trained melanoma group. The mice did voluntary running-wheel exercise until predetermined tumor size after which their hearts were isolated. The cardiac function was measured in retrograde perfusion at a constant pressure in multiple oxygen levels using Langendorff apparatus. The molecular and tissue level markers were measured afterwards. The melanoma animals were not cachectic as indicated lack of body weight loss. The rate of pressure production, pressure amplitude and rate of pressure decline were all significantly lower in the isolated hearts of the melanoma animals as compared to tumor-free animals. However, the heart function did not differ between the untrained and trained melanoma groups. Furthermore, there were no differences between the groups in the calcium channel levels, reactive oxygen species, catalase activity, lipid peroxidation or citrate synthase and lactate dehydrogenase activity. However, mice from both melanoma groups had significantly lower superoxide dismutase activity as compared to tumor-free animals, which might reduce the heart's ability to respond to possible changes in oxidative stress. Exercise trained animals had higher capillary density, but their cell size and heart weights did not significantly differ from the untrained groups. Running wheel exercise did not affect the final tumor growth either even though there was tendency at the beginning of the experiment that running wheel exercise could slow down the tumor growth. One reason for this could be that when melanoma proceeded, the mouse running activity reduced significantly. In conclusion, melanoma is an aggressive cancer that impairs intrinsic heart function even when no cachexia is present. The aggressiveness of melanoma also prevented the short-term voluntary exercise from alleviating the changes caused by melanoma. Future studies should combine the training to medical cancer treatment in order to estimate whether exercise training could be beneficial as adjunct therapy in melanoma treatment. © FASEB.

  • 30.
    Wang, Jun
    et al.
    The Belt and Road Joint Laboratory for Winter Sports, Department of Exercise Physiology, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, ChinaBeijing Sport Univ, Dept Exercise Physiol, Belt & Rd Joint Lab Winter Sports, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Ji, Yunhui
    Department of Physical Education, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, China.
    Zhou, Li
    The Belt and Road Joint Laboratory for Winter Sports, Department of Exercise Physiology, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, China.
    Xiang, Yang
    School of Physical Education, Yan’an University, Yan’an, China.
    Heinonen, Ilkka
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Turku PET Centre, Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Zhang, Peng
    Department of Exercise Science, East Stroudsburg University of Pennsylvania, East Stroudsburg, PA, United States.
    A New Method to Improve Running Economy and Maximal Aerobic Power in Athletes: Endurance Training With Periodic Carbon Monoxide Inhalation2019In: Frontiers in Physiology, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 10, article id 701Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Altitude training stimulates erythropoietin hormone (EPO) release and increases blood hemoglobin (Hb) mass, which may result in improved oxygen (O-2) transport capacity. It was hypothesized in the present study that periodic inhalation of carbon monoxide (CO) might elicit similar physiological adaptations compared to altitude training.

    Methods: Twelve male college student athletes, who were well-trained soccer players, participated. They performed a 4-week treadmill-training program, five times a week. Participants were randomly assigned into an experimental group with inhaling CO (INCO) (1 mL/kg body weight for 2 min) in O-2 (4 L) before all training sessions and a control group without inhaling CO (NOCO). CO and EPO concentrations in venous blood were first measured acutely at the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th hour after INCO, and total hemoglobin mass (tHb), running economy and VO(2)max were measured before and after the 4 weeks training intervention.

    Results: HbCO% increased from 0.7 to 4.4% (P < 0.05) after 1 h of CO inhalation and EPO increased from 1.9 to 2.7 mIU/mL after 4 h post CO inhalation (P < 0.05) acutely before the intervention. After the training, the tHb and VO(2)max in the INCO group increased significantly by 3.7 and 2.7%, respectively, while no significant differences were observed in the NOCO condition. O-2 uptake at given submaximal speeds declined by approximately 4% in the INCO group.

    Conclusion: Acutely, EPO increased sharply post CO inhalation, peaking at 4 h post inhalation. 4-weeks of training with CO inhalation before exercise sessions improved tHb and VO(2)max as well as running economy, suggesting that moderate CO inhalation could be a new method to improve the endurance performance in athletes. © 2019 Frontiers Media S.A. All Rights Reserved.

  • 31.
    Wheeler, Michael J.
    et al.
    School of Human Sciences (Exercise and Sport Science), The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia & Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Dunstan, David W.
    School of Human Sciences (Exercise and Sport Science), The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia & Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia & Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Smith, Brianne
    School of Human Sciences (Exercise and Sport Science), The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Smith, Kurt J.
    School of Human Sciences (Exercise and Sport Science), The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia & School of Kinesiology, Lakehead University, Thunderbay, Ontario, Canada.
    Scheer, Anna
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Faculty of Health Science, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Lewis, Jaye
    School of Human Sciences (Exercise and Sport Science), The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Naylor, Louise H.
    School of Human Sciences (Exercise and Sport Science), The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Heinonen, Ilkka
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Finland.
    Ellis, Kathryn A.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Cerin, Ester
    Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia & School of Public Health, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China & Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Ainslie, Philip N.
    School of Health and Exercise Sciences, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
    Green, Daniel J.
    School of Human Sciences (Exercise and Sport Science), The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Morning exercise mitigates the impact of prolonged sitting on cerebral blood flow in older adults2019In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 126, no 4, p. 1049-1055Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preventing declines in cerebral blood flow is important for maintaining optimal brain health with aging. We compared the effects of a morning bout of moderate-intensity exercise, with and without subsequent light-intensity walking breaks from sitting, on cerebral blood velocity over 8 h in older adults. In a randomized crossover trial, overweight/obese older adults (n = 12, 70 +/- 7 yr; 30.4 +/- 4.3 kg/m2), completed three acute conditions (6-day washout); SIT: prolonged sitting (8 h, control); EX + SIT: sitting (1 h), moderate-intensity walking (30 min), followed by uninterrupted sitting (6.5 h); and EX + BR: sitting (1 h), moderate-intensity walking (30 min), followed by sitting (6.5 h) interrupted with 3 min of light-intensity walking every 30 min. Bilateral middle cerebral artery velocities (MCAv) were determined using transcranial Doppler at 13 time points across the day. The temporal pattern and average MCAv over 8 h was determined. The pattern of MCAv over 8 h was a negative linear trend in SIT (P < 0.001), but a positive quadratic trend in EX + SIT (P < 0.001) and EX + BR (P < 0.01). Afternoon time points in SIT were lower than baseline within condition (P <= 0.001 for all). A morning dip in MCAv was observed in EX + SIT and EX + BR (P < 0.05 relative to baseline), but afternoon time points were not significantly lower than baseline. The average MCAv over 8 h was higher in EX + SIT than SIT (P = 0.007) or EX + BR (P = 0.024). Uninterrupted sitting should be avoided, and moderate-intensity exercise should be encouraged for the daily maintenance of cerebral blood flow in older adults. The clinical implications of maintaining adequate cerebral blood flow include the delivery of vital oxygen and nutrients to the brain.

    NEW & NOTEWORTHY: This is the first study to measure the combined effects of an exercise bout with breaks in sitting on cerebral blood velocity in older adults. Using frequent recordings over an 8-h period, we have performed a novel analysis of the pattern of cerebral blood velocity, adjusting for concurrent measures of mean arterial pressure and other potential confounders in a linear mixed effects regression. 

    Copyright © 2019 the American Physiological Society.

  • 32.
    Wheeler, Michael J
    et al.
    Cardiovascular Research Group, School of Human Sciences (Exercise and Sport Science), The University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia; Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Green, Daniel J.
    Cardiovascular Research Group, School of Human Sciences (Exercise and Sport Science), The University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia.
    Cerin, Ester
    Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Australia; School of Public Health, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    Ellis, Kathryn A.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia.
    Heinonen, Ilkka
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Cardiovascular Research Group, School of Human Sciences (Exercise and Sport Science), The University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia; Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Lewis, Jaye
    Cardiovascular Research Group, School of Human Sciences (Exercise and Sport Science), The University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia.
    Naylor, Louise H.
    Cardiovascular Research Group, School of Human Sciences (Exercise and Sport Science), The University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia.
    Cohen, Neale
    Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, 99 Commercial Rd, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Larsen, Robyn
    Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, 99 Commercial Rd, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Dempsey, Paddy C.
    Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, United Kingdom; Diabetes Research Centre, University of Leicester, Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, United Kingdom.
    Kingwell, Bronwyn A.
    Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Owen, Neville
    Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Centre for Urban Transitions, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Australia.
    Dunstan, David W.
    Cardiovascular Research Group, School of Human Sciences (Exercise and Sport Science), The University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Combined effects of continuous exercise and intermittent active interruptions to prolonged sitting on postprandial glucose, insulin, and triglycerides in adults with obesity: a randomized crossover trial2020In: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, E-ISSN 1479-5868, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Postprandial glucose, insulin, and triglyceride metabolism is impaired by prolonged sitting, but enhanced by exercise. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a continuous exercise bout with and without intermittent active interruptions to prolonged sitting on postprandial glucose, insulin, and triglycerides.

    METHODS: Sedentary adults who were overweight to obese (n = 67; mean age 67 yr SD ± 7; BMI 31.2 kg∙m- 2 SD ± 4.1), completed three conditions: SIT: uninterrupted sitting (8-h, control); EX+SIT: sitting (1-h), moderate-intensity walking (30-min), uninterrupted sitting (6.5-h); EX+BR: sitting (1-h), moderate-intensity walking (30- min), sitting interrupted every 30-min with 3-min of light-intensity walking (6.5 h). Participants consumed standardized breakfast and lunch meals and blood was sampled at 13 time-points.

    RESULTS: When compared to SIT, EX+SIT increased total area under the curve (tAUC) for glucose by 2% [0.1-4.1%] and EX+BR by 3% [0.6-4.7%] (all p < 0.05). Compared to SIT, EX+SIT reduced insulin and insulin:glucose ratio tAUC by 18% [11-22%] and 21% [8-33%], respectively; and EX+BR reduced values by 25% [19-31%] and 28% [15-38%], respectively (all p < 0.001 vs SIT, all p < 0.05 EX+SIT-vs-EX+BR). Compared to SIT, EX+BR reduced triglyceride tAUC by 6% [1-10%] (p = 0.01 vs SIT), and compared to EX+SIT, EX+BR reduced this value by 5% [0.1-8.8%] (p = 0.047 vs EX+SIT). The magnitude of reduction in insulin tAUC from SIT-to-EX+BR was greater in those with increased basal insulin resistance. No reduction in triglyceride tAUC from SIT-to-EX+BR was apparent in those with high fasting triglycerides.

    CONCLUSIONS: Additional reductions in postprandial insulin-glucose dynamics and triglycerides may be achieved by combining exercise with breaks in sitting. Relative to uninterrupted sitting, this strategy may reduce postprandial insulin more in those with high basal insulin resistance, but those with high fasting triglycerides may be resistant to such intervention-induced reductions in triglycerides.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12614000737639 ).

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