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  • 1.
    Fors, Vaike
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Brodersen, Meike
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Raats, Kaspar
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology. Volvo Cars, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pink, Sarah
    Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Smith, Rachel Charlotte
    Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Investigating ADM in Shared Mobility: A design ethnographic approach2022In: Everyday Automation: Experiencing and Anticipating Emerging Technologies / [ed] Sarah Pink; Martin Berg; Deborah Lupton; Minna Ruckenstein, London: Routledge, 2022, 1, p. 197-212Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, we demonstrate how a design ethnographic approach to future algorithm-powered mobility solutions opens up possibilities to research social implications of automated decision making (ADM) from a situational perspective, by investigating the context of ADM rather than simply observing the technology itself and how it is used. The context of our discussion is one where the development of autonomous vehicles and artificial intelligence (AI) applications, in the service of transportation, has sparked a renewed research interest into shared mobility systems, and how these can respond to emerging challenges of rising traffic congestion and pollution levels. Our research addresses the gap between algorithm-based approaches to designing for optimizing, streamlining, and efficiency, the questions of how these systems and services are activated in people’s everyday life, and how they interfere with decision-making around traveling and shared mobility. We argue that to understand how these services and technologies will be adopted and implemented in society, research attention must be directed to people in real-life situations where this type of ADM operates.

  • 2.
    Osz, Katalin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Raats, Kaspar
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Fors, Vaike
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Pink, Sarah
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS). Monash university, Melbourne, Australia.
    Lindgren, Thomas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Combining WOz testing and ride along video ethnographies: advancing methodologies for Autonomous Driving car development for mixed traffic environments2018In: OzCHI '18: Proceedings of the 30th Australian Conference on Computer-Human Interaction / [ed] Dana McKay; Jenny Waycott; Ann Morrison; Jaz Hee-Jeong Choi; Artur Lugmayr; Mark Billinghurst; Ryan Kelly; George Buchanan; Duncan Stevenson, New York: ACM Press, 2018, p. 252-255Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental ‘Wizard of Oz’ (WOz) User Experience (UX) research in the context of Autonomous Driving (AD) car development is becoming more interdisciplinary, human-centric and open to innovative methodological collaborations. In this paper, we demonstrate a mixed-methodological approach to research how people engage with and make sense of automated features that do not yet exist in everyday life contexts. We present how the combination of WOz testing and ethnographic ride-alongs have been developed and how the two different approaches can benefit from each other. We selected two everyday driving examples - emerging from T-junction and changing lane on the motorway - to demonstrate the value of mixing these methodologies. We propose that by building new collaborative test practices, we can create a more everyday-life oriented approach that better attends to people’s experiences, imaginaries and projections into possible futures of driving, which is particularly important to incorporate in AD vehicle design for mixed traffic environments. © 2018 Association for Computing Machinery.

  • 3.
    Osz, Katalin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Raats, Kaspar
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Lindgren, Thomas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Rothmüller, Markus
    School of Architecture, Design and Planning Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Rasmussen, Pernille Holm
    School of Architecture, Design and Planning Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Vendelbo-Larsen, Alexandra
    School of Architecture, Design and Planning Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    A design anthropology approach to experiential futures and autonomous driving2018In: PDC '18 Proceedings of the 15th Participatory Design Conference: Short Papers, Situated Actions, Workshops and Tutorial - Volume 2 / [ed] Liesbeth Huybrechts et al., New York, NY: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2018, article id 49Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between design anthropology and Participatory Design (PD) has developed along a shared interest in understanding interventions and possible futures. In this full-day workshop, we use future-oriented participatory and collaborative methodologies to expand our understanding of how we might further develop ethnographies of the possible and how a focus on imagination and unspoken experience of the making and using of possible future scenarios can underpin our understandings. We also discuss how the experience of and engagement with possible futures can enable novel modes of research practice, knowing and understanding. © 2018 ACM.

  • 4.
    Pink, Sarah
    et al.
    Emerging Technologies Research Lab, Faculties of Information Technology and Art, Design and Architecture, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Osz, Katalin
    Volvo Cars Corporation, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Raats, Kaspar
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS). Volvo Cars Corporation, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Thomas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS). Volvo Cars Corporation, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fors, Vaike
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Design anthropology for emerging technologies: Trust and sharing in autonomous driving futures2020In: Design Studies, ISSN 0142-694X, E-ISSN 1872-6909, Vol. 69, article id 100942Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we demonstrate how design anthropology theory, methodology and practice can be mobilised to create interventions in how possible human futures with emerging technologies are understood and imagined. Drawing on our research into Human Experience and Expectations of Autonomous Driving (AD) cars we show how: we engaged ethnographic insights to redefine concepts of trust and sharing which contest dominant problem-solution narratives; and we mobilised these insights in applied contexts, through our AD Futures cards which employ ethnographic quotes and examples to disrupt common assumptions, align stakeholders with everyday experience, and pose new questions. © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Pink, Sarah
    et al.
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Raats, Kaspar
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology. Volvo Cars Corporation, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Thomas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology. Volvo Cars Corporation, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Osz, Katalin
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology. Volvo Cars Corporation, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fors, Vaike
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    An Interventional Design Anthropology of Emerging Technologies: Working Through an Interdisciplinary Field2022In: The Palgrave Handbook of the Anthropology of Technology / [ed] Maja Hojer Bruun, Ayo Wahlberg, Rachel Douglas-Jones, Cathrine Hasse, Klaus Hoeyer, Dorthe Brogård Kristensen, Brit Ross Winthereik, Singapore: Palgrave Macmillan, 2022, p. 183-200Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging technologies—such as autonomous driving (AD) cars, blockchain, robotics, and drones—are increasingly part of popular narratives and industry and policy agendas. They are commonly understood as new digital, data-driven, intelligent, or automated technological innovations in development, or at the cusp of being launched into a market. Thus, the anthropological question of how they might become part of everyday, experiential, possible worlds demands our attention. In this chapter we outline an approach to emerging technologies that is rooted in design anthropology and takes an interventional stance. In doing so we situated design anthropology of emerging technologies within an interdisciplinary field which has tended to be dominated by technologically determinist approaches. Through the example of the notion of trust in AD cars, we show how policy, industry, engineering, and social science approaches configure to provide different and critical understandings. Drawing on our own design ethnographic research, we show how design anthropological attention to people offers an alternative and viable mode of understanding how emerging technologies become part of emerging worlds. © 2022 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

  • 6.
    Pink, Sarah
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS). Emerging Technologies Research Lab, Faculty of Art, Design and Architecture, Faculty of Information Technology, Monash University, Caulfield East, Australia.
    Smith, Rachel Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS). School of Communication and Culture, Aarhus University, Aarhus C, Denmark.
    Fors, Vaike
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Lund, Jesper
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Raats, Kaspar
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS). Volvo Car Corporation, Torslanda, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Osz, Katalin
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS). Volvo Car Corporation, Torslanda, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Thomas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS). Volvo Car Corporation, Torslanda, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Broström, Robert
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS). Volvo Car Corporation, Torslanda, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Mobility as a Service Through Design: A Human Approach2021In: Advancing a Design Approach to Enriching Public Mobility / [ed] S. Coxon; R. Napper, Cham: Springer Publishing Company, 2021, 1, p. 1-17Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter explains how designing for future intelligent mobility systems is advanced by a human-centered approach, based in design anthropology. It provides an accessible introduction the theory and methodology of this approach, the production of ethnographic insights, and their translation into design probes for use workshops tailored to enable stakeholders to actively co-design future mobility and autonomous vehicle services and outlines the potentials and challenges of engaging diverse stakeholders—from industry and policy to the people who will use future technologies and services—in the development of future mobility. © 2021, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

  • 7.
    Raats, Kaspar
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology. Volvo Cars, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Advancing Human-Centred Algorithm Design Through Reflective Practice2024In: Proceedings of the 57th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2024Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous vehicle (AV) algorithms tend to be designed with a techno-solutionism mindset, causing algorithms to fail in real-world applications. This can be attributed to algorithm developers’ lack of routines and knowledge to consider the environments and circumstances AVs are intended to partake in. This paper argues for shifting towards a more responsible human-centred algorithm design (HCAD). It addresses this by demonstrating the different reflective practice qualities obtained by engaging algorithm designers from four companies with ethnographic materials. The study shows that Design Ethnographic (DE) approach allowed developers to consider the value of AVs from sociotechnical perspectives and facilitated collaborative learning and debating about what problems truly need solving to bring societal value. This demonstrates how ethnographically infused HCAD helps expand algorithm developers’ opportunities to participate responsibly in value co-creation for society.

  • 8.
    Raats, Kaspar
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Algorithm developers’ strategies for human-centredness when developing algorithms for autonomous vehicles: the role of organisational context2024Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Raats, Kaspar
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Towards trustworthy intelligent vehicle technology development2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis addresses the unresolved issues of responsibility and accountability in autonomous vehicle (AV) development, advocating for human-centred approaches to enhance trustworthiness. While AVs hold the potential for improved safety, mobility, and environmental impact, poorly designed algorithms pose risks, leading to public distrust. Trust research focuses on technology-related aspects but overlooks trust within broader social and cultural contexts. Efforts are underway to understand algorithm design practices, acknowledging their potential unintended consequences. For example, Baumer (2017) advocates human-centred algorithm design (HCAD) to align with user perspectives and reduce risks. HCAD incorporates theoretical, participatory, and speculative approaches, emphasising user and stakeholder engagement. This aligns with broader calls for prioritising societal considerations in technology development (Stilgoe, 2013). The research in this thesis responds to these calls by integrating theories on trust and trustworthiness, autonomous vehicle development, and human-centred approaches in empirical investigations guided by the following research question: “How can human-centred approaches support the development of trustworthy intelligent vehicle technology?” This thesis approaches the question through design ethnography to ground the explorations in people’s real-life routines, practices and anticipations and demonstrate how design ethnographic techniques can infuse AV development with human-centred understandings of people’s trust in AVs. The studies reported in this thesis include a) interviews and participatory observations of algorithm designers, b) interviews and probing with residents, and c) staging collaborative, reflective practice through the design ethnographic materials and co-creation with citizens, city, academic and industry stakeholders, including AV algorithm designers. 

    Through these empirical explorations, this thesis suggests an answer to the research question by coining a novel and timely framework for intelligent vehicle development: trustworthy algorithm design (TAD). TAD demonstrates trustworthiness as an ongoing process, not just a measurable outcome from human-technology interactions. It calls to consider autonomous vehicle algorithms as construed through a network of stakeholders, practices, and technologies and, therefore, defines trustworthy algorithm design as a continuous collaborative learning and evolvement process of different disciplines and sectors. Furthermore, the TAD framework suggests that for autonomous vehicle algorithm design to be trustworthy, it must be responsive, interventional, intentional and transdisciplinary. 

    The TAD framework integrates ideas and strategies from different well-known trajectories of research in the field of responsible and human-centred technology development: Human-Centred Algorithm Design (Baumer, 2017), algorithms as culture (Seaver, 2017) and Responsible Innovation (Stilgoe et al., 2013). The thesis contributes to this field by empirically investigating how this integrated framework helps expand existing understandings of interactional trust in intelligent technologies and include the relevance of participatory processes of trustworthiness and how these processes are nurtured through cross-sector co-learning and design ethnographic materials.

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  • 10.
    Raats, Kaspar
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Trust in autonomous vehicles: Insights from a Swedish suburbIn: Journal of Responsible Innovation, ISSN 2329-9460, E-ISSN 2329-9037Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates elements of trust in autonomous vehicles (AVs). We contex- tualised autonomous vehicles as part of a socio-technical system to extend previous understandings of trust and explore trust in autonomous vehicles in concrete social contexts. We conducted online co-creation workshops with 22 participants, using design probes to explore trust and AVs in relation to people’s everyday lives. Us- ing a systemic perspective, we show how trust and acceptance depend not only on the underlying AV technology but also - if not more so - on human-to-human rela- tionships and real-life social circumstances. We argue that when investigating issues of trust and automation, the scope of analysis needs to be broadened to include a more complex socio-technical set of (human and non-human) agents, to extend from momentary human-computer interactions to a wider timescale, and be situated in concrete spaces, social networks, and situations.

  • 11.
    Raats, Kaspar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Fors, Vaike
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Ebbesson, Esbjörn
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Tailoring Co-creation for Responsible Innovation: A Design Ethnographic Approach2023In: 14th Scandinavian Conference On Information Systems: The proceedings of the 14th Scandinavian Conference on Information Systems (SCIS) held in Porvoo, Finland, 2023 / [ed] Esko Penttinen; Sampsa Suvivuo; Virpi Kristiina Tuunainen; Matti Rossi; Hadi Ghanbari, 2023, article id 15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is hard to predict the impact of technology on society before it is developed enough. For example, the issue can be attributed to the need for more cross-sectoral collaboration in the design process. However, a solution for anticipating such outcomes has been proposed through the quadruple helix innovation model, which states that the involvement of government, academia, industry, and the public is essential in innovation systems. The question of how this collaboration can successfully be staged to foresee possible impacts is an empirical endeavour. This paper presents an iterative case study of how ethnographic material can be used to ongoingly tailor speculative co-creation to facilitate responsible innovation (RI) principles. The result is reflected through two lenses; the tools developed in the project to facilitate co-creation activities and the stakeholder reflections evoked through these tools.

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    fulltext
  • 12.
    Raats, Kaspar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS). Volvo Car Corporation, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fors, Vaike
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Pink, Sarah
    Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Trusting autonomous vehicles: An interdisciplinary approach2020In: Transport Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, ISSN 2590-1982, Vol. 7, article id 100201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The theoretical concept of trust has been identified as highly important to the successful design of intelligent technologies such as autonomous vehicles (AVs). In human-centred transport research this has resulted in a focus on trust in the technical design of future AVs and has raised the question of how the conditions that form trust change as technologies become more intelligent. In this article we discuss the first stage of an interdisciplinary project that brought together ethnographic and experimental user studies into trust in intelligent cars. This stage focused on the development of an interdisciplinary methodological framework for the user studies, through a review of 258 empirical HCI research articles on trust in automation and AVs. The review investigated the following research questions: a) what are the key themes in HCI methodologies used to research trust in automation and AVs; b) how do they account for trust in AVs as part of wider contexts; and c) how can these methodologies be developed to include more than momentary and individual human-machine interactions. We found that while theoretical understandings of trust in automated technologies acknowledge the relevance of the wider context in which the interaction occurs, existing methodologies predominantly involve experimental studies in simulated environments with a focus on reliance related aspects of trust. We identified that ethnographic user studies can potentially contribute to new connections between theoretical understandings and conventional experimental methods. Therefore, we propose a framework for an interdisciplinary approach that combines experimental and ethnographic methodologies to investigate trust in AVs. © 2020 The Authors

  • 13.
    Raats, Kaspar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS). Volvo Car Corporation, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fors, Vaike
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Pink, Sarah
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS). Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Understanding Trust in Automated Vehicles2019In: OZCHI'19: Proceedings of the 31st Australian Conference on Human-Computer-Interaction, New York, NY: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2019, p. 352-358Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous vehicles (AVs) are developed to increase safety, and bring environmental benefits. Nevertheless, there is growing skepticism in society regarding these technologies, a tendency that centres issues of trust in research and design of future AVs. In this paper, we raise the question of how trust has been understood and researched in relation to automation within the field of HumanComputer Interaction (HCI) thus far and what has been identified as key issues to deepen our understanding of personal trust in contemporary AVs. To answer this question, we systematically reviewed 232 HCI research articles on trust in automation and AVs to identify a) key aspects of contemporary trust research theories and methodologies, and b) what dimensions of trust are in need of further investigation in relation to UX perspectives on trust. Based on the review, we discuss methodological implications of focusing on the experience of trust in future research. © 2019 Association for Computing Machinery.

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