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  • 1.
    Bournias-Varotsis, A.
    et al.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Friel, R. J.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Harris, R. A.
    Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Engstrom, D. S.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Selectively anodised aluminium foils as an insulating layer for embedding electronic circuitry in a metal matrix via ultrasonic additive manufacturing2016In: Solid Freeform Fabrication 2016: Proceedings of the 27th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) Symposium – An Additive Manufacturing Conference / [ed] Bourell, D.L., Laboratory for Freeform Fabrication , 2016, p. 2260-2270Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (UAM) is a hybrid Additive Manufacturing (AM) process that involves layer-by-layer ultrasonic welding of metal foils and periodic machining to achieve the desired shape. Prior investigative research has demonstrated the potential of UAM for the embedding of electronic circuits inside a metal matrix. In this paper, a new approach for the fabrication of an insulating layer between an aluminium (Al) matrix and embedded electronic interconnections is presented. First, an Anodic Aluminium Oxide (AAO) layer is selectively grown onto the surface of Al foils prior to bonding. The pre-treated foils are then welded onto a UAM fabricated aluminium substrate. The bonding step can be repeated for the full encapsulation of the electronic interconnections or components. This ceramic AAO insulating layer provides several advantages over the alternative organic materials used in previous works.

  • 2.
    Bournias-Varotsis, Alkaios
    et al.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Friel, R. J.
    MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Harris, Russell A.
    Mechanical Engineering, The University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Engstrøm, Daniel S.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing as a form-then-bond process for embedding electronic circuitry into a metal matrix2018In: Journal of Manufacturing Processes, ISSN 1526-6125, Vol. 32, p. 664-675Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (UAM) is a hybrid manufacturing process that involves the layer-by-layer ultrasonic welding of metal foils in the solid state with periodic CNC machining to achieve the desired 3D shape. UAM enables the fabrication of metal smart structures, because it allows the embedding of various components into the metal matrix, due to the high degree of plastic metal flow and the relatively low temperatures encountered during the layer bonding process. To further the embedding capabilities of UAM, in this paper we examine the ultrasonic welding of aluminium foils with features machined prior to bonding. These pre-machined features can be stacked layer-by-layer to create pockets for the accommodation of fragile components, such as electronic circuitry, prior to encapsulation. This manufacturing approach transforms UAM into a “form-then-bond” process. By studying the deformation of aluminium foils during UAM, a statistical model was developed that allowed the prediction of the final location, dimensions and tolerances of pre-machined features for a set of UAM process parameters. The predictive power of the model was demonstrated by designing a cavity to accommodate an electronic component (i.e. a surface mount resistor) prior to its encapsulation within the metal matrix. We also further emphasised the importance of the tensioning force in the UAM process. The current work paves the way for the creation of a novel system for the fabrication of three-dimensional electronic circuits embedded into an additively manufactured complex metal composite. © 2018 The Society of Manufacturing Engineers

  • 3.
    Bournias-Varotsis, Alkaios
    et al.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, United Kingdom.
    Harris, Russell A.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, United Kingdom.
    Friel, Ross J.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, United Kingdom.
    The effect of ultrasonic excitation on the electrical properties and microstructure of printed electronic conductive inks2015In: 2015 38th International Spring Seminar on Electronics Technology (ISSE), 2015, p. 140-145Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (UAM) is an advanced manufacturing technique, which enables the embedding of electronic components and interconnections within solid aluminium structures, due to the low temperature encountered during material bonding. In this study, the effects of ultrasonic excitation, caused by the UAM process, on the electrical properties and the microstructure of thermally cured screen printed silver conductive inks were investigated. The electrical resistance and the dimensions of the samples were measured and compared before and after the ultrasonic excitation. The microstructure of excited and unexcited samples was examined using combined Focused Ion Beam and Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB/SEM) and optical microscopy. The results showed an increase in the resistivity of the silver tracks after the ultrasonic excitation, which was correlated with a change in the microstructure: the size of the silver particles increased after the excitation, suggesting that inter-particle bonding has occurred. The study also highlighted issues with short circuiting between the conductive tracks and the aluminium substrate, which were attributed to the properties of the insulating layer and the inherent roughness of the UAM substrate. However, the reduction in conductivity and observed short circuiting were sufficiently small and rare, which leads to the conclusion that printed conductive tracks can function as interconnects in conjunction with UAM, for the fabrication of novel smart metal components.

  • 4.
    Friel, R. J.
    Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    13 - Power ultrasonics for additive manufacturing and consolidating of materials2015In: Power Ultrasonics: Applications of High-Intensity Ultrasound / [ed] Gallego-Juarez, Juan A. & Graff, Karl F., Oxford: Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2015, p. 313-335Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter explores the ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) advanced solid-state metal additive/subtractive manufacturing process that combines ultrasonic welding and computer numerical control milling to fabricate solid metal components, layer-by-layer, from metal foils. The chapter will discuss the three key abilities of UAM: complicated geometries, dissimilar material bonding, and object embedment. The combination of these three key abilities places UAM as a most attractive method with which to create metal matrix-based freeform smart structures for high-value engineering applications. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Friel, R. J.
    et al.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
    Harris, R. A.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
    A nanometre-scale fibre-to-matrix interface characterization of an ultrasonically consolidated metal matrix composite2010In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part L, journal of materials, ISSN 1464-4207, E-ISSN 2041-3076, Vol. 224, no 1, p. 31-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future 'smart' structures have the potential to revolutionize many engineering applications. One of the possible methods for creating smart structures is through the use of shape memory alloy (SMA) fibres embedded into metal matrices. Ultrasonic consolidation (UC) allows the embedding of SMAs into metal matrices while retaining the SMA's intrinsic recoverable deformation property. In this work, NiTi SMA fibres were successfully embedded into an Al 3003 (0) matrix via the UC layer manufacturing process. Initially the plastic flow of the Al matrix and the degree of fibre encapsulation were observed using optical microscopy. Then microstructural grain and sub-grain size variation of the Al 3003 (0) matrix at the fibre-matrix interface, and the nature of the fibre-matrix bonding mechanism, were studied via the use of focused ion beam (FIB) cross-sectioning, FIB imaging, scanning electron microscopy, and mechanical peel testing. The results show that the inclusion of the NiTi SMA fibres had a significant effect on the surrounding Al matrix microstructure during the UC process. Additionally, the fibre-matrix bonding mechanism appeared to be mechanical entrapment with the SMA surface showing signs of fatigue from the UC embedding process.

  • 6.
    Friel, R. J.
    et al.
    The Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
    Harris, R. A.
    The Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing – A hybrid production process for novel functional products2013In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 6, p. 35-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (UAM), or Ultrasonic Consolidation as it is also referred, is a hybrid form of manufacture, primarily for metal components. The unique nature of the process permits extremely novel functionality to be realised such as multi-material structures with embedded componentry. UAM has been subject to research and investigation at Loughborough University since 2001. This paper introduces UAM then details a number of key findings in a number of areas that have been of particular focus at Loughborough in recent years. These include; the influence of pre-process material texture on interlaminar bonding, secure fibre positioning through laser machined channels, and freeform electrical circuitry integration. © 2013 The Authors.

  • 7.
    Friel, R. J.
    et al.
    The Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
    Harris, R. A.
    The Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing research at Loughborough University2012In: Proceedings of the Twenty Third Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium – An Additive Manufacturing Conference, Austin, Texas, USA, 6-8 August 2012 / [ed] D. Bourell, R. H. Crawford, C. C. Seepersad, J. J. Beaman, & H. Marcus, 2012, p. 354-363Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (UAM) has been subject to research and investigation at Loughborough University since 2001. In recent years, three particular areas of significant focus have been:

    • The influence of pre-process material texture on interlaminar bonding.

    • Secure fibre positioning through laser machined channels.

    • Freeform electrical circuitry integration.

    This paper details the key findings and a number of conclusions from these work areas. The results of this work have led to the further research and developmental applications for the UAM technology.

  • 8.
    Friel, R. J.
    et al.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Johnson, K. E.
    Solidica Inc., Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    Dickens, P. M.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Harris, R. A.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    The effect of interface topography for Ultrasonic Consolidation of aluminium2010In: Journal of Materials Science and Engineering: A, ISSN 2161-6213, Vol. 527, no 16-17, p. 4474-4483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultrasonic Consolidation (UC) is an additive manufacturing technology which is based on the sequential solid-state ultrasonic welding of metal foils. UC presents a rapid and adaptive alternative process, to other metal-matrix embedding technologies, for 'smart' metal composite material production. A challenge that exists however relates to optimising, for bond density and plastic flow, the interlaminar textures themselves that serve as the contact surfaces between the foils.UC employs a sonotrode connected to a transducer to exude ultrasonic energy into the metal foil being sequentially deposited. This sonotrode to metal contact imparts a noteworthy topology to the processed metals surface that in turn becomes the crucial substrate topology of the subsequent layers deposition. This work investigated UC processed Al 3003 samples to ascertain the effect of this imparted topology on subsequent layer deposition. Surface and interlaminar topology profiles were characterised using interferometry, electron and light microscopy. The physical effect of the topology profiles was quantified via the use of peel testing.The imparted topology profile was found to be of fundamental significance to the mechanical performance and bond density achieved within the bulk laminate during UC. The UC process parameters and sonotrode topology performed a key role in modifying this topology profile. The concept of using a specifically textured sonotrode to attain desired future smart material performance via UC is proposed by the authors. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  • 9.
    Friel, R. J.
    et al.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
    Masurtschak, Simona
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
    Harris, Russell A.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
    Enabling dissimilar fibre embedding and explicit fibre layout in ultrasonic consolidation2010In: Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Adaptive Structures and Technologies 2010, University Park, PA: Curran Associates, Inc., 2010, p. 303-310Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultrasonic Consolidation (UC) is a manufacturing technique based on the ultrasonic metal welding of a sequence of metal foils which are bonded to one another in a layer by layer manner. It combines the ability of additive and subtractive manufacturing techniques to create complex three-dimensional shapes. Due to moderate applied pressures and the relatively low temperatures experienced by a sample during manufacture, UC operates as a solid-state process. UC could potentially enable the fabrication of smart structures via integration of sensor, actuator and reinforcement fibres within a single metal matrix. Previous issues with the optimal placement of fibres directly between foils during UC have been identified. Also, different types of integrated fibres require different UC process conditions and thus present complications when integrating them in combination. To truly exploit the full potential of UC for smart structure capabilities it is envisioned that a high volume fraction of dissimilar fibres are required to be integrated together within a single metal matrix structure. Research on a new method to consolidate fibres securely and more accurately during UC is presented. Channels created prior to UC within metal matrix composites are investigated as a method to aid the embedding of high volume fractions of different fibres in unison without damage. Initial research using a 200 W fibre laser as an enabling tool to create channels of specific geometry onto a previously UC processed surface is detailed. The research verifies that controlled channelling on a UC surface is possible and that channel geometry is dependent on: laser traverse speed, laser beam power, and shroud gas flow rate. © (2010) by the International Conference on Adaptive Structures and Technologies (ICAST).

  • 10.
    Friel, Ross
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Gerling-Gedin, Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Nilsson, Emil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), MPE-lab. Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Andreasson, Björn Pererik
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    3D Printed Radar Lenses with Anti-Reflective Structures2019In: Designs, E-ISSN 2411-9660, Vol. 3, no 2, article id 28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine if 3D printed lenses with wavelength specific anti-reflective (AR) surface structures would improve beam intensity and thus radar efficiency for a Printed Circuit Board (PCB)-based 60 GHz radar. This would have potential for improved low-cost radar lenses for the consumer product market. Methods: A hyperbolic lens was designed in 3D Computer Aided Design (CAD) software and was then modified with a wavelength specified AR structure. Electromagnetic computer simulation was performed on both the ‘smooth’ and ‘AR structure’ lenses and compared to actual 60 GHz radar measurements of 3D printed polylactic acid (PLA) lenses. Results: The simulation results showed an increase of 10% in signal intensity of the AR structure lens over the smooth lens. Actual measurement showed an 8% increase in signal of the AR structure lens over the smooth lens. Conclusions: Low cost and readily available Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) 3D printing has been shown to be capable of printing an AR structure coated hyperbolic lens for millimeter wavelength radar applications. These 3D Printed AR structure lenses are effective in improving radar measurements over non-AR structure lenses.

  • 11.
    Goulas, A.
    et al.
    Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Friel, R. J.
    Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Laser sintering of ceramic materials for aeronautical and astronautical applications2017In: Laser Additive Manufacturing: Materials, Design, Technologies, and Applications / [ed] Milan Brandt, Amsterdam: Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2017, p. 373-398Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ceramic products have been manufactured for many decades via conventional techniques such as extrusion, oven sintering, and casting. However, these methods have several inherent disadvantages with regard to the possible shape and structure, which limits their application range. The advent of laser additive manufacturing (LAM) is a key enabler in creating ceramic components with considerably greater design freedom. The technology is allowing the creation of ceramic components that not only meet the increasing material requirements of aero/astro applications but also provide new opportunities in terms of the complex structures that can now be produced. Ceramics represents a new frontier for these LAM systems – one with many challenges and research needs; however, the material properties that ceramics offer over polymers and metals make the additive manufacturing of ceramic components an enticing engineering opportunity for aerospace, astronautical and potentially many other technology areas. This chapter presents an overview of the state of the art of ceramic materials in LAM for aerospace and astronautic applications. Section 14.2 explains the fundamentals of ceramic materials and includes examples of their traditional manufacturing methods. Section 14.3 focuses on the application of ceramic materials to the challenging engineering realm of aeronautics and astronautics, accompanied by examples from their main application areas (eg, thermal and ballistic shielding). Section 14.4 goes into depth on LAM, explaining the challenges and implications of laser processing ceramics, the benefits of the approach and examples from the current state of the art. Finally, 14.5 Future developments, 14.6 Conclusions highlight some of the likely future developments in the area and conclude the chapter. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Goulas, Athanasios
    et al.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical, Electrical & Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Binner, Jon GP
    College of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
    Engstrøm, Daniel S.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical, Electrical & Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Harris, Russell A.
    Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Friel, Ross J.
    MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Mechanical behaviour of additively manufactured lunar regolith simulant components2019In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part L, journal of materials, ISSN 1464-4207, E-ISSN 2041-3076, Vol. 233, no 8, p. 1629-1644Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Additive manufacturing and its related techniques have frequently been put forward as a promising candidate for planetary in-situ manufacturing, from building life-sustaining habitats on the Moon to fabricating various replacements parts, aiming to support future extra-terrestrial human activity. This paper investigates the mechanical behaviour of lunar regolith simulant material components, which is a potential future space engineering material, manufactured by a laser-based powder bed fusion additive manufacturing system. The influence of laser energy input during processing was associated with the evolution of component porosity, measured via optical and scanning electron microscopy in combination with gas expansion pycnometry. The compressive strength performance and Vickers micro-hardness of the components were analysed and related back to the processing history and resultant microstructure of the lunar regolith simulant build material. Fabricated structures exhibited a relative porosity of 44–49% and densities ranging from 1.76 to 2.3 g cm−3, with a maximum compressive strength of 4.2 ± 0.1 MPa and elastic modulus of 287.3 ± 6.6 MPa, the former is comparable to a typical masonry clay brick (3.5 MPa). The additive manufacturing parts also had an average hardness value of 657 ± 14 HV0.05/15, better than borosilicate glass (580 HV). This study has shed significant insight into realising the potential of a laser-based powder bed fusion additive manufacturing process to deliver functional engineering assets via in-situ and abundant material sources that can be potentially used for future engineering applications in aerospace and astronautics. © 2018, IMechE 2018.

  • 13.
    Goulas, Athanasios
    et al.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical, Electrical & Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
    Binner, Jon G.P.
    College of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
    Harris, Russell A.
    Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Friel, R. J.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical, Electrical & Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
    Assessing extraterrestrial regolith material simulants for in-situ resource utilisation based 3D printing2017In: Applied Materials Today, ISSN 2352-9407, Vol. 6, p. 54-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research paper investigates the suitability of ceramic multi-component materials, which are found on the Martian and Lunar surfaces, for 3D printing (aka Additive Manufacturing) of solid structures. 3D printing is a promising solution as part of the cutting edge field of future in situ space manufacturing applications.

    3D printing of physical assets from simulated Martian and Lunar regolith was successfully performed during this work by utilising laser-based powder bed fusion equipment. Extensive evaluation of the raw regolith simulants was conducted via Optical and Electron Microscopy(SEM), Visible–Near Infrared/Infrared (Vis–NIR/IR) Spectroscopy and thermal characterisation via Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The analysis results led to the characterisation of key properties of these multi-component ceramic materials with regard to their processability via powder bed fusion 3D printing.

    The Lunar and Martian simulant regolith analogues demonstrated spectral absorbance values of up to 92% within the Vis–NIR spectra. Thermal analysis demonstrated that these materials respond very differently to laser processing, with a high volatility (30% weight change) for the Martian analogue as opposed to its less volatile Lunar counterpart (<1% weight change). Results also showed a range of multiple thermal occurrences associated with melting, glass transition and crystallisation reactions. The morphological features of the powder particles are identified as contributing to densification limitations for powder bed fusion processing.

    This investigation has shown that – provided that the simulants are good matches for the actual regoliths – the lunar material is a viable candidate material for powder bed fusion 3D printing, whereas Martian regolith is not. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  • 14.
    Goulas, Athanasios
    et al.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical, Electrical & Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Engstrøm, Daniel S.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical, Electrical & Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Friel, Ross J.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical, Electrical & Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Harris, Russell A.
    Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Investigating the additive manufacture of extra-terrestrial materials2016In: Proceedings of the 2016 Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium - An Additive Manufacturing Conference / [ed] Bourell, D. L., 2016, p. 2271-2281Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Powder Bed Fusion (PBF) additive manufacturing process category, consists of a group of key enabling technologies allowing the fabrication of both intrinsic and complex structures for a series of applications, including aerospace and astronautics. The purpose of this investigation was to explore the potential application of in-space additive manufacturing/3D printing, for onsite fabrication of structures and parts, using the available extra-terrestrial natural resources as feedstock. This study was carried out by using simulants of terrestrial origin, mimicking the properties of those respective materials found extra-terram (in space). An investigation was conducted through material characterisation, processing and by powder bed fusion, and resultant examination by analytical techniques. The successful realisation of this manufacturing approach in an extra-terrestrial environment could enable a sustainable presence in space by providing the ability to build assets and tools needed for long duration/distance missions in deep space.

  • 15.
    Goulas, Athanasios
    et al.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Friel, R. J.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    3D printing with moondust2016In: Rapid prototyping journal, ISSN 1355-2546, E-ISSN 1758-7670, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 864-870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of the main process parameters of laser melting (LM) type additive manufacturing (AM) on multi-layered structures manufactured from JSC-1A Lunar regolith (Moondust) simulant powder. Design/methodology/approach - Laser diffraction technology was used to analyse and confirm the simulant powder material particle sizes and distribution. Geometrical shapes were then manufactured on a Realizer SLM™ 100 using the simulant powder. The laser-processed samples were analysed via scanning electron microscopy to evaluate surface and internal morphologies, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy to analyse the chemical composition after processing, and the samples were mechanically investigated via Vickers micro-hardness testing. Findings - A combination of process parameters resulting in an energy density value of 1.011 J/mm2 allowed the successful production of components directly from Lunar regolith simulant. An internal relative porosity of 40.8 per cent, material hardness of 670 ±11 HV and a dimensional accuracy of 99.8 per cent were observed in the fabricated samples. Originality/value - This research paper is investigating the novel application of a powder bed fusion AM process category as a potential on-site manufacturing approach for manufacturing structures/components out of Lunar regolith (Moondust). It was shown that this AM process category has the capability to directly manufacture multi-layered parts out of Lunar regolith, which has potential applicability to future moon colonization. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 16.
    Goulas, Athanasios
    et al.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
    Harris, Russell A.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
    Friel, Ross J.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
    Additive manufacturing of physical assets by using ceramic multicomponent extra-terrestrial materials2016In: Additive Manufacturing, ISSN 2214-8604, Vol. 10, p. 36-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Powder Bed Fusion (PBF) is a range of advanced manufacturing technologies that can fabricate three-dimensional assets directly from CAD data, on a successive layer-by-layer strategy by using thermal energy, typically from a laser source, to irradiate and fuse particles within a powder bed.

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the application of this advanced manufacturing technique to process ceramic multicomponent materials into 3D layered structures. The materials used matched those found on the Lunar and Martian surfaces. The indigenous extra-terrestrial Lunar and Martian materials could potentially be used for manufacturing physical assets onsite (i.e., off-world) on future planetary exploration missions and could cover a range of potential applications including: infrastructure, radiation shielding, thermal storage, etc.

    Two different simulants of the mineralogical and basic properties of Lunar and Martian indigenous materials were used for the purpose of this study and processed with commercially available laser additive manufacturing equipment. The results of the laser processing were investigated and quantified through mechanical hardness testing, optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis, spectrometry, and finally X-ray diffraction.

    The research resulted in the identification of a range of process parameters that resulted in the successful manufacture of three-dimensional components from Lunar and Martian ceramic multicomponent simulant materials. The feasibility of using thermal based additive manufacturing with multi-component ceramic materials has therefore been established, which represents a potential solution to off-world bulk structure manufacture for future human space exploration. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  • 17.
    Li, J.
    et al.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
    Bournias-Varotsis, A.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
    Masurtschak, S.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
    Friel, R. J.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
    Harris, R. A.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
    Exploring the mechanical performance and material structures of integrated electrical circuits within solid state metal additive manufacturing matrices2014In: Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) Symposium – An Additive Manufacturing Conference / [ed] Bourell, D. L., 2014, p. 857-864Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (UAM) enables the integration of a wide variety of components into solid metal matrices due to a high degree of metal plastic flow at low matrix bulk temperatures. This phenomenon allows the fabrication of previously unobtainable novel engineered metal matrix components. The aim of this paper was to investigate the compatibility of electronic materials with UAM, thus exploring an entirely new realm of multifunctional components by integration of electrical structures within dense metal components processed in the solid-state. Three different dielectric materials were successfully embedded into UAM fabricated metal-matrices with, research derived, optimal processing parameters. The effect of dielectric material hardness on the final metal matrix mechanical strength after UAM processing was investigated systematically via mechanical peel testing and microscopy. The research resulted in a quantification of the role of material hardness on final UAM sample mechanical performance, which is of great interest for future industrial applications.

  • 18.
    Li, J.
    et al.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
    Monaghan, T.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
    Masurtschak, S.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
    Bournias-Varotsis, A.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
    Friel, R. J.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
    Harris, R. A.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
    Exploring the mechanical strength of additively manufactured metal structures with embedded electrical materials2015In: Journal of Materials Science and Engineering: A, ISSN 2161-6213, Vol. 639, p. 474-481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (UAM) enables the integration of a wide variety of components into solid metal matrices due to the process induced high degree of metal matrix plastic flow at low bulk temperatures. Exploitation of this phenomenon allows the fabrication of previously unobtainable novel engineered metal matrix components.

    The feasibility of directly embedding electrical materials within UAM metal matrices was investigated in this work. Three different dielectric materials were embedded into UAM fabricated aluminium metal-matrices with, research derived, optimal processing parameters. The effect of the dielectric material hardness on the final metal matrix mechanical strength after UAM processing was investigated systematically via mechanical peel testing and microscopy. It was found that when the Knoop hardness of the dielectric film was increased from 12.1 HK/0.01 kg to 27.3 HK/0.01 kg, the mechanical peel testing and linear weld density of the bond interface were enhanced by 15% and 16%, respectively, at UAM parameters of 1600 N weld force, 25 µm sonotrode amplitude, and 20 mm/s welding speed. This work uniquely identified that the mechanical strength of dielectric containing UAM metal matrices improved with increasing dielectric material hardness. It was therefore concluded that any UAM metal matrix mechanical strength degradation due to dielectric embedding could be restricted by employing a dielectric material with a suitable hardness (larger than 20 HK/0.01 kg). This result is of great interest and a vital step for realising electronic containing multifunctional smart metal composites for future industrial applications. © 2015 The Authors.

  • 19.
    Li, J.
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of MEMS of the Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing, China & Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
    Monaghan, T.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
    Nguyen, T. T.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
    Kay, R. W.
    Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Friel, R. J.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
    Harris, R. A.
    Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Multifunctional metal matrix composites with embedded printed electrical materials fabricated by Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing2017In: Composites Part B: Engineering, ISSN 1359-8368, E-ISSN 1879-1069, Vol. 113, p. 342-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work proposes a new method for the fabrication of multifunctional Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) structures featuring embedded printed electrical materials through Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (UAM). Printed electrical circuitries combining conductive and insulating materials were directly embedded within the interlaminar region of UAM aluminium matrices to realise previously unachievable multifunctional composites. A specific surface flattening process was developed to eliminate the risk of short circuiting between the metal matrices and printed conductors, and simultaneously reduce the total thickness of the printed circuitry. This acted to improve the integrity of the UAM MMC's and their resultant mechanical strength. The functionality of embedded printed circuitries was examined via four-point probe measurement. DualBeam Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Focused Ion Beam (FIB) milling were used to investigate the microstructures of conductive materials to characterize the effect of UAM embedding energy whilst peel testing was used to quantify mechanical strength of MMC structures in combination with optical microscopy. Through this process, fully functioning MMC structures featuring embedded insulating and conductive materials were realised whilst still maintaining high peel resistances of ca. 70 N and linear weld densities of ca. 90%. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  • 20.
    Li, Ji
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of MEMS of the Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing, China & The Wolfson School of Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Monaghan, Tom
    The Wolfson School of Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Kay, Robert
    chool of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Friel, R. J.
    Max IV Laboratory, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Harris, Russell
    School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
    Enabling internal electronic circuitry within additively manufactured metal structures - the effect and importance of inter-laminar topography2018In: Rapid prototyping journal, ISSN 1355-2546, E-ISSN 1758-7670, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 204-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This paper aims to explore the potential of ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) to incorporate the direct printing of electrical materials and arrangements (conductors and insulators) at the interlaminar interface of parts during manufacture to allow the integration of functional and optimal electrical circuitries inside dense metallic objects without detrimental effect on the overall mechanical integrity. This holds promise to release transformative device functionality and applications of smart metallic devices and products.

    Design/methodology/approach

    To ensure the proper electrical insulation between the printed conductors and metal matrices, an insulation layer with sufficient thickness is required to accommodate the rough interlaminar surface which is inherent to the UAM process. This in turn increases the total thickness of printed circuitries and thereby adversely affects the integrity of the UAM part. A specific solution is proposed to optimise the rough interlaminar surface through deforming the UAM substrates via sonotrode rolling or UAM processing.

    Findings

    The surface roughness (Sa) could be reduced from 4.5 to 4.1 µm by sonotrode rolling and from 4.5 to 0.8 µm by ultrasonic deformation. Peel testing demonstrated that sonotrode-rolled substrates could maintain their mechanical strength, while the performance of UAM-deformed substrates degraded under same welding conditions ( approximately 12 per cent reduction compared with undeformed substrates). This was attributed to the work hardening of deformation process which was identified via dual-beam focussed ion beam–scanning electron microscope investigation.

    Originality/value

    The sonotrode rolling was identified as a viable methodology in allowing printed electrical circuitries in UAM. It enabled a decrease in the thickness of printed electrical circuitries by ca. 25 per cent. © Emerald Publishing Limited

  • 21.
    Masurtschak, S.
    et al.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Friel, R. J.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Gillner, A.
    Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology, Aachen, Germany.
    Ryll, J.
    Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology, Aachen, Germany.
    Harris, R. A.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Fiber laser induced surface modification/manipulation of an ultrasonically consolidated metal matrix2013In: Journal of Materials Processing Technology, ISSN 0924-0136, E-ISSN 1873-4774, Vol. 213, no 10, p. 1792-1800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultrasonic Consolidation (UC) is a manufacturing technique based on the ultrasonic joining of a sequence of metal foils. It has been shown to be a suitable method for fiber embedment into metal matrices. However, integration of high volume fractions of fibers requires a method for accurate positioning and secure placement to maintain fiber layouts within the matrices. This paper investigates the use of a fiber laser for microchannel creation in UC samples to allow such fiber layout patterns. A secondary goal, to possibly reduce plastic flow requirements in future embedding processes, is addressed by manipulating the melt generated by the laser to form a shoulder on either side of the channel. The authors studied the influence of laser power, traverse speed and assist gas pressure on the channel formation in aluminium alloy UC samples. It was found that multiple laser passes allowed accurate melt distribution and channel geometry in the micrometre range. An assist gas aided the manipulation of the melted material. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 22.
    Masurtschak, S.
    et al.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
    Friel, R. J.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
    Gillner, A.
    Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology, Aachen, Germany.
    Ryll, J.
    Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology, Aachen, Germany.
    Harris, R. A.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
    Laser-Machined Microchannel Effect on Microstructure and Oxide Formation of an Ultrasonically Processed Aluminum Alloy2015In: Journal of engineering materials and technology, ISSN 0094-4289, E-ISSN 1528-8889, Vol. 137, no 1, article id 011006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultrasonic consolidation (UC) has been proven to be a suitable method for fiber embedment into metal matrices. To aid successful embedment of high fiber volumes and to ensure their accurate positioning, research on producing microchannels in combination with adjacent shoulders formed by distribution of the melt onto unique UC sample surfaces with a fiber laser was carried out. This paper investigated the effect of the laser on the microstructure surrounding the channel within an Al 3003-H18 sample. The heat input and the extent of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) from one and multiple passes was examined. The paper explored the influence of air, as an assist gas, on the shoulders and possible oxide formation with regards to future bonding requirements during UC. The authors found that one laser pass resulted in a keyhole-shaped channel filled with a mixture of aluminum and oxides and a symmetrical HAZ surrounding the channel. Multiple passes resulted in the desired channel shape and a wide HAZ which appeared to be an eutectic microstructure. The distribution of molten material showed oxide formation all along the channel outline and especially within the shoulder. © 2015 by ASME.

  • 23.
    Masurtschak, Simona
    et al.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Friel, R. J.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Harris, Russell A.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    New concept to aid efficient fibre integration into metal matrices during ultrasonic consolidation2017In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part B, journal of engineering manufacture, ISSN 0954-4054, E-ISSN 2041-2975, Vol. 231, no 7, p. 1105-1115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultrasonic consolidation has been shown to be a viable metal-matrix-based smart composite additive layer manufacturing process. Yet, high quantity fibre integration has presented the requirement for a method of accurate positioning and fibre protection to maintain the fibre layout during ultrasonic consolidation. This study presents a novel approach for fibre integration during ultrasonic consolidation: channels are manufactured by laser processing on an ultrasonically consolidated sample. At the same time, controlled melt ejection is applied to aid accurate fibre placement and simultaneously reducing fibre damage occurrences. Microscopic, scanning electron microscopic and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analyses are used for samples containing up to 10.5% fibres, one of the highest volumes in an ultrasonically consolidated composite so far. Up to 98% of the fibres remain in the channels after consolidation and fibre damage is reduced to less than 2% per sample. This study furthers the knowledge of high volume fibre embedment via ultrasonic consolidation for future smart material manufacturing. © Institution of Mechanical Engineers.

  • 24.
    Monaghan, T.
    et al.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
    Capel, A. J.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
    Christie, S. D.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
    Harris, R. A.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
    Friel, R. J.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
    Solid-state additive manufacturing for metallized optical fiber integration2015In: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 76, p. 181-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of smart, Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) structures through the use of solid-state Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (UAM) is currently hindered by the fragility of uncoated optical fibers under the required processing conditions. In this work, optical fibers equipped with metallic coatings were fully integrated into solid Aluminum matrices using processing parameter levels not previously possible. The mechanical performance of the resulting manufactured composite structure, as well as the functionality of the integrated fibers, was tested. Optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Focused Ion Beam (FIB) analysis were used to characterize the interlaminar and fiber/matrix interfaces whilst mechanical peel testing was used to quantify bond strength. Via the integration of metallized optical fibers it was possible to increase the bond density by 20–22%, increase the composite mechanical strength by 12–29% and create a solid state bond between the metal matrix and fiber coating; whilst maintaining full fiber functionality. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 25.
    Monaghan, T.
    et al.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Ashby Road, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Harding, M. J.
    Department of Chemistry, Loughborough University, Epinal Way, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Harris, R. A.
    School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Friel, R. J.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Ashby Road, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Christie, S. D. R.
    Department of Chemistry, Loughborough University, Epinal Way, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Customisable 3D printed microfluidics for integrated analysis and optimisation2016In: Lab on a Chip, ISSN 1473-0197, E-ISSN 1473-0189, Vol. 16, no 17, p. 3362-3373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of smart Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) devices featuring integrated sensing optics is currently hindered by convoluted and expensive manufacturing procedures. In this work, a series of 3D-printed LOC devices were designed and manufactured via stereolithography (SL) in a matter of hours. The spectroscopic performance of a variety of optical fibre combinations were tested, and the optimum path length for performing Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy determined. The information gained in these trials was then used in a reaction optimisation for the formation of carvone semicarbazone. The production of high resolution surface channels (100–500 μm) means that these devices were capable of handling a wide range of concentrations (9 μM–38 mM), and are ideally suited to both analyte detection and process optimisation. This ability to tailor the chip design and its integrated features as a direct result of the reaction being assessed, at such a low time and cost penalty greatly increases the user's ability to optimise both their device and reaction. As a result of the information gained in this investigation, we are able to report the first instance of a 3D-printed LOC device with fully integrated, in-line monitoring capabilities via the use of embedded optical fibres capable of performing UV-vis spectroscopy directly inside micro channels. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

  • 26.
    Monaghan, Thomas
    et al.
    Ministry of Defence Abbey Wood, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Harding, Matthew J.
    School of Chemical and Bioprocess Engineering, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    Christie, Steven D. R.
    Department of Chemistry, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Friel, R. J.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    In-situ time resolved spectrographic measurement using an additively manufactured metallic micro-fluidic analysis platform2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 11, article id e0224492Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Microfluidic reactionware allows small volumes of reagents to be utilized for highly controlled flow chemistry applications. By integrating these microreactors with onboard analytical systems, the devices change from passive ones to active ones, increasing their functionality and usefulness. A pressing application for these active microreactors is the monitoring of reaction progress and intermediaries with respect to time, shedding light on important information about these real-time synthetic processes.

    Objective

    In this multi-disciplinary study the objective was to utilise advanced digital fabrication to research metallic, active microreactors with integrated fibre optics for reaction progress monitoring of solvent based liquids, incompatible with previously researched polymer devices, in combination with on-board Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy for real-time reaction monitoring.

    Method

    A solid-state, metal-based additive manufactured system (Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing) combined with focussed ion beam milling, that permitted the accurate embedment of delicate sensory elements directly at the point of need within aluminium layers, was researched as a method to create active, metallic, flow reactors with on-board sensing. This outcome was then used to characterise and correctly identify concentrations of UV-active water-soluble B-vitamin nicotinamide and fluorescein. A dilution series was formed from 0.01–1.75 mM; which was pumped through the research device and monitored using UV-vis spectroscopy.

    Results

    The results uniquely showed the in-situ ion milling of ultrasonically embedded optical fibres resulted in a metallic microfluidic reaction and monitoring device capable of measuring solvent solutions from 18 μM to 18 mM of nicotinamide and fluorescein, in real time. This level of accuracy highlights that the researched device and methods are capable of real-time spectrographic analysis of a range of chemical reactions outside of those possible with polymer devices.

  • 27.
    Schwope, L-A
    et al.
    Solidica Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.
    Friel, R. J.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Johnson, K. E.
    Solidica Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.
    Harris, R. A.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Field repair and replacement part fabrication of military components using ultrasonic consolidation cold metal deposition2009In: NATO Science and Technology Organization: RTO-MP-AVT-163 - Additive Technology for Repair of Military Hardware, 2009, p. 22-1-22-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Timely repair and replacement of military components without degrading material properties offers tremendous opportunities for cost and schedule savings on a number of military platforms. Effective field-based additive manufacturing repair approaches have proven difficult to develop, as conventional additive metal deposition technologies typically include a molten phase transformation and controlled inert deposition environments. The molten stage of laser and electron beam based additive processes unfortunately results in large dimensional and microstructural changes to the component being repaired or re-fabricated. As a result, high residual stresses and unpredictable ductility profiles in the repair area, or the re-fabricated part, make the final product unsafe for redeployment. Specifically, the heat affected zone associated with traditional deposition-based repair methods can produce a low strength, non-homogenous region at the joint; these changes in the materials properties of the repaired parts are detrimental to the fatigue life, and are a major concern where cyclic loading is experienced. The use of solid state high power Ultrasonic Consolidation (UC) technologies avoids the liquid-solid transition complexity and creates a predictable “cold” bond. This method then allows for strong, homogenous structures to be manufactured and repaired in the field and opens the door for the use of high strength repair material that may reduce the frequency of future failure itself. In addition, UC further offers the opportunity to provide enhanced functionality and ruggedness to a component either during repair or from original manufacture by allowing the embedding of passive and functional elements into the new fabricated component or feature.

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